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              BEYOND THE ORALITY/LITERACY DICHOTOMY:
           JAMES JOYCE AND THE PRE-HISTORY OF CYBERSPACE
                                by
                         DONALD F. THEALL
                       University Professor
                         Trent University
                        <dtheall@trentu.ca>
             _Postmodern Culture_ v.2 n.3 (May, 1992)
        Copyright (c) 1992 by Donald F. Theall, all rights
        reserved.  This text may be freely shared among
        individuals, but it may not be republished in any
        medium without express written consent from the authors
        and advance notification of the editors.

[1] _The Gutenberg Galaxy_, a book which redirected the way

   that artists, critics, scholars and communicators viewed the
   role of technological mediation in communication and
   expression, had its origin in Marshall McLuhan's desire to
   write a book called "The Road to _Finnegans Wake_."  It has
   not been widely recognized just how important James Joyce's
   major writings were to McLuhan, or to other major figures
   (such as Jorge Luis Borges, John Cage, Jacques Derrida,
   Umberto Eco, and Jacques Lacan) who have written about
   aspects of communication involving technological mediation,
   speech, writing, and electronics.  While all of these
   connections should be explored, the most enthusiastic
   Joycean of them all, McLuhan, provides the most specific
   bridge linking the work of Joyce and his modernist
   contemporaries to the development of electric communication
   and to the prehistory of cyberspace and virtual reality.
   McLuhan's scouting of "the Road to _Finnegans Wake_"
   established him as the first major disseminator of those
   Joycean insights which have become the unacknowledged basis
   for our thinking about technoculture, just as the pervasive
   McLuhanesque vocabulary has become a part, often an
   unconscious one, of our verbal heritage.

[2] In the mid-80s, William Gibson first identified the

   emergence of cyberspace as the most recent moment in the
   development of electromechanical communications, telematics
   and virtual reality.  Cyberspace, as Gibson saw it, is the
   simultaneous experience of time, space, and the flow of
   multi-dimensional, pan-sensory data:
        All the data in the world stacked up like one big neon
        city, so you could cruise around and have a kind of
        grip on it, visually anyway, because if you didn't, it
        was too complicated, trying to find your way to the
        particular piece of data you needed.  Iconics, Gentry
        called that.^1^
   This "consensual hallucination" produced by "data abstracted
   from the banks of every computer in the human system"
   creates an "unthinkable complexity.  Lines of light ranged
   in the nonspace of the mind, clusters and constellations of
   data.  Like city lights receding."^2^  Almost a decade
   earlier, McLuhan's remarks about computers (dating from the
   late 70s) display some striking similarities:^3^
        It steps up the velocity of logical sequential
        calculations to the speed of light reducing numbers to
        body count by touch . . . .  It brings back the
        Pythagorean occult embodied in the idea that "numbers
        are all"; and at the same time it dissolves hierarchy
        in favor of decentralization.  When applied to new
        forms of electronic-messaging such as teletext and
        videotext, it quickly converts sequential alphanumeric
        texts into multi-level signs and aphorisms, encouraging
        ideographic summation, like hieroglyphs.^4^
   McLuhan's %hieroglyphs% certainly more than anticipate
   Gibson's %iconics% and McLuhan's particular use of
   hieroglyph or iconology, like that of mosaic, primarily
   derives from Joyce and Giambattista Vico.

[3] It is not surprising then that McLuhan's works, side by

   side with those of Gibson, have been avidly read by early
   researchers in MIT's Media Lab^5^, for these researchers
   also conceive of a VR composed, like the tribal and
   collective "global village," of "tactile, haptic,
   proprioceptive and acoustic spaces and involvements."^6^
   The experiments of the artistic avant-garde movements (such
   as the Dadaists, the Bauhaus and the Surrealists) and of
   individuals (such as Marcel Duchamp, Paul Klee, Sergei
   Eisenstein or Luis Bunuel) generated the exploration of the
   semiotics and technical effects of such spaces and
   involvements.  Duchamp, for example, became an early leading
   figure in splitting apart the presumed generic boundaries of
   painting and sculpture to explore arts of motion, light,
   movement, gesture, and concept, exemplified in his _Large
   Glass_^7^ and the serial publication of his accompanying
   notes from _The Box of 1914_ through _The Green Box_ to _A
   l'infinitif_.  His interest in the notes as part of the
   total work echo Joyce's own interest in the publication of
   _Work in Progress_ and commentaries he organized upon it
   (e.g., _Our Exagmination Round his Factification for
   Incamination of Work in Progress_).  Joyce also explores
   similar aspects of motion, light, movement, gesture and
   concept.  So the road to VR and MIT's Media Lab begins with
   poetic and artistic experimentation in the late nineteenth
   and early twentieth century; later, as Stuart Brand notes,
   many of the Media Lab researchers of the 60s and 70s placed
   great importance on collaboration with artists involved in
   exploring the nature and art of motion and in investigating
   new relationships between sight, hearing, and the other
   senses.^8^

[4] Understanding the social and cultural implications of

   VR and cyberspace requires a radical reassessment of the
   inter-relationships between Gibson's now commonplace
   description of cyberspace, McLuhan's modernist-influenced
   vision of the development of electric media, and the
   particular impact that Joyce had both on McLuhan's writings
   about electrically mediated communication and on the views
   of Borges, Cage, Derrida, Eco and Lacan regarding problems
   of mediation and communication.  Such a reassessment
   requires that two central issues be discussed: (i) the
   crucial nature of VR's challenge to the privileging of
   language through the orality/literacy dichotomization used
   by many theorists of language and communication; (ii) the
   idea of VR's presence as *the* super-medium that encompasses
   and transcends all media.  The cluster of critics who have
   addressed orality and literacy, following the lead of Walter
   Ong, H.A. Innis and Eric Havelock, have--like them--failed
   to comprehend the fact that McLuhan was disseminating a
   Joycean view which grounded communication in tactility,
   gesture and CNS processes, rather than promulgating the
   emergence of a new oral/aural age, a secondary orality.
   This emphasis on the tactile, the gestural and the play of
   the CNS in communication is a key to Joyce's literary
   exploration of a theme he shared with his radical modernist
   colleagues in other arts who envisioned the eventual
   development of a coenaesthetic medium^9^ that would
   integrate and harmonize the effects of sensory and
   neurological information in currently existing and newly
   emerging art forms.

