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rfc:rfc8380

Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) L. Dunbar Request for Comments: 8380 D. Eastlake 3rd Category: Standards Track Huawei ISSN: 2070-1721 R. Perlman

                                                              Dell/EMC
                                                              May 2018
                         Directory-Assisted
 Transparent Interconnection of Lots of Links (TRILL) Encapsulation

Abstract

 This document describes how data center networks can benefit from
 non-RBridge nodes performing TRILL (Transparent Interconnection of
 Lots of Links) encapsulation with assistance from a directory
 service.

Status of This Memo

 This is an Internet Standards Track document.
 This document is a product of the Internet Engineering Task Force
 (IETF).  It represents the consensus of the IETF community.  It has
 received public review and has been approved for publication by the
 Internet Engineering Steering Group (IESG).  Further information on
 Internet Standards is available in Section 2 of RFC 7841.
 Information about the current status of this document, any errata,
 and how to provide feedback on it may be obtained at
 https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8380.

Copyright Notice

 Copyright (c) 2018 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
 document authors.  All rights reserved.
 This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
 Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
 (https://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
 publication of this document.  Please review these documents
 carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
 to this document.  Code Components extracted from this document must
 include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
 the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
 described in the Simplified BSD License.

Dunbar, et al. Standards Track [Page 1] RFC 8380 Directory-Assisted TRILL Encap May 2018

Table of Contents

 1. Introduction ....................................................2
 2. Conventions Used in This Document ...............................2
 3. Directory Assistance to Non-RBridge .............................3
 4. Source Nickname in Encapsulation by Non-RBridge Nodes ...........6
 5. Benefits of a Non-RBridge Performing TRILL Encapsulation ........6
    5.1. Avoid Nickname Exhaustion Issue ............................6
    5.2. Reduce MAC Tables for Switches on Bridged LANs .............6
 6. Manageability Considerations ....................................7
 7. Security Considerations .........................................7
 8. IANA Considerations .............................................9
 9. References  .....................................................9
    9.1.  Normative References .....................................10
    9.2.  Informative References ...................................10
 Acknowledgments ...................................................10
 Authors' Addresses.................................................10

1. Introduction

 This document describes how data center networks can benefit from
 non-RBridge nodes performing TRILL encapsulation with assistance from
 a directory service and specifies a method for them to do so.
 [RFC7067] and [RFC8171] describe the framework and methods for edge
 RBridges to get (MAC and VLAN) <-> Edge RBridge mapping from a
 directory service instead of flooding unknown destination MAC
 addresses across a TRILL domain.  If it has the needed directory
 information, any node, even a non-RBridge node, can perform the TRILL
 data packet encapsulation.  This document describes the benefits of
 and a scheme for non-RBridge nodes performing TRILL encapsulation.

2. Conventions Used in This Document

 The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
 "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "NOT RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and
 "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in
 BCP 14 [RFC2119] [RFC8174] when, and only when, they appear in all
 capitals, as shown here.
 AF:       Appointed Forwarder RBridge port [RFC8139].
 Bridge:   A device compliant with IEEE 802.1Q.  In this document,
           Bridge is used interchangeably with Layer 2 switch.
 DA:       Destination Address.
 ES-IS:    End System to Intermediate System [RFC8171].

Dunbar, et al. Standards Track [Page 2] RFC 8380 Directory-Assisted TRILL Encap May 2018

 Host:     A physical server or a virtual machine running
           applications.  A host usually has at least one IP address
           and at least one MAC address.
 IS-IS:    Intermediate System to Intermediate System [RFC7176].
 SA:       Source Address.
 TRILL-EN: TRILL Encapsulating Node.  A node that performs the TRILL
           encapsulation but doesn't participate in an RBridge's IS-IS
           routing.
 VM:       Virtual Machine.

