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Svalbard (territory of Norway) Geography Total area: 62,049 km2; land area: 62,049 km2; includes Spitsbergen and Bjornoya (Bear Island)

Comparative area: slightly smaller than West Virginia

Land boundaries: none

Coastline: 3,587 km

Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 10 nm;

Continental shelf: 200 meters or to depth of exploitation;

Extended economic zone: 200 nm unilaterally claimed by Norway, not recognized by USSR;

Territorial sea: 4 nm

Disputes: focus of maritime boundary dispute between Norway and USSR

Climate: arctic, tempered by warm North Atlantic Current; cool summers, cold winters; North Atlantic Current flows along west and north coasts of Spitsbergen, keeping water open and navigable most of the year

Terrain: wild, rugged mountains; much of high land ice covered; west coast clear of ice about half the year; fjords along west and north coasts

Natural resources: coal, copper, iron ore, phosphate, zinc, wildlife, fish

Land use: 0% arable land; 0% permanent crops; 0% meadows and pastures; 0% forest and woodland; 100% other; there are no trees and the only bushes are crowberry and cloudberry

Environment: great calving glaciers descend to the sea

Note: located 445 km north of Norway where the Arctic Ocean, Barents Sea, Greenland Sea, and Norwegian Sea meet

People Population: 3,942 (July 1990), growth rate NA% (1990); about one-third of the population resides in the Norwegian areas (Longyearbyen and Svea on Vestspitsbergen) and two-thirds in the Soviet areas (Barentsburg and Pyramiden on Vestspitsbergen); about 9 persons live at the Polish research station

Birth rate: NA births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: NA deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: NA migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: NA deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: NA years male, NA years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: NA children born/woman (1990)

Ethnic divisions: 64% Russian, 35% Norwegian, 1% other (1981)

Language: Russian, Norwegian

Literacy: NA%

Labor force: NA

Organized labor: none

Government Long-form name: none

Type: territory of Norway administered by the Ministry of Industry, Oslo, through a governor (sysselmann) residing in Longyearbyen, Spitsbergen; by treaty (9 February 1920) sovereignty was given to Norway

Capital: Longyearbyen

Leaders: Chief of State–King OLAV V (since 21 September 1957);

Head of Government Governor Leif ELDRING (since NA)

Flag: the flag of Norway is used

Economy Overview: Coal mining is the major economic activity on Svalbard. By treaty (9 February 1920), the nationals of the treaty powers have equal rights to exploit mineral deposits, subject to Norwegian regulation. Although US, UK, Dutch, and Swedish coal companies have mined in the past, the only companies still mining are Norwegian and Soviet. Each company mines about half a million tons of coal annually. The settlements on Svalbard are essentially company towns. The Norwegian state-owned coal company employs nearly 60% of the Norwegian population on the island, runs many of the local services, and provides most of the local infrastructure. There is also some trapping of seal, polar bear, fox, and walrus.

Electricity: 21,000 kW capacity; 45 million kWh produced, 11,420 kWh per capita (1989)

Currency: Norwegian krone (plural–kroner); 1 Norwegian krone (NKr) = 100 ore

Exchange rates: Norwegian kroner (NKr) per US$1–6.5405 (January 1990), 6.9045 (1989), 6.5170 (1988), 6.7375 (1987), 7.3947 (1986), 8.5972 (1985)

Communications Ports: limited facilities–Ny-Alesund, Advent Bay

Airports: 4 total, 4 usable; 1 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways over 2,439 m; 1 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: 5 meteorological/radio stations; stations–1 AM, 1 (2 relays) FM, 1 TV

Defense Forces Note: demilitarized by treaty (9 February 1920) .pa Swaziland Geography Total area: 17,360 km2; land area: 17,200 km2

Comparative area: slightly smaller than New Jersey

Land boundaries: 535 km total; Mozambique 105 km, South Africa 430 km

Coastline: none–landlocked

Maritime claims: none–landlocked

Climate: varies from tropical to near temperate

Terrain: mostly mountains and hills; some moderately sloping plains

Natural resources: asbestos, coal, clay, tin, hydroelelectric power, forests, and small gold and diamond deposits

Land use: 8% arable land; NEGL% permanent crops; 67% meadows and pastures; 6% forest and woodland; 19% other; includes 2% irrigated

Environment: overgrazing; soil degradation; soil erosion

Note: landlocked; almost completely surrounded by South Africa

People Population: 778,525 (July 1990), growth rate 3.1% (1990)

Birth rate: 46 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 15 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 126 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 48 years male, 55 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 6.0 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun–Swazi(s); adjective–Swazi

Ethnic divisions: 97% African, 3% European

Religion: 60% Christian, 40% indigenous beliefs

Language: English and siSwati (official); government business conducted in English

Literacy: 67.9%

Labor force: 195,000; over 60,000 engaged in subsistence agriculture; about 92,000 wage earners (many only intermittently), with 36% agriculture and forestry, 20% community and social services, 14% manufacturing, 9% construction, 21% other; 24,000-29,000 employed in South Africa (1987)

Organized labor: about 10% of wage earners

Government Long-form name: Kingdom of Swaziland

Type: monarchy; independent member of Commonwealth

Capital: Mbabane (administrative); Lobamba (legislative)

Administrative divisions: 4 districts; Hhohho, Lubombo, Manzini, Shiselweni

Independence: 6 September 1968 (from UK)

Constitution: none; constitution of 6 September 1968 was suspended on 12 April 1973; a new constitution was promulgated 13 October 1978, but has not been formally presented to the people

Legal system: based on South African Roman-Dutch law in statutory courts, Swazi traditional law and custom in traditional courts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: Somhlolo (Independence) Day, 6 September (1968)

Executive branch: monarch, prime minister, Cabinet

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament (Libandla) is advisory and consists of an upper house or Senate and a lower house or House of Assembly

Judicial branch: High Court, Court of Appeal

Leaders: Chief of State–King MSWATI III (since 25 April 1986);

Head of Government–Prime Minister Obed MFANYANA (since 12 July 1989)

Political parties: none; banned by the Constitution promulgated on 13 October 1978

Suffrage: none

Elections: no direct elections

Communists: no Communist party

Member of: ACP, AfDB, CCC, FAO, G-77, GATT (de facto), IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, INTERPOL, ISO, ITU, NAM, OAU, Southern African Customs Union, SADCC, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Absalom Vusani MAMBA; Chancery at 4301 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202) 362-6683; US–Ambassador (vacant), Deputy Chief of Mission Armajane KARAER; Embassy at Central Bank Building, Warner Street, Mbabane (mailing address is P. O. Box 199, Mbabane); telephone 22281 through 22285

Flag: three horizontal bands of blue (top), red (triple width), and blue; the red band is edged in yellow; centered in the red band is a large black and white shield covering two spears and a staff decorated with feather tassels, all placed horizontally

Economy Overview: The economy is based on subsistence agriculture, which occupies much of the labor force and contributes about 25% to GDP. Manufacturing, which includes a number of agroprocessing factories, accounts for another 25% of GDP. Mining has declined in importance in recent years; high-grade iron ore deposits were depleted in 1978, and health concerns cut world demand for asbestos. Exports of sugar and forestry products are the main earners of hard currency. Surrounded by South Africa, except for a short border with Mozambique, Swaziland is heavily dependent on South Africa, from which it receives 90% of its imports and to which it sends about one-third of its exports.

GNP: $539 million, per capita $750; real growth rate 5.7% (1989 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 17% (1989 est.)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues $255 million; expenditures $253 million, including capital expenditures of $NA million (FY91 est.)

Exports: $394 million (f.o.b., 1988); commodities–sugar, asbestos, wood pulp, citrus, canned fruit, soft drink concentrates; partners–South Africa, UK, US

Imports: $386 million (f.o.b., 1988); commodities–motor vehicles, machinery, transport equipment, chemicals, petroleum products, foodstuffs; partners–South Africa, US, UK

External debt: $275 million (December 1987)

Industrial production: growth rate 24% (1986)

Electricity: 50,000 kW capacity; 130 million kWh produced, 170 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: mining (coal and asbestos), wood pulp, sugar

Agriculture: accounts for 25% of GDP and over 60% of labor force; mostly subsistence agriculture; cash crops–sugarcane, citrus fruit, cotton, pineapples; other crops and livestock–corn, sorghum, peanuts, cattle, goats, sheep; not self-sufficient in grain

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $132 million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $468 million

Currency: lilangeni (plural–emalangeni); 1 lilangeni (E) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: emalangeni (E) per US$1–2.5555 (January 1990), 2.6166 (1989), 2.2611 (1988), 2.0350 (1987), 2.2685 (1986), 2.1911 (1985); note–the Swazi emalangeni is at par with the South African rand

Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March

Communications Railroads: 297 km plus 71 km disused, 1.067-meter gauge, single track

Highways: 2,853 km total; 510 km paved, 1,230 km crushed stone, gravel, or stabilized soil, and 1,113 km improved earth

Civil air: 1 major transport aircraft

Airports: 23 total, 22 usable; 1 with permanent-surfaced runways; none with runways over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; none with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: system consists of carrier-equipped open-wire lines and low-capacity radio relay links; 15,400 telephones; stations–6 AM, 6 FM, 10 TV; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

Defense Forces Branches: Umbutfo Swaziland Defense Force, Royal Swaziland Police Force

Military manpower: males 15-49, 166,537; 96,239 fit for military service

Defense expenditures: NA .pa Sweden Geography Total area: 449,960 km2; land area: 411,620 km2

Comparative area: slightly larger than California

Land boundaries: 2,193 km total; Finland 536 km, Norway 1,657 km

Coastline: 3,218 km

Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: 200 meters or to depth of exploitation;

Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: temperate in south with cold, cloudy winters and cool, partly cloudy summers; subarctic in north

Terrain: mostly flat or gently rolling lowlands; mountains in west

Natural resources: zinc, iron ore, lead, copper, silver, timber, uranium, hydropower potential

Land use: 7% arable land; 0% permanent crops; 2% meadows and pastures; 64% forest and woodland; 27% other; includes NEGL% irrigated

Environment: water pollution; acid rain

Note: strategic location along Danish Straits linking Baltic and North Seas

People Population: 8,526,452 (July 1990), growth rate 0.5% (1990)

Birth rate: 13 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 11 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 3 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 6 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 75 years male, 81 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 1.9 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun–Swede(s); adjective–Swedish

Ethnic divisions: homogeneous white population; small Lappish minority; about 12% foreign born or first-generation immigrants (Finns, Yugoslavs, Danes, Norwegians, Greeks, Turks)

Religion: 93.5% Evangelical Lutheran, 1.0% Roman Catholic, 5.5% other

Language: Swedish, small Lapp- and Finnish-speaking minorities; immigrants speak native languages

Literacy: 99%

Labor force: 4,531,000 (1988); 32.8% private services, 30.0% government services, 22.0% mining and manufacturing, 5.9% construction, 5.0% agriculture, forestry, and fishing, 0.9% electricity, gas, and waterworks (1986)

Organized labor: 90% of labor force (1985 est.)

Government Long-form name: Kingdom of Sweden

Type: constitutional monarchy

Capital: Stockholm

Administrative divisions: 24 provinces (lan, singular and plural); Alvsborgs Lan, Blekinge Lan, Gavleborgs Lan, Goteborgs och Bohus Lan, Gotlands Lan, Hallands Lan, Jamtlands Lan, Jonkopings Lan, Kalmar Lan, Kopparbergs Lan, Kristianstads Lan, Kronobergs Lan, Malmohus Lan, Norrbottens Lan, Orebro Lan, Ostergotlands Lan, Skaraborgs Lan, Sodermanlands Lan, Stockholms Lan, Uppsala Lan, Varmlands Lan, Vasterbottens Lan, Vasternorrlands Lan, Vastmanlands Lan

Independence: 6 June 1809, constitutional monarchy established

Constitution: 1 January 1975

Legal system: civil law system influenced by customary law; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

National holiday: Day of the Swedish Flag, 6 June

Executive branch: monarch, prime minister, Cabinet

Legislative branch: unicameral Parliament (Riksdag)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Hogsta Domstolen)

Leaders: Chief of State–King CARL XVI Gustaf (since 19 September 1973); Heir Apparent Princess VICTORIA Ingrid Alice Desiree, daughter of the King (born 14 July 1977);

Head of Government–Prime Minister Ingvar CARLSSON (since 12 March 1986); Deputy Prime Minister Kjell-Olof FELDT (since NA March 1986)

Political parties and leaders: Moderate (conservative), Carl Bildt; Center, Olof Johansson; Liberal People's Party, Bengt Westerberg; Social Democratic, Ingvar Carlsson; Left Party-Communist (VPK), Lars Werner; Swedish Communist Party (SKP), Rune Pettersson; Communist Workers' Party, Rolf Hagel; Green Party, no formal leader

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections: Parliament–last held 18 September 1988 (next to be held September 1991); results–percent of vote by party NA; seats–(349 total) Social Democratic 156, Moderate (conservative) 66, Liberals 44, Center 42, Communists 21, Greens 20

Communists: VPK and SKP; VPK, the major Communist party, is reported to have roughly 17,800 members; in the 1988 election, the VPK attracted 5.8% of the vote

Member of: ADB, CCC, Council of Europe, DAC, EFTA, ESA, FAO, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAC, ICAO, ICES, ICO, IDA, IDB–Inter-American Development Bank, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IHO, ILO, ILZSG, IMF, IMO, INTERPOL, INTELSAT, IPU, ISO, ITU, IWC–International, Whaling Commission, IWC–International Wheat Council, Nordic Council, OECD, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WSG

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Anders THUNBORG; Chancery at Suite 1200, 600 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington DC 20037; telephone (202) 944-5600; there are Swedish Consulates General in Chicago, Los Angeles, Minneapolis, and New York; US–Ambassador Charles E. REDMAN; Embassy at Strandvagen 101, S-115 27 Stockholm; telephone Õ46å (8) 7835300

Flag: blue with a yellow cross that extends to the edges of the flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side in the style of the Dannebrog (Danish flag)

Economy Overview: Aided by a long period of peace and neutrality during World War I through World War II, Sweden has achieved an enviable standard of living under a mixed system of high-tech capitalism and extensive welfare benefits. It has essentially full employment, a modern distribution system, excellent internal and external communications, and a skilled and intelligent labor force. Timber, hydropower, and iron ore constitute the resource base of an economy that is heavily oriented toward foreign trade. Privately owned firms account for about 90% of industrial output, of which the engineering sector accounts for 50% of output and exports. As the 1990s open, however, Sweden faces serious economic problems: long waits for adequate housing, the decay of the work ethic, and a loss of competitive edge in international markets.

GDP: $132.7 billion, per capita $15,700; real growth rate 2.1% (1989 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 5.7% (September 1989)

Unemployment rate: 1.5% (1989)

Budget: revenues $58.0 billion; expenditures $57.9 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (FY89)

Exports: $52.2 billion (f.o.b., 1989 est.); commodities–machinery, motor vehicles, paper products, pulp and wood, iron and steel products, chemicals, petroleum and petroleum products; partners–EC 52.1%, (FRG 12.1%, UK 11.2%, Denmark 6.8%), US 9.8%, Norway 9.3%

Imports: $48.5 billion (c.i.f., 1989 est.); commodities–machinery, petroleum and petroleum products, chemicals, motor vehicles, foodstuffs, iron and steel, clothing; partners–EC 55.8% (FRG 21.2%, UK 8.6%, Denmark 6.6%), US 7.5%, Norway 6.0%

External debt: $17.9 billion (1988)

Industrial production: growth rate 3.3% (1989)

Electricity: 39,716,000 kW capacity; 200,315 million kWh produced, 23,840 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: iron and steel, precision equipment (bearings, radio and telephone parts, armaments), wood pulp and paper products, processed foods, motor vehicles

Agriculture: animal husbandry predominates, with milk and dairy products accounting for 37% of farm income; main crops–grains, sugar beets, potatoes; 100% self-sufficient in grains and potatoes, 85% self-sufficient in sugar beets

Aid: donor–ODA and OOF commitments (1970-87), $7.9 billion

Currency: Swedish krona (plural–kronor); 1 Swedish krona (SKr) = 100 ore

Exchange rates: Swedish kronor (SKr) per US$1–6.1798 (January 1990), 6.4469 (1989), 6.1272 (1988), 6.3404 (1987), 7.1236 (1986), 8.6039 (1985)

Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June

Communications Railroads: 12,000 km total; Swedish State Railways (SJ)–10,819 km 1.435-meter standard gauge, 6,955 km electrified and 1,152 km double track; 182 km 0.891-meter gauge; 117 km rail ferry service; privately owned railways–511 km 1.435-meter standard gauge (332 km electrified); 371 km 0.891-meter gauge (all electrified)

Highways: 97,400 km (51,899 km paved, 20,659 km gravel, 24,842 km unimproved earth)

Inland waterways: 2,052 km navigable for small steamers and barges

Pipelines: 84 km natural gas

Ports: Gavle, Goteborg, Halmstad, Helsingborg, Kalmar, Malmo, Stockholm; numerous secondary and minor ports

Merchant marine: 173 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,856,217 GRT/2,215,659 DWT; includes 9 short-sea passenger, 29 cargo, 3 container, 42 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 11 vehicle carrier, 2 railcar carrier, 27 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 25 chemical tanker, 1 liquefied gas, 5 combination ore/oil, 6 specialized tanker, 12 bulk, 1 combination bulk

Civil air: 65 major transports

Airports: 259 total, 256 usable; 138 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways over 3,659 m; 11 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 91 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: excellent domestic and international facilities; 8,200,000 telephones; stations–4 AM, 56 (320 relays) FM, 110 (925 relays) TV; 5 submarine coaxial cables; communication satellite earth stations operating in the INTELSAT (1 Atlantic Ocean) and EUTELSAT systems

Defense Forces Branches: Royal Swedish Army, Royal Swedish Air Force, Royal Swedish Navy

Military manpower: males 15-49, 2,133,101; 1,865,526 fit for military service; 56,632 reach military age (19) annually

Defense expenditures: $4.5 billion (1989 est.) .pa Switzerland Geography Total area: 41,290 km2; land area: 39,770 km2

Comparative area: slightly more than twice the size of New Jersey

Land boundaries: 1,852 km total; Austria 164 km, France 573 km, Italy 740 km, Liechtenstein 41 km, FRG 334 km

Coastline: none–landlocked

Maritime claims: none–landlocked

Climate: temperate, but varies with altitude; cold, cloudy, rainy/snowy winters; cool to warm, cloudy, humid summers with occasional showers

Terrain: mostly mountains (Alps in south, Jura in northwest) with a central plateau of rolling hills, plains, and large lakes

Natural resources: hydropower potential, timber, salt

Land use: 10% arable land; 1% permanent crops; 40% meadows and pastures; 26% forest and woodland; 23% other; includes 1% irrigated

Environment: dominated by Alps

Note: landlocked; crossroads of northern and southern Europe

People Population: 6,742,461 (July 1990), growth rate 0.6% (1990)

Birth rate: 12 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 9 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 3 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 5 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 75 years male, 83 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 1.6 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun–Swiss (sing. & pl.); adjective–Swiss

Ethnic divisions: total population–65% German, 18% French, 10% Italian, 1% Romansch, 6% other; Swiss nationals–74% German, 20% French, 4% Italian, 1% Romansch, 1% other

Religion: 49% Roman Catholic, 48% Protestant, 0.3% Jewish

Language: total population–65% German, 18% French, 12% Italian, 1% Romansch, 4% other; Swiss nationals–74% German, 20% French, 4% Italian, 1% Romansch, 1% other

Literacy: 99%

Labor force: 3,220,000; 841,000 foreign workers, mostly Italian; 42% services, 39% industry and crafts, 11% government, 7% agriculture and forestry, 1% other (1988)

Organized labor: 20% of labor force

Government Long-form name: Swiss Confederation

Type: federal republic

Capital: Bern

Administrative divisions: 26 cantons (cantons, singular–canton in French; cantoni, singular–cantone in Italian; kantone, singular–kanton in German); Aargau, Ausser-Rhoden, Basel-Landschaft, Basel-Stadt, Bern, Fribourg, Geneve, Glarus, Graubunden, Inner-Rhoden, Jura, Luzern, Neuchatel, Nidwalden, Obwalden, Sankt Gallen, Schaffhausen, Schwyz, Solothurn, Thurgau, Ticino, Uri, Valais, Vaud, Zug, Zurich

Independence: 1 August 1291

Constitution: 29 May 1874

Legal system: civil law system influenced by customary law; judicial review of legislative acts, except with respect to federal decrees of general obligatory character; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

National holiday: Anniversary of the Founding of the Swiss Confederation, 1 August (1291)

Executive branch: president, vice president, Federal Council (German–Bundesrat, French–Conseil Federal)

Legislative branch: bicameral Federal Assembly (German–Bundesversammlung, French–Assemblee Federale) consists of an upper council or Council of States (German–Standerat, French–Conseil des Etats) and and a lower council or National Council (German–Nationalrat, French–Conseil National)

Judicial branch: Federal Supreme Court

Leaders: Chief of State and Head of Government–President Arnold KOLLER (1990 calendar year; presidency rotates annually); Vice President Flavio COTTI (term runs concurrently with that of president)

Political parties and leaders: Social Democratic Party (SPS), Helmut Hubacher, chairman; Radical Democratic Party (FDP), Bruno Hunziker, president; Christian Democratic People's Party (CVP), Eva Segmuller-Weber, president; Swiss People's Party (SVP), Hans Uhlmann, president; Workers' Party (PdA), Armand Magnin, secretary general; National Action Party (NA), Hans Zwicky, chairman; Independents' Party (LdU), Dr. Franz Jaeger, president; Republican Movement (Rep), Dr. James Schworzenboch, Franz Baumgartner, leaders; Liberal Party (LPS), Gilbert Coutau, president; Evangelical People's Party (EVP), Max Dunki, president; Progressive Organizations of Switzerland (POCH), Georg Degen, secretary; Federation of Ecology Parties (GP), Laurent Rebeaud, president; Autonomous Socialist Party (PSA), Werner Carobbio, secretary

Suffrage: universal at age 20

Elections: Council of State–last held throughout 1987 (next to be held NA); results–percent of vote by party NA; seats–(46 total) CVP 19, FDP 14, SPS 5, SVP 4, others 4;

National Council–last held 18 October 1987 (next to be held October 1991); results–FDP 22.9%, CVP 20.0%, SPS 18.4%, SVP 11.0%, GP 4.8%, others 22.9%; seats–(200 total) FDP 51, CVP 42, SPS 41, SVP 25, GP 9, others 32

Communists: 4,500 members (est.)

Member of: ADB, CCC, Council of Europe, DAC, EFTA, ESA, FAO, GATT, IAEA, ICAC, ICAO, ICO, IDB–Inter-American Development Bank, IEA, IFAD, ILO, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IPU, ITU, IWC–International Wheat Council, OECD, UNESCO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WSG, WTO; permanent observer status at the UN

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Edouard BRUNNER; Chancery at 2900 Cathedral Avenue NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202) 745-7900; there are Swiss Consulates General in Atlanta, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, New York, and San Francisco; US–Ambassador Joseph B. GUILDENHORN; Embassy at Jubilaeumstrasse 93, 3005 Bern; telephone Õ41å (31) 437011; there is a Branch Office of the Embassy in Geneva and a Consulate General in Zurich

Flag: red square with a bold, equilateral white cross in the center that does not extend to the edges of the flag

Economy Overview: Switzerland's economic success is matched in few, if any, other nations. Per capita output, general living standards, education and science, health care, and diet are unsurpassed in Europe. Inflation remains low because of sound government policy and harmonious labor-management relations. Unemployment is negligible, a marked contrast to the larger economies of Western Europe. This economic stability helps promote the important banking and tourist sectors. Since World War II, Switzerland's economy has adjusted smoothly to the great changes in output and trade patterns in Europe and presumably can adjust to the challenges of the 1990s, in particular, the further economic integration of Western Europe and the amazingly rapid changes in East European political/economic prospects.

GDP: $119.5 billion, per capita $17,800; real growth rate 3.0% (1989 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.8% (1989 est.)

Unemployment rate: 0.5% (1989 est.)

Budget: revenues $17.0 billion; expenditures $16.8 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1988)

Exports: $51.2 billion (f.o.b., 1988); commodities–machinery and equipment, precision instruments, metal products, foodstuffs, textiles and clothing; partners–Europe 64% (EC 56%, other 8%), US 9%, Japan 4%

Imports: $57.2 billion (c.i.f., 1988); commodities–agricultural products, machinery and transportation equipment, chemicals, textiles, construction materials; partners–Europe 79% (EC 72%, other 7%), US 5%

External debt: $NA

Industrial production: growth rate 7.0% (1988)

Electricity: 17,710,000 kW capacity; 59,070 million kWh produced, 8,930 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: machinery, chemicals, watches, textiles, precision instruments

Agriculture: dairy farming predominates; less than 50% self-sufficient; food shortages–fish, refined sugar, fats and oils (other than butter), grains, eggs, fruits, vegetables, meat

Aid: donor–ODA and OOF commitments (1970-87), $2.5 billion

Currency: Swiss franc, franken, or franco (plural–francs, franken, or franchi); 1 Swiss franc, franken, or franco (SwF) = 100 centimes, rappen, or centesimi

Exchange rates: Swiss francs, franken, or franchi (SwF) per US$1–1.5150 (January 1990), 1.6359 (1989), 1.4633 (1988), 1.4912 (1987), 1.7989 (1986), 2.4571 (1985)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications Railroads: 5,174 km total; 2,971 km are government owned and 2,203 km are nongovernment owned; the government network consists of 2,897 km 1.435-meter standard gauge and 74 km 1.000-meter narrow gauge track; 1,432 km double track, 99% electrified; the nongovernment network consists of 710 km 1.435-meter standard gauge, 1,418 km 1.000-meter gauge, and 75 km 0.790-meter gauge track, 100% electrified

Highways: 62,145 km total (all paved), of which 18,620 km are canton and 1,057 km are national highways (740 km autobahn); 42,468 km are communal roads

Pipelines: 314 km crude oil; 1,506 km natural gas

Inland waterways: 65 km; Rhine (Basel to Rheinfelden, Schaffhausen to Bodensee); 12 navigable lakes

Ports: Basel (river port)

Merchant marine: 20 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 215,851 GRT/365,131 DWT; includes 4 cargo, 2 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 3 chemical tanker, 3 specialized liquid cargo, 8 bulk

Civil air: 89 major transport aircraft

Airports: 72 total, 70 usable; 42 with permanent-surface runways; 2 with runways over 3,659 m; 6 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 17 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: excellent domestic, international, and broadcast services; 5,808,000 telephones; stations–6 AM, 36 (400 relays) FM, 145 (1,250 relays) TV; communications satellite earth stations operating in the INTELSAT (4 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean) and EUTELSAT systems

Defense Forces Branches: Army, Air Force

Military manpower: males 15-49, 1,800,211; 1,550,662 fit for military service; 44,154 reach military age (20) annually

Defense expenditures: $1.2 billion (1989 est.) .pa Syria Geography Total area: 185,180 km2; land area: 184,050 km2 (including 1,295 km2 of Israeli-occupied territory)

Comparative area: slightly larger than North Dakota

Land boundaries: 2,253 km total; Iraq 605 km, Israel 76 km, Jordan 375 km, Lebanon 375 km, Turkey 822 km

Coastline: 193 km

Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 6 nm beyond territorial sea limit;

Territorial sea: 35 nm

Disputes: separated from Israel by the 1949 Armistice Line; Golan Heights is Israeli occupied; Hatay question with Turkey; periodic disputes with Iraq over Euphrates water rights; ongoing dispute over water development plans by Turkey for the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers; Kurdish question among Iran, Iraq, Syria, Turkey, and the USSR

Climate: mostly desert; hot, dry, sunny summers (June to August) and mild, rainy winters (December to February) along coast

Terrain: primarily semiarid and desert plateau; narrow coastal plain; mountains in west

Natural resources: crude oil, phosphates, chrome and manganese ores, asphalt, iron ore, rock salt, marble, gypsum

Land use: 28% arable land; 3% permanent crops; 46% meadows and pastures; 3% forest and woodland; 20% other; includes 3% irrigated

Environment: deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification

Note: there are 35 Jewish settlements in the Israeli-occupied Golan Heights

People Population: 12,483,440 (July 1990), growth rate 3.8% (1990); in addition, there are 13,500 Druze and 10,500 Jewish settlers in the Israeli-occupied Golan Heights

Birth rate: 44 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 6 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 38 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 68 years male, 70 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 6.7 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun–Syrian(s); adjective–Syrian

Ethnic divisions: 90.3% Arab; 9.7% Kurds, Armenians, and other

Religion: 74% Sunni Muslim; 16% Alawite, Druze, and other Muslim sects; 10% Christian (various sects); tiny Jewish communities in Damascus, Al Qamishli, and Aleppo

Language: Arabic (official), Kurdish, Armenian, Aramaic, Circassian; French widely understood

Literacy: 49%

Labor force: 2,400,000; 36% miscellaneous and government services, 32% agriculture, 32% industry and construction); majority unskilled; shortage of skilled labor (1984)

Organized labor: 5% of labor force

Government Long-form name: Syrian Arab Republic

Type: republic; under leftwing military regime since March 1963

Capital: Damascus

Administrative divisions: 14 provinces (muhafazat, singular–muhafazah); Al Hasakah, Al Ladhiqiyah, Al Qunaytirah, Ar Raqqah, As Suwayda, Dara, Dayr az Zawr, Dimashq, Halab, Hamah, Hims, Idlib, Madinat Dimashq, Tartus

Independence: 17 April 1946 (from League of Nations mandate under French administration); formerly United Arab Republic

Constitution: 13 March 1973

Legal system: based on Islamic law and civil law system; special religious courts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: National Day, 17 April (1946)

Executive branch: president, three vice presidents, prime minister, three deputy prime ministers, Council of Ministers (cabinet)

Legislative branch: unicameral People's Council (Majlis ash Shaab)

Judicial branch: Supreme Constitutional Court, High Judicial Council, Court of Cassation, State Security Courts

Leaders: Chief of State–President Lt. Gen. Hafiz al-ASSAD (since 22 February 1971); Vice Presidents Abd al-Halim KHADDAM, Dr. Rifat al-ASSAD, and Muhammad Zuhayr MASHARIQA (since 11 March 1984);

Head of Government–Prime Minister Mahmud ZUBI (since 1 November 1987); Deputy Prime Minister Lt. Gen. Mustafa TALAS (since 11 March 1984)

Political parties and leaders: ruling party is the Arab Socialist Resurrectionist (Bath) Party; the Progressive National Front is dominated by Bathists but includes independents and members of the Syrian Arab Socialist Party (ASP), Arab Socialist Union (ASU), Socialist Unionist Movement, and Syrian Communist Party (SCP)

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections: President–last held 10-11 February 1985 (next to be held February 1992); results–President Hafiz al-Assad was reelected without opposition;

People's Council–last held 10-11 February 1986 (next to be held 22 May 1990); results–Bath 66%, ASU 5%, SCP 5%, Socialist Unionist Movement 4%, ASP 2%, independents 18%; seats–(195 total) Bath 129, Communist 9, ASU 9, Socialiist Unionist Movement 8, ASP 5, independents 35; the People's Council will have 250 seats total in the 22 May 1990 election

Communists: mostly sympathizers, numbering about 5,000

Other political or pressure groups: non-Bath parties have little effective political influence; Communist party ineffective; greatest threat to Assad regime lies in factionalism in the military; conservative religious leaders; Muslim Brotherhood

Member of: Arab League, CCC, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDB–Islamic Development Bank, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOOC, IPU, ITU, IWC–International Wheat Council, NAM, OAPEC, OIC, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO, WSG, WTO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Walid Mu'allim; Chancery at 2215 Wyoming Avenue NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202) 232-6313; US–Ambassador Edward P. DJEREJIAN; Embassy at Abu Rumaneh, Al Mansur Street No.2, Damascus (mailing address is P. O. Box 29, Damascus); telephone Õ963å (11) 333052 or 332557, 330416, 332814, 332315

Flag: three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and black with two small green five-pointed stars in a horizontal line centered in the white band; similar to the flags of the YAR which has one star and Iraq which has three stars (in a horizontal line centered in the white band)–all green and five-pointed; also similar to the flag of Egypt which has a symbolic eagle centered in the white band

Economy Overview: Syria's rigidly structured Bathist economy is turning out roughly the same amount of goods in 1989 as in 1983, when the population was 20% smaller. Economic difficulties are attributable, in part, to severe drought in several recent years, costly but unsuccessful attempts to match Israel's military strength, a falloff in Arab aid, and insufficient foreign exchange earnings to buy needed inputs for industry and agriculture. Socialist policy, embodied in a thicket of bureaucratic regulations, in many instances has driven away or pushed underground the mercantile and entrepreneurial spirit for which Syrian businessmen have long been famous. Two bright spots: a sizable number of villagers have benefited from land redistribution, electrification, and other rural development programs; and a recent find of light crude oil has enabled Syria to cut back its substantial imports of light crude. A long-term concern is the additional drain of upstream Euphrates water by Turkey when its vast dam and irrigation projects are completed toward the end of the 1990s.