[5] Joyce's work should be recognized as pioneering the

   artistic exploration of two sets of differences--
   orality/literacy and print/[tele-]electric media--that have
   since become dominant themes in the discussion of these
   questions.  _Finnegans Wake_ is one of the first major
   poetic encounters with the challenge that electronic media
   present to the traditionally accepted relationships between
   speech, script and print.  (_Ulysses_ also involves such an
   encounter, but at an earlier stage in the historic
   development of mediated communication.)  Imagine Joyce
   around 1930 asking the question: what is the role of the
   book in a culture which has discovered photography,
   phonography, radio, film, television, telegraph, cable, and
   telephone and has developed newspapers, magazines,
   advertising, Hollywood, and sales promotion?  What people
   once read, they will now go to see in film and on
   television; everyday life will appear in greater detail and
   more up-to-date fashion in the press, on radio and in
   television; oral poetry will be reanimated by the
   potentialities of sound recording.^10^

[6] The "counter-poetic," _Finnegans Wake_, provides one of

  • the* key texts regarding the problem presented by the

dichotomization of the oral and the written and by its

   frequent corollary, a privileging of either speech or
   language.  This enigmatic work is not only a polysemic,
   encyclopedic book designed to be read with the simultaneous
   involvement of ear and eye: it is also a self-reflexive book
   about the role of the book in the electro-machinic world of
   the new technology.^11^  The _Wake_ is the most
   comprehensive exploration, prior to the 1960s or 70s, of the
   ways in which these new modes created a dramatic crisis for
   the arts of language and the privileged position of the
   printed book.  The _Wake_ dramatizes the necessary
   deconstruction and reconstruction of language in a world
   where multi-semic grammars and rhetorics, combined with
   entirely new modes for organizing and transmitting
   information and knowledge, eventually would impose a variety
   of new, highly specialized roles on speech, print and
   writing.  Joyce's selection of Vico's _New Science_^12^ as
   the structural scaffolding for the _Wake_--the equivalent of
   Homer's _Odyssey_ in _Ulysses_--underscores how his interest
   in the contemporary transformation of the book requires
   grounding the evolution of civilization in the poetics of
   communication, especially gesture and language and the
   "prophetic" role of the poetic in shaping the future.

[7] As the world awakens to the full potentialities for the

   construction of artifacts and processes of communication in
   the new electric cosmos, Joyce foresees the transformation
   (not the death) of the book--going beyond the book as it had
   historically evolved.  Confronted with this situation, Joyce
   seeks to develop a poetic language which will resituate the
   book within this new communicative cosmos, while
   simultaneously recognizing the drive toward the development
   of a theoretically all-inclusive, all-encompassing medium,
   "virtual reality."  Since the action takes place in a
   dreamworld, Joyce can produce an impressively prophetic
   imaginary prototype for the virtual worlds of the future.
   His dreamworld envelops the reader within an aural sphere,
   accompanied by kinetic and gestural components that arise
   from effects of rhythm and intonation realized through the
   visual act of reading; but it also reproduces imaginarily
   the most complex multi-media forms and envisions how they
   will utilize his present, which will have become the past,
   to transform the future.^13^

[8] The hero(ine)^14^ in the _Wake_, "Here Comes

   Everybody," is a communicating machine, "This harmonic
   condenser enginium (the Mole)" (310.1), an electric
   transmission-receiver system, an ear, the human sensorium, a
   presence "eclectrically filtered for all irish earths and
   ohmes."  Joyce envisions the person as embodied within an
   electro-machinopolis (an electric, pan-global, machinic
   environment), which becomes an extension of the human body,
   an interior presence, indicated by a stress on the
   playfulness of the whole person and on tactility as calling
   attention to the interplay of sensory information within the
   electro-chemical neurological system.  This medley of
   elements and concerns, focussed on questioning the place of
   oral and written language in an electro-mechanical
   technoculture that engenders more and more comprehensive
   modes of communication biased towards the dramatic, marks
   Joyce as a key figure in the pre-history of virtual reality.

[9] Acutely sensitive to the inseparable involvement of

   speech, script, and print with the visual, the auditory, the
   kinesthetic and other modes of expression, Joyce roots all
   communication in gesture: "In the beginning was the gest he
   jousstly says" (468.5-6).  Here the originary nature of
   gesture (gest, F. %geste% = gesture)^15^ is linked with the
   mechanics of humor (i.e., jest) and to telling a tale
   (gest as a feat and a tale or romance).  Gestures, like
   signals and flashing lights that provide elementary
   mechanical systems for communications, are "words of silent
   power" (345.19).  A traffic crossing sign, "Belisha beacon,
   beckon bright" (267.12), exemplifies such situations "Where
   flash becomes word and silents selfloud."  Since gestures,
   and ultimately all acts of communication, are generated from
   the body, the "gest" as "flesh without word" (468.5-6) is "a
   flash" that becomes word and "communicake[s] with the
   original sinse" [originary sense + the temporal, "since" +
   original sin (239.1)].  "Communicake" parallels eating to
   speaking, and speaking is linked in turn to the act of
   communion as participation in, and consumption of, the
   Word--an observation adumbrated in the title of one of
   Marcel Jousse's groundbreaking books on gesture as the
   origin of language, _La Manducation de la Parole_ ("The
   Mastication of the Word").  By treating the "gest" as a bit
   (a bite), orality and the written word as projections of
   gesture can be seen to spring from the body as a
   communicating machine.^16^  The historical processes that
   contribute to the development of cyberspace augment the
   growing emphasis, in theories such as Kenneth Burke's, on
   the idea that the goal of the symbolic action called
   communication is *secular, paramodern communion*.^17^

[10] The _Wake_ provides a self-reflexive explanation of the

   communicative process of encoding and decoding required to
   interpret an encoded text, which itself is
   characteristically mechanical:
        The prouts who will invent a writing there ultimately
        is the poeta, still more learned, who discovered the
        raiding there originally.  That's the point of
        eschatology our book of kills reaches for now in
        soandso many counterpoint words.  What can't be coded
        can be decorded if an ear aye seize what no eye ere
        grieved for.  Now, the doctrine obtains, we have
        occasioning cause causing effects and affects
        occasionally recausing altereffects.  Or I will let me
        take it upon myself to suggest to twist the penman's
        tale posterwise.  The gist is the gist of Shaum but the
        hand is the hand of Sameas.  (482.31-483.4)
   The dreamer as a poet, a Hermetic thief, an "outlex"
   (169.3)--i.e., an outlaw, lawless, beyond the word and,
   therefore, the law, "invents" the writing by originally
   discovering the reading of the book and does so by "raiding"
   [i.e., "plundering" (reading + raiding)].^18^  This reading
   encompasses both the idealistic "eschatology" and the
   excrementitious-materialistic (pun on scatology) within the
   designing of this "book of kills" (deaths, deletions,
   drinking sessions, flows of water--a counterpoint of
   continuity and discontinuity),^19^ a book as carefully
   crafted or machined as the illuminations of the _Book of
   Kells_ are.  Seeing and hearing are intricately involved in
   this process, so the reader of this night-book also becomes
   a "raider" of the original "reading-writing" through the
   machinery of writing.  It is a production "in soandso many
   counterpoint words" that can be read only through the
   machinery of decoding, for "What can't be coded can be
   decorded, if an ear aye seize what no eye ere grieved for"
   (482.34).  The tale that the pen writes is transmitted by
   the post, and the whole process of communication and its
   interpretation is an extension of the hand and of bodily
   gesture-language: "The gist is the gist of Shaum but the
   hand is the hand of Sameas" (483.3-4).