3. Directory Assistance to Non-RBridge

 With directory assistance [RFC7067] [RFC8171], a non-RBridge node can
 learn if a data packet needs to be forwarded across the RBridge
 domain and, if so, the corresponding egress RBridge.
 Suppose the RBridge domain boundary starts at network switches (not
 virtual switches embedded on servers).  (See Figure 1 for a high-
 level diagram of a typical data center network.)  A directory can
 assist virtual switches embedded on servers to encapsulate with a
 proper TRILL header by providing the nickname of the egress RBridge
 edge to which the destination is attached.  The other information
 needed to encapsulate can be learned either by listening to TRILL
 ES-IS and/or IS-IS Hellos [RFC7176] [RFC8171], which will indicate
 the MAC address and nickname of appropriate local edge RBridges, or
 by configuration.
 If it is not known whether a destination is attached to one or more
 edge RBridges, based on the directory, the non-RBridge node can
 forward the data frames natively, i.e., not encapsulating with any
 TRILL header.  Or, if the directory is known to be complete, the non-
 RBridge node can discard such data frames.

Dunbar, et al. Standards Track [Page 3] RFC 8380 Directory-Assisted TRILL Encap May 2018

        \           +-----------+       +-----------+            /
         \        +/----------+ |     +/----------+ |  TRILL    /
          \       |Aggregation| |     |Aggregation| | Domain   /
           \      |     11    | + --- |     N1    | +         /
            \     +-----------+/      +-----------+/         /
             \         /     \            /      \          /
              \       /       \          /        \        /
       Top-    \   +---+    +---+      +---+     +---+    /
       of- -->  \- |T11|... |T1x|      |T21| ..  |T2y|---/
       Rack        +---+    +---+      +---+     +---+
       Switches      |        |          |         |
                   +-|-+    +-|-+      +-|-+     +-|-+
                   |   |... | V |      | V | ..  | V | <- vSwitch
                   +---+    +---+      +---+     +---+
                   |   |... | V |      | V | ..  | V |
                   +---+    +---+      +---+     +---+
                   |   |... | V |      | V | ..  | V |
                   +---+    +---+      +---+     +---+
        Figure 1: TRILL Domain in a Typical Data Center Network
 When a TRILL-encapsulated data packet reaches the ingress RBridge,
 that RBridge simply performs the usual TRILL processing and forwards
 the pre-encapsulated packet to the RBridge that is specified by the
 egress nickname field of the TRILL header.  When an ingress RBridge
 receives a native Ethernet frame in an environment with complete
 directory information, the ingress RBridge doesn't flood or forward
 the received data frames when the destination MAC address in the
 Ethernet data frames is unknown.
 When all end nodes attached to an ingress RBridge pre-encapsulate
 with a TRILL header for traffic across the TRILL domain, the ingress
 RBridge doesn't need to encapsulate any native Ethernet frames to the
 TRILL domain.  The attached nodes can be connected to multiple edge
 RBridges by having multiple ports or through a bridged LAN.  All
 RBridge edge ports connected to one bridged LAN can receive and
 forward pre-encapsulated traffic; this can greatly improve the
 overall network utilization.  However, it is still necessary to, for
 example, designate AF ports to be sure that multi-destination packets
 from the TRILL campus are only egressed through one RBridge.
 Item 8 of Section 4.6.2 of the TRILL base protocol specification
 [RFC6325] specifies that an RBridge port can be configured to accept
 TRILL-encapsulated frames from a neighbor that is not an RBridge.
 When a TRILL frame arrives at an RBridge whose nickname matches the
 destination nickname in the TRILL header of the frame, the processing
 is exactly as normal: as specified in [RFC6325], the RBridge

Dunbar, et al. Standards Track [Page 4] RFC 8380 Directory-Assisted TRILL Encap May 2018

