GENWiki

Premier IT Outsourcing and Support Services within the UK

User Tools

Site Tools

Problem, Formatting or Query -  Send Feedback

Was this page helpful?-10+1


rfc:rfc8152

Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) J. Schaad Request for Comments: 8152 August Cellars Category: Standards Track July 2017 ISSN: 2070-1721

             CBOR Object Signing and Encryption (COSE)

Abstract

 Concise Binary Object Representation (CBOR) is a data format designed
 for small code size and small message size.  There is a need for the
 ability to have basic security services defined for this data format.
 This document defines the CBOR Object Signing and Encryption (COSE)
 protocol.  This specification describes how to create and process
 signatures, message authentication codes, and encryption using CBOR
 for serialization.  This specification additionally describes how to
 represent cryptographic keys using CBOR.

Status of This Memo

 This is an Internet Standards Track document.
 This document is a product of the Internet Engineering Task Force
 (IETF).  It represents the consensus of the IETF community.  It has
 received public review and has been approved for publication by the
 Internet Engineering Steering Group (IESG).  Further information on
 Internet Standards is available in Section 2 of RFC 7841.
 Information about the current status of this document, any errata,
 and how to provide feedback on it may be obtained at
 http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8152.

Copyright Notice

 Copyright (c) 2017 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
 document authors.  All rights reserved.
 This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
 Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
 (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
 publication of this document.  Please review these documents
 carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
 to this document.  Code Components extracted from this document must
 include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
 the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
 described in the Simplified BSD License.

Schaad Standards Track [Page 1] RFC 8152 CBOR Object Signing and Encryption (COSE) July 2017

Table of Contents

 1. Introduction ....................................................4
    1.1. Design Changes from JOSE ...................................5
    1.2. Requirements Terminology ...................................6
    1.3. CBOR Grammar ...............................................6
    1.4. CBOR-Related Terminology ...................................7
    1.5. Document Terminology .......................................8
 2. Basic COSE Structure ............................................8
 3. Header Parameters ..............................................10
    3.1. Common COSE Headers Parameters ............................12
 4. Signing Objects ................................................16
    4.1. Signing with One or More Signers ..........................16
    4.2. Signing with One Signer ...................................18
    4.3. Externally Supplied Data ..................................19
    4.4. Signing and Verification Process ..........................20
    4.5. Computing Counter Signatures ..............................22
 5. Encryption Objects .............................................22
    5.1. Enveloped COSE Structure ..................................23
         5.1.1. Content Key Distribution Methods ...................24
    5.2. Single Recipient Encrypted ................................25
    5.3. How to Encrypt and Decrypt for AEAD Algorithms ............26
    5.4. How to Encrypt and Decrypt for AE Algorithms ..............28
 6. MAC Objects ....................................................29
    6.1. MACed Message with Recipients .............................30
    6.2. MACed Messages with Implicit Key ..........................31
    6.3. How to Compute and Verify a MAC ...........................32
 7. Key Objects ....................................................33
    7.1. COSE Key Common Parameters ................................34
 8. Signature Algorithms ...........................................37
    8.1. ECDSA .....................................................38
         8.1.1. Security Considerations ............................40
    8.2. Edwards-Curve Digital Signature Algorithms (EdDSAs) .......40
         8.2.1. Security Considerations ............................41
 9. Message Authentication Code (MAC) Algorithms ...................42
    9.1. Hash-Based Message Authentication Codes (HMACs) ...........42
         9.1.1. Security Considerations ............................44
    9.2. AES Message Authentication Code (AES-CBC-MAC) .............44
         9.2.1. Security Considerations ............................45
 10. Content Encryption Algorithms .................................45
    10.1. AES GCM ..................................................46
         10.1.1. Security Considerations ...........................47
    10.2. AES CCM ..................................................47
         10.2.1. Security Considerations ...........................50
    10.3. ChaCha20 and Poly1305 ....................................50
         10.3.1. Security Considerations ...........................51
 11. Key Derivation Functions (KDFs) ...............................51

Schaad Standards Track [Page 2] RFC 8152 CBOR Object Signing and Encryption (COSE) July 2017