[11] Orality, particularly song, is grounded in the

   machinery of the body's organs: "Singalingalying.  Storiella
   as she is syung.  Whence followeup with endspeaking nots for
   yestures" (267.7-9).^20^  The link is rhythm, for
   "Soonjemmijohns will cudgel some a rhythmatick or other over
   Browne and Nolan's divisional tables" (268.7-9).  Gesture,
   with its affiliation with all of the neuro-muscular
   movements of the body, is a natural script or originary
   writing, for the word "has been reconstricted out of oral
   style into verbal for all time with ritual rhythmics"
   (36.8-9).  Since the oral is "reconstricted" (reconstructed
   + constricted or limited) into the verbal, words also are
   crafted in relation to sound, a natural development of which
   is "wordcraft": for example, hieroglyphs and primitive
   script based on drawings or mnemonic devices.^21^  Runes and
   ogham are literally "woodwordings," so pre- or proto-writing
   (i.e., syllabic writing) is already "a mechanization of the
   word," which is itself implicit in the body's use of
   gesture.

[12] Joyce's practice and his theoretical orientation imply

   that as the road to cyberspace unfolds, the very nature of
   the word, the image, and the icon also changes.  Under the
   impact of electric communication, it is once again clear
   that the concept of the word must embrace artifacts and
   events as well.^22^  Writing and speech are subsumed into
   entirely new relationships with non-phonemic sound, image,
   gesture, movement, rhythm, and all modes of sensory input,
   especially the tactile.  To continue to speak about a
   dichotomy of orality versus literacy is a misleading
   over-simplification of the role that electric media play in
   this transformation, a role best comprehended through
   historical knowledge of the earliest stages of human
   communication where objects, gestures and movements
   apparently intermingled with verbal and non-verbal sounds.
   Marschak's study of early cultural artifacts, the Aschers'
   discussion of the quipu, and Levi-Strauss's discussions of
   the kinship system demonstrate the relative complexity of
   some ancient, non-linguistic systems of communication.^23^
   Adapting Vico's speculation that human communication begins
   with the gestures and material symbols of the "mute," Joyce
   early in the _Wake_ presents an encounter between two
   characters whose names deliberately echo Mutt and Jeff of
   comic strip fame.  Mutt (until recently a mute) and Jute (a
   nomadic invader) "excheck a few strong verbs weak oach
   eather" (16.8-9).

[13] Beginning with gesture, hieroglyph and rune, Joyce

   traces human communication through its complex, labyrinthine
   development, right down to the TV and what it bodes for the
   future.  For example, an entire episode of the _Wake_
   (I,5)^24^ is devoted to the technology of manuscripts and
   the theory of their interpretation--textual hermeneutics--in
   which the _Wake_ as a book is interpreted as if it were a
   manuscript, "the proteiform graph is a polyhedron of all
   scripture" (107.8).  At each stage, Joyce recognizes how the
   machinery of codification is implicit in the history of
   communication, for discussing this manuscript, he observes
   that
        on holding the verso against a lit rush this new
        book of Morses responded most remarkably to the silent
        query of our world's oldest light and its recto let out
        the piquant fact that it was but pierced but not
        punctured (in the university sense of the term) by
        numerous stabs and foliated gashes made by a pronged
        instrument. . . .  (123.34-124.3)
   This illustrates how the beginning of electric media (the
   telegraph) is a transformation of the potentialities of the
   early manuscript, just as any manuscript is a transformation
   of the "wordcraft" of "woodwordings."  "Morse code" is
   indicative of the mechanics of codification, for while code
   is essential to all communication (thus prior to the moment
   when the mechanical is electrified), the role of
   codification is radically transformed by mechanization.

[14] The appearance of the printing press demonstrates the

   effect of this radical transformation:
        Gutenmorg with his cromagnon charter, tintingfast
        and great primer must once for omniboss step
        rubrickredd out of the wordpress else is there no
        virtue more in alcohoran.  For that (the rapt one
        warns) is what papyr is meed of, made of, hides and
        hints and misses in prints.  Till ye finally (though
        not yet endlike) meet with the acquaintance of Mister
        Typus, Mistress Tope and all the little typtopies.
        Fillstup.  So you need hardly spell me how every word
        will be bound over to carry three score and ten
        toptypsical readings throughout the book of Doublends
        Jined . . . .  (20.7-16)
   As "Gutenmorg with his cromagnon charter, tintingfast and
   great primer" steps "rubrickredd out of the wordpress," the
   dream reminds us that "papyr is meed of, made of, hides and
   hints and misses in prints."  Topics (L. %topos%) and types
   (L. %typus%) as figures, forms, images, topics and
   commonplaces, the elemental bits of writing and rhetoric,
   are now realized through typesetting.  Implicit in the
   technology of print is the complex intertextuality of verbal
   ambivalence, for "every word will be bound over to carry
   three score and ten toptypsical readings throughout the book
   of Doublends Jined."  Printing sets in place the "root
   language" (424.17) residing in the types and topes of the
   world and potentially eliminates a multitude of alternate
   codes such as actual sounds, visual images, real objects,
   movements, and gestures that will re-emerge with the
   electromechanical march towards VR and cyberspace.

[15] By the 1930s, in a pub scene in the _Wake_, Joyce

   playfully anticipated how central sporting events or
   political debates would be for television when he described
   the TV projection of a fight being viewed by the pub's
   "regulars" (possibly the first fictional TV bar room scene
   in literary history).  Joyce's presentation of this image of
   the battle of Butt and Taff, which is peppered with complex
   puns involving terminology associated with the technical
   details of TV transmission, has its own metamorphic quality,
   underscored by the "viseversion" (vice versa imaging) of
   Butt and Taff's images on "the bairdboard bombardment
   screen" ("bairdboard" because John Logie Baird developed TV
   in 1925).  Joyce explains how "the bairdboard bombardment
   screen," the TV as receiver, receives the composite video
   signal "in scynopanc pulses" (the synchronization pulses
   that form part of the composite video signal), that come
   down the "photoslope" on the "carnier walve" (i.e., the
   carrier wave which carries the composite video signal) "with
   the bitts bugtwug their teffs."  Joyce imagines this
   receiver to be a "light barricade" against which the charge
   of the light brigade (the video signal) is directed,
   reproducing the "bitts."  Although (at least to my
   knowledge) bit was not used as a technical term in
   communication technology at the time, Joyce is still able,
   on analogy with the telegraph, to think of the electrons or
   photons as bits of information creating the TV picture.