 decapsulates the received TRILL frame and forwards the decapsulated
 frame to the target attached to its edge ports.  When the destination
 MAC address of the decapsulated Ethernet frame is not in the egress
 RBridge's local MAC attachment tables, the egress RBridge floods the
 decapsulated frame to all attached links in the frame's VLAN, or
 drops the frame (if the egress RBridge is configured with that
 policy).
 We call a node that, as specified herein, only performs TRILL
 encapsulation, but doesn't participate in RBridge's IS-IS routing, a
 TRILL Encapsulating Node (TRILL-EN).  The TRILL Encapsulating Node
 can pull (MAC and VLAN) <-> Edge RBridge mapping from directory
 servers [RFC8171].  In order to do this, a TRILL-EN MUST support
 TRILL ES-IS [RFC8171].
 Upon receiving or locally generating a native Ethernet frame, the
 TRILL-EN checks the (MAC and VLAN) <-> Edge RBridge mapping and
 performs the corresponding TRILL encapsulation if the mapping entry
 is found as shown in Figure 2.  If the destination MAC address and
 VLAN of the received Ethernet frame doesn't exist in the mapping
 table and there is no positive reply from pull requests to a
 directory, the Ethernet frame is dropped or is forwarded in native
 form to an edge RBridge, depending on the TRILL-EN configuration.
     +------------+--------+---------+---------+--+-------+---+
     |OuterEtherHd|TRILL HD| InnerDA | InnerSA |..|Payload|FCS|
     +------------+--------+---------+---------+--+-------+---+
             |
             |             |<Inner Ether Header>  |
             |
             |
             |       +-------+  TRILL    +------+
             |       |  RB1  |---------->|  RB2 |  Decapsulate
             |       +-------+  domain   +------+  TRILL header
             v           ^                   |
             +---------->|                   |
                         |                   V
                      +--------+         +--------+
    Non-RBridge node: |TRILL-EN|         |TRILL-EN|
    Encapsulate TRILL |    1   |         |    2   |
    Header for data   +--------+         +--------+
    Frames to traverse TRILL domain.
                  Figure 2: Data Frames from a TRILL-EN

Dunbar, et al. Standards Track [Page 5] RFC 8380 Directory-Assisted TRILL Encap May 2018

4. Source Nickname in Encapsulation by Non-RBridge Nodes

 The TRILL header includes a Source RBridge's Nickname (ingress) and
 Destination RBridge's Nickname (egress).  When a TRILL header is
 added to a data packet by a TRILL-EN, the ingress RBridge nickname
 field in the TRILL header is set to a nickname of the AF for the data
 packet's VLAN.  The TRILL-EN determines the AF by snooping on IS-IS
 Hellos from the edge RBridges on the link with the TRILL-EN in the
 same way that the RBridges on the link determine the AF [RFC8139].  A
 TRILL-EN is free to send the encapsulated data frame to any of the
 edge RBridges on its link.

5. Benefits of a Non-RBridge Performing TRILL Encapsulation

 This section summarizes the benefits of having a non-RBridge node
 perform TRILL encapsulation.

5.1. Avoid Nickname Exhaustion Issue

 For a large data center with hundreds of thousands of virtualized
 servers, setting the TRILL boundary at the servers' virtual switches
 will create a TRILL domain with hundreds of thousands of RBridge
 nodes; this could lead to TRILL nickname exhaustion and challenges to
 IS-IS.  On the other hand, setting the TRILL boundary at aggregation
 switches that have many virtualized servers attached can limit the
 number of RBridge nodes in a TRILL domain, but introduces the issue
 of having very large (MAC and VLAN) <-> Edge RBridge mapping tables
 that need to be maintained by edge RBridges.
 Allowing non-RBridge nodes to pre-encapsulate data frames with TRILL
 headers makes it possible to have a TRILL domain with a reasonable
 number of RBridge nodes in a large data center.  All the TRILL-ENs
 attached to one RBridge can be represented by one TRILL nickname,
 which can avoid the nickname exhaustion problem.

5.2. Reduce MAC Tables for Switches on Bridged LANs

 When hosts in a VLAN (or subnet) span across multiple edge RBridges
 and each edge RBridge has multiple VLANs enabled, the switches on the
 bridged LANs attached to the edge RBridges are exposed to all MAC
 addresses among all the VLANs enabled.
 For example, for an Access Switch with 40 physical servers attached,
 where each server has 100 VMs, there are 4000 hosts under the Access
 Switch.  If indeed hosts/VMs can be moved anywhere, the worst case
 for the Access Switch is when all those 4000 VMs belong to different
 VLANs, i.e., the Access Switch has 4000 VLANs enabled.  If each VLAN