    11.1. HMAC-Based Extract-and-Expand Key Derivation
          Function (HKDF) ..........................................52
    11.2. Context Information Structure ............................54
 12. Content Key Distribution Methods ..............................60
    12.1. Direct Encryption ........................................60
         12.1.1. Direct Key ........................................61
         12.1.2. Direct Key with KDF ...............................61
     12.2. Key Wrap ................................................63
         12.2.1. AES Key Wrap ......................................64
     12.3. Key Transport ...........................................65
     12.4. Direct Key Agreement ....................................65
         12.4.1. ECDH ..............................................66
         12.4.2. Security Considerations ...........................69
    12.5. Key Agreement with Key Wrap ..............................69
         12.5.1. ECDH ..............................................70
 13. Key Object Parameters .........................................72
    13.1. Elliptic Curve Keys ......................................73
         13.1.1. Double Coordinate Curves ..........................73
    13.2. Octet Key Pair ...........................................74
    13.3. Symmetric Keys ...........................................75
 14. CBOR Encoder Restrictions .....................................76
 15. Application Profiling Considerations ..........................76
 16. IANA Considerations ...........................................78
    16.1. CBOR Tag Assignment ......................................78
    16.2. COSE Header Parameters Registry ..........................78
    16.3. COSE Header Algorithm Parameters Registry ................79
    16.4. COSE Algorithms Registry .................................79
    16.5. COSE Key Common Parameters Registry ......................81
    16.6. COSE Key Type Parameters Registry ........................81
    16.7. COSE Key Types Registry ..................................82
    16.8. COSE Elliptic Curves Registry ............................83
    16.9. Media Type Registrations .................................84
         16.9.1. COSE Security Message .............................84
         16.9.2. COSE Key Media Type ...............................85
    16.10. CoAP Content-Formats Registry ...........................87
    16.11. Expert Review Instructions ..............................87
 17. Security Considerations .......................................88
 18. References ....................................................90
    18.1. Normative References .....................................90
    18.2. Informative References ...................................92
 Appendix A. Guidelines for External Data Authentication of
             Algorithms ............................................96
    A.1. Algorithm Identification ..................................96
    A.2. Counter Signature without Headers .........................99
 Appendix B. Two Layers of Recipient Information ..................100
 Appendix C. Examples .............................................102
    C.1. Examples of Signed Messages ..............................103
         C.1.1. Single Signature ..................................103

Schaad Standards Track [Page 3] RFC 8152 CBOR Object Signing and Encryption (COSE) July 2017

         C.1.2. Multiple Signers ..................................103
         C.1.3. Counter Signature .................................104
         C.1.4. Signature with Criticality ........................105
    C.2. Single Signer Examples ...................................106
         C.2.1. Single ECDSA Signature  ...........................106
    C.3. Examples of Enveloped Messages ...........................107
         C.3.1. Direct ECDH .......................................107
         C.3.2. Direct Plus Key Derivation ........................108
         C.3.3. Counter Signature on Encrypted Content ............109
         C.3.4. Encrypted Content with External Data ..............111
    C.4. Examples of Encrypted Messages ...........................111
         C.4.1. Simple Encrypted Message ..........................111
         C.4.2. Encrypted Message with a Partial IV ...............112
    C.5. Examples of MACed Messages ...............................112
         C.5.1. Shared Secret Direct MAC ..........................112
         C.5.2. ECDH Direct MAC ...................................113
         C.5.3. Wrapped MAC .......................................114
         C.5.4. Multi-Recipient MACed Message .....................115
    C.6. Examples of MAC0 Messages ................................117
         C.6.1. Shared Secret Direct MAC ..........................117
    C.7. COSE Keys ................................................117
         C.7.1. Public Keys .......................................117
         C.7.2. Private Keys ......................................119
 Acknowledgments ..................................................121
 Author's Address .................................................121

1. Introduction

 There has been an increased focus on small, constrained devices that
 make up the Internet of Things (IoT).  One of the standards that has
 come out of this process is "Concise Binary Object Representation
 (CBOR)" [RFC7049].  CBOR extended the data model of the JavaScript
 Object Notation (JSON) [RFC7159] by allowing for binary data, among
 other changes.  CBOR is being adopted by several of the IETF working
 groups dealing with the IoT world as their encoding of data
 structures.  CBOR was designed specifically to be both small in terms
 of messages transport and implementation size and be a schema-free
 decoder.  A need exists to provide message security services for IoT,
 and using CBOR as the message-encoding format makes sense.
 The JOSE working group produced a set of documents [RFC7515]
 [RFC7516] [RFC7517] [RFC7518] using JSON that specified how to
 process encryption, signatures, and Message Authentication Code (MAC)
 operations and how to encode keys using JSON.  This document defines
 the CBOR Object Signing and Encryption (COSE) standard, which does
 the same thing for the CBOR encoding format.  While there is a strong