GDP: $18.5 billion, per capita $1,540; real growth rate - 2% (1989 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 70% (1989 est.)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues $NA; expenditures $3.2 billion, including capital expenditures of $1.92 billion (1989)

Exports: $1.3 billion (f.o.b., 1988 est.); commodities–petroleum, textiles, fruits and vegetables, phosphates; partners–Italy, Romania, USSR, US, Iran, France

Imports: $1.9 billion (f.o.b., 1988 est.); commodities–petroleum, machinery, base metals, foodstuffs and beverages; partners–Iran, FRG, USSR, France, GDR, Libya, US

External debt: $5.3 billion in hard currency (1989 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate NA%

Electricity: 2,867,000 kW capacity; 6,000 million kWh produced, 500 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: textiles, food processing, beverages, tobacco, phosphate rock mining, petroleum

Agriculture: accounts for 27% of GDP and one-third of labor force; all major crops (wheat, barley, cotton, lentils, chickpeas) grown on rainfed land causing wide swings in yields; animal products–beef, lamb, eggs, poultry, milk; not self-sufficient in grain or livestock products

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-81), $538 million; Western (non-US) ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $1.0 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $12.3 billion; Communist countries (1970-88), $3.3 billion

Currency: Syrian pound (plural–pounds); 1 Syrian pound (LS) = 100 piasters

Exchange rates: Syrian pounds (LS) per US$1–11.2250 (fixed rate since 1987), 3.9250 (fixed rate 1976-87)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications Railroads: 2,241 km total; 1,930 km standard gauge, 311 km 1.050-meter narrow gauge; note–the Tartus-Latakia line is nearly complete

Highways: 27,000 km total; 21,000 km paved, 3,000 km gravel or crushed stone, 3,000 km improved earth

Inland waterways: 672 km; of little economic importance

Pipelines: 1,304 km crude oil; 515 km refined products

Ports: Tartus, Latakia, Baniyas

Merchant marine: 19 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 53,938 GRT/72,220 DWT; includes 16 cargo, 2 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 1 bulk

Civil air: 35 major transport aircraft

Airports: 97 total, 94 usable; 24 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways over 3,659 m; 21 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 5 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: fair system currently undergoing significant improvement; 512,600 telephones; stations–9 AM, 1 FM, 40 TV; satellite earth stations–1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT earth station, with 1 Intersputnik station under construction; 1 submarine cable; coaxial cable and radio relay to Iraq, Jordan, Turkey, and Lebanon (inactive)

Defense Forces Branches: Syrian Arab Army, Syrian Arab Air Force, Syrian Arab Navy

Military manpower: males 15-49, 2,712,360; 1,520,798 fit for military service; 144,791 reach military age (19) annually

Defense expenditures: NA .pa Tanzania Geography Total area: 945,090 km2; land area: 886,040 km2

Comparative area: slightly larger than twice the size of California

Land boundaries: 3,402 km total; Burundi 451 km, Kenya 769 km, Malawi 475 km, Mozambique 756 km, Rwanda 217 km, Uganda 396 km, Zambia 338 km

Coastline: 1,424 km

Maritime claims:

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Disputes: boundary dispute with Malawi in Lake Nyasa; Tanzania-Zaire-Zambia tripoint in Lake Tanganyika may no longer be indefinite since it is reported that the indefinite section of the Zaire-Zambia boundary has been settled

Climate: varies from tropical along coast to temperate in highlands

Terrain: plains along coast; central plateau; highlands in north, south

Natural resources: hydropower potential, tin, phosphates, iron ore, coal, diamonds, gemstones, gold, natural gas, nickel

Land use: 5% arable land; 1% permanent crops; 40% meadows and pastures; 47% forest and woodland; 7% other; includes NEGL% irrigated

Environment: lack of water and tsetse fly limit agriculture; recent droughts affected marginal agriculture; Kilimanjaro is highest point in Africa

People Population: 25,970,843 (July 1990), growth rate 3.4% (1990)

Birth rate: 50 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 16 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: NEGL migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 107 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 49 years male, 54 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 7.1 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun–Tanzanian(s); adjective–Tanzanian

Ethnic divisions: mainland–99% native African consisting of well over 100 tribes; 1% Asian, European, and Arab

Religion: mainland–33% Christian, 33% Muslim, 33% indigenous beliefs; Zanzibar–almost all Muslim

Language: Swahili and English (official); English primary language of commerce, administration, and higher education; Swahili widely understood and generally used for communication between ethnic groups; first language of most people is one of the local languages; primary education is generally in Swahili

Literacy: 79%

Labor force: 732,200 wage earners; 90% agriculture, 10% industry and commerce (1986 est.)

Organized labor: 15% of labor force

Government Long-form name: United Republic of Tanzania

Type: republic

Capital: Dar es Salaam; some government offices have been transferred to Dodoma, which is planned as the new national capital in the 1990s

Administrative divisions: 25 regions; Arusha, Dar es Salaam, Dodoma, Iringa, Kigoma, Kilimanjaro, Lindi, Mara, Mbeya, Morogoro, Mtwara, Mwanza, Pemba North, Pemba South, Pwani, Rukwa, Ruvuma, Shinyanga, Singida, Tabora, Tanga, Zanzibar Central/South, Zanzibar North, Zanzibar Urban/West, Ziwa Magharibi

Independence: Tanganyika became independent 9 December 1961 (from UN trusteeship under British administration); Zanzibar became independent 19 December 1963 (from UK); Tanganyika united with Zanzibar 26 April 1964 to form the United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar; renamed United Republic of Tanzania 29 October 1964

Constitution: 15 March 1984 (Zanzibar has its own Constitution but remains subject to provisions of the union Constitution)

Legal system: based on English common law; judicial review of legislative acts limited to matters of interpretation; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: Union Day, 26 April (1964)

Executive branch: president, first vice president and prime minister of the union, second vice president and president of Zanzibar, Cabinet

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly (Bunge)

Judicial branch: Court of Appeal, High Court

Leaders: Chief of State–President Ali Hassan MWINYI (since 5 November 1985);

Head of Government–First Vice President and Prime Minister Joseph Sinde WARIOBA (since 6 November 1985)

Political parties and leaders: only party–Chama Cha Mapinduzi (CCM or Revolutionary Party), Julius Nyerere, party chairman

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections: President–last held 27 October 1985 (next to be held October 1990); results–Ali Hassan Mwinyi was elected without opposition;

National Assembly–last held 27 October 1985 (next to be held October 1990); results–CCM is the only party; seats–(244 total, 168 elected) CCM 168

Communists: no Communist party; a few Communist sympathizers

Member of: ACP, AfDB, CCC, Commonwealth, FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAC, ICAO, ICO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, ITU, NAM, OAU, SADCC, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador-designate Charles Musama NYIRABU; Chancery at 2139 R Street NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202) 939-6125; US–Ambassador Edmond DE JARNETTE; Embassy at 36 Laibon Road (off Bagamoyo Road), Dar es Salaam (mailing address is P. O. Box 9123, Dar es Salaam); telephone Õ255å (51) 37501 through 37504

Flag: divided diagonally by a yellow-edged black band from the lower hoist-side corner; the upper triangle (hoist side) is green and the lower triangle is blue

Economy Overview: Tanzania is one of the poorest countries in the world. The economy is heavily dependent on agriculture, which accounts for about 40% of GDP, provides 85% of exports, and employs 90% of the work force. Industry accounts for about 10% of GDP and is mainly limited to processing agricultural products and light consumer goods. The economic recovery program announced in mid-1986 has generated notable increases in agricultural production and financial support for the program by bilateral donors. The World Bank and the International Monetary Fund have increased the availability of imports and provided funds to rehabilitate Tanzania's deteriorated economic infrastructure.

GDP: $5.92 billion, per capita $235; real growth rate 4.5% (1989 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 29% (1989)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues $568 million; expenditures $835 million, including capital expenditures of $230 million (FY89)

Exports: $394 million (f.o.b., FY89); commodities–coffee, cotton, sisal, cashew nuts, meat, tobacco, tea, diamonds, coconut products, pyrethrum, cloves (Zanzibar); partners–FRG, UK, US, Netherlands, Japan

Imports: $1.3 billion (c.i.f., FY89); commodities–manufactured goods, machinery and transportation equipment, cotton piece goods, crude oil, foodstuffs; partners–FRG, UK, US, Iran, Japan, Italy

External debt: $4.5 billion (December 1989 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate 6% (1988 est.)

Electricity: 401,000 kW capacity; 895 million kWh produced, 35 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: primarily agricultural processing (sugar, beer, cigarettes, sisal twine), diamond mine, oil refinery, shoes, cement, textiles, wood products, fertilizer

Agriculture: accounts for over 40% of GDP; topography and climatic conditions limit cultivated crops to only 5% of land area; cash crops–coffee, sisal, tea, cotton, pyrethrum (insecticide made from chrysanthemums), cashews, tobacco, cloves (Zanzibar); food crops–corn, wheat, cassava, bananas, fruits, and vegetables; small numbers of cattle, sheep, and goats; not self-sufficient in food grain production

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $387 million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $8.5 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $44 million; Communist countries (1970-88), $607 million

Currency: Tanzanian shilling (plural–shillings); 1 Tanzanian shilling (TSh) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Tanzanian shillings (TSh) per US$1–192.901 (January 1990), 143.377 (1989), 99.292 (1988), 64.260 (1987), 32.698 (1986), 17.472 (1985)

Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June

Communications Railroads: 3,555 km total; 960 km 1.067-meter gauge; 2,595 km 1.000-meter gauge, 6.4 km double track, 962 km Tazara Railroad 1.067-meter gauge; 115 km 1.000-meter gauge planned by end of decade

Highways: total 81,900 km, 3,600 km paved; 5,600 km gravel or crushed stone; remainder improved and unimproved earth

Pipelines: 982 km crude oil

Inland waterways: Lake Tanganyika, Lake Victoria, Lake Nyasa

Ports: Dar es Salaam, Mtwara, Tanga, and Zanzibar are ocean ports; Mwanza on Lake Victoria and Kigoma on Lake Tanganyika are inland ports

Merchant marine: 7 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 29,174 GRT/39,186 DWT; includes 2 passenger-cargo, 3 cargo, 1 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 1 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker

Civil air: 6 major transport aircraft

Airports: 103 total, 92 usable; 13 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways over 3,659 m; 3 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 44 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: fair system of open wire, radio relay, and troposcatter; 103,800 telephones; stations–12 AM, 4 FM, 2 TV; 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT earth station

Defense Forces Branches: Tanzanian People's Defense Force includes Army, Navy, and Air Force; paramilitary Police Field Force Unit; Militia

Military manpower: males 15-49, 5,351,192; 3,087,501 fit for military service

Defense expenditures: 3.3% of GDP (1985) .pa Thailand Geography Total area: 514,000 km2; land area: 511,770 km2

Comparative area: slightly more than twice the size of Wyoming

Land boundaries: 4,863 km total; Burma 1,800 km, Cambodia 803 km, Laos 1,754 km, Malaysia 506 km

Coastline: 3,219 km

Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: not specific;

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Disputes: boundary dispute with Laos

Climate: tropical; rainy, warm, cloudy southwest monsoon (mid-May to September); dry, cool northeast monsoon (November to mid-March); southern isthmus always hot and humid

Terrain: central plain; eastern plateau (Khorat); mountains elsewhere

Natural resources: tin, rubber, natural gas, tungsten, tantalum, timber, lead, fish, gypsum, lignite, fluorite

Land use: 34% arable land; 4% permanent crops; 1% meadows and pastures; 30% forest and woodland; 31% other; includes 7% irrigated

Environment: air and water pollution; land subsidence in Bangkok area

Note: controls only land route from Asia to Malaysia and Singapore

People Population: 55,115,683 (July 1990), growth rate 1.3% (1990)

Birth rate: 20 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 7 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 34 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 64 years male, 70 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 2.1 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun–Thai (sing. and pl.); adjective–Thai

Ethnic divisions: 75% Thai, 14% Chinese, 11% other

Religion: 95.5% Buddhist, 4% Muslim, 0.5% other

Language: Thai; English is the secondary language of the elite; ethnic and regional dialects

Literacy: 82%

Labor force: 26,000,000; 73% agriculture, 11% industry and commerce, 10% services, 6% government (1984)

Organized labor: 300,000 union members (1986)

Government Long-form name: Kingdom of Thailand

Type: constitutional monarchy

Capital: Bangkok

Administrative divisions: 73 provinces (changwat, singular and plural); Ang Thong, Buriram, Chachoengsao, Chai Nat, Chaiyaphum, Chanthaburi, Chiang Mai, Chiang Rai, Chon Buri, Chumphon, Kalasin, Kamphaeng Phet, Kanchanaburi, Khon Kaen, Krabi, Krung Thep Mahanakhon, Lampang, Lamphun, Loei, Lop Buri, Mae Hong Son, Maha Sarakham, Nakhon Nayok, Nakhon Pathom, Nakhon Phanom, Nakhon Ratchasima, Nakhon Sawan, Nakhon Si Thammarat, Nan, Narathiwat, Nong Khai, Nonthaburi, Pathum Thani, Pattani, Phangnga, Phatthalung, Phayao, Phetchabun, Phetchaburi, Phichit, Phitsanulok, Phra Nakhon Si Ayutthaya, Phrae, Phuket, Prachin Buri, Prachuap Khiri Khan, Ranong, Ratchaburi, Rayong, Roi Et, Sakon Nakhon, Samut Prakan, Samut Sakhon, Samut Songkhram, Sara Buri, Satun, Sing Buri, Sisaket, Songkhla, Sukhothai, Suphan Buri, Surat Thani, Surin, Tak, Trang, Trat, Ubon Ratchathani, Udon Thani, Uthai Thani, Uttaradit, Yala, Yasothon

Independence: 1238 (traditional founding date); never colonized

Constitution: 22 December 1978

Legal system: based on civil law system, with influences of common law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: Birthday of His Majesty the King, 5 December (1927)

Executive branch: monarch, prime minister, three deputy prime ministers, Council of Ministers (cabinet), Privy Council

Legislative branch: bicameral National Assembly (Ratha Satha) consists of an upper house or Senate (Woothi Satha) and a lower house or House of Representatives (Satha Poothan)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Sarn Dika)

Leaders: Chief of State–King BHUMIBOL ADULYADEJ (since 9 June 1946); Heir Apparent Crown Prince VAJIRALONGKORN (born 28 July 1952);

Head of Government Prime Minister Maj. Gen. CHATCHAI CHUNHAWAN (since 9 August 1988); Deputy Prime Minister CHUAN LIKPHAI

Political parties and leaders: Democrat Party (DP), Social Action Party (SAP), Thai Nation Party (TNP), People's Party (Ratsadon), People's Party (Prachachon), Thai Citizens Party (TCP), United Democracy Party, Solidarity Party, Thai People's Party, Mass Party, Force of Truth Party (Phalang Dharma)

Suffrage: universal at age 21

Elections: House of Representatives–last held 24 July 1988 (next to be held within 90 days of July 1992); results–TNP 27%, SAP 15%, DP 13%, TCP 9%, others 36%; seats–(357 total) TNP 96, Solidarity 62, SAP 54, DP 48, TCP 31, People's Party (Ratsadon) 21, People's Party (Prachachon) 17, Force of Truth Party (Phalang Dharma) 14, United Democracy Party 5, Mass Party 5, others 4

Communists: illegal Communist party has 500 to 1,000 members (est.); armed Communist insurgents throughout Thailand total 300 to 500 (est.)

Member of: ADB, ANRPC, ASEAN, ASPAC, Association of Tin Producing Countries, CCC, Colombo Plan, GATT, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, INRO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IPU, IRC, ITC, ITU, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador VITTHYA VEJJAJIVA; Embassy at 2300 Kalorama Road NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202) 483-7200; there are Thai Consulates General in Chicago, Los Angeles, and New York; US–Ambassador Daniel O'DONAHUE; Embassy at 95 Wireless Road, Bangkok (mailing address is APO San Francisco 96346); telephone Õ66å (2) 252-5040; there is a US Consulate General in Chiang Mai and Consulates in Songkhla and Udorn

Flag: five horizontal bands of red (top), white, blue (double width), white, and red

Economy Overview: Thailand, one of the more advanced developing countries in Asia, enjoyed its second straight exceptionally prosperous year in 1989. Real output again rose about 11%. The increasingly sophisticated manufacturing sector benefited from export-oriented investment, and agriculture grew by 4.0% because of improved weather. The trade deficit of $5.2 billion was more than offset by earnings from tourism ($3.9 billion), remittances, and net capital inflows. The government has followed a fairly sound fiscal and monetary policy, aided by increased tax receipts from the fast-moving economy. In 1989 the government approved new projects–roads, ports, electric power, communications–needed to refurbish the now overtaxed infrastructure. Although growth in 1990-91 must necessarily fall below the 1988-89 pace, Thailand's immediate economic outlook is good, assuming the continuation of prudent government policies in the context of a private-sector-oriented development strategy.

GNP: $64.5 billion, per capita $1,160; real growth rate 10.8% (1989 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 5.4% (1989)

Unemployment rate: 6% (1989 est.)

Budget: revenues $12.1 billion; expenditures $9.7 billion, including capital expenditures of NA (FY89)

Exports: $19.9 billion (f.o.b., 1989); commodities–textiles 12%, fishery products 12%, rice 8%, tapioca 8%, jewelry 6%, manufactured gas, corn, tin; partners–US 18%, Japan 14%, Singapore 9%, Netherlands, Malaysia, Hong Kong, China (1988)

Imports: $25.1 billion (c.i.f., 1989); commodities–machinery and parts 23%, petroleum products 13%, chemicals 11%, iron and steel, electrical appliances; partners–Japan 26%, US 14%, Singapore 7%, FRG, Malaysia, UK (1987)

External debt: $18.5 billion (December 1989 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate 12.5% (1989)

Electricity: 7,100,000 kW capacity; 28,000 million kWh produced, 500 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: tourism is the largest source of foreign exchange; textiles and garments, agricultural processing, beverages, tobacco, cement, other light manufacturing, such as jewelry; electric appliances and components, integrated circuits, furniture, plastics; world's second-largest tungsten producer and third-largest tin producer

Agriculture: accounts for 16% of GNP and 73% of labor force; leading producer and exporter of rice and cassava (tapioca); other crops–rubber, corn, sugarcane, coconuts, soybeans; except for wheat, self-sufficient in food; fish catch of 2.2 million tons (1987)

Illicit drugs: a minor producer, major illicit trafficker of heroin, particularly from Burma and Laos, and cannabis for the international drug market; eradication efforts have reduced the area of cannabis cultivation and shifted some production to neighboring countries; opium poppy cultivation has been affected by eradication efforts, but unusually good weather boosted output in 1989

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $828 million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $7.0 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $19 million

Currency: baht (plural–baht); 1 baht (B) = 100 satang

Exchange rates: baht (B) per US$1–25.726 (January 1990), 25.699 (1989), 25.294 (1988), 25.723 (1987), 26.299 (1986), 27.159 (1985)

Fiscal year: 1 October-30 September

Communications Railroads: 3,940 km 1.000-meter gauge, 99 km double track

Highways: 44,534 km total; 28,016 km paved, 5,132 km earth surface, 11,386 km under development

Inland waterways: 3,999 km principal waterways; 3,701 km with navigable depths of 0.9 m or more throughout the year; numerous minor waterways navigable by shallow-draft native craft

Pipelines: natural gas, 350 km; refined products, 67 km

Ports: Bangkok, Pattani, Phuket, Sattahip, Si Racha

Merchant marine: 122 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 483,688 GRT/730,750 DWT; includes 2 short-sea passenger, 70 cargo, 8 container, 27 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 8 liquefied gas, 1 chemical tanker, 3 bulk, 1 refrigerated cargo, 1 roll-on/roll-off, 1 combination bulk

Civil air: 41 (plus 2 leased) major transport aircraft

Airports: 127 total, 103 usable; 56 with permanent-surface runways; 1 with runways over 3,659 m; 13 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 26 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: service to general public adequate; bulk of service to government activities provided by multichannel cable and radio relay network; 739,500 telephones (1987); stations–over 200 AM, 100 FM, and 11 TV in government-controlled networks; satellite earth stations–1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT and 1 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT; domestic satellite system being developed

Defense Forces Branches: Royal Thai Army, Royal Thai Navy (includes Royal Thai Marine Corps), Royal Thai Air Force; paramilitary forces include Border Patrol Police, Thahan Phran (irregular soldiers), Village Defense Forces

Military manpower: males 15-49, 15,617,486; 9,543,119 fit for military service; 610,410 reach military age (18) annually

Defense expenditures: 2.9% of GNP, or $1.9 billion (1989 est.) .pa Togo Geography Total area: 56,790 km2; land area: 54,390 km2

Comparative area: slightly smaller than West Virginia

Land boundaries: 1,647 km total; Benin 644 km, Burkina 126 km, Ghana 877 km

Coastline: 56 km

Maritime claims:

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 30 nm

Climate: tropical; hot, humid in south; semiarid in north

Terrain: gently rolling savanna in north; central hills; southern plateau; low coastal plain with extensive lagoons and marshes

Natural resources: phosphates, limestone, marble

Land use: 25% arable land; 1% permanent crops; 4% meadows and pastures; 28% forest and woodland; 42% other; includes NEGL% irrigated

Environment: hot, dry harmattan wind can reduce visibility in north during winter; recent droughts affecting agriculture; deforestation

People Population: 3,674,355 (July 1990), growth rate 3.7% (1990)

Birth rate: 50 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 14 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 112 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 53 years male, 57 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 7.2 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun–Togolese (sing. and pl.); adjective–Togolese

Ethnic divisions: 37 tribes; largest and most important are Ewe, Mina, and Kabye; under 1% European and Syrian-Lebanese

Religion: about 70% indigenous beliefs, 20% Christian, 10% Muslim

Language: French, both official and language of commerce; major African languages are Ewe and Mina in the south and Dagomba and Kabye in the north

Literacy: 40.7%

Labor force: NA; 78% agriculture, 22% industry; about 88,600 wage earners, evenly divided between public and private sectors; 50% of population of working age (1985)

Organized labor: one national union, the National Federation of Togolese Workers

Government Long-form name: Republic of Togo

Type: republic; one-party presidential regime

Capital: Lome

Administrative divisions: 21 circumscriptions (circonscriptions, singular–circonscription); Amlame (Amou), Aneho (Lacs), Atakpame (Ogou), Badou (Wawa), Bafilo (Assoli), Bassar (Bassari), Dapaong (Tone), Kante (Keran), Klouto (Kloto), Kpagouda (Binah), Lama-Kara (Kozah), Lome (Golfe), Mango (Oti), Niamtougou (Doufelgou), Notse (Haho), Sotouboua, Tabligbo (Yoto), Tchamba, Tchaoudjo, Tsevie (Zio), Vogan (Vo); note–the 21 units may now be called prefectures (prefectures, singular–prefecture) and reported name changes for individual units are included in parenthesis

Independence: 27 April 1960 (from UN trusteeship under French administration, formerly French Togo)

Constitution: 30 December 1979, effective 13 January 1980

Legal system: French-based court system

National holiday: Liberation Day (anniversary of coup), 13 January (1967)

Executive branch: president, Council of Ministers (cabinet)

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly (Assemblee Nationale)

Judicial branch: Court of Appeal (Cour d'Appel), Supreme Court (Cour Supreme)

Leaders: Chief of State and Head of Government–President Gen. Gnassingbe EYADEMA (since 14 April 1967)

Political parties and leaders: only party–Rally of the Togolese People (RPT), President Eyadema

Suffrage: universal adult at age NA

Elections: President–last held 21 December 1986 (next to be held December 1993); results–Gen. Eyadema was reelected without opposition;

National Assembly–last held 4 March 1990 (next to be held March 1995); results–RPT is the only party; seats–(77 total) RPT 77

Communists: no Communist party

Member of: ACP, AfDB, CEAO (observer), EAMA, ECA, ECOWAS, ENTENTE, FAO, G-77, GATT, IBRD, ICAO, ICO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, ITU, NAM, OAU, OCAM, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Ellom-Kodjo SCHUPPIUS; Chancery at 2208 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202) 234-4212 or 4213; US–Ambassador Rush W. TAYLOR, Jr.; Embassy at Rue Pelletier Caventou and Rue Vauban, Lome (mailing address is B. P. 852, Lome); telephone Õ228å 21-29-91 through 94 and 21-36-09

Flag: five equal horizontal bands of green (top and bottom) alternating with yellow; there is a white five-pointed star on a red square in the upper hoist-side corner; uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia

Economy Overview: Togo is one of the least developed countries in the world with a per capita GDP of about $400. The economy is heavily dependent on subsistence agriculture, which accounts for about 35% of GDP and provides employment for 80% of the labor force. Primary agricultural exports are cocoa, coffee, and cotton, which together account for about 30% of total export earnings. Togo is self-sufficient in basic foodstuffs when harvests are normal. In the industrial sector phosphate mining is by far the most important activity, with phosphate exports accounting for about 40% of total foreign exchange earnings.

GDP: $1.35 billion, per capita $405; real growth rate 4.1% (1988 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.5% (1987 est.)

Unemployment rate: 2.0% (1987)

Budget: revenues $354 million; expenditures $399 million, including capital expenditures of $102 million (1988 est.)

Exports: $344 million (f.o.b., 1988); commodities–phosphates, cocoa, coffee, cotton, manufactures, palm kernels; partners–EC 70%, Africa 9%, US 2%, other 19% (1985)

Imports: $369 million (f.o.b., 1988); commodities–food, fuels, durable consumer goods, other intermediate goods, capital goods; partners–EC 69%, Africa 10%, Japan 7%, US 4%, other 10% (1985)

External debt: $1.3 billion (December 1988)

Industrial production: growth rate 4.9% (1987 est.)

Electricity: 117,000 kW capacity; 155 million kWh produced, 45 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: phosphate mining, agricultural processing, cement, handicrafts, textiles, beverages

Agriculture: cash crops–coffee, cocoa, cotton; food crops–yams, cassava, corn, beans, rice, millet, sorghum, fish

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $121 million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $1.6 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $35 million; Communist countries (1970-88), $46 million

Currency: Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (plural–francs); 1 CFA franc (CFAF) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (CFAF) per US$1–287.99 (January 1990), 319.01 (1989), 297.85 (1988), 300.54 (1987), 346.30 (1986), 449.26 (1985)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications Railroads: 515 km 1.000-meter gauge, single track

Highways: 6,462 km total; 1,762 km paved; 4,700 km unimproved roads

Inland waterways: none

Ports: Lome, Kpeme (phosphate port)

Merchant marine: 7 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 41,809 GRT/72,289 DWT; includes 4 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 3 multifunction large-load carrier

Civil air: 3 major transport aircraft

Airports: 9 total, 9 usable; 2 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways over 3,659 m; 2 with runways 2,440-3,659 m none with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: fair system based on network of open-wire lines supplemented by radio relay routes; 12,000 telephones; stations–2 AM, no FM, 3 (2 relays) TV; satellite earth stations–1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT and 1 SYMPHONIE

Defense Forces Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, paramilitary Gendarmerie

Military manpower: males 15-49, 767,949; 403,546 fit for military service; no conscription

Defense expenditures: 3.3% of GDP (1987) .pa Tokelau (territory of New Zealand) Geography Total area: 10 km2; land area: 10 km2

Comparative area: about 17 times the size of The Mall in Washington, DC

Land boundaries: none

Coastline: 101 km

Maritime claims:

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; moderated by trade winds (April to November)

Terrain: coral atolls enclosing large lagoons

Natural resources: negligible

Land use: 0% arable land; 0% permanent crops; 0% meadows and pastures; 0% forest and woodland; 100% other

Environment: lies in Pacific typhoon belt

Note: located 3,750 km southwest of Honolulu in the South Pacific Ocean, about halfway between Hawaii and New Zealand

People Population: 1,700 (July 1990), growth rate 0.0% (1990)

Birth rate: NA births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: NA deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: NA migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: NA deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: NA years male, NA years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: NA children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun–Tokelauan(s); adjective–Tokelauan

Ethnic divisions: all Polynesian, with cultural ties to Western Samoa

Religion: 70% Congregational Christian Church, 30% Roman Catholic; on Atafu, all Congregational Christian Church of Samoa; on Nukunonu, all Roman Catholic; on Fakaofo, both denominations, with the Congregational Christian Church predominant

Language: Tokelauan (a Polynesian language) and English

Literacy: NA%, but probably high

Labor force: NA

Organized labor: NA

Government Long-form name: none

Type: territory of New Zealand

Capital: none, each atoll has its own administrative center

Administrative divisions: none (territory of New Zealand)

Independence: none (territory of New Zealand)

Constitution: administered under the Tokelau Islands Act of 1948, as amended in 1970

Legal system: British and local statutes

National holiday: Waitangi Day (Treaty of Waitangi established British sovereignty over New Zealand), 6 February (1840)

Executive branch: administrator (appointed by the Minister of Foreign Affairs in New Zealand), official secretary

Legislative branch: Council of Elders (Taupulega) on each atoll

Judicial branch: High Court in Niue, Supreme Court in New Zealand

Leaders: Chief of State–Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952);

Head of Government–Administrator Neil WALTER; Official Secretary M. NORRISH, Office of Tokelau Affairs

Suffrage: NA

Elections: NA

Communists: probably none

Diplomatic representation: none (territory of New Zealand)

Flag: the flag of New Zealand is used

Economy Overview: Tokelau's small size, isolation, and lack of resources greatly restrain economic development and confine agriculture to the subsistence level. The people must rely on aid from New Zealand to maintain public services, annual aid being substantially greater than GDP. The principal sources of revenue come from sales of copra, postage stamps, souvenir coins, and handicrafts. Money is also remitted to families from relatives in New Zealand.