[16] Speech, print and writing are interwoven with

   electromechanical technologies of communication throughout
   the _Wake_.  References to the manufacture of books,
   newspapers and other products of the printing press abound.
   Machineries and technological organizations accompany this
   development: reporters, editors, interviewers, newsboys, ad
   men who produce "Abortisements" (181.33).  Since complex
   communication technology is characteristic of the later
   stages, in addition to newspapers, radio, "dupenny"
   magazines, comics (contemporary cave drawing), there is "a
   phantom city phaked by philm pholk," by those who would
   "roll away the reel world."  Telecommunications materialize
   again and again throughout the night of the _Wake_, where
   "television kills telephony."

[17] The "tele-" prefix, betraying an element of futurology

   in the dream, appears in well over a dozen words including
   in addition to the familiar forms terms such as "teleframe,"
   "telekinesis," "telesmell," "telesphorously," "televisible,"
   "televox," or "telewisher," while familiar forms also appear
   in a variety of transformed "messes of mottage," such as
   "velivision" and "dullaphone."  This complex verbal play all
   hinges on the inter-translatability of the emerging forms of
   technologically mediated communication.  In the opening
   episode of the second part, the "Feenicht's Playhouse," an
   imaginary play produced by HCE's children in their nursery
   is "wordloosed over seven seas crowdblast in
   cellelleneteutoslavzendlatinsoundscript.  In four
   tubbloids" (219.28-9).  Like the cinema, "wordloosed"
   (wirelessed but also let loose) transglobally, all such
   media are engaged in a "crowdblast" of existing languages
   and cultures, producing an interplay between local cultures
   and a pan-international hyperculture.

[18] In the concluding moments of the _Wake_, Joyce

   generalizes his pre-cybernetic vision in one long intricate
   performance that not only concerns the book itself, but also
   anticipates by twenty years some major discussions of
   culture, communication, and technology.  A brief scene
   setting: this is the moment in the closing episode just as
   the HCE is awakening.  In the background he hears noises
   from the machines in the laundry next door.  It is breakfast
   time and there are sounds of food being prepared; eggs are
   being cooked and will be eaten, so there is anticipation of
   the process of digestion that is about to take place.^25^
   At this moment a key passage, inviting interminable
   interpretation, presents in very abstract language a
   generalized model of production and consumption, which is
   also the recorso of the schema of this nocturnal poem, that
   consumes and produces, just as the digestive system itself
   digests and produces new cells and excrement--how else could
   one be a poet of "litters" as well as letters and be
   "litterery" (114.17; 422.35) as well as literary?

[19] The passage begins by speaking about "our wholemole

   millwheeling vicociclometer, a tetradomational
   gazebocroticon," which may be the book, a letter to be
   written, the digestive system assimilating the eggs, the
   sexual process, the mechanical "mannormillor
   clipperclappers" (614.13) of the nearby Mannor Millor
   laundry, the temporal movement of history, or a theory of
   engineering, for essentially it relates the production of
   cultural artifacts or the consumption of matter (like
   reading a book, seeing a film or eating eggs; the text
   mentions a "farmer, his son and their homely codes, known as
   eggburst, eggblend, eggburial, and hatch-as-hatch-can"
   (614.28)).  The passage concludes, "as sure as herself
   pits hen to paper and there's scribings scrawled on eggs"
   (615.9-10).  Here the frequent pairing of speaking
   (writing) with eating is brought to a climax in which it is
   related to all the abstract machines which shape the life of
   nature, decomposing into "bits" and recombining.

[20] These bits, described as "the dialytically [dialectic +

   dialysis] separated elements of precedent decomposition,"
   may be eggs, or other "homely codes" such as the
   "heroticisms, catastrophes and ec-centricities" (the stuff
   of history or the dreamers stuttering speech or his
   staggering movements) transmitted elementally, "type by
   tope, letter from litter, word at ward, sendence of sundance
   . . ." (614.33-615.2).  All of these bits--matter, eggs,
   words, TV signals, concepts, what you will--are
   "anastomosically assimilated and preteri-dentified
   paraidiotically," producing "the sameold gamebold adomic
   structure . . . as highly charged with electrons as
   hophazards can effective it" (615.5-8).  In anticipation of
   the contemporary electronic definition of the "bit," Joyce
   associates the structure of communication (ranging from TV
   and telegraphic signals to morphophonemic information and
   kinesthesia) with bits of signals, "data" and information.
   He presents it as essentially an assemblage of
   multiplicities, different from a synthesizing or totalizing
   moment, for it occurs by the crossing of pluralistic
   branches of differing motifs, through a process of
   transmission involving flows, particularly the flowing of
   blood, water and speech, and breaks such as the
   discontinuous charges of electrical energy, telegraphy, and
   punctuation--those "endspeaking nots for yestures" (267.8).

[21] Here Joyce's entire prophetic, schizoid vision of

   cyberspace seems somewhat Deleuzian.  It is an ambivalent
   and critical vision, for the "ambiviolence" of the
   "langdwage" throughout the _Wake_ implies critique as it
   unfolds this history, since Joyce still situates parody
   within satire.  He does not free it from socio-political
   reference, as a free-floating "postmodernist" play with the
   surface of signifiers would.  This can be noted in the way
   that Joyce first probes what came to be one of the keystones
   of McLuhanism.  Joyce plays throughout the work with spheres
   and circles, some of which parody one of the mystical
   definitions of God frequently attributed to Alan of Lille
   (Alanus de Insulis), but sometimes referred to as Pascal's
   sphere.  Speaking of a daughter-goddess figure, he says:
        our Frivulteeny Sexuagesima to expense herselfs as
        sphere as possible, paradismic perimutter, in all
        directions on the bend of the unbridalled, the
        infinisissimalls of her facets becoming manier and
        manier as the calicolum of her umdescribables (one has
        thoughts of that eternal Rome) . . . .  (298.27-33)
   Here a sphere is imagined whose center is everywhere and
   circumference nowhere, since it is infinitesimal and
   undescribable (though apparently the paradigmic perimeter is
   sexual), as the paradisal mother communicates herself
   without apparent limit.  This is both an embodied and a
   disembodied sphere, polarizing and decentering the image so
   as to impede any closure.  The same spherical principle is
   applied more widely to the presentation of the sense of
   hearing.  The reception of messages by the hero/ine of the
   _Wake_, "(Hear! Calls! Everywhair!)" (108.23), is
   accomplished by "bawling the whowle hamshack and wobble down
   in an eliminium sounds pound so as to serve him up a
   melegoturny marygoraumd" (309.22-4), a sphere for it
   requires "a gain control of circumcentric megacycles"
   (310.7-8).  It can truly be said of HCE, "Ear! Ear! Weakear!
   An allness eversides!" (568.26),^26^ precisely because he is
   "%h%uman, %e%rring and %c%ondonable"(58.19), yet "humile,
   commune and ensectuous" (29.30), suffering many deprivations
   his "%h%ardest %c%rux %e%ver" (623.33) [italics mine].
   Though "humbly to fall and cheaply to rise, [this]
   exposition of failures" (589.17) living with "%H%einz %c%ans
   %e%verywhere"(581.5), still protests his fate "making use of
   sacrilegious languages to the defect that he would
   %c%hallenge their %h%emosphores to %e%xterminate them"
   (81.25) by decentering or dislocating any attempts to
   enclose him.