Schaad Standards Track [Page 4] RFC 8152 CBOR Object Signing and Encryption (COSE) July 2017

 attempt to keep the flavor of the original JSON Object Signing and
 Encryption (JOSE) documents, two considerations are taken into
 account:
 o  CBOR has capabilities that are not present in JSON and are
    appropriate to use.  One example of this is the fact that CBOR has
    a method of encoding binary directly without first converting it
    into a base64-encoded string.
 o  COSE is not a direct copy of the JOSE specification.  In the
    process of creating COSE, decisions that were made for JOSE were
    re-examined.  In many cases, different results were decided on as
    the criteria were not always the same.

1.1. Design Changes from JOSE

 o  Define a single top message structure so that encrypted, signed,
    and MACed messages can easily be identified and still have a
    consistent view.
 o  Signed messages distinguish between the protected and unprotected
    parameters that relate to the content from those that relate to
    the signature.
 o  MACed messages are separated from signed messages.
 o  MACed messages have the ability to use the same set of recipient
    algorithms as enveloped messages for obtaining the MAC
    authentication key.
 o  Use binary encodings for binary data rather than base64url
    encodings.
 o  Combine the authentication tag for encryption algorithms with the
    ciphertext.
 o  The set of cryptographic algorithms has been expanded in some
    directions and trimmed in others.

Schaad Standards Track [Page 5] RFC 8152 CBOR Object Signing and Encryption (COSE) July 2017

1.2. Requirements Terminology

 The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
 "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "NOT RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and
 "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in BCP
 14 [RFC2119] [RFC8174] when, and only when, they appear in all
 capitals, as shown here.
 When the words appear in lowercase, this interpretation does not
 apply.

1.3. CBOR Grammar

 There is currently no standard CBOR grammar available for use by
 specifications.  The CBOR structures are therefore described in
 prose.
 The document was developed by first working on the grammar and then
 developing the prose to go with it.  An artifact of this is that the
 prose was written using the primitive type strings defined by CBOR
 Data Definition Language (CDDL) [CDDL].  In this specification, the
 following primitive types are used:
    any -- non-specific value that permits all CBOR values to be
    placed here.
    bool -- a boolean value (true: major type 7, value 21; false:
    major type 7, value 20).
    bstr -- byte string (major type 2).
    int -- an unsigned integer or a negative integer.
    nil -- a null value (major type 7, value 22).
    nint -- a negative integer (major type 1).
    tstr -- a UTF-8 text string (major type 3).
    uint -- an unsigned integer (major type 0).
 Two syntaxes from CDDL appear in this document as shorthand.  These
 are:
    FOO / BAR -- indicates that either FOO or BAR can appear here.
    [+ FOO] -- indicates that the type FOO appears one or more times
    in an array.

Schaad Standards Track [Page 6] RFC 8152 CBOR Object Signing and Encryption (COSE) July 2017

 As well as the prose description, a version of a CBOR grammar is
 presented in CDDL.  Since CDDL has not been published in an RFC, this
 grammar may not work with the final version of CDDL.  The CDDL
 grammar is informational; the prose description is normative.
 The collected CDDL can be extracted from the XML version of this
 document via the following XPath expression below.  (Depending on the
 XPath evaluator one is using, it may be necessary to deal with >
 as an entity.)
 //artwork[@type='CDDL']/text()
 CDDL expects the initial non-terminal symbol to be the first symbol
 in the file.  For this reason, the first fragment of CDDL is
 presented here.
 start = COSE_Messages / COSE_Key / COSE_KeySet / Internal_Types
 ; This is defined to make the tool quieter:
 Internal_Types = Sig_structure / Enc_structure / MAC_structure /
         COSE_KDF_Context
 The non-terminal Internal_Types is defined for dealing with the
 automated validation tools used during the writing of this document.
 It references those non-terminals that are used for security
 computations but are not emitted for transport.