GDP: $1.4 million, per capita $800; real growth rate NA% (1988 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues $430,830; expenditures $2.8 million, including capital expenditures of $37,300 (FY87)

Exports: $98,000 (f.o.b., 1983); commodities–stamps, copra, handicrafts; partners–NZ

Imports: $323,400 (c.i.f., 1983); commodities–foodstuffs, building materials, fuel; partners–NZ

External debt: none

Industrial production: growth rate NA%

Electricity: 200 kW capacity; 0.30 million kWh produced, 175 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: small-scale enterprises for copra production, wood work, plaited craft goods; stamps, coins; fishing

Agriculture: coconuts, copra; basic subsistence crops–breadfruit, papaya, bananas; pigs, poultry, goats

Aid: Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $21 million

Currency: New Zealand dollar (plural–dollars); 1 New Zealand dollar (NZ$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: New Zealand dollars (NZ$) per US$1–1.6581 (January 1990), 1.6708 (1989), 1.5244 (1988), 1.6886 (1987), 1.9088 (1986), 2.0064 (1985)

Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March

Communications Ports: none; offshore anchorage only

Airports: none; lagoon landings by amphibious aircraft from Western Samoa

Telecommunications: telephone service between islands and to Western Samoa

Defense Forces Note: defense is the responsibility of New Zealand .pa Tonga Geography Total area: 748 km2; land area: 718 km2

Comparative area: slightly more than four times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: none

Coastline: 419 km

Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: no specific limits;

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; modified by trade winds; warm season (December to May), cool season (May to December)

Terrain: most islands have limestone base formed from uplifted coral formation; others have limestone overlying volcanic base

Natural resources: fish, fertile soil

Land use: 25% arable land; 55% permanent crops; 6% meadows and pastures; 12% forest and woodland; 2% other

Environment: archipelago of 170 islands (36 inhabited); subject to cyclones (October to April); deforestation

Note: located about 2,250 km north-northwest of New Zealand, about two-thirds of the way between Hawaii and New Zealand

People Population: 101,313 (July 1990), growth rate 0.9% (1990)

Birth rate: 27 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 7 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: - 11 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 24 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 65 years male, 70 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 3.9 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun–Tongan(s); adjective–Tongan

Ethnic divisions: Polynesian; about 300 Europeans

Religion: Christian; Free Wesleyan Church claims over 30,000 adherents

Language: Tongan, English

Literacy: 90-95%; compulsory education for children ages 6 to 14

Labor force: NA; 70% agriculture; 600 engaged in mining

Organized labor: none

Government Long-form name: Kingdom of Tonga

Type: hereditary constitutional monarchy

Capital: Nukualofa

Administrative divisions: three island groups; Haapai, Tongatapu, Vavau

Independence: 4 June 1970 (from UK; formerly Friendly Islands)

Constitution: 4 November 1875, revised 1 January 1967

Legal system: based on English law

National holiday: Emancipation Day, 4 June (1970)

Executive branch: monarch, prime minister, deputy prime minister, Council of Ministers (cabinet), Privy Council

Legislative branch: unicameral Legislative Assembly

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Leaders: Chief of State–King Taufa'ahau TUPOU IV (since 16 December 1965);

Head of Government–Prime Minister Prince Fatafehi TU'IPELEHAKE (since 16 December 1965)

Political parties and leaders: none

Suffrage: all literate, tax-paying males and all literate females over 21

Elections: Legislative Assembly–last held 14-15 February 1990 (next to be held NA February 1993); results–percent of vote NA; seats–(29 total, 9 elected) 6 proreform, 3 traditionalist

Communists: none known

Member of: ACP, ADB, Commonwealth, FAO, ESCAP, GATT (de facto), IFAD, ITU, SPF, UNESCO, UPU, WHO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Siosaia a'Ulupekotofa TUITA resides in London; US–the US has no offices in Tonga; the Ambassador to Fiji is accredited to Tonga and makes periodic visits

Flag: red with a bold red cross on a white rectangle in the upper hoist-side corner

Economy Overview: The economy's base is agriculture, which employs about 70% of the labor force and contributes 50% to GDP. Coconuts, bananas, and vanilla beans are the main crops and make up two-thirds of exports. The country must import a high proportion of its food, mainly from New Zealand. The manufacturing sector accounts for only 10% of GDP. Tourism is the primary source of hard currency earnings, but the island remains dependent on sizable external aid and remittances to sustain its trade deficit.

GDP: $86 million, per capita $850; real growth rate 3.6% (FY89 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 8.2% (FY87)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues $54.8 million; expenditures $56.2 million, including capital expenditures of $16.9 million (FY88 est.)

Exports: $9.1 million (f.o.b., FY88 est.); commodities–coconut oil, desiccated coconut, copra, bananas, taro, vanilla beans, fruits, vegetables, fish; partners–NZ 54%, Australia 30%, US 8%, Fiji 5% (FY87)

Imports: $60.1 million (c.i.f., FY88 est.); commodities–food products, beverages and tobacco, fuels, machinery and transport equipment, chemicals, building materials; partners–NZ 39%, Australia 25%, Japan 9%, US 6%, EC 5% (FY87)

External debt: $31.8 million (1987)

Industrial production: growth rate 15% (FY86)

Electricity: 5,000 kW capacity; 8 million kWh produced, 80 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: tourism, fishing

Agriculture: dominated by coconut, copra, and banana production; vanilla beans, cocoa, coffee, ginger, black pepper

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-87), $15 million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $220 million

Currency: pa'anga (plural–pa'anga); 1 pa'anga (T$) = 100 seniti

Exchange rates: pa'anga (T$) per US$1–1.23 (FY89 est.), 1.37 (FY88), 1.51 (FY87), 1.43 (FY86), 1.30 (FY85)

Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June

Communications Highways: 198 km sealed road (Tongatapu); 74 km (Vavau); 94 km unsealed roads usable only in dry weather

Ports: Nukualofa, Neiafu, Pangai

Merchant marine: 6 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 37,249 GRT/50,116 DWT; includes 2 cargo, 1 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 2 container, 1 liquefied gas

Civil air: no major transport aircraft

Airports: 6 total, 6 usable; 1 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659; 1 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: 3,529 telephones; 66,000 radio receivers; no TV sets; stations–1 AM, no FM, no TV; 1 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT earth station

Defense Forces Branches: Land Force, Maritime Force

Military manpower: NA

Defense expenditures: NA .pa Trinidad and Tobago Geography Total area: 5,130 km2; land area: 5,130 km2

Comparative area: slightly smaller than Delaware

Land boundaries: none

Coastline: 362 km

Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: 200 meters or to depth of exploitation;

Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm;

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Disputes: maritime boundary with Venezuela in the Gulf of Paria

Climate: tropical; rainy season (June to December)

Terrain: mostly plains with some hills and low mountains

Natural resources: crude oil, natural gas, asphalt

Land use: 14% arable land; 17% permanent crops; 2% meadows and pastures; 44% forest and woodland; 23% other; includes 4% irrigated

Environment: outside usual path of hurricanes and other tropical storms

Note: located 11 km from Venezuela

People Population: 1,344,639 (July 1990), growth rate 2.2% (1990)

Birth rate: 28 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 6 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 10 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 69 years male, 74 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 3.3 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun–Trinidadian(s), Tobagonian(s); adjective–Trinidadian, Tobagonian

Ethnic divisions: 43% black, 40% East Indian, 14% mixed, 1% white, 1% Chinese, 1% other

Religion: 36.2% Roman Catholic, 23.0% Hindu, 13.1% Protestant, 6.0% Muslim, 21.7% unknown

Language: English (official), Hindi, French, Spanish

Literacy: 98%

Labor force: 463,900; 18.1% construction and utilities; 14.8% manufacturing, mining, and quarrying; 10.9% agriculture; 56.2% other (1985 est.)

Organized labor: 22% of labor force (1988)

Government Long-form name: Republic of Trinidad and Tobago

Type: parliamentary democracy

Capital: Port-of-Spain

Administrative divisions: 8 counties, 3 municipalities*, and 1 ward; Arima*, Caroni, Mayaro, Nariva, Port-of-Spain*, Saint Andrew, Saint David, Saint George, Saint Patrick, San Fernando*, Tobago, Victoria

Independence: 31 August 1962 (from UK)

Constitution: 31 August 1976

Legal system: based on English common law; judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: Independence Day, 31 August (1962)

Executive branch: president, prime minister, Cabinet

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament consists of an upper house or Senate and a lower house or House of Representatives

Judicial branch: Court of Appeal, Supreme Court

Leaders: Chief of State–President Noor Mohammed HASSANALI (since 18 March 1987);

Head of Government–Prime Minister Arthur Napoleon Raymond ROBINSON (since 18 December 1986)

Political parties and leaders: National Alliance for Reconstruction (NAR), A. N. R. Robinson; People's National Movement (PNM), Patrick Manning; United National Congress, Basdeo Panday; Movement for Social Transformation (MOTION), David Abdullah

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections: House of Representatives–last held 15 December 1986 (next to be held by December 1991); results–NAR 66%, PNM 32%, others 2%; seats–(36 total) NAR 33, PNM 3

Communists: Communist Party of Trinidad and Tobago; Trinidad and Tobago Peace Council, James Millette

Other political pressure groups: National Joint Action Committee (NJAC), radical antigovernment black-identity organization; Trinidad and Tobago Peace Council, leftist organization affiliated with the World Peace Council; Trinidad and Tobago Chamber of Industry and Commerce; Trinidad and Tobago Labor Congress, moderate labor federation; Council of Progressive Trade Unions, radical labor federation

Member of: ACP, CARICOM, CCC, Commonwealth, FAO, G-77, GATT, IADB, IBRD, ICAO, ICO, IDA, IDB–Inter-American Development Bank, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, ISO, ITU, IWC–International Wheat Council, NAM, OAS, PAHO, SELA, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Angus Albert KHAN; Chancery at 1708 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington DC 20036; telephone (202) 467-6490; Trinidad and Tobago has a Consulate General in New York; US–Ambassador Charles A. GARGANO; Embassy at 15 Queen's Park West, Port-of-Spain (mailing address is P. O. Box 752, Port-of-Spain); telephone Õ809å 622-6372 or 6376, 6176

Flag: red with a white-edged black diagonal band from the upper hoist side

Economy Overview: Trinidad and Tobago's petroleum-based economy has been in decline since 1982. During the first half of the 1980s, the petroleum sector accounted for nearly 80% of export earnings, 40% of government revenues, and almost 25% of GDP. In recent years, however, the economy has suffered because of the sharp fall in the price of oil. The government, in response to the revenue loss, pursued a series of austerity measures that pushed the unemployment rate to 22% in 1988. Agriculture employs only about 11% of the labor force and produces less than 3% of GDP. Since this sector is small, it has been unable to absorb the large numbers of the unemployed. The government currently seeks to diversify its export base.

GDP: $3.75 billion, per capita $3,070; real growth rate - 2.0% (1988 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 15.0% (1989 est.)

Unemployment rate: 22% (1988)

Budget: revenues $1.4 billion; expenditures $2.1 billion, including capital expenditures of $430 million (1988 est.)

Exports: $1.4 billion (f.o.b., 1987); commodities–includes reexports–petroleum and petroleum products 70%, fertilizer, chemicals 15%, steel products, sugar, cocoa, coffee, citrus (1987); partners–US 61%, EC 15%, CARICOM 9%, Latin America 7%, Canada 3% (1986)

Imports: $1.2 billion (c.i.f., 1987); commodities–raw materials 41%, capital goods 30%, consumer goods 29% (1986); partners–US 42%, EC 21%, Japan 10%, Canada 6%, Latin America 6%, CARICOM 4% (1986)

External debt: $2.02 billion (December 1987)

Industrial production: growth rate 5.2%, excluding oil refining (1986)

Electricity: 1,176,000 kW capacity; 3,350 million kWh produced, 2,700 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: petroleum, chemicals, tourism, food processing, cement, beverage, cotton textiles

Agriculture: accounts for about 3% of GDP and 4% of labor force; highly subsidized sector; major crops–cocoa and sugarcane; sugarcane acreage is being shifted into rice, citrus, coffee, vegetables; must import large share of food needs

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-85), $370 million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $437 million

Currency: Trinidad and Tobago dollar (plural–dollars); 1 Trinidad and Tobago dollar (TT$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Trinidad and Tobago dollars (TT$) per US$1–4.2500 (January 1990), 4.2500 (1989), 3.8438 (1988), 3.6000 (1987), 3.6000 (1986), 2.4500 (1985)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications Railroads: minimal agricultural system near San Fernando

Highways: 8,000 km total; 4,000 km paved, 1,000 km improved earth, 3,000 km unimproved earth

Pipelines: 1,032 km crude oil; 19 km refined products; 904 km natural gas

Ports: Port-of-Spain, Point Lisas, Pointe-a-Pierre

Civil air: 14 major transport aircraft

Airports: 6 total, 5 usable; 3 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 3 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: excellent international service via tropospheric scatter links to Barbados and Guyana; good local service; 109,000 telephones; stations–2 AM, 4 FM, 5 TV; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

Defense Forces Branches: Trinidad and Tobago Defense Force, Trinidad and Tobago Police Service

Military manpower: males 15-49, 343,292; 248,674 fit for military service

Defense expenditures: 1.6% of GDP, or $59 million (1989 est.) .pa Tromelin Island (French possession) Geography Total area: 1 km2; land area: 1 km2

Comparative area: about 1.7 times the size of The Mall in Washington, DC

Land boundaries: none

Coastline: 3.7 km

Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 12 nm;

Continental shelf: 200 meters or to depth of exploitation;

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Disputes: claimed by Madagascar, Mauritius, and Seychelles

Climate: tropical

Terrain: sandy

Natural resources: fish

Land use: 0% arable land; 0% permanent crops; 0% meadows and pastures; 0% forest and woodland; 100% other–scattered bushes

Environment: wildlife sanctuary

Note: located 350 km east of Madagascar and 600 km north of Reunion in the Indian Ocean; climatologically important location for forecasting cyclones

People Population: uninhabited

Government Long-form name: none

Type: French possession administered by Commissioner of the Republic Daniel CONSTANTIN, resident in Reunion

Economy Overview: no economic activity

Communications Airports: 1 with runway less than 1,220 m

Ports: none; offshore anchorage only

Telecommunications: important meteorological station

Defense Forces Note: defense is the responsibility of France .pa Tunisia Geography Total area: 163,610 km2; land area: 155,360 km2

Comparative area: slightly larger than Georgia

Land boundaries: 1,424 km total; Algeria 965 km, Libya 459 km

Coastline: 1,148 km

Maritime claims:

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Disputes: maritime boundary dispute with Libya

Climate: temperate in north with mild, rainy winters and hot, dry summers; desert in south

Terrain: mountains in north; hot, dry central plain; semiarid south merges into the Sahara

Natural resources: crude oil, phosphates, iron ore, lead, zinc, salt

Land use: 20% arable land; 10% permanent crops; 19% meadows and pastures; 4% forest and woodland; 47% other; includes 1% irrigated

Environment: deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification

Note: strategic location in central Mediterranean; only 144 km from Italy across the Strait of Sicily; borders Libya on east

People Population: 8,095,492 (July 1990), growth rate 2.2% (1990)

Birth rate: 28 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 6 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 40 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 68 years male, 70 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 4.0 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun–Tunisian(s); adjective–Tunisian

Ethnic divisions: 98% Arab, 1% European, less than 1% Jewish

Religion: 98% Muslim, 1% Christian, less than 1% Jewish

Language: Arabic (official); Arabic and French (commerce)

Literacy: 62% (est.)

Labor force: 2,250,000; 32% agriculture; shortage of skilled labor

Organized labor: about 360,000 members claimed, roughly 20% of labor force; General Union of Tunisian Workers (UGTT), quasi-independent of Constitutional Democratic Party

Government Long-form name: Republic of Tunisia; note–may be changed to Tunisian Republic

Type: republic

Capital: Tunis

Administrative divisions: 23 governorates (wilayat, singular–wilayah); Al Kaf, Al Mahdiyah, Al Munastir, Al Qasrayn, Al Qayrawan, Aryanah, Bajah, Banzart, Bin Arus, Jundubah, Madanin, Nabul, Qabis, Qafsah, Qibili, Safaqis, Sidi Bu Zayd, Silyanah, Susah, Tatawin, Tawzar, Tunis, Zaghwan

Independence: 20 March 1956 (from France)

Constitution: 1 June 1959

Legal system: based on French civil law system and Islamic law; some judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court in joint session

National holiday: National Day, 20 March (1956)

Executive branch: president, prime minister, Cabinet

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly (Assemblee Nationale)

Judicial branch: Court of Cassation (Cour de Cassation)

Leaders: Chief of State–President Gen. Zine el Abidine BEN ALI (since 7 November 1987);

Head of Government–Prime Minister Hamed KAROUI (since 26 September 1989)

Political parties and leaders: Constitutional Democratic Rally Party (RCD), President Ben Ali (official ruling party); Movement of Democratic Socialists (MDS), Ahmed Mestiri; five other political parties are legal, including the Communist Party

Suffrage: universal at age 20

Elections: President–last held 2 April 1989 (next to be held April 1994); results–Gen. Zine el Abidine Ben Aliwas reelected without opposition;

National Assembly–last held 2 April 1989 (next to be held April 1994); results–RCD 80.7%, independents/Islamists 13.7%, MDS 3.2%, others 2.4% seats–(141 total) RCD 141

Communists: a small number of nominal Communists, mostly students

Member of: AfDB, Arab League, AIOEC, CCC, FAO, G-77, GATT (de facto), IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDB–Islamic Development Bank, IFAD, IFC, ILO, ILZSG, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOOC, ITU, IWC–International Wheat Council, NAM, OAPEC, OAU, OIC, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Abdelaziz HAMZAOUI; Chancery at 1515 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington DC 20005; telephone (202) 862-1850; US–Ambassador Robert H. PELLETREAU, Jr.; Embassy at 144 Avenue de la Liberte, 1002 Tunis-Belvedere; telephone Õ216å (1) 782-566

Flag: red with a white disk in the center bearing a red crescent nearly encircling a red five-pointed star; the crescent and star are traditional symbols of Islam

Economy Overview: The economy depends primarily on petroleum, phosphates, and tourism for continued growth. Two successive drought-induced crop failures have strained the government's budget and increased unemployment. The current account fell from a $23 million surplus in 1988 to a $390 million deficit in 1989. Despite its foreign payments problems, Tunis appears committed to its IMF-supported structural adjustment program. Nonetheless, the government may have to slow its implementation to head off labor unrest. The increasing foreign debt–$7.6 billion at yearend 1989–is also a key problem. Tunis probably will seek debt relief in 1990.

GDP: $8.7 billion, per capita $1,105; real growth rate 3.1% (1989 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 10% (1989)

Unemployment rate: 25% (1989)

Budget: revenues $2.9 billion; expenditures $3.2 billion, including capital expenditures of $0.8 billion (1989 est.)

Exports: $3.1 billion (f.o.b., 1989); commodities–hydrocarbons, agricultural products, phosphates and chemicals; partners–EC 73%, Middle East 9%, US 1%, Turkey, USSR

Imports: $4.4 billion (f.o.b., 1989); commodities–industrial goods and equipment 57%, hydrocarbons 13%, food 12%, consumer goods; partners–EC 68%, US 7%, Canada, Japan, USSR, China, Saudi Arabia, Algeria

External debt: $7.6 billion (December 1989)

Industrial production: growth rate 3.5% (1988)

Electricity: 1,493,000 kW capacity; 4,210 million kWh produced, 530 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: petroleum, mining (particularly phosphate and iron ore), textiles, footwear, food, beverages

Agriculture: accounts for 16% of GDP and one-third of labor force; output subject to severe fluctuations because of frequent droughts; export crops–olives, dates, oranges, almonds; other products–grain, sugar beets, wine grapes, poultry, beef, dairy; not self-sufficient in food; fish catch of 99,200 metric tons (1986)

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $694 million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $4.6 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $684 million; Communist countries (1970-88), $410 million

Currency: Tunisian dinar (plural–dinars); 1 Tunisian dinar (TD) = 1,000 millimes

Exchange rates: Tunisian dinars (TD) per US$1–0.9055 (January 1990), 0.9493 (1989), 0.8578 (1988), 0.8287 (1987), 0.7940 (1986), 0.8345 (1985)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications Railroads: 2,154 km total; 465 km 1.435-meter standard gauge; 1,689 km 1.000-meter gauge

Highways: 17,700 km total; 9,100 km bituminous; 8,600 km improved and unimproved earth

Pipelines: 797 km crude oil; 86 km refined products; 742 km natural gas

Ports: Bizerte, Gabes, Sfax, Sousse, Tunis, La Goulette, Zarzis

Merchant marine: 21 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 160,172 GRT/218,970 DWT; includes 1 short-sea passenger, 4 cargo, 2 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 2 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 6 chemical tanker, 1 liquefied gas, 5 bulk

Civil air: 13 major transport aircraft

Airports: 30 total, 28 usable; 13 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways over 3,659 m; 7 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 7 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: the system is above the African average; facilities consist of open-wire lines, multiconductor cable, and radio relay; key centers are Safaqis, Susah, Bizerte, and Tunis; 233,000 telephones; stations–18 AM, 4 FM, 14 TV; 4 submarine cables; satellite earth stations–1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT and 1 ARABSAT with back-up control station; coaxial cable to Algeria; radio relay to Algeria, Libya, and Italy

Defense Forces Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force

Military manpower: males 15-49, 1,997,197; 1,149,141 fit for military service; 88,368 reach military age (20) annually

Defense expenditures: 2.7% of GDP, or $235 million (1989 est.) .pa Turkey Geography Total area: 780,580 km2; land area: 770,760 km2

Comparative area: slightly larger than Texas

Land boundaries: 2,715 km total; Bulgaria 240 km, Greece 206 km, Iran 499 km, Iraq 331 km, Syria 822 km, USSR 617 km

Coastline: 7,200 km

Maritime claims:

Extended economic zone: in Black Sea only–to the maritime boundary agreed upon with the USSR;

Territorial sea: 6 nm (12 nm in Black Sea and Mediterranean Sea)

Disputes: complex maritime and air (but not territorial) disputes with Greece in Aegean Sea; Cyprus question; Hatay question with Syria; ongoing dispute with downstream riparians (Syria and Iraq) over water development plans for the Tigris and Euphrates rivers; Kurdish question among Iran, Iraq, Syria, Turkey, and the USSR

Climate: temperate; hot, dry summers with mild, wet winters; harsher in interior

Terrain: mostly mountains; narrow coastal plain; high central plateau (Anatolia)

Natural resources: antimony, coal, chromium, mercury, copper, borate, sulphur, iron ore

Land use: 30% arable land; 4% permanent crops; 12% meadows and pastures; 26% forest and woodland; 28% other; includes 3% irrigated

Environment: subject to severe earthquakes, especially along major river valleys in west; air pollution; desertification

Note: strategic location controlling the Turkish straits (Bosporus, Sea of Marmara, Dardanelles) that link Black and Aegean Seas; Turkey and Norway only NATO members having a land boundary with the USSR

People Population: 56,704,327 (July 1990), growth rate 2.2% (1990)

Birth rate: 29 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 8 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 74 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 64 years male, 67 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 3.6 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun–Turk(s); adjective–Turkish

Ethnic divisions: 85% Turkish, 12% Kurd, 3% other

Religion: 98% Muslim (mostly Sunni), 2% other (mostly Christian and Jewish)

Language: Turkish (official), Kurdish, Arabic

Literacy: 70%

Labor force: 18,800,000; 56% agriculture, 30% services, 14% industry; about 1,000,000 Turks work abroad (1987)

Organized labor: 10-15% of labor force

Government Long-form name: Republic of Turkey

Type: republican parliamentary democracy

Capital: Ankara

Administrative divisions: 67 provinces (iller, singular–il); Adana, Adiyaman, Afyon, Agri, Amasya, Ankara, Antalya, Artvin, Aydin, Balikesir, Bilecik, Bingol, Bitlis, Bolu, Burdur, Bursa, Canakkale, Cankiri, Corum, Denizli, Diyarbakir, Edirne, Elazig, Erzincan, Erzurum, Eskisehir, Gaziantep, Giresun, Gumushane, Hakkari, Hatay, Icel, Isparta, Istanbul, Izmir, Kahraman Maras, Kars, Kastamonu, Kayseri, Kirklareli, Kirsehir, Kocaeli, Konya, Kutahya, Malatya, Manisa, Mardin, Mugla, Mus, Nevsehir, Nigde, Ordu, Rize, Sakarya, Samsun, Siirt, Sinop, Sivas, Tekirdag, Tokat, Trabzon, Tunceli, Urfa, Usak, Van, Yozgat, Zonguldak; note–there may be four new provinces named Aksaray, Bayburt, Karaman, and Kirikkale

Independence: 29 October 1923 (successor state to the Ottoman Empire)

Constitution: 7 November 1982

Legal system: derived from various continental legal systems; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

National holiday: Anniversary of the Declaration of the Republic, 29 October (1923)

Executive branch: president, Presidential Council, prime minister, deputy prime minister, Cabinet

Legislative branch: unicameral Grand National Assembly (Buyuk Millet Meclisi)

Judicial branch: Court of Cassation

Leaders: Chief of State–President Turgut OZAL (since 9 November 1989);

Head of Government–Prime Minister Yildirim AKBULUT (since 9 November 1989); Deputy Prime Minister Ali BOZER (since 31 March 1989)

Political parties and leaders: Motherland Party (ANAP), Yildirim Akbulut; Social Democratic Populist Party (SHP), Erdal Inonu; Correct Way Party (CWP), Suleyman Demirel; Democratic Left Party (DLP), Bulent Ecevit; Prosperity Party (RP), Necmettin Erbakan; National Work Party (MCP), Alpaslan Turkes; Reform Democratic Party (IDP), Aykut Edibali

Suffrage: universal at age 21

Elections: Grand National Assembly–last held 29 November 1987 (next to be held November 1992); results–ANAP 36%, SHP 25%, CWP 19%, others 20%; seats–(450 total) ANAP 283, SHP 81, CWP 56, independents 26, vacant 4

Communists: strength and support negligible

Member of: ASSIMER, CCC, Council of Europe, EC (associate member), ECOSOC, FAO, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAC, ICAO, IDA, IDB–Islamic Development Bank, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOOC, IPU, ITC, ITU, NATO, OECD, OIC, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WSG, WTO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Nuzhet KANDEMIR; Chancery at 1606 23rd Street NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202) 387-3200; there are Turkish Consulates General in Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, and New York; US–Ambassador Morton ABRAMOWITZ; Embassy at 110 Ataturk Boulevard, Ankara (mailing address is APO New York 09254–0001); telephone Õ90å (4) 126 54 70; there are US Consulates General in Istanbul and Izmir, and a Consulate in Adana

Flag: red with a vertical white crescent (the closed portion is toward the hoist side) and white five-pointed star centered on the hoist side

Economy Overview: The economic reforms that Turkey launched in 1980 continue to bring an impressive stream of benefits. The economy has grown steadily since the early 1980s, with real growth in per capita GDP increasing more than 6% annually. Agriculture remains the most important economic sector, employing about 60% of the labor force, accounting for almost 20% of GDP, and contributing about 25% to exports. Impressive growth in recent years has not solved all of the economic problems facing Turkey. Inflation and interest rates remain high, and a large budget deficit will continue to provide difficulties for a country undergoing a substantial transformation from a centrally controlled to a free market economy. The government has launched a multimillion-dollar development program in the southeastern region, which includes the building of a dozen dams on the Tigris and Euphrates rivers to generate electric power and irrigate large tracts of farmland. The planned tapping of huge quantities of Euphrates water has raised serious concern in the downstream riparian nations of Syria and Iraq.

GDP: $75 billion, per capita $1,350; real growth rate 1.8% (1989 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 68.8% (1989)

Unemployment rate: 15.8% (1988)

Budget: revenues $12.1 billion; expenditures $14.5 billion, including capital expenditures of $2.08 billion (FY88 est.)