Dunbar, et al. Standards Track [Page 6] RFC 8380 Directory-Assisted TRILL Encap May 2018

 has 200 hosts, this Access Switch's MAC table potentially has
 200 * 4000 = 800,000 entries.
 If the virtual switches on servers pre-encapsulate the data frames
 destined for hosts attached to remote edge RBridges, the outer MAC
 destination address of those TRILL-encapsulated data frames will be
 the MAC address of a local RBridge edge, i.e., the ingress RBridge.
 The switches on the local bridged LAN don't need to keep the MAC
 entries for remote hosts attached to other edge RBridges.
 But the TRILL traffic from nodes attached to other RBridges is
 decapsulated and has the true source and destination MACs.  One
 simple way to prevent local bridges from learning remote hosts' MACs
 and adding to their MAC tables, if that would be a problem, is to
 disable this data-plane learning on local bridges.  With the
 assistance of a directory, the local bridges can be pre-configured
 with MAC addresses of local hosts.  The local bridges can always send
 frames with unknown destination MAC addresses to the ingress RBridge.
 In an environment where a large number of VMs are instantiated in one
 server, the number of remote MAC addresses could be very large.  If
 it is not feasible to disable learning and pre-configure MAC tables
 for local bridges and all important traffic is IP, one effective
 method to minimize local bridges' MAC table size is to use the
 server's MAC address to hide MAC addresses of the attached VMs.  That
 is, the server acting as an edge node uses its own MAC address in the
 source MAC address field of the packets originated from a host (or
 VM).  When the Ethernet frame arrives at the target edge node (the
 egress), the target edge node can send the packet to the
 corresponding destination host based on the packet's IP address.
 Very often, the target edge node communicates with the embedded VMs
 via a Layer 2 virtual switch.  In this case, the target edge node can
 construct the proper Ethernet header with the assistance of the
 directory.  The information from the directory includes the proper
 mapping of host IP to MAC.

6. Manageability Considerations

 Directory assistance [RFC8171] is required to make it possible for a
 non-TRILL node to pre-encapsulate packets destined towards remote
 RBridges.  TRILL-ENs have the same configuration options as any pull
 directory client.  See Section 4 of [RFC8171].

7. Security Considerations

 If the TRILL-ENs are not trusted, they can forge arbitrary ingress
 and egress nicknames in the TRILL Headers of the TRILL Data packets
 they construct.  With data-plane learning, decapsulating a TRILL Data
 packet at an egress RBridge associates the inner source MAC address

Dunbar, et al. Standards Track [Page 7] RFC 8380 Directory-Assisted TRILL Encap May 2018

 with the ingress nickname in the TRILL Header (assuming that MAC
 address is unicast).  Thus, if those ingress nicknames are forged,
 incorrect learning will occur and future traffic destined for the
 inner source MAC will be sent to the wrong RBridge for egress.
 Because of this, an RBridge port should not be configured to accept
 encapsulated TRILL data frames on a link were it does not have an
 RBridge adjacency unless the end stations on that link are trusted.
 As with any end station, TRILL-ENs can forge the outer MAC addresses
 of packets they send.  (See Section 6 of [RFC6325].) Because they
 pre-encapsulate, they can also forge inner MAC addresses.
 The pre-encapsulation performed by TRILL-ENs also means they can send
 data in any VLAN; this means they must be trusted in order to enforce
 a security policy based on VLANs.  (See Section 6.1 of [RFC6325].)
 Use of directory-assisted encapsulation by TRILL-ENs essentially
 involves those TRILL-ENs spoofing edge RBridges to which they are
 connected; this is another reason that TRILL-ENs should be trusted
 nodes.  Such spoofing cannot cause persistently looping traffic
 because TRILL has a hop count in the TRILL header [RFC6325] so that,
 should there be a loop, a TRILL packet caught in that loop (i.e., an
 encapsulated frame) will be discarded.  (In the potentially more
 dangerous case of multidestination packets (as compared with known
 unicast) where copies could multiply due to forks in the distribution
 tree, a Reverse Path Forwarding Check is also used [RFC6325] to
 discard packets that appear to be on the wrong link or when there is
 disagreement about the distribution tree.)
 The mechanism described in this document requires a TRILL-EN to be
 aware of the MAC address(es) of the TRILL edge RBridge(s) to which
 the TRILL-EN is attached and the egress RBridge nickname from which
 the destination of the packets is reachable.  With that information,
 TRILL-ENs can learn a substantial amount about the topology of the
 TRILL domain.  Therefore, there could be a potential security risk
 when the TRILL-ENs are not trusted or are compromised.
 If the path between the directory and a TRILL-EN is attacked, false
 mappings can be sent to the TRILL-EN causing packets from the TRILL-
 EN to be sent to wrong destinations, possibly violating security
 policy as to which end stations should receive what data.  Therefore,
 a combination of authentication and encryption is RECOMMENDED between
 the directory and TRILL-EN.  The entities involved will need to
 properly authenticate with each other, provide session encryption,
 maintain security patch levels, and configure their systems to allow
 minimal access and running processes to protect sensitive
 information.