1.4. CBOR-Related Terminology

 In JSON, maps are called objects and only have one kind of map key: a
 string.  In COSE, we use strings, negative integers, and unsigned
 integers as map keys.  The integers are used for compactness of
 encoding and easy comparison.  The inclusion of strings allows for an
 additional range of short encoded values to be used as well.  Since
 the word "key" is mainly used in its other meaning, as a
 cryptographic key, we use the term "label" for this usage as a map
 key.
 The presence of a label in a COSE map that is not a string or an
 integer is an error.  Applications can either fail processing or
 process messages with incorrect labels; however, they MUST NOT create
 messages with incorrect labels.
 A CDDL grammar fragment defines the non-terminal 'label', as in the
 previous paragraph, and 'values', which permits any value to be used.
 label = int / tstr
 values = any

Schaad Standards Track [Page 7] RFC 8152 CBOR Object Signing and Encryption (COSE) July 2017

1.5. Document Terminology

 In this document, we use the following terminology:
 Byte is a synonym for octet.
 Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP) is a specialized web transfer
 protocol for use in constrained systems.  It is defined in [RFC7252].
 Authenticated Encryption (AE) [RFC5116] algorithms are those
 encryption algorithms that provide an authentication check of the
 contents algorithm with the encryption service.
 Authenticated Encryption with Authenticated Data (AEAD) [RFC5116]
 algorithms provide the same content authentication service as AE
 algorithms, but they additionally provide for authentication of non-
 encrypted data as well.

2. Basic COSE Structure

 The COSE object structure is designed so that there can be a large
 amount of common code when parsing and processing the different types
 of security messages.  All of the message structures are built on the
 CBOR array type.  The first three elements of the array always
 contain the same information:
 1.  The set of protected header parameters wrapped in a bstr.
 2.  The set of unprotected header parameters as a map.
 3.  The content of the message.  The content is either the plaintext
     or the ciphertext as appropriate.  The content may be detached,
     but the location is still used.  The content is wrapped in a bstr
     when present and is a nil value when detached.
 Elements after this point are dependent on the specific message type.
 COSE messages are also built using the concept of layers to separate
 different types of cryptographic concepts.  As an example of how this
 works, consider the COSE_Encrypt message (Section 5.1).  This message
 type is broken into two layers: the content layer and the recipient
 layer.  In the content layer, the plaintext is encrypted and
 information about the encrypted message is placed.  In the recipient
 layer, the content encryption key (CEK) is encrypted and information
 about how it is encrypted for each recipient is placed.  A single
 layer version of the encryption message COSE_Encrypt0 (Section 5.2)
 is provided for cases where the CEK is pre-shared.

Schaad Standards Track [Page 8] RFC 8152 CBOR Object Signing and Encryption (COSE) July 2017

 Identification of which type of message has been presented is done by
 the following methods:
 1.  The specific message type is known from the context.  This may be
     defined by a marker in the containing structure or by
     restrictions specified by the application protocol.
 2.  The message type is identified by a CBOR tag.  Messages with a
     CBOR tag are known in this specification as tagged messages,
     while those without the CBOR tag are known as untagged messages.
     This document defines a CBOR tag for each of the message
     structures.  These tags can be found in Table 1.
 3.  When a COSE object is carried in a media type of 'application/
     cose', the optional parameter 'cose-type' can be used to identify
     the embedded object.  The parameter is OPTIONAL if the tagged
     version of the structure is used.  The parameter is REQUIRED if
     the untagged version of the structure is used.  The value to use
     with the parameter for each of the structures can be found in
     Table 1.
 4.  When a COSE object is carried as a CoAP payload, the CoAP
     Content-Format Option can be used to identify the message
     content.  The CoAP Content-Format values can be found in
     Table 26.  The CBOR tag for the message structure is not required
     as each security message is uniquely identified.
 +-------+---------------+---------------+---------------------------+
 | CBOR  | cose-type     | Data Item     | Semantics                 |
 | Tag   |               |               |                           |
 +-------+---------------+---------------+---------------------------+
 | 98    | cose-sign     | COSE_Sign     | COSE Signed Data Object   |
 | 18    | cose-sign1    | COSE_Sign1    | COSE Single Signer Data   |
 |       |               |               | Object                    |
 | 96    | cose-encrypt  | COSE_Encrypt  | COSE Encrypted Data       |
 |       |               |               | Object                    |
 | 16    | cose-encrypt0 | COSE_Encrypt0 | COSE Single Recipient     |
 |       |               |               | Encrypted Data Object     |
 | 97    | cose-mac      | COSE_Mac      | COSE MACed Data Object    |
 | 17    | cose-mac0     | COSE_Mac0     | COSE Mac w/o Recipients   |
 |       |               |               | Object                    |
 +-------+---------------+---------------+---------------------------+
                 Table 1: COSE Message Identification