[22] This discussion of sphere and hearing critically

   anticipates what McLuhan later called "acoustic space"--a
   fundamental cyberspatial conception with its creation of
   multi-dimensional environments, a spherical environment
   within which aural information is received by the CNS--that
   also embodies a transformation of the hermetic poetic
   insight that "the universe (or nature) [or in earlier
   versions, God] is an infinite sphere, the center of which is
   everywhere, the circumference nowhere."^27^  Today, VR, as
   Borges' treatment of Pascal's sphere seems to imply, is
   coming to be our contemporary pre-millennial epitome of this
   symbol, a place where each participant (rather than *the*
   deity), as microcosm, is potentially the enigmatic center.
   People englobed within virtual worlds find themselves
   interacting within complex, transverse, intertextual
   multimedia forms that are interlinked globally through
   complex, rhizomic (root-like) networks.

[23] All of this must necessarily relate back to the way

   Joyce treats the subject of and produces the artifact that
   is *the book*.  While, beginning with Mallarme, the themes
   of the book and the death of literature resound through
   modernism, Joyce's transformation of the book filtered
   through the "mcluhanitic" reaction to "mcluhanism" becomes,
   in the usual interpretation of McLuhan, the annunciation of
   the death of the book, *not* its transformation, as with
   Joyce.  Joyce is important, for following Marcel Jousse and
   Vico,^28^ he situates speech and writing as modes of
   communication within a far richer and more complex bodily
   and gestural theory of communication than that represented
   by the reductive dichotomy of the oral and the literate.  As
   the predominance of print declines, the _Wake_ explores the
   history of communication by comically assimilating the
   method of Vico's _The New Science_--which, as one of the
   first systematic and empirical studies of the place of
   poetic action in the history of how people develop systems
   of signs and symbols, attributes people's ability for
   constructing their society to the poetic function.

[24] Joyce avoids that facile over-simplification of the

   complexities of print, arising from the orality/literacy
   dichotomy, which attributes a privileged role to language as
   verbal--a privilege based on theological and metaphysical
   claims.  The same dichotomy creates problems in discussing
   technological and other non-verbal forms of mediated
   communication, including VR and TV.  At one point in the
   _Wake_ "Television kills telephony in brothers' broil.  Our
   eyes demand their turn.  Let them be seen!" (52.18-9), for
   TV also comprehends the visual and the kinesthetic.  Yet
   most McLuhanites who have opted for the orality/literacy
   split still call it an oral medium in opposition to print.
   The same problem occurs when mime, with its dependence on
   gesture and rhythm, is analyzed as an oral medium.  As the
   _Wake_ jocularly observes:
        seein as ow his thoughts consisted chiefly of the
        cheerio, he aptly sketched for our soontobe second
        parents . . . the touching seene.  The solence of that
        stilling!  Here one might a fin fell.  Boomster
        rombombonant!  It scenes like a landescape from Wildu
        Picturescu or some seem on some dimb Arras, dumb as
        Mum's mutyness, this mimage . . . is odable to os
        across the wineless Ere no dor nor mere eerie nor liss
        potent of suggestion than in the tales of the
        tingmount.  (52.34-53.6)
   The mime plays with silence, sight, touch and movement
   seeming like a landscape or a movie.

[25] Facile over-simplification also overlooks that long

   before the beginnings of the trend towards cyberspace, print
   had not been strictly oriented towards linearity and
   writing, for the print medium was supplemented by its
   encyclopedic, multi-media nature, absorbing other media such
   as illustrations, charts, graphs, maps, diagrams, and
   tables, not all aspects of which are precisely linear.
   While writing may have had a predominantly linear tendency,
   its history is far more complex, as Elizabeth Eisenstein has
   established.^29^  The orality/literacy distinction does not
   provide an adequately rich concept for dealing with print,
   any more than it does for the most complex and comprehensive
   images of virtual reality and participatory hyperspace
   (e.g., sophisticated extensions of the datagloves or the
   Aspen map), which, to adapt a Joycean phrase, directly
   transmit "feelful thinkamalinks."  Since VR should enable a
   person to feel the bodily set of another person or place,
   while simultaneously receiving multiple intersensory
   messages, understanding the role of the body in
   communication is crucial for understanding VR.  When McLuhan
   and Edward Carpenter first spoke about their concept of
   orality (linked to aurality, mouth to ear, as line of print
   to eye scan), it entailed recognizing the priority and
   primacy of tactility and inter-sensory activity in
   communication, for "In the beginning there was the gest."

[26] As Kenneth Burke realized in the 30s, Joyce's grounding

   communication and language in gesture is distinctly
   different from an approach which privileges language, for it
   involves a complete embodying of communication.  While the
   oral only embodies the speech organs, the entire CNS is
   necessarily involved in all communication, including speech.
   As John Bishop has shown in _Joyce's Book of the Dark_, the
   sleeper primarily receives sensations with his ear, but
   these are tranformed within the body into the world of signs
   that permeate the dream and which constitute the _Wake_.^30^
   Joyce views language as "gest," as an imaginary means of
   embodying intellectual-emotional complexes, his "feelful
   thinkamalinks."  From this perspective, the semic units of
   the _Wake_ (integrated complexes constructed from the
   interaction of speech and print involving, rhythm,
   orthography as sign and gesture and visual image) assume the
   role of dialogue with other modes of mediated communication,
   exploiting their limitations and differences.  Joyce crafts
   a new %lingua% for a world where the poetic book will deal
   with those aspects of the imaginary that cannot be
   encompassed within technologically mediated communication.
   Simultaneously, he recognizes that a trend towards virtual
   reality is characteristic of the electro-mechanically or
   technologically mediated modes of communication.  This
   process posits a continuous dialogue in which _Ulysses_ and
   the _Wake_ were designed to play key roles.