Exports: $11.7 billion (f.o.b., 1988); commodities–industrial products 70%, crops and livestock products 25%; partners–FRG 18.4%, Iraq 8.5%, Italy 8.2%, US 6.5%, UK 4.9%, Iran 4.7%

Imports: $14.3 billion (c.i.f., 1988); commodities–crude oil, machinery, transport equipment, metals, pharmaceuticals, dyes, plastics, rubber, mineral fuels, fertilizers, chemicals; partners–FRG 14.3%, US 10.6%, Iraq 10.0%, Italy 7.0%, France 5.8%, UK 5.2%

External debt: $36.3 billion (November 1989)

Industrial production: growth rate 7.4% (1988)

Electricity: 14,064,000 kW capacity; 40,000 million kWh produced, 720 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: textiles, food processing, mining (coal, chromite, copper, boron minerals), steel, petroleum, construction, lumber, paper

Agriculture: accounts for 20% of GDP and employs majority of population; products–tobacco, cotton, grain, olives, sugar beets, pulses, citrus fruit, variety of animal products; self-sufficient in food most years

Illicit drugs: one of the world's major suppliers of licit opiate products; government maintains strict controls over areas of opium poppy cultivation and output of poppy straw concentrate

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $2.2 billion; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $7.9 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $665 million; Communist countries (1970-88), $4.5 billion

Currency: Turkish lira (plural–liras); 1 Turkish lira (TL) = 100 kurus

Exchange rates: Turkish liras (TL) per US$1–2,314.7 (November 1989), 1,422.3 (1988), 857.2 (1987), 674.5 (1986), 522.0 (1985)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications Railroads: 8,401 km 1.435-meter standard gauge; 479 km electrified

Highways: 49,615 km total; 26,915 km bituminous; 16,500 km gravel or crushed stone; 4,000 km improved earth; 2,200 km unimproved earth (1985)

Inland waterways: about 1,200 km

Pipelines: 1,738 km crude oil; 2,321 km refined products; 708 km natural gas

Ports: Iskenderun, Istanbul, Mersin, Izmir

Merchant marine: 327 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 2,972,465 GRT/5,087,620 DWT; includes 6 short-sea passenger, 1 passenger, 1 passenger-cargo, 193 cargo, 1 container, 4 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 3 refrigerated cargo, 1 livestock carrier, 35 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 15 chemical tanker, 2 liquefied gas, 4 combination ore/oil, 1 specialized tanker, 55 bulk, 4 combination bulk, 1 specialized liquid cargo

Civil air: 30 major transport aircraft (1985)

Airports: 119 total, 112 usable; 69 with permanent-surface runways; 3 with runways over 3,659 m; 30 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 28 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: fair domestic and international systems; trunk radio relay network; 3,100,000 telephones; stations–15 AM; 45 (60 repeaters) FM; 61 (476 repeaters) TV; communications satellite earth stations operating in the INTELSAT (1 Atlantic Ocean) and EUTELSAT systems; 1 submarine telephone cable

Defense Forces Branches: Land Forces, Navy, Air Force, Gendarmerie, Coast Guard

Military manpower: males 15-49, 14,413,944; 8,813,430 fit for military service; 597,547 reach military age (20) annually

Defense expenditures: 3.9% of GDP, or $2.9 billion (1989 est.) .pa Turks and Caicos Islands (dependent territory of the UK) Geography Total area: 430 km2; land area: 430 km2

Comparative area: slightly less than 2.5 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: none

Coastline: 389 km

Maritime claims:

Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; marine; moderated by trade winds; sunny and relatively dry

Terrain: low, flat limestone; extensive marshes and mangrove swamps

Natural resources: spiny lobster, conch

Land use: 2% arable land; 0% permanent crops; 0% meadows and pastures; 0% forest and woodland; 98% other

Environment: 30 islands (eight inhabited); subject to frequent hurricanes

Note: located 190 km north of the Dominican Republic in the North Atlantic Ocean

People Population: 9,761 (July 1990), growth rate 2.3% (1990)

Birth rate: 25 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 5 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 4 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 14 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 72 years male, 78 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 3.8 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: no noun or adjectival forms

Ethnic divisions: majority of African descent

Religion: Anglican, Roman Catholic, Baptist, Methodist, Church of God, Seventh-Day Adventist

Language: English (official)

Literacy: 99% (est.)

Labor force: NA; majority engaged in fishing and tourist industries; some subsistence agriculture

Organized labor: St. George's Industrial Trade Union

Government Long-form name: none

Type: dependent territory of the UK

Capital: Grand Turk (Cockburn Town)

Administrative divisions: none (dependent territory of the UK)

Independence: none (dependent territory of the UK)

Constitution: introduced 30 August 1976, suspended in 1986, and a Constitutional Commission is currently reviewing its contents

Legal system: based on laws of England and Wales with a small number adopted from Jamaica and The Bahamas

National holiday: Constitution Day, 30 August (1976)

Executive branch: British monarch, governor, Executive Council

Legislative branch: unicameral Legislative Council

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Leaders: Chief of State–Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1953), represented by Governor Michael J. BRADLEY (since 1987);

Head of Government–Chief Minister Oswald O. SKIPPINGS (since 3 March 1988)

Political parties and leaders: People's Democratic Movement (PDM), Oswald Skippings; Progressive National Party (PNP), Dan Malcolm and Norman Saunders; National Democratic Alliance (NDA), Ariel Missick

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections: Legislative Council–last held on 3 March 1988 (next to be held NA); results–PDM 60%, PNP 30%, others 10%; seats–(20 total, 13 elected) PDM 11, PNP 2

Communists: none

Diplomatic representation: as a dependent territory of the UK, the interests of the Turks and Caicos Islands are represented in the US by the UK; US–none

Flag: blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and the colonial shield centered on the outer half of the flag; the shield is yellow and contains a conch shell, lobster, and cactus

Economy Overview: The economy is based on fishing, tourism, and offshore banking. Subsistence farming–corn and beans–exists only on the Caicos Islands, so that most foods, as well as nonfood products, must be imported.

GDP: $44.9 million, per capita $5,000; real growth rate NA% (1986)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%

Unemployment rate: 12% (1989)

Budget: revenues $12.4 million; expenditures $15.8 million, including capital expenditures of $2.6 million (FY87)

Exports: $2.9 million (f.o.b., FY84); commodities–lobster, dried and fresh conch, conch shells; partners–US, UK

Imports: $26.3 million (c.i.f., FY84); commodities–foodstuffs, drink, tobacco, clothing; partners–US, UK

External debt: $NA

Industrial production: growth rate NA%

Electricity: 9,050 kW capacity; 11 million kWh produced, 1,160 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: fishing, tourism, offshore financial services

Agriculture: subsistence farming prevails, based on corn and beans; fishing more important than farming; not self-sufficient in food

Aid: Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $92.8 million

Currency: US currency is used

Exchange rates: US currency is used

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications Highways: 121 km, including 24 km tarmac

Ports: Grand Turk, Salt Cay, Providenciales, Cockburn Harbour

Civil air: Air Turks and Caicos (passenger service) and Turks Air Ltd. (cargo service)

Airports: 7 total, 7 usable; 4 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways over 2,439 m; 4 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: fair cable and radio services; 1,446 telephones; stations–3 AM, no FM, several TV; 2 submarine cables; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

Defense Forces Note: defense is the responsibility of the UK .pa Tuvalu Geography Total area: 26 km2; land area: 26 km2

Comparative area: about 0.1 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: none

Coastline: 24 km

Maritime claims:

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; moderated by easterly trade winds (March to November); westerly gales and heavy rain (November to March)

Terrain: very low-lying and narrow coral atolls

Natural resources: fish

Land use: 0% arable land; 0% permanent crops; 0% meadows and pastures; 0% forest and woodland; 100% other

Environment: severe tropical storms are rare

Note: located 3,000 km east of Papua New Guinea in the South Pacific Ocean

People Population: 9,136 (July 1990), growth rate 2.0% (1990)

Birth rate: 30 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 10 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 33 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 60 years male, 63 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 3.1 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun–Tuvaluans(s); adjective–Tuvaluan

Ethnic divisions: 96% Polynesian

Religion: Christian, predominantly Protestant

Language: Tuvaluan, English

Literacy: less than 50%

Labor force: NA

Organized labor: none

Government Long-form name: none

Type: democracy

Capital: Funafuti

Administrative divisions: none

Independence: 1 October 1978 (from UK; formerly Ellice Islands)

Constitution: 1 October 1978

National holiday: Independence Day, 1 October (1978)

Executive branch: British monarch, governor general, prime minister, deputy prime minister, Cabinet

Legislative branch: unicameral Parliament

Judicial branch: High Court

Leaders: Chief of State–Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor General Tupua LEUPENA (since 1 March 1986);

Head of Government–Prime Minister Bikenibeu PAENIU (since 16 October 1989); Deputy Prime Minister Dr. Alesana SELUKA (since October 1989)

Political parties and leaders: none

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections: Parliament–last held 28 September 1989 (next to be held by September 1993); results–percent of vote NA; seats–(12 total)

Member of: ACP, ESCAP (associate member), GATT (de facto), SPF, SPC, UPU

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador (vacant); US–none

Flag: light blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant; the outer half of the flag represents a map of the country with nine yellow five-pointed stars symbolizing the nine islands

Economy Overview: Tuvalu consists of a scattered group of nine coral atolls with poor-quality soil. The country has a small economy, no known mineral resources, and few exports. Subsistence farming and fishing are the primary economic activities. The islands are too small and too remote for development of a tourist industry. Government revenues largely come from the sale of stamps and coins and worker remittances. Substantial income is received annually from an international trust fund established in 1987 by Australia, New Zealand, and the UK and supported also by Japan and South Korea.

GNP: $4.6 million, per capita $530; real growth rate NA% (1989 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3.9% (1984)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues $2.59 million; expenditures $3.6 million, including capital expenditures of NA (1983 est.)

Exports: $1.0 million (f.o.b., 1983 est.); commodities–copra; partners–Fiji, Australia, NZ

Imports: $2.8 million (c.i.f., 1983 est.); commodities–food, animals, mineral fuels, machinery, manufactured goods; partners–Fiji, Australia, NZ

External debt: $NA

Industrial production: growth rate NA

Electricity: 2,600 kW capacity; 3 million kWh produced, 350 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: fishing, tourism, copra

Agriculture: coconuts, copra

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-87), $1 million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $84 million

Currency: Tuvaluan dollar and Australian dollar (plural–dollars); 1 Tuvaluan dollar ($T) or 1 Australian dollar ($A) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Tuvaluan dollars ($T) or Australian dollars ($A) per US$1–1.2784 (January 1990), 1.2618 (1989), 1.2752 (1988), 1.4267 (1987), 1.4905 (1986), 1.4269 (1985)

Fiscal year: NA

Communications Highways: 8 km gravel

Ports: Funafuti, Nukufetau

Merchant marine: 1 passenger-cargo (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,043 GRT/450 DWT

Civil air: no major transport aircraft

Airports: 1 with runway 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: stations–1 AM, no FM, no TV; 300 radiotelephones; 4,000 radio receivers; 108 telephones

Defense Forces Branches: NA

Military manpower: NA

Defense expenditures: NA .pa Uganda Geography Total area: 236,040 km2; land area: 199,710 km2

Comparative area: slightly smaller than Oregon

Land boundaries: 2,698 km total; Kenya 933 km, Rwanda 169 km, Sudan 435 km, Tanzania 396 km, Zaire 765 km

Coastline: none–landlocked

Maritime claims: none–landlocked

Climate: tropical; generally rainy with two dry seasons (December to February, June to August); semiarid in northeast

Terrain: mostly plateau with rim of mountains

Natural resources: copper, cobalt, limestone, salt

Land use: 23% arable land; 9% permanent crops; 25% meadows and pastures; 30% forest and woodland; 13% other; includes NEGL% irrigated

Environment: straddles Equator; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion

Note: landlocked

People Population: 17,960,262 (July 1990), growth rate 3.5% (1990)

Birth rate: 52 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 17 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 107 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 48 years male, 50 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 7.4 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun–Ugandan(s); adjective–Ugandan

Ethnic divisions: 99% African, 1% European, Asian, Arab

Religion: 33% Roman Catholic, 33% Protestant, 16% Muslim, rest indigenous beliefs

Language: English (official); Luganda and Swahili widely used; other Bantu and Nilotic languages

Literacy: 57.3%

Labor force: 4,500,000 (est.); 94% subsistence activities, 6% wage earners (est.); 50% of population of working age (1983)

Organized labor: 125,000 union members

Government Long-form name: Republic of Uganda

Type: republic

Capital: Kampala

Administrative divisions: 10 provinces; Busoga, Central, Eastern, Karamoja, Nile, North Buganda, Northern, South Buganda, Southern, Western

Independence: 9 October 1962 (from UK)

Constitution: 8 September 1967, suspended following coup of 27 July 1985; in process of constitutional revision

Legal system: government plans to restore system based on English common law and customary law and reinstitute a normal judicial system; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

National holiday: Independence Day, 9 October (1962)

Executive branch: president, prime minister, three deputy prime ministers, Cabinet

Legislative branch: unicameral National Resistance Council

Judicial branch: Court of Appeal, High Court

Leaders: Chief of State–President Lt. Gen. Yoweri Kaguta MUSEVENI (since 29 January 1986);

Head of Government–Prime Minister Samson Babi Mululu KISEKKA (since 30 January 1986); First Deputy Prime Minister Eriya KATEGAYA (since NA)

Political parties and leaders: only party–National Resistance Movement (NRM); note–the Uganda Patriotic Movement (UPM), Ugandan People's Congress (UPC), Democratic Party (DP), and Conservative Party (CP) are all proscribed from conducting public political activities

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections: National Resistance Council–last held 11-28 February 1989 (next to be held after January 1995); results–NRM is the only party; seats–(278 total, 210 indirectly elected) NRM 210

Other political parties or pressure groups: Uganda People's Democratic Movement (UPDM), Uganda People's Front (UPF), Uganda Freedom Movement (UFM), Holy Spirit Movement (HSM)

Communists: possibly a few sympathizers

Member of: ACP, AfDB, CCC, Commonwealth, FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAC, ICAO, ICO, IDA, IDB–Islamic Development Bank, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, ISO, ITU, NAM, OAU, OIC, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Stephen Kapimpina KATENTA-APULI; 5909 16th Street NW, Washington DC 20011; telephone (202) 726-7100 through 7102; US–Ambassador John A. BURROUGHS, Jr.; Embassy at British High Commission Building, Obote Avenue, Kampala (mailing address is P. O. Box 7007, Kampala); telephone Õ256å (41) 259791

Flag: six equal horizonal bands of black (top), yellow, red, black, yellow, and red; a white disk is superimposed at the center and depicts a red-crested crane (the national symbol) facing the staff side

Economy Overview: Uganda has substantial natural resources, including fertile soils, regular rainfall, and sizable mineral deposits of copper and cobalt. For most of the past 15 years the economy has been devastated by political instability, mismanagement, and civil war, keeping Uganda poor with a per capita income of about $300. (GDP remains below the levels of the early 1970s, as does industrial production.) Agriculture is the most important sector of the economy, employing over 80% of the work force. Coffee is the major export crop and accounted for 97% of export revenues in 1988. Since 1986 the government has acted to rehabilitate and stabilize the economy by undertaking currency reform, raising producer prices on export crops, increasing petroleum prices, and improving civil service wages. The policy changes are especially aimed at dampening inflation, which was running at over 300% in 1987, and boosting production and export earnings.

GDP: $4.9 billion, per capita $300 (1988); real growth rate 6.1% (1989 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 72% (FY89)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues $365 million; expenditures $545 million, including capital expenditures of $165 million (FY89 est.)

Exports: $272 million (f.o.b., 1988); commodities–coffee 97%, cotton, tea; partners–US 25%, UK 18%, France 11%, Spain 10%

Imports: $626 million (c.i.f., 1988); commodities–petroleum products, machinery, cotton piece goods, metals, transportation equipment, food; partners–Kenya 25%, UK 14%, Italy 13%

External debt: $1.4 billion (1989 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate 25.1% (1988)

Electricity: 173,000 kW capacity; 312 million kWh produced, 18 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: sugar, brewing, tobacco, cotton textiles, cement

Agriculture: accounts for 57% of GDP and 83% of labor force; cash crops–coffee, tea, cotton, tobacco; food crops–cassava, potatoes, corn, millet, pulses; livestock products–beef, goat meat, milk, poultry; self-sufficient in food

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (1970-88), $123 million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $1.0 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $60 million; Communist countries (1970-88), $140 million

Currency: Ugandan shilling (plural–shillings); 1 Ugandan shilling (USh) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Ugandan shillings (USh) per US$1–370 (December 1989), 223.09 (1989), 106.14 (1988), 42.84 (1987), 14.00 (1986), 6.72 (1985)

Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June

Communications Railroads: 1,300 km, 1.000-meter-gauge single track

Highways: 26,200 km total; 1,970 km paved; 5,849 km crushed stone, gravel, and laterite; remainder earth roads and tracks

Inland waterways: Lake Victoria, Lake Albert, Lake Kyoga, Lake George, Lake Edward; Victoria Nile, Albert Nile; principal inland water ports are at Jinja and Port Bell, both on Lake Victoria

Merchant marine: 1 roll-on/roll-off cargo (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,697 GRT

Civil air: 4 major transport aircraft

Airports: 39 total, 30 usable; 5 with permanent-surface runways; 1 with runways over 3,659 m; 3 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 10 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: fair system with radio relay and radio communications stations; 61,600 telephones; stations–10 AM, no FM, 9 TV; satellite earth stations–1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT and 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT

Defense Forces Branches: National Resistance Army (NRA)

Military manpower: males 15-49, about 3,836,921; about 2,084,813 fit for military service

Defense expenditures: 1.4% of GDP (1985) .pa United Arab Emirates Geography Total area: 83,600 km2; land area: 83,600 km2

Comparative area: slightly smaller than Maine

Land boundaries: 1,016 km total; Oman 410 km, Saudi Arabia 586 km, Qatar 20 km

Coastline: 1,448 km

Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: defined by bilateral boundaries or equidistant line

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 3 nm

Disputes: boundary with Qatar is in dispute; no defined boundary with Saudi Arabia; no defined boundary with most of Oman, but Administrative Line in far north; claims three islands in the Persian Gulf occupied by Iran (Jazireh-ye Abu Musa or Abu Musa, Jazireh-ye Tonb-e Bozorg or Greater Tunb, and Jazireh-ye Tonb-e Kuchek or Lesser Tunb)

Climate: desert; cooler in eastern mountains

Terrain: flat, barren coastal plain merging into rolling sand dunes of vast desert wasteland; mountains in east

Natural resources: crude oil and natural gas

Land use: NEGL% arable land; NEGL% permanent crops; 2% meadows and pastures; NEGL% forest and woodland; 98% other; includes NEGL% irrigated

Environment: frequent dust and sand storms; lack of natural freshwater resources being overcome by desalination plants; desertification

Note: strategic location along southern approaches to Strait of Hormuz, a vital transit point for world crude oil

People Population: 2,253,624 (July 1990), growth rate 6.0% (1990)

Birth rate: 31 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 3 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 33 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 24 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 69 years male, 73 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 4.9 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun–Emirian(s), adjective–Emirian

Ethnic divisions: 19% Emirian, 23% other Arab, 50% South Asian (fluctuating), 8% other expatriates (includes Westerners and East Asians); less than 20% of the population are UAE citizens (1982)

Religion: 96% Muslim (16% Shia); 4% Christian, Hindu, and other

Language: Arabic (official); Farsi and English widely spoken in major cities; Hindi, Urdu

Literacy: 68%

Labor force: 580,000 (1986 est.); 85% industry and commerce, 5% agriculture, 5% services, 5% government; 80% of labor force is foreign

Organized labor: trade unions are illegal

Government Long-form name: United Arab Emirates (no short-form name); abbreviated UAE

Type: federation with specified powers delegated to the UAE central government and other powers reserved to member shaykhdoms

Capital: Abu Dhabi

Administrative divisions: 7 emirates (imarat, singular–imarah); Abu Zaby, Ajman, Al Fujayrah, Ash Shariqah, Dubayy, Ras al Khaymah, Umm al Qaywayn

Independence: 2 December 1971 (from UK; formerly Trucial States)

Constitution: 2 December 1971 (provisional)

Legal system: secular codes are being introduced by the UAE Government and in several member shaykhdoms; Islamic law remains influential

National holiday: National Day, 2 December (1971)

Executive branch: president, vice president, Supreme Council of Rulers, prime minister, Council of Ministers

Legislative branch: unicameral Federal National Council

Judicial branch: Union Supreme Court

Leaders: Chief of State–President Shaykh Zayid bin Sultan Al NUHAYYAN of Abu Dhabi (since 2 December 1971); Vice President Shaykh Rashid bin Said Al MAKTUM of Dubayy (since 2 December 1971;

Head of Government–Prime Minister Shaykh Rashid bin Said Al MAKTUM of Dubayy (Prime Minister since 30 April 1979); Deputy Prime Minister Maktum bin Rashid al MAKTUM (since 2 December 1971)

Political parties and leaders: none

Suffrage: none

Elections: none

Communists: NA

Other political or pressure groups: a few small clandestine groups are active

Member of: Arab League, CCC, FAO, G-77, GATT (de facto), GCC, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDB–Islamic Development Bank, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, ITU, NAM, OAPEC, OIC, OPEC, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WTO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Abdullah bin Zayed AL-NAHAYYAN; Chancery at Suite 740, 600 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington DC 20037; telephone (202) 338-6500; US–Ambassador Edward S. WALKER, Jr.; Embassy at Al-Sudan Street, Abu Dhabi (mailing address is P. O. Box 4009, Abu Dhabi); telephone Õ971å (2) 336691; there is a US Consulate General in Dubai

Flag: three equal horizontal bands of green (top), white, and black with a thicker vertical red band on the hoist side

Economy Overview: The UAE has an open economy with one of the world's higher levels of income per capita. This wealth is based on oil and gas, and the fortunes of the economy fluctuate with the prices of those commodities. Since 1973, when petroleum prices shot up, the UAE has undergone a profound transformation from an impoverished region of small desert principalities to a modern state with a high standard of living. At present levels of production, crude oil reserves should last for over 100 years.

GNP: $23.3 billion, per capita $11,680; real growth rate - 2.1% (1988)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 5-6% (1988 est.)

Unemployment rate: NEGL (1988)

Budget: revenues $3.5 billion; expenditures $4.0 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1989 est.)

Exports: $10.6 billion (f.o.b., 1988 est.); commodities–crude oil 75%, natural gas, reexports, dried fish, dates; partners–US, EC, Japan

Imports: $8.5 billion (c.i.f., 1988 est.); commodities–food, consumer and capital goods; partners–EC, Japan, US

External debt: $11.0 billion (December 1989 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate - 9.3% (1986)

Electricity: 5,590,000 kW capacity; 15,000 million kWh produced, 7,090 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: petroleum, fishing, petrochemicals, construction materials, some boat building, handicrafts, pearling

Agriculture: accounts for 1% of GNP and 5% of labor force; cash crop–dates; food products–vegetables, watermelons, poultry, eggs, dairy, fish; only 25% self-sufficient in food

Aid: donor–pledged $9.1 billion in bilateral aid to less developed countries (1979-89)

Currency: Emirian dirham (plural–dirhams); 1 Emirian dirham (Dh) = 100 fils

Exchange rates: Emirian dirhams (Dh) per US$1–3.6710 (fixed rate)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications Highways: 2,000 km total; 1,800 km bituminous, 200 km gravel and graded earth

Pipelines: 830 km crude oil; 870 km natural gas, including natural gas liquids

Ports: Al Fujayrah, Khawr Fakkan, Mina Jabal Ali, Mina Khalid, Mina Rashid, Mina Saqr, Mina Zayid

Merchant marine: 47 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 728,332 GRT/1,181,566 DWT; includes 14 cargo, 7 container, 2 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 20 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 4 bulk

Civil air: 8 major transport aircraft

Airports: 40 total, 34 usable; 19 with permanent-surface runways; 8 with runways over 3,659 m; 5 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 4 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: adequate system of radio relay and coaxial cable; key centers are Abu Dhabi and Dubayy; 386,600 telephones; stations–8 AM, 3 FM, 12 TV; satellite earth stations–1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT, 2 Indian Ocean INTELSAT and 1 ARABSAT; submarine cables to Qatar, Bahrain, India, and Pakistan; tropospheric scatter to Bahrain; radio relay to Saudi Arabia

Defense Forces Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Central Military Command, Federal Police Force

Military manpower: males 15-49, 904,690; 498,082 fit for military service

Defense expenditures: $1.59 billion (1987) .pa United Kingdom Geography Total area: 244,820 km2; land area: 241,590 km2; includes Rockall and Shetland Islands

Comparative area: slightly smaller than Oregon

Land boundary: Ireland 360 km

Coastline: 12,429 km

Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: 200 meters or to depth of exploitation or in accordance with agreed upon boundaries;

Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Disputes: maritime boundary with Ireland; Northern Ireland question with Ireland; Gibraltar question with Spain; Argentina claims Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas); Argentina claims South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands; Mauritius claims island of Diego Garcia in British Indian Ocean Territory; Hong Kong is scheduled to become a Special Administrative Region of China in 1997; Rockall continental shelf dispute involving Denmark, Iceland, and Ireland (Ireland and the UK have signed a boundary agreement in the Rockall area); territorial claim in Antarctica (British Antarctic Territory)

Climate: temperate; moderated by prevailing southwest winds over the North Atlantic Current; more than half of the days are overcast

Terrain: mostly rugged hills and low mountains; level to rolling plains in east and southeast

Natural resources: coal, crude oil, natural gas, tin, limestone, iron ore, salt, clay, chalk, gypsum, lead, silica

Land use: 29% arable land; NEGL% permanent crops; 48% meadows and pastures; 9% forest and woodland; 14% other; includes 1% irrigated

Environment: pollution control measures improving air, water quality; because of heavily indented coastline, no location is more than 125 km from tidal waters

Note: lies near vital North Atlantic sea lanes; only 35 km from France

People Population: 57,365,665 (July 1990), growth rate 0.3% (1990)

Birth rate: 14 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 11 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 7 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 73 years male, 79 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 1.8 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun–Briton(s), British (collective pl.); adjective–British

Ethnic divisions: 81.5% English, 9.6% Scottish, 2.4% Irish, 1.9% Welsh, 1.8% Ulster, 2.8% West Indian, Indian, Pakistani, and other

Religion: 27.0 million Anglican, 5.3 million Roman Catholic, 2.0 million Presbyterian, 760,000 Methodist, 410,000 Jewish

Language: English, Welsh (about 26% of population of Wales), Scottish form of Gaelic (about 60,000 in Scotland)

Literacy: 99%

Labor force: 28,120,000; 53.3% services, 23.6% manufacturing and construction, 10.8% self-employed, 6.8% government, 1.0% agriculture (1988)

Organized labor: 37% of labor force (1987)

Government Long-form name: United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland; abbreviated UK

Type: constitutional monarchy

Capital: London

Administrative divisions: 47 counties, 7 metropolitan counties, 26 districts, 9 regions, and 3 islands areas

England–39 counties, 7 metropolitan counties*; Avon, Bedford, Berkshire, Buckingham, Cambridge, Cheshire, Cleveland, Cornwall, Cumbria, Derby, Devon, Dorset, Durham, East Sussex, Essex, Gloucester, Greater London*, Greater Manchester*, Hampshire, Hereford and Worcester, Hertford, Humberside, Isle of Wight, Kent, Lancashire, Leicester, Lincoln, Merseyside*, Norfolk, Northampton, Northumberland, North Yorkshire, Nottingham, Oxford, Shropshire, Somerset, South Yorkshire*, Stafford, Suffolk, Surrey, Tyne and Wear*, Warwick, West Midlands*, West Sussex, West Yorkshire*, Wiltshire

Northern Ireland–26 districts; Antrim, Ards, Armagh, Ballymena, Ballymoney, Banbridge, Belfast, Carrickfergus, Castlereagh, Coleraine, Cookstown, Craigavon, Down, Dungannon, Fermanagh, Larne, Limavady, Lisburn, Londonderry, Magherafelt, Moyle, Newry and Mourne, Newtownabbey, North Down, Omagh, Strabane

Scotland–9 regions, 3 islands areas*; Borders, Central, Dumfries and Galloway, Fife, Grampian, Highland, Lothian, Orkney*, Shetland*, Strathclyde, Tayside, Western Isles*

Wales–8 counties; Clwyd, Dyfed, Gwent, Gwynedd, Mid Glamorgan, Powys, South Glamorgan, West Glamorgan

Independence: 1 January 1801, United Kingdom established

Constitution: unwritten; partly statutes, partly common law and practice

Dependent areas: Anguilla, Bermuda, British Indian Ocean Territory, British Virgin Islands, Cayman Islands, Falkland Islands, Gibraltar, Guernsey, Hong Kong (scheduled to become a Special Administrative Region of China in 1997), Jersey, Isle of Man, Montserrat, Pitcairn Islands, St. Helena, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, Turks and Caicos Islands

Legal system: common law tradition with early Roman and modern continental influences; no judicial review of Acts of Parliament; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

National holiday: Celebration of the Birthday of the Queen (second Saturday in June), 10 June 1989

Executive branch: monarch, prime minister, Cabinet

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament consists of an upper house or House of Lords and a lower house or House of Commons

Judicial branch: House of Lords

Leaders: Chief of State–Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); Heir Apparent Prince CHARLES (son of the Queen, born 14 November 1948);

Head of Government–Prime Minister Margaret THATCHER (since 4 May 1979); Deputy Prime Minister Geoffrey HOWE (since 24 July 1989)

Political parties and leaders: Conservative, Margaret Thatcher; Labour, Neil Kinnock; Social Democratic, David Owen (disbanded 3 June 1990); Social and Liberal Democratic Party, Jeremy (Paddy) Ashdown; Communist, Nina Temple; Scottish National, Gordon Wilson; Plaid Cymru, Dafydd Thomas; Ulster Unionist, James Molyneaux; Democratic Unionist, Ian Paisley; Social Democratic and Labour, John Hume; Provisional Sinn Fein, Gerry Adams; Alliance/Northern Ireland

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections: House of Commons–last held 11 June 1987 (next to be held by June 1992); results–Conservative 43%, Labour 32%, Social and Liberal Democratic Party 23%, others 2%; seats–(650 total) Conservative 376, Labour 228, Social and Liberal Democratic Party 18, Ulster (Official) Unionist (Northern Ireland) 9, Social Democratic Party 4, Scottish National Party 4, Plaid Cymru (Welsh Nationalist) 3, Ulster Democratic Unionist (Northern Ireland) 3, Social Democratic and Labour (Northern Ireland) 3, Ulster Popular Unionist (Northern Ireland) 1, Sinn Fein (Northern Ireland) 1

Communists: 15,961

Other political or pressure groups: Trades Union Congress, Confederation of British Industry, National Farmers' Union, Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament

Member of: ADB, CCC, Colombo Plan, Council of Europe, DAC, EC, ESCAP, ESA, FAO, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAC, ICAO, ICES, ICO, IDA, IDB–Inter-American Development Bank, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IHO, ILO, ILZSG, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOOC, IPU, IRC, ISO, ITC, ITU, IWC–International Whaling Commission, IWC–International Wheat Council, NATO, OECD, UN, UPU, WEU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WSG

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Sir Antony ACLAND; Chancery at 3100 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202) 462-1340; there are British Consulates General in Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Cleveland, Houston, Los Angeles, New York, and San Francisco, and Consulates in Dallas, Miami, and Seattle; US–Ambassador Henry E. CATTO; Embassy at 24/31 Grosvenor Square, London, W.1A1AE, (mailing address is Box 40, FPO New York 09509); telephone Õ44å (01) 499-9000; there are US Consulates General in Belfast and Edinburgh

Flag: blue with the red cross of St. George (patron saint of England) edged in white superimposed on the diagonal red cross of St. Patrick (patron saint of Ireland) which is superimposed on the diagonal white cross of St. Andrew (patron saint of Scotland); known as the Union Flag or Union Jack; the design and colors (especially the Blue Ensign) have been the basis for a number of other flags including dependencies, Commonwealth countries, and others

Economy Overview: The UK is one of the world's great trading powers and financial centers, and its economy ranks among the four largest in Europe. The economy is essentially capitalistic with a generous admixture of social welfare programs and government ownership. Over the last decade the Thatcher government has halted the expansion of welfare measures and has promoted extensive reprivatization of the government economic sector. Agriculture is intensive, highly mechanized, and efficient by European standards, producing about 60% of food needs with only 1% of the labor force. Industry is a mixture of public and private enterprises, employing about 24% of the work force and generating 22% of GDP. The UK is an energy-rich nation with large coal, natural gas, and oil reserves; primary energy production accounts for 12% of GDP, one of the highest shares of any industrial nation. Following the recession of 1979-81, the economy has enjoyed the longest period of continuous economic growth it has had during the last 30 years. During the period 1982-89 real GDP grew by about 25%, while the inflation rate of 14% was nearly halved. Between 1986 and 1989 unemployment fell from 11% to about 6%. As a major trading nation, the UK will continue to be greatly affected by: world boom or recession; swings in the international oil market; productivity trends in domestic industry; and the terms on which the economic integration of Europe proceeds.