Dunbar, et al. Standards Track [Page 8] RFC 8380 Directory-Assisted TRILL Encap May 2018

 For added security against the compromise of data due to its
 misdelivery for any reason, including the above, end-to-end
 encryption and authentication should be considered; that is,
 encryption and authentication from source end station to destination
 end station.
 For Pull Directory and TRILL ES-IS security considerations, see
 [RFC8171].

8. IANA Considerations

 This document has no IANA actions.

9. References

9.1. Normative References

 [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
            Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119,
            DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997,
            <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>.
 [RFC6325]  Perlman, R., Eastlake 3rd, D., Dutt, D., Gai, S., and A.
            Ghanwani, "Routing Bridges (RBridges): Base Protocol
            Specification", RFC 6325, DOI 10.17487/RFC6325, July 2011,
            <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6325>.
 [RFC7176]  Eastlake 3rd, D., Senevirathne, T., Ghanwani, A., Dutt,
            D., and A. Banerjee, "Transparent Interconnection of Lots
            of Links (TRILL) Use of IS-IS", RFC 7176,
            DOI 10.17487/RFC7176, May 2014,
            <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7176>.
 [RFC8139]  Eastlake 3rd, D., Li, Y., Umair, M., Banerjee, A., and F.
            Hu, "Transparent Interconnection of Lots of Links (TRILL):
            Appointed Forwarders", RFC 8139, DOI 10.17487/RFC8139,
            June 2017, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8139>.
 [RFC8171]  Eastlake 3rd, D., Dunbar, L., Perlman, R., and Y. Li,
            "Transparent Interconnection of Lots of Links (TRILL):
            Edge Directory Assistance Mechanisms", RFC 8171,
            DOI 10.17487/RFC8171, June 2017,
            <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8171>.
 [RFC8174]  Leiba, B., "Ambiguity of Uppercase vs Lowercase in RFC
            2119 Key Words", BCP 14, RFC 8174, DOI 10.17487/RFC8174,
            May 2017, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8174>.

Dunbar, et al. Standards Track [Page 9] RFC 8380 Directory-Assisted TRILL Encap May 2018

9.2. Informative References

 [RFC7067]  Dunbar, L., Eastlake 3rd, D., Perlman, R., and I.
            Gashinsky, "Directory Assistance Problem and High-Level
            Design Proposal", RFC 7067, DOI 10.17487/RFC7067, November
            2013, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7067>.

Acknowledgments

 The following are thanked for their contributions:
    Igor Gashinsky
    Ben Nevin-Jenkins

Authors' Addresses

 Linda Dunbar
 Huawei Technologies
 5340 Legacy Drive, Suite 175
 Plano, TX  75024
 United States of America
 Phone: +1-469-277-5840
 Email: linda.dunbar@huawei.com
 Donald Eastlake 3rd
 Huawei Technologies
 155 Beaver Street
 Milford, MA  01757
 United States of America
 Phone: +1-508-333-2270
 Email: d3e3e3@gmail.com
 Radia Perlman
 Dell/EMC
 2010 256th Avenue NE, #200
 Bellevue, WA  98007
 United States of America
 Email: Radia@alum.mit.edu

Dunbar, et al. Standards Track [Page 10]

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