[27] As Joyce–who quipped that "some of the means I use are

   trivial--and some are quadrivial"^31^--was aware, ancient
   rhetorical theory (which he parodied both in the Aeolus
   episode of _Ulysses_ and in the "Triv and Quad" section (II,
   2) of the _Wake_) also included those interactive contexts
   where the body was an intrinsic part of communication.
   Delivery involved controlling the body, and the context
   within which it was presented, as well as the voice.  The
   actual rhetorical action (particularly in judicial oratory)
   also frequently involved demonstration and witnesses.  This
   analysis, closer to the pre-literate, recognized the way
   actual communication integrated oral, visual, rhythmical,
   gestural and kinesthetic components.  Recent research into
   the classical and medieval "arts of memory," inspired by
   Frances Yates,^32^ have demonstrated that memory involves
   the body, a sense of the dramatic and theatrical, visual
   icons and movement, as well as the associative power of the
   oral itself.  Joyce playfully invokes this memory system
   familiar to him from his Jesuit education: "After sound,
   light and heat, memory, will and understanding.  Here (the
   memories framed from walls are minding) till wranglers for
   wringwrowdy wready are . . ." (266.18-22).  A classical
   world, which recognized such features of the communicative
   process, could readily speak about the poem as a "speaking
   picture" and the painting as "silent poetry."  Here, there
   is an inclusiveness of the means available rather than a
   dependency on a single channel of communication.

[28] Joyce was so intrigued by the potentials of the new

   culture of time and space for reconstructing and
   revolutionizing the book that he claimed himself to be "the
   greatest engineer," as well as a Renaissance man, who was
   also a "musicmaker, a philosophist and heaps of other
   things."^33^  The mosaic of the _Wake_ contributes to
   understanding the nature of cyberspace by grasping the
   radical constitution of the electronic cosmos that Joyce
   called "the chaosmos of Alle" (118.21).  In this "chaosmos,"
   engineered by a sense of interactive mnemotechnics, he
   intuits the relation between a nearly infinite quantity of
   cultural information and the mechanical yet rhizomic
   organization of a network, "the matrix," which underlies the
   construction of imaginary and virtual worlds.  One crucial
   reason for raising the historic image of Joyce in a
   discussion of cyberspace is that he carries out one of the
   most comprehensive contemporary discussions of virtual
   recollection (a concept first articulated by Henri Bergson
   as virtual memory).^34^  In counterpoint to the emerging
   technological capability to create the "virtual reality" of
   cyberspace, Joyce turned to dream and hallucination for the
   creation of virtual worlds within natural language.

[29] That tactile, gestural-based dreamworld has built-in

   mnemonic systems:
        A scene at sight.  Or dreamoneire.  Which they shall
        memorise.  By her freewritten.  Hopely for ear that
        annalykeses if scares for eye that sumns.  Is it in the
        now woodwordings of our sweet plantation where the
        branchings then will singingsing tomorrows gone and
        yesters outcome . . . .   (280.01-07)
   Joyce's virtual worlds began with the recognition of
   "everybody" as a poet (each person is co-producer; he quips,
   "his producers are they not his consumers?").  All culture
   becomes the panorama of his dream; the purpose of poetic
   writing in a post-electric world is the painting of that
   interior (which is not the psychoanalytic, but the social
   unconscious) and the providing of new language appropriate
   to perceiving the complexities of the new world of
   technologically reproducible media:
        What has gone?  How it ends?
        Begin to forget it.  It will remember itself from every
        sides, with all gestures, in each our word.  Today's
        truth, tomorrow's trend.  (614.19-21)
   Joyce's text is embodied in gesture, enclosed in words,
   enmeshed in time, and engaged in foretelling "Today's truth.
   Tomorrow's trend."  The poet reproducing his producers is
   the divining prophet.

[30] If speaking of Joyce and cyberspace seems to imply a

   kind of futurology, the whole of McLuhan's project was
   frequently treated as prophesying the emergence of a new
   tribalized global society--the global village, itself
   anticipated by Joyce's "international" language of
   multilingual puns.  In fact, in _War and Peace in the Global
   Village_, McLuhan uses Wakese (mostly from Joyce, freely
   associated) as marginalia.  McLuhan flourished in his role
   as an international guru by casting himself in the role of
   "*the* prime prophet" announcing the coming of a new era of
   communication^35^ (now talked about as virtual reality or
   cyberspace, though he never actually used that word).  The
   prime source of his "prophecies," which he never concealed,
   is to be found in Joyce and Vico.^36^  The entire Joycean
   dream is prophetic or divinatory in part, for the
   anticipated awakening (Vico's fourth age of ricorso
   following birth, marriage, and death) is "providential
   divining":
        Ere we are!  Signifying, if tungs may tolkan, that,
        primeval conditions having gradually receded but
        nevertheless the emplacement of solid and fluid having
        to a great extent persisted through intermittences of
        sullemn fulminance, sollemn nuptialism, sallemn
        sepulture and providential divining, making possible
        and even inevitable, after his a time has a tense haves
        and havenots hesitency, at the place and period under
        consideration a socially organic entity of a millenary
        military maritory monetary morphological
        circumformation in a more or less settled state of
        equonomic ecolube equalobe equilab equilibbrium.
        (599.8-18)
   Earlier, it is said of the dreamer that "He caun ne'er be
   bothered but maun e'er be waked.  If there is a future in
   every past that is present . . ." (496.34-497.1).  Joyce,
   from whom McLuhan derived the idea, is playing with the
   medieval concept of natural prophecy, making it a
   fundamental feature of the epistemology of his dream world,
   in which the "give and take" of the "mind factory," an
   "antithesis of ambidual anticipation," generates auspices,
   auguries, and divination--for "DIVINITY NOT DEITY [is] THE
   UNCERTAINTY JUSTIFIED BY OUR CERTITUDE" (282.R7-R13).