GDP: $818.0 billion, per capita $14,300; real growth rate 2.3% (1989 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 7.8% (1989)

Unemployment rate: 6.4% (1989)

Budget: revenues $348.7 billion; expenditures $327.8 billion, including capital expenditures of $42.0 billion (FY89)

Exports: $151.0 billion (f.o.b., 1989); commodities–manufactured goods, machinery, fuels, chemicals, semifinished goods, transport equipment; partners–EC 50.4% (FRG 11.7%, France 10.2%, Netherlands 6.8%), US 13.0%, Communist countries 2.3%

Imports: $189.2 billion (c.i.f., 1989); commodities–manufactured goods, machinery, semifinished goods, foodstuffs, consumer goods; partners–EC 52.5% (FRG 16.6%, France 8.8%, Netherlands 7.8%), US 10.2%, Communist countries 2.1%

External debt: $15.7 billion (1988)

Industrial production: growth rate 0.9% (1989)

Electricity: 98,000,000 kW capacity; 361,990 million kWh produced, 6,350 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: machinery and transportation equipment, metals, food processing, paper and paper products, textiles, chemicals, clothing, other consumer goods, motor vehicles, aircraft, shipbuilding, petroleum, coal

Agriculture: accounts for only 1.5% of GNP and 1% of labor force; highly mechanized and efficient farms; wide variety of crops and livestock products produced; about 60% self-sufficient in food and feed needs; fish catch of 665,000 metric tons (1987)

Aid: donor–ODA and OOF commitments (1970-87), $18.9 billion

Currency: British pound or pound sterling (plural–pounds); 1 British pound (L) = 100 pence

Exchange rates: British pounds (L) per US$1–0.6055 (January 1990), 0.6099 (1989) 0.5614 (1988), 0.6102 (1987), 0.6817 (1986), 0.7714 (1985)

Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March

Communications Railroads: Great Britain–16,629 km total; British Railways (BR) operates 16,629 km 1.435-meter standard gauge (4,205 km electrified and 12,591 km double or multiple track); several additional small standard-gauge and narrow-gauge lines are privately owned and operated; Northern Ireland Railways (NIR) operates 332 km 1.600-meter gauge, 190 km double track

Highways: UK, 362,982 km total; Great Britain, 339,483 km paved (including 2,573 km limited-access divided highway); Northern Ireland, 23,499 km (22,907 paved, 592 km gravel)

Inland waterways: 2,291 total; British Waterways Board, 606 km; Port Authorities, 706 km; other, 979 km

Pipelines: 933 km crude oil, almost all insignificant; 2,993 km refined products; 12,800 km natural gas

Ports: London, Liverpool, Felixstowe, Tees and Hartlepool, Dover, Sullom Voe, Southampton

Merchant marine: 285 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 6,174,142GRT/9,024,090 DWT; includes 7 passenger, 22 short-sea passenger, 44 cargo, 44 container, 21 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 9 refrigerated cargo, 1 vehicle carrier, 1 railcar carrier, 78 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 4 chemical tanker, 5 liquefied gas, 2 combination ore/oil, 1 specialized tanker, 45 bulk, 1 combination bulk

Civil air: 618 major transport aircraft

Airports: 522 total, 379 usable; 245 with permanent-surface runways; 1 with runways over 3,659 m; 37 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 132 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: modern, efficient domestic and international system; 30,200,000 telephones; excellent countrywide broadcast systems; stations–223 AM, 165 (396 relays) FM, 205 (3,210 relays) TV; 38 coaxial submarine cables; communication satellite earth stations operating in INTELSAT (7 Atlantic Ocean and 3 Indian Ocean), MARISAT, and EUTELSAT systems

Defense Forces Branches: Royal Navy (includes Royal Marines), Army, Royal Air Force

Military manpower: males 15-49, 14,462,993; 12,180,580 fit for military service; no conscription

Defense expenditures: 4.3% of GDP, or $35 billion (1989 est.) .pa United States Geography Total area: 9,372,610 km2; land area: 9,166,600 km2; includes only the 50 states and District of Colombia

Comparative area: about four-tenths the size of USSR; about one-third the size of Africa; about one-half the size of South America (or slightly larger than Brazil); slightly smaller than China; about two and one-half times the size of Western Europe

Land boundaries: 12,248.1 km total; Canada 8,893 km (including 2,477 km with Alaska), Mexico 3,326 km, Cuba (US naval base at Guantanamo) 29.1 km

Coastline: 19,924 km

Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 12 nm;

Continental shelf: not specified;

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Disputes: maritime boundary disputes with Canada; US Naval Base at Guantanamo is leased from Cuba and only mutual agreement or US abandonment of the area can terminate the lease; Haiti claims Navassa Island; has made no territorial claim in Antarctica (but has reserved the right to do so) and does not recognize the claims of any other nation

Climate: mostly temperate, but varies from tropical (Hawaii) to arctic (Alaska); arid to semiarid in west with occasional warm, dry chinook wind

Terrain: vast central plain, mountains in west, hills and low mountains in east; rugged mountains and broad river valleys in Alaska; rugged, volcanic topography in Hawaii

Natural resources: coal, copper, lead, molybdenum, phosphates, uranium, bauxite, gold, iron, mercury, nickel, potash, silver, tungsten, zinc, crude oil, natural gas, timber

Land use: 20% arable land; NEGL% permanent crops; 26% meadows and pastures; 29% forest and woodland; 25% other; includes 2% irrigated

Environment: pollution control measures improving air and water quality; acid rain; agricultural fertilizer and pesticide pollution; management of sparse natural water resources in west; desertification; tsunamis, volcanoes, and earthquake activity around Pacific Basin; continuous permafrost in northern Alaska is a major impediment to development

Note: world's fourth-largest country (after USSR, Canada, and China)

People Population: 250,410,000 (July 1990), growth rate 0.9% (1990)

Birth rate: 15 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 9 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 2 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 10 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 73 years male, 80 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 1.9 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun–American(s); adjective–American

Ethnic divisions: 85% white, 12% black, 3% other (1985)

Religion: Protestant 61% (Baptist 21%, Methodist 12%, Lutheran 8%, Presbyterian 4%, Episcopalian 3%, other Protestant 13%), Roman Catholic 25%, Jewish 2%, other 5%; none 7%

Language: predominantly English; sizable Spanish-speaking minority

Literacy: 99%

Labor force: 125,557,000 (includes armed forces and unemployed); civilian labor force 123,869,000 (1989)

Organized labor: 16,960,000 members; 16.4% of labor force (1989)

Government Long-form name: United States of America; abbreviated US or USA

Type: federal republic; strong democratic tradition

Capital: Washington, DC

Administrative divisions: 50 states and 1 district*; Alabama, Alaska, Arizona, Arkansas, California, Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, District of Columbia*, Florida, Georgia, Hawaii, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennyslvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Vermont, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia, Wisconsin, Wyoming

Independence: 4 July 1776 (from England)

Constitution: 17 September 1787, effective 4 June 1789

Dependent areas: American Samoa, Baker Island, Guam, Howland Island; Jarvis Island, Johnston Atoll, Kingman Reef, Midway Islands, Navassa Island, Palmyra Atoll, Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands, Wake Island. Since 18 July 1947, the US has administered the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, but recently entered into a new political relationship with three of the four political units. The Northern Mariana Islands is a Commonwealth associated with the US (effective 3 November 1986). Palau concluded a Compact of Free Association with the US that was approved by the US Congress but to date the Compact process has not been completed in Palau, which continues to be administered by the US as the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands. The Federated States of Micronesia signed a Compact of Free Association with the US (effective 3 November 1986). The Republic of the Marshall Islands signed a Compact of Free Association with the US (effective 21 October 1986).

Legal system: based on English common law; judicial review of legislative acts; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

National holiday: Independence Day, 4 July (1776)

Executive branch: president, vice president, Cabinet

Legislative branch: bicameral Congress consists of an upper house or Senate and a lower house or House of Representatives

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Leaders: Chief of State and Head of Government–President George BUSH (since 20 January 1989); Vice President Dan QUAYLE (since 20 January 1989)

Political parties and leaders: Republican Party, Lee Atwater, national committee chairman and Jeanie Austin, co-chairman; Democratic Party, Ronald H. Brown, national committee chairman; several other groups or parties of minor political significance

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections: President–last held 8 November 1988 (next to be held 3 November 1992); results–George Bush (Republican Party) 53.37%, Michael Dukakis (Democratic Party) 45.67%, others 0.96%;

Senate–last held 8 November 1988 (next to be held 6 November 1990); results–Democratic Party 52.1%, Republican Party 46.2%, others 1.7%; seats–(100 total) Democratic Party 55, Republican Party 45;

House of Representatives–last held 8 November 1988 (next to be held 6 November 1990); results–Democratic Party 53.2%, Republican Party 45.3%, others 1.5%; seats–(435 total) Democratic Party 259, Republican Party 174, vacant 2

Communists: Communist Party (claimed 15,000-20,000 members), Gus Hall, general secretary; Socialist Workers Party (claimed 1,800 members), Jack Barnes, national secretary

Member of: ADB, ANZUS, CCC, Colombo Plan, DAC, FAO, ESCAP, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAC, ICAO, ICEM, ICES, ICO, IDA, IDB–Inter-American Development Bank, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IHO, ILO, ILZSG, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IPU, IRC, ITC, ITU, IWC–International Whaling Commission, IWC–International Wheat Council, NATO, OAS, OECD, PAHO, SPC, UN, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WSG, WTO

Diplomatic representation: US Representative to the UN, Ambassador Thomas R. PICKERING; Mission at 799 United Nations Plaza, New York, NY 10017; telephone (212) 415-4444

Flag: thirteen equal horizontal stripes of red (top and bottom) alternating with white; there is a blue rectangle in the upper hoist-side corner bearing 50 small white five-pointed stars arranged in nine offset horizontal rows of six stars (top and bottom) alternating with rows of five stars; the 50 stars represent the 50 states, the 13 stripes represent the 13 original colonies; known as Old Glory; the design and colors have been the basis for a number of other flags including Chile, Liberia, Malaysia, and Puerto Rico

Economy Overview: The US has the most powerful and diversified economy in the world, with a per capita GNP of over $21,000, the largest among the major industrial nations. In 1989 the economy entered its eighth successive year of growth, the longest in peacetime history. The expansion has featured continued moderation in wage and consumer price increases, an unemployment rate of 5.2%, (the lowest in 10 years), and an inflation rate of 4.8%. On the negative side, the US enters the 1990s with massive budget and trade deficits, huge and rapidly rising medical costs, and inadequate investment in industrial capacity and economic infrastructure.

GNP: $5,233.3 billion, per capita $21,082; real growth rate 2.9% (1989)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 4.8% (1989)

Unemployment rate: 5.2% (1989)

Budget: revenues $976 billion; expenditures $1,137 billion, including capital expenditures of NA (FY89 est.)

Exports: $322.3 billion (f.o.b., 1988); commodities–capital goods, automobiles, industrial supplies and raw materials, consumer goods, agricultural products; partners–Canada 22.9%, Japan 11.8% (1988)

Imports: $440.9 billion (c.i.f., 1988); commodities–crude and partly refined petroleum, machinery, automobiles, consumer goods, industrial raw materials, food and beverages; partners–Japan 19.6% , Canada 19.1% (1988)

External debt: $532 billion (December 1988)

Industrial production: growth rate 3.3% (1989)

Electricity: 776,550,000 kW capacity; 2,958,300 million kWh produced, 11,920 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: leading industrial power in the world, highly diversified; petroleum, steel, motor vehicles, aerospace, telecommunications, chemicals, electronics, food processing, consumer goods, fishing, lumber, mining

Agriculture: accounts for 2% of GNP and 2.8% of labor force; favorable climate and soils support a wide variety of crops and livestock production; world's second-largest producer and number-one exporter of grain; surplus food producer; fish catch of 5.7 million metric tons (1987)

Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis for domestic consumption with 1987 production estimated at 3,500 metric tons or about 25% of the available marijuana; ongoing eradication program aimed at small plots and greenhouses has not reduced production

Aid: donor–commitments, including Ex-Im (FY80-88), $90.5 billion

Currency: United States dollar (plural–dollars); 1 United States dollar (US$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: British pounds (L) per US$–0.6055 (January 1990), 0.6099 (1989), 0.5614 (1988), 0.6102 (1987), 0.6817 (1986), 0.7714 (1985);

Canadian dollars (Can$) per US$–1.1885 (February 1990), 1.2307 (1988), 1.3260 (1987), 1.3895 (1986);

French francs (F) per US$–5.695 (February 1990), 5.9569 (1988), 6.0107 (1987), 6.9261 (1986), 8.9852 (1985);

Italian lire (Lit) per US$–1,244.8 (February 1990), 1,301.6 (1988), 1,296.1 (1987), 1,490.8 (1986), 1,909.4 (1985);

Japanese yen (Y) per US$–145.55 (February 1990), 128.15 (1988), 144.64 (1987), 168.52 (1986), 238.54 (1985);

FRG deutsche marks (DM) per US$–1.6775 (February 1990), 1.7562 (1988), 1.7974 (1987), 2.1715 (1986), 2.9440 (1985)

Fiscal year: 1 October-30 September

Communications Railroads: 270,312 km

Highways: 6,365,590 km, including 88,641 km expressways

Inland waterways: 41,009 km of navigable inland channels, exclusive of the Great Lakes (est.)

Pipelines: 275,800 km petroleum, 305,300 km natural gas (1985)

Ports: Anchorage, Baltimore, Beaumont, Boston, Charleston, Cleveland, Duluth, Freeport, Galveston, Hampton Roads, Honolulu, Houston, Jacksonville, Long Beach, Los Angeles, Milwaukee, Mobile, New Orleans, New York, Philadelphia, Portland (Oregon), Richmond (California), San Francisco, Savannah, Seattle, Tampa, Wilmington

Merchant marine: 373 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling NA GRT/NA DWT); includes 2 passenger-cargo, 37 cargo, 22 bulk, 165 tanker, 13 tanker tug-barge, 10 liquefied gas, 124 intermodal; in addition there are 248 government-owned vessels

Civil air: 3,297 commercial multiengine transport aircraft, including 2,989 jet, 231 turboprop, 77 piston (1985)

Airports: 15,422 in operation (1981)

Telecommunications: 182,558,000 telephones; stations–4,892 AM, 5,200 FM (including 3,915 commercial and 1,285 public broadcasting), 7,296 TV (including 796 commercial, 300 public broadcasting, and 6,200 commercial cable); 495,000,000 radio receivers (1982); 150,000,000 TV sets (1982); satellite earth stations–45 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT and 16 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT

Defense Forces Branches: Department of the Army, Department of the Navy (including Marine Corps), Department of the Air Force

Military manpower: 2,247,000 total; 781,000 Army; 599,000 Air Force; 793,000 Navy (includes 200,000 Marine Corps) (1988)

Defense expenditures: 5.8% of GNP, or $302.8 billion (1989) .pa Uruguay Geography Total area: 176,220 km2; land area: 173,620 km2

Comparative area: slightly smaller than Washington State

Land boundaries: 1,564 km total; Argentina 579 km, Brazil 985 km

Coastline: 660 km

Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: 200 meters or to depth of exploitation;

Territorial sea: 200 nm (overflight and navigation permitted beyond 12 nm)

Disputes: short section of boundary with Argentina is in dispute; two short sections of the boundary with Brazil are in dispute (Arroyo de la Invernada area of the Rio Quarai and the islands at the confluence of the Rio Quarai and the Uruguay)

Climate: warm temperate; freezing temperatures almost unknown

Terrain: mostly rolling plains and low hills; fertile coastal lowland

Natural resources: soil, hydropower potential, minor minerals

Land use: 8% arable land; NEGL% permanent crops; 78% meadows and pastures; 4% forest and woodland; 10% other; includes 1% irrigated

Environment: subject to seasonally high winds, droughts, floods

People Population: 3,036,660 (July 1990), growth rate 0.6% (1990)

Birth rate: 17 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 10 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: - 2 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 22 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 70 years male, 76 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 2.4 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun–Uruguayan(s); adjective–Uruguayan

Ethnic divisions: 88% white, 8% mestizo, 4% black

Religion: 66% Roman Catholic (less than half adult population attends church regularly), 2% Protestant, 2% Jewish, 30% nonprofessing or other

Language: Spanish

Literacy: 94%

Labor force: 1,300,000; 25% government, 19% manufacturing, 11% agriculture, 12% commerce, 12% utilities, construction, transport, and communications, 21% other services (1988 est.)

Organized labor: Interunion Workers' Assembly/National Workers' Confederation (PIT/CNT) Labor Federation

Government Long-form name: Oriental Republic of Uruguay

Type: republic

Capital: Montevideo

Administrative divisions: 19 departments (departamentos, singular–departamento); Artigas, Canelones, Cerro Largo, Colonia, Durazno, Flores, Florida, Lavalleja, Maldonado, Montevideo, Paysandu, Rio Negro, Rivera, Rocha, Salto, San Jose, Soriano, Tacuarembo, Treinta y Tres

Independence: 25 August 1828 (from Brazil)

Constitution: 27 November 1966, effective February 1967, suspended 27 June 1973, new constitution rejected by referendum 30 November 1980

Legal system: based on Spanish civil law system; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: Independence Day, 25 August (1828)

Executive branch: president, vice president, Council of Ministers (cabinet)

Legislative branch: bicameral Congress (Congreso) consists of an upper chamber or Senate (Senado) and a lower chamber or Chamber of Deputies (Camera del Diputados)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Leaders: Chief of State and Head of Government–President Luis Alberto LACALLE (since 1 March 1990); Vice President Gonzalo AGUIRRE (since 1 March 1990)

Political parties and leaders: National (Blanco) Party, Roberto Rubio; Colorado Party; Broad Front Coalition, Liber Seregni includes Communist Party led by Jaime Perez and National Liberation Movement (MLN) or Tupamaros led by Eleuterio Fernandez Huidobro; New Space Coalition consists of the Party of the Government of the People (PGP) led by Hugo Batalla, Christian Democratic Party (PDC), and Civic Union led by Humberto Ciganda

Suffrage: universal and compulsory at age 18

Elections: President–last held 26 November 1989 (next to be held November 1994); results–Luis Lacalle (Blanco) 37%, Jorge Batlle (Colorado) 29%, Liber Seregni (Broad Front) 20%;

Senate–last held 26 November 1989 (next to be held November 1994); results–Blanco 40%, Colorado 30%, Broad Front 23% New Space 7%; seats–(30 total) Blanco 12, Colorado 9, Broad Front 7, New Space 2;

Chamber of Deputies–last held NA November 1989 (next to be held November 1994); results–Blanco 39%, Colorado 30%, Broad Front 22%, New Space 8%, others 1%; seats–(99 total) number of seats by party NA

Communists: 50,000

Member of: CCC, FAO, G-77, GATT, Group of Eight, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDB–Inter-American Development Bank, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IRC, ITU, LAIA, OAS, PAHO, SELA, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WSG

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Juan Podesta PINON; Chancery at 1918 F Street NW, Washington DC 20006; telephone (202) 331-1313 through 1316; there are Uruguayan Consulates General in Los Angeles, Miami, and New York, and a Consulate in New Orleans; US–Ambassador Malcolm R. WILKEY; Embassy at Lauro Muller 1776, Montevideo (mailing address is APO Miami 34035); telephone Õ598å (2) 40-90-51

Flag: nine equal horizontal stripes of white (top and bottom) alternating with blue; there is a white square in the upper hoist-side corner with a yellow sun bearing a human face known as the Sun of May and 16 rays alternately triangular and wavy

Economy Overview: The economy is slowly recovering from the deep recession of 1981-84. In 1986 real GDP grew by 6.6% and in 1987 by 4.9%. The recovery was led by growth in the agriculture and fishing sectors, agriculture alone contributing 20% to GDP, employing about 11% of the labor force, and generating a large proportion of export earnings. Raising livestock, particularly cattle and sheep, is the major agricultural activity. In 1988, despite healthy exports and an improved current account, domestic growth slowed because of government concentration on the external sector, adverse weather conditions, and prolonged strikes. High inflation rates of about 80%, a large domestic debt, and frequent strikes remain major economic problems for the government.

GDP: $8.8 billion, per capita $2,950; real growth rate 1% (1989 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 80% (1989 est.)

Unemployment rate: 9.0% (1989 est.)

Budget: revenues $1.2 billion; expenditures $1.4 billion, including capital expenditures of $165 million (1988)

Exports: $1.5 billion (f.o.b., 1989 est.); commodities–hides and leather goods 17%, beef 10%, wool 9%, fish 7%, rice 4%; partners–Brazil 17%, US 15%, FRG 10%, Argentina 10% (1987)

Imports: $1.1 billion (f.o.b., 1989 est.); commodities–fuels and lubricants 15%, metals, machinery, transportation equipment, industrial chemicals; partners–Brazil 24%, Argentina 14%, US 8%, FRG 8% (1987)

External debt: $6 billion (1988)

Industrial production: growth rate - 2.9% (1988 est.)

Electricity: 1,950,000 kW capacity; 4,330 million kWh produced, 1,450 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: meat processing, wool and hides, sugar, textiles, footwear, leather apparel, tires, cement, fishing, petroleum refining, wine

Agriculture: large areas devoted to extensive livestock grazing; wheat, rice, corn, sorghum; self-sufficient in most basic foodstuffs

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $105 million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $263 million; Communist countries (1970-88), $69 million

Currency: new Uruguayan peso (plural–pesos); 1 new Uruguayan peso (N$Ur) = 100 centesimos

Exchange rates: new Uruguayan pesos (N$Ur) per US$1–832.62 (January 1990), 605.62 (1989), 359.44 (1988), 226.67 (1987), 151.99 (1986), 101.43 (1985)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications Railroads: 3,000 km, all 1.435-meter standard gauge and government owned

Highways: 49,900 km total; 6,700 km paved, 3,000 km gravel, 40,200 km earth

Inland waterways: 1,600 km; used by coastal and shallow-draft river craft

Ports: Montevideo, Punta del Este

Merchant marine: 4 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 65,212 GRT/116,613 DWT; includes 2 cargo, 1 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 1 container

Civil air: 14 major transport aircraft

Airports: 92 total, 87 usable; 16 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways over 3,659 m; 2 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 17 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: most modern facilities concentrated in Montevideo; new nationwide radio relay network; 337,000 telephones; stations–99 AM, no FM, 26 TV, 9 shortwave; 2 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth stations

Defense Forces Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force

Military manpower: males 15-49, 711,700; 580,898 fit for military service; no conscription

Defense expenditures: 2.5% of GDP (1986) .pa Vanuatu Geography Total area: 14,760 km2; land area: 14,760 km2; includes more than 80 islands

Comparative area: slightly larger than Connecticut

Land boundary: none

Coastline: 2,528 km

Maritime claims: (measured from claimed archipelagic baselines);

Contiguous zone: 24 nm;

Continental shelf: edge of continental margin or 200 nm;

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; moderated by southeast trade winds

Terrain: mostly mountains of volcanic origin; narrow coastal plains

Natural resources: manganese, hardwood forests, fish

Land use: 1% arable land; 5% permanent crops; 2% meadows and pastures; 1% forest and woodland; 91% other

Environment: subject to tropical cyclones or typhoons (January to April); volcanism causes minor earthquakes

Note: located 5,750 km southwest of Honolulu in the South Pacific Ocean about three-quarters of the way between Hawaii and Australia

People Population: 165,006 (July 1990), growth rate 3.2% (1990)

Birth rate: 37 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 5 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 36 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 67 years male, 72 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 5.5 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun–Vanuatuan(s); adjective–Vanuatuan

Ethnic divisions: 94% indigenous Melanesian, 4% French, remainder Vietnamese, Chinese, and various Pacific Islanders

Religion: most at least nominally Christian

Language: English and French (official); pidgin (known as Bislama or Bichelama)

Literacy: 10-20% (est.)

Labor force: NA

Organized labor: 7 registered trade unions–largest include Oil and Gas Workers' Union, Vanuatu Airline Workers' Union

Government Long-form name: Republic of Vanuatu

Type: republic

Capital: Port-Vila

Administrative divisions: 11 island councils; Ambrym, Aoba/Maewo, Banks/Torres, Efate, Epi, Malakula, Paama, Pentecote, Santo/Malo, Shepherd, Tafea

Independence: 30 July 1980 (from France and UK; formerly New Hebrides)

Constitution: 30 July 1980

Legal system: unified system being created from former dual French and British systems

National holiday: Independence Day, 30 July (1980)

Executive branch: president, prime minister, Council of Ministers (cabinet)

Legislative branch: unicameral Parliament; note–the National Council of Chiefs advises on matters of custom and land

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Leaders: Chief of State–President Frederick TIMAKATA (since 30 January 1989);

Head of Government–Prime Minister Father Walter Hadye LINI (since 30 July 1980); Deputy Prime Minister (vacant)

Political parties and leaders: National Party (Vanua'aku Pati), Walter Lini; Union of Moderate Parties, Maxine Carlot; Melanesian Progressive Party, Barak Sope

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections: Parliament–last held 30 November 1987 (next to be held NA); byelections were held NA December 1988 to fill vacancies resulting from the expulsion of opposition members for boycotting sessions; results–percent of vote by party NA; seats–(46 total) National Party 26, Union of Moderate Parties 19, independent 1

Member of: ACP, ADB, Commonwealth, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFC, IMF, ITU, NAM, SPF, UN, WHO, WMO

Diplomatic representation: Vanuatu does not have a mission in Washington; US–the ambassador in Papua New Guinea is accredited to Vanuatu

Flag: two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and green (bottom) with a black isosceles triangle (based on the hoist side) all separated by a black-edged yellow stripe in the shape of a horizontal Y (the two points of the Y face the hoist side and enclose the triangle); centered in the triangle is a boar's tusk encircling two crossed namele leaves, all in yellow

Economy Overview: The economy is based primarily on subsistence farming that provides a living for about 80% of the population. Fishing and tourism are the other mainstays of the economy. Mineral deposits are negligible; the country has no known petroleum deposits. A small light-industry sector caters to the local market. Tax revenues come mainly from import duties.

GDP: $120 million, per capita $820; real growth rate 0.7% (1987 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 8.0% (1988 est.)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues $80.1 million; expenditures $86.6 million, including capital expenditures of $27.1 million (1988 est.)

Exports: $16 million (f.o.b., 1988 est.); commodities–copra 37%, cocoa 11%, meat 9%, fish 8%, timber 4%; partners–Netherlands 34%, France 27%, Japan 17%, Belgium 4%, New Caledonia 3%, Singapore 2% (1987)

Imports: $58 million (f.o.b., 1988 est.); commodities–machines and vehicles 25%, food and beverages 23%, basic manufactures 18%, raw materials and fuels 11%, chemicals 6%; partners–Australia 36%, Japan 13%, NZ 10%, France 8%, Fiji 5% (1987)

External debt: $57 million (1988)

Industrial production: growth rate NA%

Electricity: 10,000 kW capacity; 20 million kWh produced, 125 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: food and fish freezing, forestry processing, meat canning

Agriculture: export crops–copra, cocoa, coffee, and fish; subsistence crops–copra, taro, yams, coconuts, fruits, and vegetables

Aid: Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $541 million

Currency: vatu (plural–vatu); 1 vatu (VT) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: vatu (VT) per US$1–107.17 (January 1990), 116.04 (1989), 104.43 (1988), 109.85 (1987), 106.08 (1986), 106.03 (1985)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications Railroads: none

Highways: 1,027 km total; at least 240 km sealed or all-weather roads

Ports: Port-Vila, Luganville, Palikoulo, Santu

Merchant marine: 65 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 885,668 GRT/1,473,443 DWT; includes 26 cargo, 4 refrigerated cargo, 5 container, 2 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 1 vehicle carrier, 3 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 2 liquefied gas, 21 bulk, 1 combination bulk; note–a flag of convenience registry

Civil air: no major transport aircraft

Airports: 33 total, 28 usable; 2 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways over 2,439 m; 2 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: stations–2 AM, no FM, no TV; 3,000 telephones; 1 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT earth station

Defense Forces Branches: a paramilitary force is responsible for internal and external security; no military forces

Military manpower: NA

Defense expenditures: NA .pa Vatican City Geography Total area: 0.438 km2; land area: 0.438 km2

Comparative area: about 0.7 times the size of The Mall in Washington, DC

Land boundary: 3.2 km with Italy

Coastline: none–landlocked

Maritime claims: none–landlocked

Climate: temperate; mild, rainy winters (September to mid-May) with hot, dry summers (May to September)

Terrain: low hill

Natural resources: none

Land use: 0% arable land; 0% permanent crops; 0% meadows and pastures; 0% forest and woodland; 100% other

Environment: urban

Note: landlocked; enclave of Rome, Italy; world's smallest state; outside the Vatican City, 13 buildings in Rome and Castel Gandolfo (the pope's summer residence) enjoy extraterritorial rights

People Population: 774 (July 1990), growth rate 0.5% (1990)

Nationality: no noun or adjectival forms

Ethnic divisions: primarily Italians but also many other nationalities

Religion: Roman Catholic

Language: Italian, Latin, and various other languages

Literacy: 100%

Labor force: about 1,500; Vatican City employees divided into three categories–executives, office workers, and salaried employees

Organized labor: Association of Vatican Lay Workers, 1,800 members (1987)

Government Long-form name: State of the Vatican City; note–the Vatican City is the physical seat of the Holy See which is the central government of the Roman Catholic Church

Type: monarchical-sacerdotal state

Capital: Vatican City

Independence: 11 February 1929 (from Italy)

Constitution: Apostolic Constitution of 1967 (effective 1 March 1968)

National holiday: Installation Day of the Pope (John Paul II), 22 October (1978); note–Pope John Paul II was elected on 16 October 1978

Executive branch: pope

Legislative branch: unicameral Pontifical Commission

Judicial branch: none; normally handled by Italy

Leaders: Chief of State and Head of Government–Pope JOHN PAUL II (Karol WOJTYLA; since 16 October 1978)

Political parties and leaders: none

Suffrage: limited to cardinals less than 80 years old

Elections: Pope–last held 16 October 1978 (next to be held after the death of the current pope); results–Karol Wojtyla was elected for life by the College of Cardinals

Communists: NA

Other political or pressure groups: none (exclusive of influence exercised by church officers)

Member: IAEA, INTELSAT, ITU, IWC–International Wheat Council, UPU, WIPO, WTO; permanent observer status at FAO, OAS, UN, and UNESCO

Diplomatic representation: Apostolic Pro-Nuncio Archbishop Pio LAGHI; 3339 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202) 333-7121; US–Ambassador Thomas P. MELADY; Embassy at Villino Pacelli, Via Aurelia 294, 00165 Rome (mailing address is APO New York 09794); telephone Õ396å 639-0558

Flag: two vertical bands of yellow (hoist side) and white with the crossed keys of St. Peter and the papal tiara centered in the white band

Economy Overview: The economy is supported financially by contributions (known as Peter's pence) from Roman Catholics throughout the world, the sale of postage stamps, tourist mementos, fees for admission to museums, and the sale of publications.

Budget: revenues $57 million; expenditures $113.7 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1986)

Electricity: 5,000 kW standby capacity (1989); power supplied by Italy

Industries: printing and production of a small amount of mosaics and staff uniforms; worldwide banking and financial activities

Currency: Vatican lira (plural–lire); 1 Vatican lira (VLit) = 100 centesimi

Exchange rates: Vatican lire (VLit) per US$1–1,262.5 (January 1990), 1,372.1 (1989), 1,301.6 (1988), 1,296.1 (1987), 1,490.8 (1986), 1,909.4 (1985); note–the Vatican lira is at par with the Italian lira which circulates freely

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications Railroads: 850 m, 750 mm gauge (links with Italian network near the Rome station of St. Peter's)

Highways: none; all city streets

Telecommunications: stations–3 AM, 4 FM, no TV; 2,000-line automatic telephone exchange; no communications satellite systems

Defense Forces Note: defense is the responsibility of Italy; Swiss Papal Guards are posted at entrances to the Vatican City .pa Venezuela Geography Total area: 912,050 km2; land area: 882,050 km2

Comparative area: slightly more than twice the size of California

Land boundaries: 4,993 km total; Brazil 2,200 km, Colombia 2,050 km, Guyana 743 km

Coastline: 2,800 km

Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 15 nm;

Continental shelf: 200 meters or to depth of exploitation;

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Disputes: claims Essequibo area of Guyana; maritime boundary disputes with Colombia in the Gulf of Venezuela and with Trinidad and Tobago in the Gulf of Paria

Climate: tropical; hot, humid; more moderate in highlands

Terrain: Andes mountains and Maracaibo lowlands in northwest; central plains (llanos); Guyana highlands in southeast

Natural resources: crude oil, natural gas, iron ore, gold, bauxite, other minerals, hydropower, diamonds

Land use: 3% arable land; 1% permanent crops; 20% meadows and pastures; 39% forest and woodland; 37% other; includes NEGL% irrigated

Environment: subject to floods, rockslides, mudslides; periodic droughts; increasing industrial pollution in Caracas and Maracaibo

Note: on major sea and air routes linking North and South America

People Population: 19,698,104 (July 1990), growth rate 2.5% (1990)

Birth rate: 28 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 4 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 1 migrant/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 27 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 71 years male, 77 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 3.4 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun–Venezuelan(s); adjective–Venezuelan

Ethnic divisions: 67% mestizo, 21% white, 10% black, 2% Indian

Religion: 96% nominally Roman Catholic, 2% Protestant

Language: Spanish (official); Indian dialects spoken by about 200,000 Amerindians in the remote interior

Literacy: 85.6%

Labor force: 5,800,000; 56% services, 28% industry, 16% agriculture (1985)

Organized labor: 32% of labor force

Government Long-form name: Republic of Venezuela

Type: republic

Capital: Caracas

Administrative divisions: 20 states (estados, singular–estado), 2 territories* (territorios, singular–territorio), 1 federal district (distrito federal), and 1 federal dependence* (dependencia federal); Amazonas*, Anzoategui, Apure, Aragua, Barinas, Bolivar, Carabobo, Cojedes, Delta Amacuro*, Dependencias Federales*, Distrito Federal, Falcon, Guarico, Lara, Merida, Miranda, Monagas, Nueva Esparta, Portuguesa, Sucre, Tachira, Trujillo, Yaracuy, Zulia; note–the federal dependence consists of 11 federally controlled island groups with a total of 72 individual islands

Independence: 5 July 1811 (from Spain)

Constitution: 23 January 1961

Legal system: based on Napoleonic code; judicial review of legislative acts in Cassation Court only; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: Independence Day, 5 July (1811)

Executive branch: president, Council of Ministers (cabinet)

Legislative branch: bicameral National Congress (Congreso Nacional) consists of an upper chamber or Senate (Senado) and a lower chamber or Chamber of Deputies (Camara de Diputados)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Justice (Corte Suprema de Justica)

Leaders: Chief of State and Head of Government–President Carlos Andres PEREZ (since 2 February 1989)

Political parties and leaders: Social Christian Party (COPEI), Eduardo Fernandez, secretary general; Democratic Action (AD), Gonzalo Barrios, president, and Humberto Celli, secretary general; Movement Toward Socialism (MAS), Teodoro Petkoff, president, and Freddy Munoz, secretary general

Suffrage: universal and compulsory at age 18, though poorly enforced

Elections: President–last held 4 December 1988 (next to be held December 1993); results–Carlos Andres Perez (AD) 53%, Eduardo Fernandez (COPEI) 40%, others 7%;

Senate–last held 4 December 1988 (next to be held December 1993); results–percent of vote by party NA; seats–(49 total) AD 23, COPEI 22, others 4;

Chamber of Deputies–last held 4 December 1988 (next to be held December 1993); results–AD 43.7%, COPEI 31.4%, MAS 10.3%, others 14.6%; seats–(201 total) AD 97, COPEI 67, MAS 18, others 19

Communists: 10,000 members (est.)

Other political or pressure groups: FEDECAMARAS, a conservative business group; Venezuelan Confederation of Workers, the Democratic Action-dominated labor organization

Member of: Andean Pact, AIOEC, FAO, G-77, Group of Eight, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICO, IDB–Inter-American Development Bank, IFAD, IFC, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IPU, IRC, ITU, IWC–International Wheat Council, LAIA, NAM, OAS, OPEC, PAHO, SELA, WFTU, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Simon Alberto CONSALVI Bottaro; Chancery at 2445 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202) 797-3800; there are Venezuelan Consulates General in Baltimore, Boston, Chicago, Houston, Miami, New Orleans, New York, Philadelphia, San Francisco, and San Juan (Puerto Rico); US–Ambassador-designate Eric JAVITS; Embassy at Avenida Francisco de Miranda and Avenida Principal de la Floresta, Caracas (mailing address is P. O. Box 62291, Caracas 1060-A, or APO Miami 34037); telephone Õ58å (2) 284-6111 or 7111; there is a US Consulate in Maracaibo

Flag: three equal horizontal bands of yellow (top), blue, and red with the coat of arms on the hoist side of the yellow band and an arc of seven white five-pointed stars centered in the blue band

Economy Overview: Petroleum is the cornerstone of the economy and accounted for 17% of GDP, 52% of central government revenues, and 81% of export earnings in 1988. President Perez introduced an economic readjustment program when he assumed office in February 1989. Lower tariffs and price supports, a free market exchange rate, and market-linked interest rates have thrown the economy into confusion, causing about an 8% decline in GDP.

GDP: $52.0 billion, per capita $2,700; real growth rate - 8.1% (1989 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 80.7% (1989)

Unemployment rate: 7.0% (1988)

Budget: revenues $8.4 billion; expenditures $8.6 billion, including capital expenditures of $5.9 billion (1989)

Exports: $10.4 billion (f.o.b., 1988); commodities–petroleum 81%, bauxite and aluminum, iron ore, agricultural products, basic manufactures; partners–US 50.3%, FRG 5.3%, Japan 4.1% (1988)

Imports: $10.9 billion (f.o.b., 1988); commodities–foodstuffs, chemicals, manufactures, machinery and transport equipment; partners–US 44%, FRG 8.5%, Japan 6%, Italy 5%, Brazil 4.4% (1987)

External debt: $33.6 billion (1988)

Industrial production: growth rate 3.7%, excluding oil (1988)

Electricity: 19,110,000 kW capacity; 54,516 million kWh produced, 2,830 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: petroleum, iron-ore mining, construction materials, food processing, textiles, steel, aluminum, motor vehicle assembly

Agriculture: accounts for 6% of GDP and 15% of labor force; products–corn, sorghum, sugarcane, rice, bananas, vegetables, coffee, beef, pork, milk, eggs, fish; not self-sufficient in food other than meat

Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis and coca for the international drug trade on a small scale; however, large quantities of cocaine and marijuana do transit the country

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-86), $488 million; Communist countries (1970-88), $10 million

Currency: bolivar (plural–bolivares); 1 bolivar (Bs) = 100 centimos

Exchange rates: bolivares (Bs) per US$1–43.42 (January 1990), 34.6815 (1989), 14.5000 (fixed rate 1987-88), 8.0833 (1986), 7.5000 (1985)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications Railroads: 542 km total; 363 km 1.435-meter standard gauge all single track, government owned; 179 km 1.435-meter gauge, privately owned

Highways: 77,785 km total; 22,780 km paved, 24,720 km gravel, 14,450 km earth roads, and 15,835 km unimproved earth

Inland waterways: 7,100 km; Rio Orinoco and Lago de Maracaibo accept oceangoing vessels

Pipelines: 6,370 km crude oil; 480 km refined products; 4,010 km natural gas

Ports: Amuay Bay, Bajo Grande, El Tablazo, La Guaira, Puerto Cabello, Puerto Ordaz

Merchant marine: 70 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 997,458 GRT/1,615,155 DWT; includes 1 short-sea passenger, 1 passenger cargo, 28 cargo, 2 container, 3 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 17 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 2 chemical tanker, 2 liquefied gas, 11 bulk, 1 vehicle carrier, 1 combination bulk, 1 combination ore/oil

Civil air: 58 major transport aircraft

Airports: 306 total, 278 usable; 134 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways over 3,659 m; 12 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 92 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: modern and expanding; 1,440,000 telephones; stations–181 AM, no FM, 59 TV, 26 shortwave; 3 submarine coaxial cables; satellite earth stations–1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT and 3 domestic

Defense Forces Branches: Ground Forces (Army), Naval Forces (Navy, Marines, Coast Guard), Air Forces, Armed Forces of Cooperation (National Guard)

Military manpower: males 15-49, 5,073,913; 3,680,176 fit for military service; 211,269 reach military age (18) annually

Defense expenditures: 1.1% of GDP, or $570 million (1990 est.) .pa Vietnam Geography Total area: 329,560 km2; land area: 325,360

Comparative area: slightly larger than New Mexico

Land boundaries: 3,818 km total; Cambodia 982 km, China 1,281 km, Laos 1,555 km

Coastline: 3,444 km (excluding islands)

Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 24 nm;

Continental shelf: edge of continental margin or 200 nm;

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Disputes: offshore islands and three sections of the boundary with Cambodia are in dispute; maritime boundary with Cambodia not defined; occupied Cambodia on 25 December 1978; sporadic border clashes with China; involved in a complex dispute over the Spratly Islands with China, Malaysia, Philippines, and Taiwan; maritime boundary dispute with China in the Gulf of Tonkin; Paracel Islands occupied by China but claimed by Vietnam and Taiwan

Climate: tropical in south; monsoonal in north with hot, rainy season (mid-May to mid-September) and warm, dry season (mid-October to mid-March)

Terrain: low, flat delta in south and north; central highlands; hilly, mountainous in far north and northwest

Natural resources: phosphates, coal, manganese, bauxite, chromate, offshore oil deposits, forests

Land use: 22% arable land; 2% permanent crops; 1% meadows and pastures; 40% forest and woodland; 35% other; includes 5% irrigated

Environment: occasional typhoons (May to January) with extensive flooding

People Population: 66,170,889 (July 1990), growth rate 2.1% (1990)

Birth rate: 30 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 8 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: - 1 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 50 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 62 years male, 66 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 3.8 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun–Vietnamese (sing. and pl.); adjective–Vietnamese

Ethnic divisions: 85-90% predominantly Vietnamese; 3% Chinese; ethnic minorities include Muong, Thai, Meo, Khmer, Man, Cham; other mountain tribes

Religion: Buddhist, Confucian, Taoist, Roman Catholic, indigenous beliefs, Islamic, Protestant

Language: Vietnamese (official), French, Chinese, English, Khmer, tribal languages (Mon-Khmer and Malayo-Polynesian)

Literacy: 78%

Labor force: 35,000,000 (1989 est.)

Organized labor: reportedly over 90% of wage and salary earners are members of the Vietnam Federation of Trade Unions (VFTU)

Government Long-form name: Socialist Republic of Vietnam; abbreviated SRV

Type: Communist state

Capital: Hanoi

Administrative divisions: 37 provinces (tinh, singular and plural), 3 municipalities* (thanh pho, singular and plural); An Giang, Bac Thai, Ben Tre, Binh Tri Thien, Cao Bang, Cuu Long, Dac Lac, Dong Nai, Dong Thap, Gia Lai-Cong Tum, Ha Bac, Hai Hung, Hai Phong*, Ha Nam Ninh, Ha Noi*, Ha Son Binh, Ha Tuyen, Hau Giang, Hoang Lien Son, Ho Chi Minh*, Kien Giang, Lai Chau, Lam Dong, Lang Son, Long An, Minh Hai, Nghe Tinh, Nghia Binh, Phu Khanh, Quang Nam-Da Nang, Quang Ninh, Song Be, Son La, Tay Ninh, Thai Binh, Thanh Hoa, Thuan Hai, Tien Giang, Vinh Pu, Vung Tau-Con Dao; note–diacritical marks are not included; the number of provinces may have been changed with the elimination of Binh Tri Thien, Nghia Binh, and Phu Khanh and the addition of Binh Dinh, Khanh Hoa, Phu Yen, Quang Binh, Quang Ngai, Quang Tri, and Thua Thien

Independence: 2 September 1945 (from France)

Constitution: 18 December 1980

Legal system: based on Communist legal theory and French civil law system

National holiday: Independence Day, 2 September (1945)

Executive branch: chairman of the Council of State, Council of State, chairman of the Council of Ministers, Council of Ministers

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly (Quoc Hoi)

Judicial branch: Supreme People's Court

Leaders: Chief of State–Chairman of the Council of State Vo Chi CONG (since 18 June 1987);

Head of Government–Chairman of the Council of Ministers (Premier) Do MUOI (since 22 June 1988)

Political parties and leaders: only party– Vietnam Communist Party (VCP), Nguyen Van Linh

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections: National Assembly–last held 19 April 1987 (next to be held April 1992); results–VCP is the only party; seats–(496 total) VCP or VCP-approved 496

Communists: nearly 2 million

Member of: ADB, CEMA, Colombo Plan, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBEC, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, INTELSAT, IRC, ITU, Mekong Committee, NAM, UN, UNDP, UNESCO, UNICEF, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation: none

Flag: red with a large yellow five-pointed star in the center

Economy Overview: This is a centrally planned, developing economy with extensive government ownership and control of productive facilities. The economy is primarily agricultural, employing about 65% of the labor force and accounting for almost half of GNP. Rice is the staple crop; substantial amounts of maize, sorghum, cassava, and sweet potatoes are also grown. The government permits sale of surplus grain on the open market. Most of the mineral resources are located in the north, including coal, which is an important export item. Following the end of the war in 1975, heavy handed government measures undermined efforts at an efficient merger of the agricultural resources of the south and the industrial resources of the north. The economy remains heavily dependent on foreign aid and has received assistance from Communist countries, Sweden, and UN agencies. Inflation, although down from recent triple-digit levels, is still a major weakness, and per capita output is among the world's lowest. Since early 1989 the government has sponsored a broad reform program that seeks to turn more economic activity over to the private sector.

GNP: $14.2 billion, per capita $215; real growth rate 8% (1989 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 40% (1989 est.)

Unemployment rate: 25% (1989 est.)

Budget: revenues $3.2 billion; expenditures $4.3 billion, including capital expenditures of $528 million (1987 est.)

Exports: $1.1 billion (f.o.b., 1988); commodities–agricultural and handicraft products, coal, minerals, ores; partners–USSR, Eastern Europe, Japan, Singapore

Imports: $2.5 billion (c.i.f., 1988); commodities–petroleum, steel products, railroad equipment, chemicals, medicines, raw cotton, fertilizer, grain; partners–USSR, Eastern Europe, Japan, Singapore

External debt: $16 billion (1989)

Industrial production: growth rate 10% (1989)

Electricity: 2,465,000 kW capacity; 6,730 million kWh produced, 100 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: food processing, textiles, machine building, mining, cement, chemical fertilizer, glass, tires, oil, fishing

Agriculture: accounts for half of GNP; paddy rice, corn, potatoes make up 50% of farm output; commercial crops (rubber, soybeans, coffee, tea, bananas) and animal products other 50%; not self-sufficient in food staple rice; fish catch of 900,000 metric tons (1988 est.)

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-74), $3.1 billion; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $2.7 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $61 million; Communist countries (1970-88), $10.9 million

Currency: new dong (plural–new dong); 1 new dong (D) = 100 xu

Exchange rates: new dong (D) per US$1–4,000 (March 1990), 900 (1988), 225 (1987), 18 (1986), 12 (1985); note–1985-89 figures are end of year

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications Railroads: 3,059 km total; 2,454 1.000-meter gauge, 151 km 1.435-meter standard gauge, 230 km dual gauge (three rails), and 224 km not restored to service

Highways: about 85,000 km total; 9,400 km bituminous, 48,700 km gravel or improved earth, 26,900 km unimproved earth

Pipelines: 150 km, refined products

Inland waterways: about 17,702 km navigable; more than 5,149 km navigable at all times by vessels up to 1.8 meter draft

Ports: Da Nang, Haiphong, Ho Chi Minh City

Merchant marine: 71 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 290,123 GRT/432,152 DWT; includes 1 short-sea passenger, 55 cargo, 4 refrigerated cargo, 1 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 1 vehicle carrier, 8 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 1 bulk; note–Vietnam owns 10 cargo ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 111,028 DWT under the registry of Panama and Malta

Civil air: controlled by military

Airports: 100 total, 100 usable; 50 with permanent-surface runways; 10 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 20 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: 35,000 telephones in Ho Chi Minh City (1984); stations–16 AM, 1 FM, 2 TV; 2,300,000 TV sets; 6,000,000 radio receivers; at least 2 satellite earth stations, including 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT

Defense Forces Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force

Military manpower: males 15-49, 15,707,629; 10,030,563 fit for military service; 787,444 reach military age (17) annually

Defense expenditures: 19.4% of GNP (1986 est.) .pa Virgin Islands (territory of the US) Geography Total area: 352 km2; land area: 349 km2

Comparative area: slightly less than twice the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: none

Coastline: 188 km

Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 12 nm;

Continental shelf: 200 m;

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: subtropical, tempered by easterly tradewinds, relatively low humidity, little seasonal temperature variation; rainy season May to November

Terrain: mostly hilly to rugged and mountainous with little level land

Natural resources: sun, sand, sea, surf

Land use: 15% arable land; 6% permanent crops; 26% meadows and pastures; 6% forest and woodland; 47% other

Environment: rarely affected by hurricanes; subject to frequent severe droughts, floods, earthquakes; lack of natural freshwater resources

Note: important location 1,770 km southeast of Miami and 65 km east of Puerto Rico, along the Anegada Passage–a key shipping lane for the Panama Canal; St. Thomas has one of the best natural, deepwater harbors in the Caribbean

People Population: 99,200 (July 1990), growth rate - 0.3% (1990)

Birth rate: 22 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 5 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: - 20 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 19 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 70 years male, 76 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 2.7 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun–Virgin Islander(s); adjective–Virgin Islander

Ethnic divisions: 74% West Indian (45% born in the Virgin Islands and 29% born elsewhere in the West Indies), 13% US mainland, 5% Puerto Rican, 8% other; 80% black, 15% white, 5% other; 14% of Hispanic origin

Religion: 42% Baptist, 34% Roman Catholic, 17% Episcopalian, 7% other

Language: English (official), but Spanish and Creole are widely spoken

Literacy: 90%

Labor force: 45,000 (1987)

Organized labor: 90% of the government labor force

Government Long-form name: Virgin Islands of the United States

Type: organized, unincorporated territory of the US administered by the Office of Territorial and International Affairs, US Department of the Interior

Capital: Charlotte Amalie

Administrative divisions: none (territory of the US)

Independence: none (territory of the US)

Constitution: Revised Organic Act of 22 July 1954 serves as the constitution

Legal system: based on US

National holiday: Transfer Day (from Denmark to US), 31 March (1917)

Executive branch: US president, governor, lieutenant governor

Legislative branch: unicameral Senate

Judicial branch: US District Court handles civil matters over $50,000, felonies (persons 15 years of age and over), and federal cases; Territorial Court handles civil matters up to $50,000 small claims, juvenile, domestic, misdemeanors, and traffic cases

Leaders: Chief of State and Head of Government–President George BUSH (since 20 January 1989), represented by Governor Alexander FARRELLY (since 5 January 1987); Lieutenant Governor Derek HODGE (since 5 January 1987)

Political parties and leaders: Democratic Party, Marilyn Stapleton; Independent Citizens' Movement (ICM), Virdin Brown; Republican Party, Charlotte-Poole Davis

Suffrage: universal at age 18; indigenous inhabitants are US citizens, but do not vote in US presidential elections

Elections: Governor–last held NA 1986 (next to be held NA 1990); results–Alexander Farrelly (Democratic Party) defeated Adelbert Bryan (ICM);

Senate–last held 8 November 1988 (next to be held NA); results–percent of vote by party NA; seats–(15 total) number of seats by party NA;

US House of Representatives–last held 8 November 1988 (next to be held 6 November 1990); results–the Virgin Islands elects one nonvoting representative

Diplomatic representation: none (territory of the US)

Flag: white with a modified US coat of arms in the center between the large blue initials V and I; the coat of arms shows an eagle holding an olive branch in one talon and three arrows in the other with a superimposed shield of vertical red and white stripes below a blue panel

Economy Overview: Tourism is the primary economic activity, accounting for more than 70% of GDP and 70% of employment. The manufacturing sector consists of textile, electronics, pharmaceutical, and watch assembly plants. The agricultural sector is small with most food imported. International business and financial services are a small but growing component of the economy. The world's largest petroleum refinery is at St. Croix.

GDP: $1.03 billion, per capita $9,030; real growth rate NA% (1985)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%

Unemployment rate: 3.5% (1987)

Budget: revenues $315 million; expenditures $322 million, including capital expenditures of NA (FY88)

Exports: $3.4 billion (f.o.b., 1985); commodities–refined petroleum products; partners–US, Puerto Rico

Imports: $3.7 billion (c.i.f., 1985); commodities–crude oil, foodstuffs, consumer goods, building materials; partners–US, Puerto Rico

External debt: $NA

Industrial production: growth rate 12%

Electricity: 341,000 kW capacity; 507 million kWh produced, 4,650 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: tourism, government service, petroleum refining, watch assembly, rum distilling, construction, pharmaceuticals, textiles, electronics

Agriculture: truck gardens, food crops (small scale), fruit, sorghum, Senepol cattle

Aid: Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $33.5 million

Currency: US currency is used

Exchange rates: US currency is used

Fiscal year: 1 October-30 September

Communications Highways: 856 km total

Ports: St. Croix–Christiansted, Frederiksted; St. Thomas–Long Bay, Crown Bay, Red Hook; St. John–Cruz Bay

Airports: 2 total, 2 usable; 2 with permanent-surface runways 1,220-2,439 m; international airports on St. Thomas and St. Croix

Telecommunications: 44,280 telephones; stations–4 AM, 6 FM, 3 TV; modern system using fiber optic cable, submarine cable, microwave radio, and satellite facilities; 90,000 radio receivers; 56,000 television sets

Defense Forces Note: defense is the responsibility of the US .pa Wake Island (territory of the US) Geography Total area: 6.5 km2; land area: 6.5 km2

Comparative area: about 11 times the size of The Mall in Washington, DC

Land boundaries: none

Coastline: 19.3 km

Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 12 nm;

Continental shelf: 200 m;

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Disputes: claimed by the Republic of the Marshall Islands

Climate: tropical

Terrain: atoll of three coral islands built up on an underwater volcano; central lagoon is former crater, islands are part of the rim; average elevation less than four meters

Natural resources: none

Land use: 0% arable land; 0% permanent crops; 0% meadows and pastures; 0% forest and woodland; 100% other

Environment: subject to occasional typhoons

Note: strategic location 3,700 km west of Honolulu in the North Pacific Ocean, about two-thirds of the way between Hawaii and the Northern Mariana Islands; emergency landing location for transpacific flights

People Population: 195 (January 1990); no indigenous inhabitants; temporary population consists of 11 US Air Force personnel, 27 US civilians, and 151 Thai contractors

Note: population peaked about 1970 with over 1,600 persons during the Vietnam conflict

Government Long-form name: none

Type: unincorporated territory of the US administered by the US Air Force (under an agreement with the US Department of Interior) since 24 June 1972

Flag: the US flag is used

Economy Overview: Economic activity is limited to providing services to US military personnel and contractors located on the island. All food and manufactured goods must be imported.

Communications Ports: none; because of the reefs, there are only two offshore anchorages for large ships

Airports: 1 with permanent-surface runways 2,987 m

Telecommunications: underwater cables to Guam and through Midway to Honolulu; AFRTS radio and television service provided by satellite; stations–1 AM, no FM, no TV

Note: formerly an important commercial aviation base, now used only by US military and some commercial cargo planes

Defense Forces Note: defense is the responsibility of the US .pa Wallis and Futuna (overseas territory of France) Geography Total area: 274 km2; land area: 274 km2

Comparative area: slightly larger than Washington, DC

Land boundaries: none

Coastline: 129 km

Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: 200 meters or to depth of exploitation;

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; hot, rainy season (November to April); cool, dry season (May to October)

Terrain: volcanic origin; low hills

Natural resources: negligible

Land use: 5% arable land; 20% permanent crops; 0% meadows and pastures; 0% forest and woodland; 75% other

Environment: both island groups have fringing reefs

Note: located 4,600 km southwest of Honolulu in the South Pacific Ocean about two-thirds of the way from Hawaii to New Zealand

People Population: 14,910 (July 1990), growth rate 3.0% (1990)

Birth rate: 28 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 6 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 8 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 32 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 69 years male, 70 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 3.8 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun–Wallisian(s), Futunan(s), or Wallis and Futuna Islanders; adjective–Wallisian, Futunan, or Wallis and Futuna Islander

Ethnic divisions: almost entirely Polynesian

Religion: largely Roman Catholic

Language: French, Wallisian (indigenous Polynesian language)

Literacy: NA%

Labor force: NA

Organized labor: NA

Government Long-form name: Territory of the Wallis and Futuna Islands

Type: overseas territory of France

Capital: Mata-Utu

Administrative divisions: none (overseas territory of France)

Independence: none (overseas territory of France)

Constitution: 28 September 1958 (French Constitution)

Legal system: French

National holiday: Taking of the Bastille, 14 July (1789)

Executive branch: French president, high administrator; note–there are three traditional kings with limited powers

Legislative branch: unicameral Territorial Assembly (Assemblee Territoriale)

Judicial branch: none; justice generally administered under French law by the chief administrator, but the three traditional kings administer customary law and there is a magistrate in Mata-Utu

Leaders: Chief of State–President Francois MITTERRAND (since 21 May 1981);

Head of Government–Chief Administrator Roger DUMEC (since 15 July 1988)

Political parties and leaders: Rally for the Republic (RPR); Union Populaire Locale (UPL); Union Pour la Democratie Francaise (UDF)

Suffrage: universal adult at age NA

Elections: Territorial Assembly–last held 15 March 1987 (next to be held March 1992); results–percent of vote by party NA; seats–(20 total) RPR 7, UDF coalition 7, UPL 6;

French Senate–last held NA (next to be held NA); results–percent of vote by party NA; seats–(1 total) party of the representative is NA;

French National Assembly–last held NA (next to be held NA); results–percent of vote by party NA; seats–(1 total) RPR 1

Diplomatic representation: as an overseas territory of France, local interests are represented in the US by France

Flag: the flag of France is used

Economy Overview: The economy is limited to subsistence agriculture. The majority of the labor force earns its livelihood from agriculture, raising livestock, and fishing, with the rest employed by the government sector. Exports are negligible. The Territory has to import food, fuel, and construction materials, and is dependent on budgetary support from France to meet recurring expenses. The economy also benefits from cash remittances from expatriate workers.

GDP: $6.7 million, per capita $484; real growth rate NA% (est. 1985)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues $NA; expenditures $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA

Exports: $NA; commodities–copra; partners–NA

Imports: $3.4 million (c.i.f., 1977); commodities–largely foodstuffs and some equipment associated with development programs; partners–France, Australia, New Zealand

External debt: $NA

Industrial production: growth rate NA%

Electricity: 1,200 kW capacity; 1 million kWh produced, 70 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: copra, handicrafts, fishing, lumber

Agriculture: dominated by coconut production, with subsistence crops of yams, taro, bananas

Aid: Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $118 million

Currency: Comptoirs Francais du Pacifique franc (plural–francs); 1 CFP franc (CFPF) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: Comptoirs Francais du Pacifique francs (CFPF) per US$1–104.71 (January 1990), 115.99 (1989), 108.30 (1988), 109.27 (1987), 125.92 (1986), 163.35 (1985); note–linked at the rate of 18.18 to the French franc

Fiscal year: NA

Communications Highways: 100 km on Ile Uvea (Wallis Island), 16 km sealed; 20 km earth surface on Ile Futuna (Futuna Island)

Inland waterways: none

Ports: Mata-Utu, Leava

Airports: 2 total; 2 usable; 1 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways over 2,439 m; 1 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: 225 telephones; stations–1 AM, no FM, no TV

Defense Forces Note: defense is the responsibility of France .pa West Bank Note: The war between Israel and the Arab states in June 1967 ended with Israel in control of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip, the Sinai, and the Golan Heights. As stated in the 1978 Camp David Accords and reaffirmed by President Reagan's 1 September 1982 peace initiative, the final status of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip, their relationship with their neighbors, and a peace treaty between Israel and Jordan are to be negotiated among the concerned parties. Camp David further specifies that these negotiations will resolve the respective boundaries. Pending the completion of this process, it is US policy that the final status of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip has yet to be determined. In the view of the US, the term West Bank describes all of the area west of the Jordan River under Jordanian administration before the 1967 Arab-Israeli war. However, with respect to negotiations envisaged in the framework agreement, it is US policy that a distinction must be made between Jerusalem and the rest of the West Bank because of the city's special status and circumstances. Therefore, a negotiated solution for the final status of Jerusalem could be different in character from that of the rest of the West Bank.