[31] Natural prophecy, the medieval way of thinking about

   futurology with which Joyce and McLuhan were naturally
   familiar from scholasticism and Thomism, occurs through a
   reading of history and its relation to that virtual,
   momentary social text (the present), which is dynamic and
   always undergoing change.  Joyce appears to blend this
   medieval concept with classical sociological ideas--of
   prophecy as an "intermediation"--quite consistent with his
   concepts of communication as involving aspects of
   participation and communion.  It is only through some such
   reading that the future existent in history can be known and
   come to be.  McLuhan's reading, adapted from Joyce, of the
   collision of history and the present moment led him to
   foresee a world emerging where communication would be
   tactile, post-verbal, fully participatory and
   pan-sensory.^37^

[32] Why ought communication history and theory take account

   of Joyce's poetic project?  First, because he designed a new
   language (later disseminated by McLuhan, Eco, and Derrida)
   to carry out an in-depth interpretation of complex
   socio-historical phenomenon, namely new modes of semiotic
   production.  Two brief examples: Hollywood "wordloosing
   celluloid soundscript over seven seas," or the products of
   the Hollywood dream factory itself as "a rolling away of the
   reel world," reveal media's potential international
   domination as well as the problems film form raises for the
   mutual claims of the imaginary and the real.  For example,
   the term "abortisements" (advertisements) suggests the
   manipulation of fetishized femininity with its submerged
   relation of advertisement to butchering--the segmentation of
   the body as object into an assemblage of parts.

[33] Second, Joyce's work is a critique of communication's

   historical role in the production of culture, and it
   constitutes one of the earliest recognitions of the
   importance of Vico to a contemporary history of
   communication and culture.^38^  Third, his work is itself
   the first "in-depth" contemporary exploration of the
   complexities of reading, writing, rewriting, speaking,
   aurality, and orality.  Fourth, developing Vico's earlier
   insights and anticipating Kenneth Burke, he sees the
   importance of the "poetic" as a concept in communication,
   for the poetic is the means of generating new communicative
   potentials between medium and message.  This provides the
   poetic, the arts, and other modes of cultural production
   with a crucial role in a semiotic ecology of communication,
   an ecology of sense, and making sense.  Fifth, in the
   creative project of this practice, Joyce develops one of the
   most complex discussions of the contemporary transformation
   of our media of communication.  And finally, his own work is
   itself an exemplum of the socio-ecological role of the
   poetic in human communication.