Geography Total area: 5,860 km2; land area: 5,640 km2; includes West Bank, East Jerusalem, Latrun Salient, Jerusalem No Man's Land, and the northwest quarter of the Dead Sea, but excludes Mt. Scopus

Comparative area: slightly larger than Delaware

Land boundaries: 404 km total; Israel 307 km, Jordan 97 km;

Coastline: none–landlocked

Maritime claims: none–landlocked

Disputes: Israeli occupied with status to be determined

Climate: temperate, temperature and precipitation vary with altitude, warm to hot summers, cool to mild winters

Terrain: mostly rugged dissected upland, some vegetation in west, but barren in east

Natural resources: negligible

Land use: 27% arable land, 0% permanent crops, 32% meadows and pastures, 1% forest and woodland, 40% other

Environment: highlands are main recharge area for Israel's coastal aquifers

Note: landlocked; there are 173 Jewish settlements in the West Bank and 14 Israeli-built Jewish neighborhoods in East Jerusalem

People Population: 1,058,122 (July 1990), growth rate 2.6% (1990); in addition, there are 70,000 Jewish settlers in the West Bank and 110,000 in East Jerusalem (1989 est.)

Birth rate: 37 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 6 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: - 5 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 48 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 65 years male, 68 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 5.0 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: NA

Ethnic divisions: 88% Palestinian Arab and other, 12% Jewish

Religion: 80% Muslim (predominantly Sunni), 12% Jewish, 8% Christian and other

Language: Arabic, Israeli settlers speak Hebrew, English widely understood

Literacy: NA%

Labor force: NA; excluding Israeli Jewish settlers–29.8% small industry, commerce, and business, 24.2% construction, 22.4% agriculture, 23.6% service and other (1984)

Organized labor: NA

Government Long-form name: none

Note: The West Bank is currently governed by Israeli military authorities and Israeli civil administration. It is US policy that the final status of the West Bank will be determined by negotiations among the concerned parties. These negotiations will determine how the area is to be governed.

Economy Overview: Economic progress in the West Bank has been hampered by Israeli military occupation and the effects of the Palestinian uprising. Industries using advanced technology or requiring sizable financial resources have been discouraged by a lack of financial resources and Israeli policy. Capital investment has largely gone into residential housing, not into productive assets that could compete with Israeli industry. A major share of GNP is derived from remittances of workers employed in Israel and neighboring Gulf states. Israeli reprisals against Palestinian unrest in the West Bank since 1987 have pushed unemployment up and lowered living standards.

GNP: $1.0 billion, per capita $1,000; real growth rate - 15% (1988 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues $47.4 million; expenditures $45.7 million, including capital expenditures of NA (FY86)

Exports: $150 million (f.o.b., 1988 est.); commodities–NA; partners–Jordan, Israel

Imports: $410 million (c.i.f., 1988 est.); commodities–NA; partners–Jordan, Israel

External debt: $NA

Industrial production: growth rate NA%

Electricity: power supplied by Israel

Industries: generally small family businesses that produce cement, textiles, soap, olive-wood carvings, and mother-of-pearl souvenirs; the Israelis have established some small-scale modern industries in the settlements and industrial centers

Agriculture: olives, citrus and other fruits, vegetables, beef, and dairy products

Aid: none

Currency: new Israeli shekel (plural–shekels) and Jordanian dinar (plural–dinars); 1 new Israeli shekel (NIS) = 100 new agorot and 1 Jordanian dinar (JD) = 1,000 fils

Exchange rates: new Israeli shekels (NIS) per US$1–1.9450 (January 1990), 1.9164 (1989), 1.5992 (1988), 1.5946 (1987), 1.4878 (1986), 1.1788 (1985); Jordanian dinars (JD) per US$1–0.6557 (January 1990), 0.5704 (1989), 0.3715 (1988), 0.3387 (1987), 0.3499 (1986), 0.3940 (1985)

Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March

Communications Highways: small indigenous road network, Israelis developing east-west axial highways

Airports: 2 total, 2 usable; 2 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways over 2,439 m; 1 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: open-wire telephone system currently being upgraded; stations–no AM, no FM, no TV

Defense Forces Branches: NA

Military manpower: NA

Defense expenditures: NA .pa Western Sahara Geography Total area: 266,000 km2; land area: 266,000 km2

Comparative area: slightly smaller than Colorado

Land boundaries: 2,046 km total; Algeria 42 km, Mauritania 1,561 km, Morocco 443 km

Coastline: 1,110 km

Maritime claims: contingent upon resolution of sovereignty issue

Disputes: claimed and administered by Morocco, but sovereignty is unresolved and guerrilla fighting continues in the area

Climate: hot, dry desert; rain is rare; cold offshore currents produce fog and heavy dew

Terrain: mostly low, flat desert with large areas of rocky or sandy surfaces rising to small mountains in south and northeast

Natural resources: phosphates, iron ore

Land use: NEGL% arable land; 0% permanent crops; 19% meadows and pastures; 0% forest and woodland; 81% other

Environment: hot, dry, dust/sand-laden sirocco wind can occur during winter and spring; widespread harmattan haze exists 60% of time, often severely restricting visibility; sparse water and arable land

People Population: 191,707 (July 1990), growth rate 2.7% (1990)

Birth rate: 48 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 23 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 2 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 177 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 39 years male, 41 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 7.3 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun–Saharan(s), Moroccan(s); adjective–Saharan, Moroccan

Ethnic divisions: Arab and Berber

Religion: Muslim

Language: Hassaniya Arabic, Moroccan Arabic

Literacy: 20% among Moroccans, 5% among Saharans (est.)

Labor force: 12,000; 50% animal husbandry and subsistence farming

Organized labor: NA

Government Long-form name: none

Type: legal status of territory and question of sovereignty unresolved; territory contested by Morocco and Polisario Front (Popular Front for the Liberation of the Saguia el Hamra and Rio de Oro); territory partitioned between Morocco and Mauritania in April 1976, with Morocco acquiring northern two-thirds; Mauritania, under pressure from Polisario guerrillas, abandoned all claims to its portion in August 1979; Morocco moved to occupy that sector shortly thereafter and has since asserted administrative control; the Polisario's government in exile was seated as an OAU member in 1984; guerrilla activities continue to the present

Capital: none

Administrative divisions: none (under de facto control of Morocco)

Leaders: none

Diplomatic representation: none

Economy Overview: Western Sahara, a territory poor in natural resources and having little rainfall, has a per capita GDP of just a few hundred dollars. Fishing and phosphate mining are the principal industries and sources of income. Most of the food for the urban population must be imported. All trade and other economic activities are controlled by the Moroccan Government.

GDP: $NA, per capita $NA; real growth rate NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues $NA; expenditures $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA

Exports: $8 million (f.o.b., 1982 est.); commodities–phosphates 62%; partners–Morocco claims and administers Western Sahara, so trade partners are included in overall Moroccan accounts

Imports: $30 million (c.i.f., 1982 est.); commodities–fuel for fishing fleet, foodstuffs; partners–Morocco claims and administers Western Sahara, so trade partners are included in overall Moroccan accounts

External debt: $NA

Industrial production: growth rate NA%

Electricity: 60,000 kW capacity; 79 million kWh produced, 425 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: phosphate, fishing, handicrafts

Agriculture: practically none; some barley is grown in nondrought years; fruit and vegetables are grown in the few oases; food imports are essential; camels, sheep, and goats are kept by the nomadic natives; cash economy exists largely for the garrison forces

Aid: NA

Currency: Moroccan dirham (plural–dirhams); 1 Moroccan dirham (DH) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: Moroccan dirhams (DH) per US$1–8.093 (January 1990), 8.488 (1989), 8.209 (1988), 8.359 (1987), 9.104 (1986), 10.062 (1985)

Fiscal year: NA

Communications Highways: 6,100 km total; 1,350 km surfaced, 4,750 km improved and unimproved earth roads and tracks

Ports: El Aaiun, Ad Dakhla

Airports: 16 total, 14 usable; 3 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways over 3,659 m; 3 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 6 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: sparse and limited system; tied into Morocco's system by radio relay, tropospheric scatter, and 2 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth stations linked to Rabat, Morocco; 2,000 telephones; stations–2 AM, no FM, 2 TV

Defense Forces Branches: NA

Military manpower: NA

Defense expenditures: NA .pa Western Samoa Geography Total area: 2,860 km2; land area: 2,850 km2

Comparative area: slightly smaller than Rhode Island

Land boundaries: none

Coastline: 403 km

Maritime claims:

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; rainy season (October to March), dry season (May to October)

Terrain: narrow coastal plain with volcanic, rocky, rugged mountains in interior

Natural resources: hardwood forests, fish

Land use: 19% arable land; 24% permanent crops; NEGL% meadows and pastures; 47% forest and woodland; 10% other

Environment: subject to occasional typhoons; active volcanism

Note: located 4,300 km southwest of Honolulu in the South Pacific Ocean about halfway between Hawaii and New Zealand

People Population: 186,031 (July 1990), growth rate 2.3% (1990)

Birth rate: 34 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 7 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: - 5 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 48 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 64 years male, 69 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 4.6 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun–Western Samoan(s); adjective–Western Samoan

Ethnic divisions: Samoan; about 7% Euronesians (persons of European and Polynesian blood), 0.4% Europeans

Religion: 99.7% Christian (about half of population associated with the London Missionary Society; includes Congregational, Roman Catholic, Methodist, Latter Day Saints, Seventh-Day Adventist)

Language: Samoan (Polynesian), English

Literacy: 90%

Labor force: 37,000; 22,000 employed in agriculture (1983 est.)

Organized labor: Public Service Association (PSA)

Government Long-form name: Independent State of Western Samoa

Type: constitutional monarchy under native chief

Capital: Apia

Administrative divisions: 11 districts; Aana, Aiga-i-le-Tai, Atua, Faasaleleaga, Gagaemauga, Gagaifomauga, Palauli, Satupaitea, Tuamasaga, Vaa-o-Fonoti, Vaisigano

Independence: 1 January 1962 (from UN trusteeship administered by New Zealand)

Constitution: 1 January 1962

Legal system: based on English common law and local customs; judicial review of legislative acts with respect to fundamental rights of the citizen; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: National Day, 1 June

Executive branch: monarch, Executive Council, prime minister, Cabinet

Legislative branch: unicameral Legislative Assembly (Fono)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, Court of Appeal

Leaders: Chief of State–Susuga Malietoa TANUMAFILI II (Co-Chief of State from 1 January 1962 until becoming sole Chief of State on 5 April 1963);

Head of Government–Prime Minister TOFILAU Eti Alesana (since 7 April 1988)

Political parties and leaders: Human Rights Protection Party (HRPP), Tofilau Eti, chairman; Samoan National Development Party (SNDP), Tupua Tamasese Efi, chairman

Suffrage: there are two electoral rolls–the matai (head of family) roll and the individuals roll; about 12,000 persons are on the matai roll, hold matai titles, and elect 45 members of the Legislative Assembly; about 1,600 persons are on the individuals roll, lack traditional matai ties, and elect two members of the Legislative Assembly by universal adult suffrage at the age of NA

Elections: Legislative Assembly–last held 26 February 1988 (next to be held by February 1991); results–percent of vote by party NA; seats–(47 total) HRPP 25, SNDP 22

Member of: ACP, ADB, Commonwealth, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IBRD, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IMF, SPC, SPF, UN, UNESCO, WHO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Fili (Felix) Tuaopepe WENDT; Chancery (temporary) at the Western Samoan Mission to the UN, 820 2nd Avenue, New York, NY 10017 (212) 599-6196; US–the ambassador to New Zealand is accredited to Western Samoa

Flag: red with a blue rectangle in the upper hoist-side quadrant bearing five white five-pointed stars representing the Southern Cross constellation

Economy Overview: Agriculture employs two-thirds of the labor force, contributes 50% to GDP, and is the source of 90% of exports. The bulk of export earnings comes from the sale of coconut oil and copra. The economy depends on emigrant remittances and foreign aid to support a level of imports about five times export earnings. Tourism has become the most important growth industry, and construction of the first international hotel is under way.

GDP: $112 million, per capita $615; real growth rate 0.2% (1989 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 8.5% (1988)

Unemployment rate: NA%; shortage of skilled labor

Budget: revenues $54 million; expenditures $54 million, including capital expenditures of $28 million (1988)

Exports: $9.9 million (f.o.b., 1988); commodities–coconut oil and cream 42%, taro 19%, cocoa 14%, copra, timber; partners–NZ 30%, EC 24%, Australia 21%, American Samoa 7%, US 9% (1987)

Imports: $51.8 million (c.i.f., 1988); commodities–intermediate goods 58%, food 17%, capital goods 12%; partners–New Zealand 31%, Australia 20%, Japan 15%, Fiji 15%, US 5%, EC 4% (1987)

External debt: $75 million (December 1988 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate - 4.0% (1987)

Electricity: 23,000 kW capacity; 35 million kWh produced, 190 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: timber, tourism, food processing, fishing

Agriculture: coconuts, fruit (including bananas, taro, yams)

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $16 million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $261 million; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $4 million

Currency: tala (plural–tala); 1 tala (WS$) = 100 sene

Exchange rates: tala (WS$) per US$1–2.2857 (January 1990), 2.2686 (1989), 2.0790 (1988), 2.1204 (1987), 2.2351 (1986), 2.2437 (1985)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications Highways: 2,042 km total; 375 km sealed; remainder mostly gravel, crushed stone, or earth

Ports: Apia

Merchant marine: 3 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 24,930 GRT/34,135 DWT; includes 2 container, 1 roll-on/roll-off cargo

Civil air: 3 major transport aircraft

Airports: 4 total, 4 usable; 1 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; none with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: 7,500 telephones; 70,000 radio receivers; stations–1 AM, no FM, no TV; 1 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT station

Defense Forces Branches: NA

Military manpower: NA

Defense expenditures: NA .pa World Geography Total area: 510,072,000 km2; 361,132,000 km2 (70.8%) is water and 148,940,000 km2 (29.2%) is land

Comparative area: land area about 16 times the size of the US

Land boundaries: 442,000 km

Coastline: 359,000 km

Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: generally 24 nm, but varies from 4 nm to 24 nm;

Continental shelf: generally 200 nm, but some are 200 meters in depth;

Exclusive fishing zone: most are 200 nm, but varies from 12 nm to 200 nm;

Extended economic zone: 200 nm, only Madagascar claims 150 nm;

Territorial sea: generally 12 nm, but varies from 3 nm to 200 nm

Disputes: 13 international land boundary disputes–Argentina-Uruguay, Bangladesh-India, Brazil-Paraguay, Brazil-Uruguay, Cambodia-Vietnam, China-India, China-USSR, Ecuador-Peru, El Salvador-Honduras, French Guiana-Suriname, Guyana-Suriname, Guyana-Venezuela, Qatar-UAE

Climate: two large areas of polar climates separated by two rather narrow temperate zones from a wide equatorial band of tropical to subtropical climates

Terrain: highest elevation is Mt. Everest at 8,848 meters and lowest elevation is the Dead Sea at 392 meters below sea level; greatest ocean depth is the Marianas Trench at 10,924 meters

Natural resources: the oceans represent the last major frontier for the discovery and development of natural resources

Land use: 10% arable land; 1% permanent crops; 24% meadows and pastures; 31% forest and woodland; 34% other; includes 1.6% irrigated

Environment: large areas subject to severe weather (tropical cyclones), natural disasters (earthquakes, landslides, tsunamis, volcanic eruptions), industrial disasters, pollution (air, water, acid rain, toxic substances), loss of vegetation (overgrazing, deforestation, desertification), loss of wildlife resources, soil degradation, soil depletion, erosion

People Population: 5,316,644,000 (July 1990), growth rate 1.7% (1990)

Birth rate: 27 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 9 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 70 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 60 years male, 64 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 3.4 children born/woman (1990)

Literacy: 77% men; 66% women (1980)

Labor force: 1,939,000,000 (1984)

Organized labor: NA

Government Administrative divisions: 248 nations, dependent areas, and other entities

Legal system: varies among each of the entities; 162 are parties to the United Nations International Court of Justice (ICJ) or World Court

Diplomatic representation: there are 159 members of the UN

Economy Overview: In 1989 the World economy grew at an estimated 3.0%, somewhat lower than the estimated 3.4% for 1988. The technologically advanced areas–North America, Japan, and Western Europe–together account for 65% of the gross world product (GWP) of $20.3 trillion; these developed areas grew in the aggregate at 3.5%. In contrast, the Communist (Second World) countries typically grew at between 0% and 2%, accounting for 23% of GWP. Experience in the developing countries continued mixed, with the newly industrializing countries generally maintaining their rapid growth, and many others struggling with debt, inflation, and inadequate investment. The year 1989 ended with remarkable political upheavals in the Communist countries, which presumably will dislocate economic production still further. The addition of nearly 100 million people a year to an already overcrowded globe will exacerbate the problems of pollution, desertification, underemployment, and poverty throughout the 1990s.

GWP (gross world product): $20.3 trillion, per capita $3,870; real growth rate 3.0% (1989 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 5%, developed countries; 100%, developing countries with wide variations (1989 est.)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Exports: $2,694 billion (f.o.b., 1988); commodities–NA; partners–in value, about 70% of exports from industrial countries

Imports: $2,750 billion (c.i.f., 1988); commodities–NA; partners–in value, about 75% of imports by the industrial countries

External debt: $1,008 billion for less developed countries (1988 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate 5% (1989 est.)

Electricity: 2,838,680,000 kW capacity; 11,222,029 million kWh produced, 2,140 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: chemicals, energy, machinery, electronics, metals, mining, textiles, food processing

Agriculture: cereals (wheat, maize, rice), sugar, livestock products, tropical crops, fruit, vegetables, fish

Aid: NA

Communications Ports: Mina al Ahmadi (Kuwait), Chiba, Houston, Kawasaki, Kobe, Marseille, New Orleans, New York, Rotterdam, Yokohama

Defense Forces Branches: ground, maritime, and air forces at all levels of technology

Military manpower: 29.15 million persons in the defense forces of the World (1987)

Defense expenditures: 5.4% of GWP, or $1.1 trillion (1989 est.) .pa Yemen Arab Republic ÕYemen (Sanaa) or North Yemenå Geography Total area: 195,000 km2; land area: 195,000 km2

Comparative area: slightly smaller than South Dakota

Land boundaries: 1,209 km total; Saudi Arabia 628 km, PDRY 581 km

Coastline: 523 km

Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 18 nm;

Continental shelf: 200 meters;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Disputes: sections of the boundary with PDRY are indefinite or undefined; undefined section of boundary with Saudi Arabia

Climate: desert; hot and humid along coast; temperate in central mountains; harsh desert in east

Terrain: narrow coastal plain (Tihama); western mountains; flat dissected plain in center sloping into desert interior of Arabian Peninsula

Natural resources: crude oil, rock salt, marble; small deposits of coal, nickel, and copper; fertile soil

Land use: 14% arable land; NEGL% permanent crops; 36% meadows and pastures; 8% forest and woodland; 42% other; includes 1% irrigated

Environment: subject to sand and dust storms in summer; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification

Note: controls northern approaches to Bab el Mandeb linking Red Sea and Gulf of Aden, one of world's most active shipping lanes

People Population: 7,160,981 (July 1990), growth rate 3.1% (1990)

Birth rate: 52 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 17 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: - 4 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 129 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 48 years male, 49 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 7.6 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun–Yemeni(s); adjective–Yemeni

Ethnic divisions: 90% Arab, 10% Afro-Arab (mixed)

Religion: 100% Muslim (Sunni and Shia)

Language: Arabic

Literacy: 15% (est.)

Labor force: NA; 70% agriculture and herding, 30% expatriate laborers (est.)

Government Long-form name: Yemen Arab Republic; abbreviated YAR

Type: republic; military regime assumed power in June 1974

Capital: Sanaa

Administrative divisions: 11 governorates (muhafazat, singular–muhafazah); Al Bayda, Al Hudaydah, Al Jawf, Al Mahwit, Dhamar, Hajjah, Ibb, Marib, Sadah, Sana, Taizz

Independence: November 1918 (from Ottoman Empire)

Constitution: 28 December 1970, suspended 19 June 1974

Legal system: based on Turkish law, Islamic law, and local customary law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: Proclamation of the Republic, 26 September (1962)

Executive branch: president, vice president, prime minister, four deputy prime ministers, Council of Ministers (cabinet)

Legislative branch: unicameral Consultative Assembly (Majlis ash-Shura)

Judicial branch: State Security Court

Leaders: Chief of State–President Col. Ali Abdallah SALIH (since 18 July 1978); Vice President (vacant);

Head of Government–Prime Minister Abd al-Aziz ABD AL-GHANI (since 12 November 1983, previously prime minister from 1975-1980 and co-Vice President from October 1980 to November 1983)

Political parties and leaders: no legal political parties; in 1983 President Salih started the General People's Congress, which is designed to function as the country's sole political party

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections: Consultative Assembly–last held 5 July 1988 (next to be held NA); results–percent of vote NA; seats–(159 total, 128 elected)

Communists: small number

Other political or pressure groups: conservative tribal groups, Muslim Brotherhood, leftist factions–pro-Iraqi Bathists, Nasirists, National Democratic Front (NDF) supported by the PDRY

Member of: ACC, Arab League, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDB–Islamic Development Bank, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, ITU, NAM, OIC, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Mohsin A. al-AINI; Chancery at Suite 840, 600 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington DC 20037; telephone (202) 965-4760 or 4761; there is a Yemeni Consulate General in Detroit and a Consulate in San Francisco; US–Ambassador Charles F. DUNBAR; Embassy at address NA, Sanaa (mailing address is P. O. Box 1088, Sanaa); telephone Õ967å (2) 271950 through 271958

Flag: three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and black with a large green five-pointed star centered in the white band; similar to the flags of Iraq, which has three stars, and Syria, which has two stars–all green and five-pointed in a horizontal line centered in the white band; also similar to the flag of Egypt, which has a symbolic eagle centered in the white band

Economy Overview: The low level of domestic industry and agriculture make North Yemen dependent on imports for virtually all of its essential needs. Large trade deficits are made up for by remittances from Yemenis working abroad and foreign aid. Once self-sufficient in food production, the YAR is now a major importer. Land once used for export crops–cotton, fruit, and vegetables–has been turned over to growing qat, a mildly narcotic shrub chewed by Yemenis that has no significant export market. Oil export revenues started flowing in late 1987 and boosted 1988 earnings by about $800 million.

GDP: $5.5 billion, per capita $820; real growth rate 19.7% (1988 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 16.9% (1988)

Unemployment rate: 13% (1986)

Budget: revenues $1.32 billion; expenditures $2.18 billion, including capital expenditures of $588 million (1988 est.)

Exports: $853 million (f.o.b., 1988); commodities–crude oil, cotton, coffee, hides, vegetables; partners–US 41%, PDRY 14%, Japan 12%

Imports: $1.3 billion (f.o.b., 1988); commodities–textiles and other manufactured consumer goods, petroleum products, sugar, grain, flour, other foodstuffs, and cement; partners–Italy 10%, Saudi Arabia 9%, US 9.3%, Japan 9%, UK 8% (1985)

External debt: $3.5 billion (December 1989 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate 2% in manufacturing (1988)

Electricity: 415,000 kW capacity; 500 million kWh produced, 70 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: crude oil production, small-scale production of cotton textiles and leather goods; food processing; handicrafts; fishing; small aluminum products factory; cement

Agriculture: accounts for 50% of GDP and 70% of labor force; farm products–grain, fruits, vegetables, qat (mildly narcotic shrub), coffee, cotton, dairy, poultry, meat, goat meat; not self-sufficient in grain

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (1970-88), $354 million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $1.4 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $2.9 billion; Communist countries (1970-88), $248 million

Currency: Yemeni riyal (plural–riyals); 1 Yemeni riyal (YR) = 100 fils

Exchange rates: Yemeni riyals (YR) per US$1–9.7600 (January 1990), 9.7600 (1989), 9.7717 (1988), 10.3417 (1987), 9.6392 (1986), 7.3633 (1985)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications Highways: 4,500 km; 2,000 km bituminous, 500 km crushed stone and gravel, 2,000 km earth, sand, and light gravel (est.)

Pipelines: crude oil, 424 km

Ports: Al Hudaydah, Al Mukha, Salif, Ras al Katib

Merchant marine: 1 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 192,679 GRT/40,640 DWT

Civil air: 7 major transport aircraft

Airports: 19 total, 14 usable; 3 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways over 3,659 m; 9 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 3 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: system poor but improving; new radio relay and cable networks; 50,000 telephones; stations–3 AM, no FM, 17 TV; satellite earth stations–1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT, 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT, 1 ARABSAT; tropospheric scatter to PDRY; radio relay to PDRY, Saudi Arabia, and Djibouti

Defense Forces Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Police

Military manpower: males 15-49, 1,289,217; 734,403 fit for military service; 79,609 reach military age (18) annually

Defense expenditures: $358 million (1987) .pa Yemen, People's Democratic Republic of ÕYemen (Aden) or South Yemenå Geography Total area: 332,970 km2; land area: 332,970 km2; includes Perim, Socotra

Comparative area: slightly larger than New Mexico

Land boundaries: 1,699 km total; Oman 288 km, Saudi Arabia 830 km, YAR 581 km

Coastline: 1,383 km

Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 24 nm;

Continental shelf: edge of continental margin or 200 nm;

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Disputes: sections of boundary with YAR indefinite or undefined; Administrative Line with Oman; no defined boundary with Saudi Arabia

Climate: desert; extraordinarily hot and dry

Terrain: mostly upland desert plains; narrow, flat, sandy coastal plain backed by flat-topped hills and rugged mountains

Natural resources: fish, oil, minerals (gold, copper, lead)

Land use: 1% arable land; NEGL% permanent crops; 27% meadows and pastures; 7% forest and woodland; 65% other; includes NEGL% irrigated

Environment: scarcity of natural freshwater resources; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification

Note: controls southern approaches to Bab el Mandeb linking Red Sea to Gulf of Aden, one of world's most active shipping lanes

People Population: 2,585,484 (July 1990), growth rate 3.2% (1990)

Birth rate: 48 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 14 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: - 2 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 110 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 50 years male, 54 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 7.0 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun–Yemeni(s); adjective–Yemeni

Ethnic divisions: almost all Arabs; a few Indians, Somalis, and Europeans

Religion: Sunni Muslim, some Christian and Hindu

Language: Arabic

Literacy: 25%

Labor force: 477,000; 45.2% agriculture, 21.2% services, 13.4% construction, 10.6% industry, 9.6% commerce and other (1983)

Organized labor: 348,200; the General Confederation of Workers of the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen has 35,000 members

Government Long-form name: People's Democratic Republic of Yemen; abbreviated PDRY

Type: republic

Capital: Aden

Administrative divisions: 6 governorates (muhafazat, singular–muhafazah); Abyan, Adan, Al Mahrah, Hadramawt, Lahij, Shabwah

Independence: 30 November 1967 (from UK)

Constitution: 31 October 1978

Legal system: based on Islamic law (for personal matters) and English common law (for commercial matters)

National holiday: National Day, 14 October

Executive branch: president, prime minister, two deputy prime ministers, Council of Ministers

Legislative branch: unicameral Supreme People's Council

Judicial branch: Federal High Court

Leaders: Chief of State–President Haydar Abu Bakr al-ATTAS (since 8 February 1986);

Head of Government–Chairman of the Council of Ministers (Prime Minister) Dr. Yasin Said NUMAN (since 8 February 1986); Deputy Prime Minister Salih Abu Bakr bin HUSAYNUN (since 8 February 1986); Deputy Prime Minister Salih Munassir al-SIYAYLI (since 8 February 1986)

Political parties and leaders: only party–Yemeni Socialist Party (YSP) is a coalition of National Front, Bath, and Communist Parties

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections: Supreme People's Council–last held 28-30 October 1986 (next to be held NA); results–YSP is the only party; seats–(111 total) YSP or YSP approved 111

Communists: NA

Other political or pressure groups: NA

Member of: Arab League, FAO, G-77, GATT (de facto), IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDB–Islamic Development Bank, IFAD, ILO, IMF, IMO, ITU, NAM, OIC, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation: none; the UK acts as the protecting power for the US in the PDRY

Flag: three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and black with a light blue, isosceles triangle based on the hoist side bearing a red five-pointed star

Economy Overview: The PDRY is one of the poorest Arab countries, with a per capita GNP of about $500. A shortage of natural resources, a widely dispersed population, and an arid climate make economic development difficult. The economy has grown at an average annual rate of only 2-3% since the mid-1970s. The economy is organized along socialist lines, dominated by the public sector. Economic growth has been constrained by a lack of incentives, partly stemming from centralized control over production decisions, investment allocation, and import choices.

GNP: $1.2 billion, per capita $495; real growth rate 5.2% (1988 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.8% (1987)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues $429 million; expenditures $976 million, including capital expenditures of $402 million (1988 est.)

Exports: $82.2 million (f.o.b., 1988 est.); commodities–cotton, hides, skins, dried and salted fish; partners–Japan, YAR, Singapore

Imports: $598.0 million (f.o.b., 1988 est.); commodities–grain, consumer goods, crude oil, machinery, chemicals; partners–USSR, Australia, UK

External debt: $2.25 billion (December 1989 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate NA%

Electricity: 245,000 kW capacity; 600 million kWh produced, 240 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: petroleum refinery (operates on imported crude oil); fish

Agriculture: accounts for 13% of GNP and 45% of labor force; products–grain, qat (mildly narcotic shrub), coffee, fish, livestock; fish and honey major exports; most food imported

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-80), $4.5 million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $241 million; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $279 million; Communist countries (1970-88), $2.2 billion

Currency: Yemeni dinar (plural–dinars); 1 Yemeni dinar (YD) = 1,000 fils

Exchange rates: Yemeni dinars (YD) per US$1–0.3454 (fixed rate)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications Highways: 11,000 km; 2,000 km bituminous, 9,000 km natural surface (est.)

Pipelines: refined products, 32 km

Ports: Aden, Al Khalf, Nishtun

Merchant marine: 3 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 4,309 GRT/6,568 DWT; includes 2 cargo, 1 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker

Civil air: 8 major transport aircraft

Airports: 42 total, 29 usable; 7 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways over 3,659 m; 11 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 10 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: small system of open-wire, radio relay, multiconductor cable, and radio communications stations; 15,000 telephones (est.); stations–1 AM, no FM, 5 TV; satellite earth stations–1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT, 1 Intersputnik, 1 ARABSAT; radio relay and tropospheric scatter to YAR

Defense Forces Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, People's Militia, People's Police

Military manpower: males 15-49, 544,190; 307,005 fit for military service

Defense expenditures: NA .pa Yugoslavia Geography Total area: 255,800 km2; land area: 255,400 km2

Comparative area: slightly larger than Wyoming

Land boundaries: 2,961 km total; Albania 486 km, Austria 311 km, Bulgaria 539 km, Greece 246 km, Hungary 631 km, Italy 202 km, Romania 546 km

Coastline: 3,935 km (including 2,414 km offshore islands)

Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: 200 meters or to depth of exploitation;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Disputes: Kosovo question with Albania; Macedonia question with Bulgaria and Greece

Climate: temperate; hot, relatively dry summers with mild, rainy winters along coast; warm summer with cold winters inland

Terrain: mostly mountains with large areas of karst topography; plain in north

Natural resources: coal, copper, bauxite, timber, iron ore, antimony, chromium, lead, zinc, asbestos, mercury, crude oil, natural gas, nickel, uranium

Land use: 28% arable land; 3% permanent crops; 25% meadows and pastures; 36% forest and woodland; 8% other; includes 1% irrigated

Environment: subject to frequent and destructive earthquakes

Note: controls the most important land routes from central and western Europe to Aegean Sea and Turkish straits

People Population: 23,841,608 (July 1990), growth rate 0.6% (1990)

Birth rate: 15 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 9 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 22 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 70 years male, 76 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 1.9 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun–Yugoslav(s); adjective–Yugoslav

Ethnic divisions: 36.3% Serb, 19.7% Croat, 8.9% Muslim, 7.8% Slovene, 7.7% Albanian, 5.9% Macedonian, 5.4% Yugoslav, 2.5% Montenegrin, 1.9% Hungarian, 3.9% other (1981 census)

Religion: 50% Eastern Orthodox, 30% Roman Catholic, 9% Muslim, 1% Protestant, 10% other

Language: Serbo-Croatian, Slovene, Macedonian (all official); Albanian, Hungarian

Literacy: 90.5%

Labor force: 9,600,000; 22% agriculture, 27% mining and manufacturing; about 5% of labor force are guest workers in Western Europe (1986)

Organized labor: 6,200,000 members in the Confederation of Trade Unions of Yugoslavia (SSJ)

Government Long-form name: Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia; abbreviated SFRY

Type: Communist state, federal republic in form

Capital: Belgrade

Administrative divisions: 6 socialist republics (socijalisticke republike, singular–socijalisticka republika); Bosna I Hercegovina, Crna Gora, Hrvatska, Makedonija, Slovenija, Srbija; note–there are two autonomous provinces (autonomne pokajine, singular–autonomna pokajina) named Kosovo and Vojvodina within Srbija

Independence: 1 December 1918; independent monarchy established from the Kingdoms of Serbia and Montenegro, parts of the Turkish Empire, and the Austro-Hungarian Empire; SFRY proclaimed 29 November 1945

Constitution: 21 February 1974

Legal system: mixture of civil law system and Communist legal theory; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: Proclamation of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, 29 November (1945)

Executive branch: president of the Collective State Presidency, vice president of the Collective State Presidency, Collective State Presidency, president of the Federal Executive Council, two vice presidents of the Federal Executive Council, Federal Executive Council

Legislative branch: bicameral Federal Assembly (Savezna Skupstina) consists of an upper chamber or Chamber of Republics and Provinces and a lower chamber or Federal Chamber

Judicial branch: Federal Court (Savezna Sud), Constitutional Court

Leaders: Chief of State President of the Collective State Presidency Borisav JOVIC (from Srbija; one-year term expires 15 May 1991); Vice President of the Collective State Presidency–Stipe SUVAR (from Hrvatska; one-year term expires 15 May 1991); note–the offices of president and vice president rotate annually among members of the Collective State Presidency with the current vice president assuming the presidency and a new vice president selected from area which has gone the longest without filling the position (the current sequence is Srbija, Hrvatska, Crna Gora, Vojvodina, Kosovo, Makedonija, Bosna i Hercegovina, and Slovenija);

Head of Government President of the Federal Executive Council Ante MARKOVIC (since 16 March 1989); Vice President of the Federal Executive Council Aleksandar MITROVIC (since 16 March 1989); Vice President of the Federal Executive Council Zivko PREGL (since 16 March 1989)

Political parties and leaders: there are about 90 political parties operating country-wide including the League of Communists of Yugoslavia (LCY)

Suffrage: at age 16 if employed, universal at age 18

Elections: direct national elections probably will be held in late 1990

Communists: 2,079,013 party members (1988)

Other political or pressure groups: Socialist Alliance of Working People of Yugoslavia (SAWPY), the major mass front organization; Confederation of Trade Unions of Yugoslavia (CTUY), League of Socialist Youth of Yugoslavia, Federation of Veterans' Associations of Yugoslavia (SUBNOR)

Member of: ASSIMER, CCC, CEMA (observer but participates in certain commissions), FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBA, IBRD, ICAC, ICAO, IDA, IDB–Inter-American Development Bank, IFAD, IFC, IHO, ILO, ILZSG, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IPU, ITC, ITU, NAM, OECD (participant in some activities), UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Dzevad MUJEZINOVIC; Chancery at 2410 California Street NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202) 462-6566; there are Yugoslav Consulates General in Chicago, Cleveland, New York, Pittsburgh, and San Francisco; US–Ambassador Warren ZIMMERMAN; Embassy at Kneza Milosa 50, Belgrade; telephone Õ38å (11) 645-655; there is a US Consulate General in Zagreb

Flag: three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), white, and red with a large red five-pointed star edged in yellow superimposed in the center over all three bands

Economy Overview: Tito's reform programs 20 years ago changed the Stalinist command economy to a decentralized semimarket system but a system that the rigid, ethnically divided political structure ultimately could not accommodate. A prominent feature of the reforms was the establishment of workers' self-management councils in all large plants, which were to select managers, stimulate production, and divide the proceeds. The general result of these reforms has been rampant wage-price inflation, substantial rundown of capital plant, consumer shortages, and a still larger income gap between the poorer southern regions and the relatively affluent northern provinces of Hrvatska and Slovenija. In 1988-89 the beleaguered central government has been reforming the reforms, trying to create an open market economy with still considerable state ownership of major industrial plants. These reforms have been moving forward with the advice and support of the International Monetary Fund through a series of tough negotiations. Self-management supposedly is to be replaced by the discipline of the market and by fiscal austerity, ultimately leading to a stable dinar. However, strikes in major plants, hyperinflation, and interregional political jousting have held back progress. According to US economic advisers, only a highly unlikely combination of genuine privatization, massive Western economic investment and aid, and political moderation can salvage this economy.

GNP: $129.5 billion, per capita $5,464; real growth rate - 1.0% (1989 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2,700% (1989 est.)

Unemployment rate: 15% (1989)

Budget: revenues $6.4 billion; expenditures $6.4 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1990)

Exports: $13.1 billion (f.o.b., 1988); commodities–raw materials and semimanufactures 50%, consumer goods 31%, capital goods and equipment 19%; partners–EC 30%, CEMA 45%, less developed countries 14%, US 5%, other 6%

Imports: $13.8 billion (c.i.f., 1988); commodities–raw materials and semimanufactures 79%, capital goods and equipment 15%, consumer goods 6%; partners–EC 30%, CEMA 45%, less developed countries 14%, US 5%, other 6%

External debt: $17.0 billion, medium and long term (1989)

Industrial production: growth rate - 1% (1989 est.)

Electricity: 21,000,000 kW capacity; 87,100 million kWh produced, 3,650 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: metallurgy, machinery and equipment, petroleum, chemicals, textiles, wood processing, food processing, pulp and paper, motor vehicles, building materials

Agriculture: diversified, with many small private holdings and large combines; main crops–corn, wheat, tobacco, sugar beets, sunflowers; occasionally a net exporter of corn, tobacco, foodstuffs, live animals

Aid: donor–about $3.5 billion in bilateral aid to non-Communist less developed countries (1966-88)

Currency: Yugoslav dinar (plural–dinars); 1 Yugoslav dinar (YD) = 100 paras; note–on 1 January 1990, Yugoslavia began issuing a new currency with 1 new dinar equal to 10,000 YD

Exchange rates: Yugoslav dinars (YD) per US$1–118,568 (January 1990), 28,764 (1989), 2,523 (1988), 737 (1987), 379 (1986), 270 (1985); note–as of February 1990 the new dinar is linked to the FRG deutsche mark at the rate of 7 new dinars per 1 deustche mark

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications Railroads: 9,270 km total; (all 1.435-meter standard gauge) including 926 km double track, 3,771 km electrified (1987)

Highways: 120,747 km total; 71,315 km asphalt, concrete, stone block; 34,299 km macadam, asphalt treated, gravel, crushed stone; 15,133 km earth (1987)

Inland waterways: 2,600 km (1982)

Pipelines: 1,373 km crude oil; 2,900 km natural gas; 150 km refined products

Ports: Rijeka, Split, Koper, Bar, Ploce; inland port is Belgrade

Merchant marine: 270 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 3,608,705 GRT/5,809,219 DWT; includes 3 passenger, 4 short-sea passenger, 131 cargo, 3 refrigerated cargo, 16 container, 14 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 3 multifunction large-load carrier, 9 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 3 chemical tanker, 3 combination ore/oil, 73 bulk, 8 combination bulk; note–Yugoslavia owns 19 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 229,614 GRT/353,224 DWT under the registry of Liberia, Panama, and Cyprus

Civil air: NA major transport aircraft

Airports: 184 total, 184 usable; 54 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways over 3.659 m; 22 with runways 2,440 to 3,659 m; 20 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: stations–199 AM, 87 FM, 50 TV; 4,107,846 TV sets; 4,700,000 radio receivers; satellite earth stations–1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT and 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT

Defense Forces Branches: Yugoslav People's Army–Ground Forces, Naval Forces, Air and Air Defense Forces, Frontier Guard, Territorial Defense Force, Civil Defense

Military manpower: males 15-49, 6,135,628; 4,970,420 fit for military service; 188,028 reach military age (19) annually

Defense expenditures: 14.8 trillion dinars, 4.6% of national income (1989 est.); note–conversion of the military budget into US dollars using the official administratively set exchange rate would produce misleading results .pa Zaire Geography Total area: 2,345,410 km2; land area: 2,267,600 km2

Comparative area: slightly more than one-quarter the size of US

Land boundaries: 10,271 km total; Angola 2,511 km, Burundi 233 km, Central African Republic 1,577 km, Congo 2,410 km, Rwanda 217 km, Sudan 628 km, Uganda 765 km, Zambia 1,930 km

Coastline: 37 km

Maritime claims:

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Disputes: Tanzania-Zaire-Zambia tripoint in Lake Tanganyika may no longer be indefinite since it is reported that the indefinite section of the Zaire-Zambia boundary has been settled; long section with Congo along the Congo River is indefinite (no division of the river or its islands has been made)

Climate: tropical; hot and humid in equatorial river basin; cooler and drier in southern highlands; cooler and wetter in eastern highlands; north of Equator–wet season April to October, dry season December to February; south of Equator–wet season November to March, dry season April to October

Terrain: vast central basin is a low-lying plateau; mountains in east

Natural resources: cobalt, copper, cadmium, crude oil, industrial and gem diamonds, gold, silver, zinc, manganese, tin, germanium, uranium, radium, bauxite, iron ore, coal, hydropower potential

Land use: 3% arable land; NEGL% permanent crops; 4% meadows and pastures; 78% forest and woodland; 15% other; includes NEGL% irrigated

Environment: dense tropical rainforest in central river basin and eastern highlands; periodic droughts in south

Note: straddles Equator; very narrow strip of land is only outlet to South Atlantic Ocean

People Population: 36,589,468 (July 1990), growth rate 3.3% (1990)

Birth rate: 46 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 13 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: NEGL migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 103 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 51 years male, 55 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 6.2 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun–Zairian(s); adjective–Zairian

Ethnic divisions: over 200 African ethnic groups, the majority are Bantu; four largest tribes–Mongo, Luba, Kongo (all Bantu), and the Mangbetu-Azande (Hamitic) make up about 45% of the population

Religion: 50% Roman Catholic, 20% Protestant, 10% Kimbanguist, 10% Muslim, 10% other syncretic sects and traditional beliefs

Language: French (official), Lingala, Swahili, Kingwana, Kikongo, Tshiluba

Literacy: 55% males, 37% females

Labor force: 15,000,000; 75% agriculture, 13% industry, 12% services; 13% wage earners (1981); 51% of population of working age (1985)

Organized labor: National Union of Workers of Zaire (UNTZA) is the only trade union

Government Long-form name: Republic of Zaire

Type: republic with a strong presidential system

Capital: Kinshasa

Administrative divisions: 8 regions (regions, singular–region) and 1 town* (ville); Bandundu, Bas-Zaire, Equateur, Haut-Zaire, Kasai-Occidental, Kasai-Oriental, Kinshasa*, Kivu, Shaba; note–there may now be 10 regions with the elimination of Kivu and addition of Maniema, Nord-Kivu, and Sud-Kivu

Independence: 30 June 1960 (from Belgium; formerly Belgian Congo, then Congo/Leopoldville, then Congo/Kinshasa)

Constitution: 24 June 1967, amended August 1974, revised 15 February 1978

Legal system: based on Belgian civil law system and tribal law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: Anniversary of the Regime (Second Republic), 24 November (1965)

Executive branch: president, prime minister, Executive Council (cabinet)

Legislative branch: unicameral National Legislative Council (Conseil Legislatif National)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Cour Supreme)

Leaders: Chief of State–President Marshal MOBUTU Sese Seko Kuku Ngbendu wa Za Banga (since 24 November 1965);

Head of Government–Prime Minister LUNDA Bululu (since 25 April 1988)

Political parties and leaders: only party–Popular Movement of the Revolution (MPR)

Suffrage: universal and compulsory at age 18

Elections: President–last held 29 July 1984 (next to be held July 1991); results–President Mobutu was reelected without opposition;

National Legislative Council–last held 6 September 1987 (next to be held September 1992); results–MPR is the only party; seats–(210 total) MPR 210

Communists: no Communist party

Member of: ACP, AfDB, APC, CCC, CIPEC, EAMA, EIB (associate), FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IPU, ITC, ITU, NAM, OAU, OCAM, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador (vacant), Charge d'Affaires MUKENDI Tambo a Kabila; Chancery at 1800 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington DC 20009; telephone (202) 234-7690 or 7691; US–Ambassador William C. HARROP; Embassy at 310 Avenue des Aviateurs, Kinshasa (mailing address is APO New York 09662); telephone Õ243å (12) 25881 through 25886; there is a US Consulate General in Lubumbashi

Flag: light green with a yellow disk in the center bearing a black arm holding a red flaming torch; the flames of the torch are blowing away from the hoist side; uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia

Economy Overview: In 1988, in spite of large mineral resources and one of the most developed and diversified economies in Sub-Saharan Africa, Zaire had a GDP per capita of $195, one of the lowest on the continent. Agriculture, a key sector of the economy, employs 75% of the population but generates under 30% of GDP. The main impetus for economic development has been the extractive industries. Mining and mineral processing account for about one-third of GDP and two-thirds of total export earnings. During the period 1983-88 the economy experienced slow growth, high inflation, a rising foreign debt, and a drop in foreign exchange earnings. Recent increases in foreign prices for copper–a key export earner–and other minerals offer some hope of reversing the economic decline. Zaire is the world's largest producer of diamonds.

GDP: $6.5 billion, per capita $195; real growth rate 2.8% (1988)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 82% (1988)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues $856 million; expenditures $2.3 billion, including capital expenditures of $655 million (1988)

Exports: $2.2 billion (f.o.b., 1988); commodities–copper 37%, coffee 24%, diamonds 12%, cobalt, crude oil; partners–US, Belgium, France, FRG, Italy, UK, Japan

Imports: $1.9 billion (f.o.b., 1988); commodities–consumer goods, foodstuffs, mining and other machinery, transport equipment, fuels; partners–US, Belgium, France, FRG, Italy, Japan, UK

External debt: $8.6 billion (December 1989 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate NA%

Electricity: 2,574,000 kW capacity; 5,550 million kWh produced, 160 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: mining, mineral processing, consumer products (including textiles, footwear, and cigarettes), processed foods and beverages, cement, diamonds

Agriculture: cash crops–coffee, palm oil, rubber, quinine; food crops–cassava, bananas, root crops, corn

Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis, mostly for domestic consumption

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $998 million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $6.0 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $35 million; Communist countries (1970-88), $263 million

Currency: zaire (plural–zaire); 1 zaire (Z) = 100 makuta

Exchange rates: zaire (Z) per US$1–465.000 (January 1989), 381.445 (1989), 187.070 (1988), 112.403 (1987), 59.625 (1986), 49.873 (1985)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications Railroads: 5,254 km total; 3,968 km 1.067-meter gauge (851 km electrified); 125 km 1.000-meter gauge; 136 km 0.615-meter gauge; 1,025 km 0.600-meter gauge

Highways: 146,500 km total; 2,550 km bituminous, 46,450 km gravel and improved earth; remainder unimproved earth

Inland waterways: 15,000 km including the Congo, its tributaries, and unconnected lakes

Pipelines: refined products 390 km

Ports: Matadi, Boma, Banana

Merchant marine: 4 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 41,802 GRT/60,496 DWT; includes 1 passenger cargo, 3 cargo

Civil air: 38 major transport aircraft

Airports: 312 total, 258 usable; 25 with permanent-surface runways; 1 with runways over 3,659 m; 6 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 71 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: barely adequate wire and radio relay service; 31,200 telephones; stations–10 AM, 4 FM, 18 TV; satellite earth stations–1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT, 14 domestic

Defense Forces Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, National Gendarmerie, Logistics Corps, Special Presidential Division

Military manpower: males 15-49, 7,970,619; 4,057,561 fit for military service

Defense expenditures: $67 million (1988) .pa Zambia Geography Total area: 752,610 km2; land area: 740,720 km2

Comparative area: slightly larger than Texas

Land boundaries: 5,664 km total; Angola 1,110 km, Malawi 837 km, Mozambique 419 km, Namibia 233 km, Tanzania 338 km, Zaire 1,930 km, Zimbabwe 797 km

Coastline: none–landlocked

Maritime claims: none–landlocked

Disputes: quadripoint with Botswana, Namibia, and Zimbabwe is in disagreement; Tanzania-Zaire-Zambia tripoint in Lake Tanganyika may no longer be indefinite since it is reported that the indefinite section of the Zaire-Zambia boundary has been settled

Climate: tropical; modified by altitude; rainy season (October to April)

Terrain: mostly high plateau with some hills and mountains

Natural resources: copper, cobalt, zinc, lead, coal, emeralds, gold, silver, uranium, hydropower potential

Land use: 7% arable land; NEGL% permanent crops; 47% meadows and pastures; 27% forest and woodland; 19% other; includes NEGL% irrigated

Environment: deforestation; soil erosion; desertification

Note: landlocked

People Population: 8,112,782 (July 1990), growth rate 3.2% (1990)

Birth rate: 49 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 12 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: - 6 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 80 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 55 years male, 58 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 7.0 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun–Zambian(s); adjective–Zambian

Ethnic divisions: 98.7% African, 1.1% European, 0.2% other

Religion: 50-75% Christian, 1% Muslim and Hindu, remainder indigenous beliefs

Language: English (official); about 70 indigenous languages

Literacy: 75.7%

Labor force: 2,455,000; 85% agriculture; 6% mining, manufacturing, and construction; 9% transport and services

Organized labor: about 238,000 wage earners are unionized

Government Long-form name: Republic of Zambia

Type: one-party state

Capital: Lusaka

Administrative divisions: 9 provinces; Central, Copperbelt, Eastern, Luapula, Lusaka, Northern, North-Western, Southern, Western

Independence: 24 October 1964 (from UK; formerly Northern Rhodesia)

Constitution: 25 August 1973

Legal system: based on English common law and customary law; judicial review of legislative acts in an ad hoc constitutional council; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: Independence Day, 24 October (1964)

Executive branch: president, prime minister, Cabinet

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Leaders: Chief of State–President Dr. Kenneth David KAUNDA (since 24 October 1964);

Head of Government–Prime Minister Gen. Malimba MASHEKE (since 15 March 1989)

Political parties and leaders: only party–United National Independence Party (UNIP), Kenneth Kaunda

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections: President–last held 26 October 1988 (next to be held October 1993); results–President Kenneth Kaunda was reelected without opposition;

National Assembly–last held 26 October 1988 (next to be held October 1993); results–UNIP is the only party; seats–(136 total, 125 elected) UNIP 125

Communists: no Communist party

Member of: ACP, AfDB, CCC, Commonwealth, FAO, G-77, GATT (de facto), IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, ILZSG, IMF, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IPU, ITU, NAM, OAU, SADCC, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Paul J. F. LUSAKA; Chancery at 2419 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202) 265-9717 through 9721; US–Ambassador Jeffrey DAVIDOW; Embassy at corner of Independence Avenue and United Nations Avenue, Lusaka (mailing address is P. O. Box 31617, Lusaka); telephone Õ2601å 214911

Flag: green with a panel of three vertical bands of red (hoist side), black, and orange below a soaring orange eagle, on the outer edge of the flag

Economy Overview: Despite temporary growth in 1988, the economy has been in decline for more than a decade with falling imports and growing foreign debt. Economic difficulties stem from a sustained drop in copper production and ineffective economic policies. In 1988 real GDP stood only slightly higher than that of 10 years before, while an annual population growth of more than 3% has brought a decline in per capita GDP of 25% during the same period. A high inflation rate has also added to Zambia's economic woes in recent years.

GDP: $4.0 billion, per capita $530; real growth rate 6.7% (1988)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 55.7% (1988)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues $570 million; expenditures $939 million, including capital expenditures of $36 million (1988 est.)

Exports: $1,184 million (f.o.b., 1988); commodities–copper, zinc, cobalt, lead, tobacco; partners–EC, Japan, South Africa, US

Imports: $687 million (c.i.f., 1988); commodities–machinery, transportation equipment, foodstuffs, fuels, manufactures; partners–EC, Japan, South Africa, US

External debt: $6.9 billion (December 1989)

Industrial production: growth rate NA% (1986)

Electricity: 1,900,000 kW capacity; 8,245 million kWh produced, 1,050 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: copper mining and processing, transport, construction, foodstuffs, beverages, chemicals, textiles, and fertilizer

Agriculture: accounts for 15% of GDP and 85% of labor force; crops–corn (food staple), sorghum, rice, peanuts, sunflower, tobacco, cotton, sugarcane, cassava; cattle, goats, beef, eggs produced; marginally self-sufficient in corn

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (1970-88), $466 million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $4.2 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $60 million; Communist countries (1970-88), $533 million

Currency: Zambian kwacha (plural–kwacha); 1 Zambian kwacha (ZK) = 100 ngwee

Exchange rates: Zambian kwacha (ZK) per US$1–21.7865 (January 1990), 12.9032 (1989), 8.2237 (1988), 8.8889 (1987), 7.3046 (1986), 2.7137 (1985)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications Railroads: 1,266 km, all 1.067-meter gauge; 13 km double track

Highways: 36,370 km total; 6,500 km paved, 7,000 km crushed stone, gravel, or stabilized soil; 22,870 km improved and unimproved earth

Inland waterways: 2,250 km, including Zambezi and Luapula Rivers, Lake Tanganyika

Pipelines: 1,724 km crude oil

Ports: Mpulungu (lake port)

Civil air: 6 major transport aircraft

Airports: 121 total, 106 usable; 13 with permanent-surface runways; 1 with runways over 3,659 m; 4 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 22 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: facilities are among the best in Sub-Saharan Africa; high-capacity radio relay connects most larger towns and cities; 71,700 telephones; stations–11 AM, 3 FM, 9 TV; satellite earth stations–1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT and 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT

Defense Forces Branches: Army, Air Force, Police, Paramilitary

Military manpower: males 15-49, 1,683,758; 883,283 fit for military service

Defense expenditures: NA .pa Zimbabwe Geography Total area: 390,580 km2; land area: 386,670 km2

Comparative area: slightly larger than Montana

Land boundaries: 3,066 km total; Botswana 813 km, Mozambique 1,231 km, South Africa 225 km, Zambia 797 km

Coastline: none–landlocked

Maritime claims: none–landlocked

Disputes: quadripoint with Botswana, Namibia, and Zambia is in disagreement

Climate: tropical; moderated by altitude; rainy season (November to March)

Terrain: mostly high plateau with higher central plateau (high veld); mountains in east

Natural resources: coal, chromium ore, asbestos, gold, nickel, copper, iron ore, vanadium, lithium, tin

Land use: 7% arable land; NEGL% permanent crops; 12% meadows and pastures; 62% forest and woodland; 19% other; includes NEGL% irrigated

Environment: recurring droughts; floods and severe storms are rare; deforestation; soil erosion; air and water pollution; desertification

Note: landlocked

People Population: 10,392,161 (July 1990), growth rate 3.3% (1990)

Birth rate: 42 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 9 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 65 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 59 years male, 63 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 5.8 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun–Zimbabwean(s); adjective–Zimbabwean

Ethnic divisions: 98% African (71% Shona, 16% Ndebele, 11% other); 1% white, 1% mixed and Asian

Religion: 50% syncretic (part Christian, part indigenous beliefs), 25% Christian, 24% indigenous beliefs, a few Muslim

Language: English (official); Shona and Ndebele

Literacy: 74%

Labor force: 3,100,000; 74% agriculture, 16% transport and services, 10% mining, manufacturing, construction (1987)

Organized labor: 17% of wage and salary earners have union membership

Government Long-form name: Republic of Zimbabwe

Type: parliamentary democracy

Capital: Harare

Administrative divisions: 8 provinces; Manicaland, Mashonaland Central, Mashonaland East, Mashonaland West, Matabeleland North, Matabeleland South, Midlands, Victoria (commonly called Masvingo)

Independence: 18 April 1980 (from UK; formerly Southern Rhodesia)

Constitution: 21 December 1979

Legal system: mixture of Roman-Dutch and English common law

National holiday: Independence Day, 18 April (1980)

Executive branch: president, vice president, Cabinet

Legislative branch: unicameral Parliament

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Leaders: Chief of State and Head of Government–Executive President Robert Gabriel MUGABE (since 31 December 1987); Vice President Simon Vengai MUZENDA (since 31 December 1987)

Political parties and leaders: Zimbabwe African National Union-Patriotic Front (ZANU-PF), Robert Mugabe; Zimbabwe African National Union-Sithole (ZANU-S), Ndabaningi Sithole; Zimbabwe Unity Movement (ZUM), Edgar Tekere

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections: President–last held 28-30 March 1990 (next to be held March 1995); results–President Robert Mugabe 78.3%; Edgar Tekere 21.7%;

Parliament–last held 28-30 March 1990 (next to be held March 1993); results–percent of vote by party NA; seats–(150 total, 120 elected) ZANU 116, ZUM 2, ZANU-S 1, to be determined 1

Communists: no Communist party

Member of: ACP, AfDB, CCC, Commonwealth, FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, INTERPOL, NAM, OAU, SADCC, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO

Diplomatic representation: Counselor (Political Affairs), Head of Chancery, Ambassador Stanislaus Garikai CHIGWEDERE; Chancery at 2852 McGill Terrace NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202) 332-7100; US–Ambassador-designate Steven RHODES; Embassy at 172 Rhodes Avenue, Harare (mailing address is P. O. Box 3340, Harare); telephone Õ263å (14) 794-521

Flag: seven equal horizontal bands of green, yellow, red, black, red, yellow, and green with a white equilateral triangle edged in black based on the hoist side; a yellow Zimbabwe bird is superimposed on a red five-pointed star in the center of the triangle

Economy Overview: Agriculture employs a majority of the labor force and supplies almost 40% of exports. The agro-based manufacturing sector produces a variety of goods and contributes about 25% to GDP. Mining accounts for only 5% of both GDP and employment, but supplies of minerals and metals account for about 40% of exports. Wide year-to-year fluctuations in agricultural production over the past six years resulted in not only an uneven growth rate, but one that did not equal the 3% annual increase in population.

GDP: $4.6 billion, per capita $470; real growth rate 5.3% (1988 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 7.4% (1988)

Unemployment rate: at least 20% (1988 est.)

Budget: revenues $2.4 billion; expenditures $3.0 billion, including capital expenditures of $290 million (FY90)

Exports: $1.6 billion (f.o.b., 1988); commodities–agricultural 34% (tobacco 21%, other 13%), manufactures 19%, gold 11%, ferrochrome 11%, cotton 6%; partners–Europe 55% (EC 41%, Netherlands 6%, other 8%), Africa 22% (South Africa 12%, other 10%), US 6%

Imports: $1.1 billion (c.i.f., 1988); commodities–machinery and transportation equipment 37%, other manufactures 22%, chemicals 16%, fuels 15%; partners–EC 31%, Africa 29% (South Africa 21%, other 8%), US 8%, Japan 4%

External debt: $2.96 billion (December 1989 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate 4.7% (1988 est.)

Electricity: 2,036,000 kW capacity; 5,460 million kWh produced, 540 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: mining, steel, clothing and footwear, chemicals, foodstuffs, fertilizer, beverage, transportation equipment, wood products

Agriculture: accounts for about 15% of GDP and employs over 70% of population; 40% of land area divided into 6,000 large commercial farms and 42% in communal lands; crops–corn (food staple), cotton, tobacco, wheat, coffee, sugarcane, peanuts; livestock–cattle, sheep, goats, pigs; self-sufficient in food

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY80-88), $359 million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $2.0 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $36 million; Communist countries (1970-88), $134 million

Currency: Zimbabwean dollar (plural–dollars); 1 Zimbabwean dollar (Z$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Zimbabwean dollars (Z$) per US$1–2.2873 (January 1990), 2.1133 (1989), 1.8018 (1988), 1.6611 (1987), 1.6650 (1986), 1.6119 (1985)

Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June

Communications Railroads: 2,745 km 1.067-meter gauge; 42 km double track; 355 km electrified

Highways: 85,237 km total; 15,800 km paved, 39,090 km crushed stone, gravel, stabilized soil: 23,097 km improved earth; 7,250 km unimproved earth

Inland waterways: Lake Kariba is a potential line of communication

Pipelines: 8 km, refined products

Civil air: 12 major transport aircraft

Airports: 506 total, 420 usable; 23 with permanent-surface runways; 2 with runways over 3,659 m; 3 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 37 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: system was once one of the best in Africa, but now suffers from poor maintenance; consists of radio relay links, open-wire lines, and radio communications stations; 247,000 telephones; stations–8 AM, 18 FM, 8 TV; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

Defense Forces Branches: Zimbabwe National Army, Air Force of Zimbabwe, Police Support Unit, People's Militia

Military manpower: males 15-49, 2,173,448; 1,342,920 fit for military service

Defense expenditures: $446.7 million (FY89 est.) .pa 

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