[34] VR or cyberspace, as an assemblage of a multiplicity of

   existing and new media, dramatizes the relativity of our
   classifications of media and their effects.  The newly
   evolving global metropolis arising in the age of cyberspace
   is a site where people are intellectual nomads:
   differentiation, difference, and decentering characterize
   its structure.  Joyce and the arts of high modernism and
   postmodernism provide a solid appreciation of how people
   constantly reconstruct or remake reality through the
   traversing of the multi-sensory fragments of a "virtual
   world" and of the tremendous powers with which electricity
   and the analysis of mechanization would endow the paramedia
   that would eventually emerge.
  1. ———————————————————–
                              NOTES
        ^1^  William Gibson, _Mona Lisa Overdrive_ (NY: Bantam
   Paperback, 1989), 16.
        ^2^  William Gibson, _Neuromancer_ (NY: Ace, 1984), 51.
        ^3^  This quotation is taken from the posthumously
   published Marshall McLuhan and Bruce R. Powers, _The Global
   Village: Transformations in World Life and Media in the 21st
   Century_, (NY: Oxford UP, 1989).  It was edited and
   rewritten from McLuhan's working notes, which had to date
   from the late 70s, since he died in 1981.  McLuhan's words
   were written more than a decade before their posthumous
   publication in 1989.
        ^4^  McLuhan (1989), 103.
        ^5^  Stuart Brand, _The Media Lab: Inventing the Future
   at MIT_ (NY: Viking, 1987).
        ^6^  Marshall McLuhan, _The Letters of Marshall
   McLuhan_, ed. Matie Molinaro, Corinne McLuhan and William
   Toye (Toronto: Oxford UP, 1987), 385.
        ^7^  Craig E. Adcock, _Marcel Duchamp's Notes from the
   Large Glass: An N-Dimensional Analysis_ (Ann Arbor,
   Michigan: UMI, 1983), 28: "The _Large Glass_ is an
   illuminated manuscript consisting of 476 documents; the
   illumination consists of almost every work that Duchamp
   did."
        ^8^  Stuart Brand (1987).
        ^9^  A further paper needs to be written on the way in
   which synaesthesia as well as coenesthesia participate in
   the pre-history of cyberspace.  The unfolding history of
   poets and artists confronting electromechanical
   technoculture, which begins in the 1850s, reveals a growing
   interest in synesthesia and coenesthesia and parallels a
   gradually accelerating yearning for artistic works which are
   syntheses or orchestrations of the arts.  By 1857 Charles
   Baudelaire intuited the future transformational power of the
   coming of electro-communication when he established his
   concept of synaesthesia and the trend toward a synthesis of
   all the arts as central aspects of %symbolisme%.  The
   transformational matrices involved in synaesthesia and the
   synthesis of the arts unconsciously respond to that
   digitalization implicit in Morse code and telegraphy,
   anticipating how one of the major characteristics of
   cyberspace will be the capability of all modes of expression
   to be transformed into minimal discrete contrastive units--
   bits.
        This assertion concerning Baudelaire's use of
   synesthesia is developed from Benjamin's discussions of
   Baudelaire.  The role of shock in Baudelaire's poetry, which
   links the "Correspondances" with "La Vie Anterieur," also
   reflects how the modern fragmentation involved in "Le
   Crepuscle du Soir" and "Le Crepuscle du Matin" is
   reassembled poetically through the verbal transformation of
   sensorial modes.  This is the beginning of a period in which
   the strategy of using shock to deal with fragmentation is
   transformed into seeing the multiplicity of codifications of
   municipal (or urban) reality.  So when the metamorphic
   sensory effects of nature's temple are applied to the
   splenetic here and now, in the background is the emergence
   of the new codifications of reality, such as the photography
   which so preoccupied Baudelaire, and telegraphy, which had
   an important impact in his lifetime.
        ^10^  See D.F. Theall, "The Hieroglyphs of Engined
   Egypsians: Machines, Media and Modes of Communication in
   _Finnegans Wake_," _Joyce Studies Annual 1991_, ed. Thomas
   F. Staley (Austin: Texas UP, 1991), 129-52.  This
   publication provides major source material for the present
   article.
        ^11^  "Machinic" is used here very deliberately as
   distinct from mechanical.  See Gilles Deleuze, _Dialogues_,
   trans. Hugh Tomlinson & Barbara Haberjam (NY: Columbia UP,
   1987), 70-1, where he discusses the difference between the
   machine and the 'machinic' in contradistinction to the
   mechanical.
        ^12^  Giambattista Vico, _The New Science_,  ed.
   T.G. Bergen and M. Fisch (Ithaca, NY: Cornell UP, 1948).
        ^13^  For fuller discussion of Joyce and these themes
   see Donald Theall, "James Joyce: Literary Engineer," in
   _Literature and Ethics: Essays Presented to A.E. Malloch_,
   ed. Gary Wihl & David Williams (Montreal: McGill-Queen's UP,
   1988), 111-27; Donald and Joan Theall, "James Joyce and
   Marshall McLuhan," _Canadian Journal of Communication_,
   14:4/5 (Fall 1989), 60-1; and Donald Theall (1991), 129-152.
   A number of subsequent passages are adapted with minor
   modifications from parts of the last article, which is a
   fairly comprehensive coverage of Joyce and technology.
        ^14^  While in one sense the dreamer is identified as
   the male HCE, the book opens and closes with the feminine
   voice of ALP.  It is her dream of his dreaming, or his dream
   of her dreaming?  Essentially, it is androgynous, with a
   mingling of male and female voices throughout.  For another
   treatment of the male-female theme in the _Wake_, see
   Suzette Henke, _James Joyce and the Politics of Desire_ (NY:
   RKP, 1989).
        ^15^  "Jousstly" refers to Marcel Jousse's important
   work on communication and the semiotics of gesture, with
   which Joyce was familiar.  See especially Lorraine Weir,
   "The Choreography of Gesture: Marcel Jousse and _Finnegans
   Wake_," _James Joyce Quarterly_, 14:3 (Spring 1977), 313-25.
        ^16^  This motif will be developed further below.  It
   relates to Joyce's interest in Lewis Carroll.  Gilles
   Deleuze comments extensively on manducation in _The Logic of
   Sense_, trans. Mark Lester with Charles Stivale, ed.
   Constantin V. Boundas (NY: Columbia UP, 1990).
        ^17^  See Dewey, _Art As Experience_ (NY: G.P. Putnam,
   1958) and Kenneth Burke, _Permanence and Change: An Anatomy
   of Purpose_ (Indianapolis, IN: Bobbs-Merrill, 1965).
        ^18^  Cf. T.S. Eliot, _Selected Essays_ (NY: Harcourt,
   Brace, 1932), 182: "One of the surest of tests is the way in
   which a poet borrows.  Immature poets imitate; mature poets
   steal . . . "; see also "Old stone to new building, old
   timber to new fires," ("East Coker," _Four Quartets_, l. 5).
   Joyce's use of "outlex" relates to Jim the Penman, for Joyce
   analyzing Shem in the _Wake_ is aware of how the traditions
   of the artist as liar, counterfeiter, con man, and thief
   could all coalesce about the role of the artist as an
   outlaw.
        ^19^  "Kills" in the sense of "to kill a bottle";
   "kills" also as a stream or channel of water.
        ^20^  See Walter Ong's remarks about Marcel Jousse in
   _The Presence of the Word_ (New Haven, CT: Yale UP, 1967),
   146-7, and Lorraine Weir's more extensive development of the
   theme in (1977), 313-325, and in _Writing Joyce: A Semiotics
   of the Joyce System_ (Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana
   UP, 1989).
        ^21^  I.J. Gelb, _A Study of Writing_ (Chicago: U of
   Chicago P, 1963).
        ^22^  Cf. McLuhan (1989), 182.
        ^23^  Alexander Marschak, _The Roots of Civilization_
   (NY: McGraw-Hill, 1982); Marcia Ascher and Robert Ascher,
   _Code of the Quipu: A Study in Media, mathematics and
   Culture_ (Ann Arbor: U of Michigan P, 1981); Claude
   Levi-Strauss, _The Elementary Structures of Kinship_, trans.
   James Harle Bell and John Richard von Sturmer, ed. Rodney
   Needham (Boston: Beacon Press, 1969).
        ^24^  The usual way to indicate sections of the _Wake_
   is by part and episode.  Hence I,v is Part I episode 5.
   There are four parts, the first consisting of eight
   episodes, the second and the third of four episodes each and
   the fourth of a single episode.
        ^25^  Danis Rose and John O'Hanlon, _Understanding
   Finnegans Wake_ (NY: Garland Publishing, 1982), 308-09.
        ^26^  For detailed discussion of the treatment of the
   ear and hearing in _Finnegans Wake_, see John Bishop,
   _Joyce's book of the Dark: Finnegans Wake_ (Madison, WI: U
   of Wisconsin P, 1986), Chapter 9 "Earwickerwork," 264-304.
        ^27^  Jorge Luis Borges, _Other Inquisitions:
   1937-1952_, trans. Ruth R. Sims (NY: Simon and Schuster,
   1968), 6-9.
        ^28^  Lorraine Weir (1989).
        ^29^  Elizabeth Eisenstein, _The Printing Revolution in
   Early Modern Europe_ (NY: Cambridge UP, 1983).
        ^30^  Bishop (1986), 264-304.
        ^31^  Eugene Jolas, "My Friend James Joyce," in _James
   Joyce: two decades of criticism_, ed. Seon Givens (NY:
   Vanguard, 1948), 24.
        ^32^  E.g., in Frances Yates, _The Art of Memory_
   (Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1966).
        ^33^  James Joyce to Harriet Shaw Weaver, _Letters_,
   ed. Stuart Gilbert (NY: Viking, 1957), 251 [Postcard, 16
   April 1927].
        ^34^  For a discussion of this see Gilles Deleuze,
   _Bergsonism_ (NY: Zone, 1988), Chapter 3, "Memory as Virtual
   Co-existence," 51-72.
        ^35^  Speaking of the all-embracing aspects of VR and
   cyberspace, the work which Baudrillard has made of
   "simulation" and "the ecstasy of communication" should be
   noted.  This issue is too complex to engage within an essay
   specifically focused on Joyce.  In approaching it, however,
   it is important to realize the degree of similarity that
   Baudrillard's treatment of communication shares with
   McLuhan's.  In many ways, I believe it could be established
   that what Baudrillard critiques as the "ecstasy of
   communication" is his understanding of McLuhan's vision of
   communication divorced from its historical roots in the
   literature and arts of %symbolisme%, high modernism, and
   particularly James Joyce.
        ^36^  This is a major theme of McLuhan and McLuhan's
   _The Laws of Media_ (Toronto: U of Toronto P, 1988).
        ^37^  See Donald F. Theall, _The Medium is the Rear
   View Mirror; Understanding McLuhan_ (Montreal:
   McGill-Queen's UP, 1971).
        ^38^  John O'Neill credits Vico with a "wild sociology"
   in which the philologist is a wild sociologist in _Making
   Sense Together: An Introduction to Wild Sociology_ (NY:
   Harper & Row, 1974), 28-38.  The significance of Vico's
   emphasis on the body is developed in John O'Neill, _Five
   Bodies: The Human Sense of Society_ (Ithaca, NY: Cornell UP,
   1985).
/data/webs/external/dokuwiki/data/pages/archive/fun/joyce.txt · Last modified: 1999/08/01 17:07 by 127.0.0.1

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