Schaad Standards Track [Page 9] RFC 8152 CBOR Object Signing and Encryption (COSE) July 2017

 The following CDDL fragment identifies all of the top messages
 defined in this document.  Separate non-terminals are defined for the
 tagged and the untagged versions of the messages.
 COSE_Messages = COSE_Untagged_Message / COSE_Tagged_Message
 COSE_Untagged_Message = COSE_Sign / COSE_Sign1 /
     COSE_Encrypt / COSE_Encrypt0 /
     COSE_Mac / COSE_Mac0
 COSE_Tagged_Message = COSE_Sign_Tagged / COSE_Sign1_Tagged /
     COSE_Encrypt_Tagged / COSE_Encrypt0_Tagged /
     COSE_Mac_Tagged / COSE_Mac0_Tagged

3. Header Parameters

 The structure of COSE has been designed to have two buckets of
 information that are not considered to be part of the payload itself,
 but are used for holding information about content, algorithms, keys,
 or evaluation hints for the processing of the layer.  These two
 buckets are available for use in all of the structures except for
 keys.  While these buckets are present, they may not all be usable in
 all instances.  For example, while the protected bucket is defined as
 part of the recipient structure, some of the algorithms used for
 recipient structures do not provide for authenticated data.  If this
 is the case, the protected bucket is left empty.
 Both buckets are implemented as CBOR maps.  The map key is a 'label'
 (Section 1.4).  The value portion is dependent on the definition for
 the label.  Both maps use the same set of label/value pairs.  The
 integer and string values for labels have been divided into several
 sections including a standard range, a private range, and a range
 that is dependent on the algorithm selected.  The defined labels can
 be found in the "COSE Header Parameters" IANA registry
 (Section 16.2).
 Two buckets are provided for each layer:
 protected:  Contains parameters about the current layer that are to
    be cryptographically protected.  This bucket MUST be empty if it
    is not going to be included in a cryptographic computation.  This
    bucket is encoded in the message as a binary object.  This value
    is obtained by CBOR encoding the protected map and wrapping it in
    a bstr object.  Senders SHOULD encode a zero-length map as a zero-
    length string rather than as a zero-length map (encoded as h'a0').
    The zero-length binary encoding is preferred because it is both
    shorter and the version used in the serialization structures for
    cryptographic computation.  After encoding the map, the value is

Schaad Standards Track [Page 10] RFC 8152 CBOR Object Signing and Encryption (COSE) July 2017

    wrapped in the binary object.  Recipients MUST accept both a zero-
    length binary value and a zero-length map encoded in the binary
    value.  The wrapping allows for the encoding of the protected map
    to be transported with a greater chance that it will not be
    altered in transit.  (Badly behaved intermediates could decode and
    re-encode, but this will result in a failure to verify unless the
    re-encoded byte string is identical to the decoded byte string.)
    This avoids the problem of all parties needing to be able to do a
    common canonical encoding.
 unprotected:  Contains parameters about the current layer that are
    not cryptographically protected.
 Only parameters that deal with the current layer are to be placed at
 that layer.  As an example of this, the parameter 'content type'
 describes the content of the message being carried in the message.
 As such, this parameter is placed only in the content layer and is
 not placed in the recipient or signature layers.  In principle, one
 should be able to process any given layer without reference to any
 other layer.  With the exception of the COSE_Sign structure, the only
 data that needs to cross layers is the cryptographic key.
 The buckets are present in all of the security objects defined in
 this document.  The fields in order are the 'protected' bucket (as a
 CBOR 'bstr' type) and then the 'unprotected' bucket (as a CBOR 'map'
 type).  The presence of both buckets is required.  The parameters
 that go into the buckets come from the IANA "COSE Header Parameters"
 registry (Section 16.2).  Some common parameters are defined in the
 next section, but a number of parameters are defined throughout this
 document.
 Labels in each of the maps MUST be unique.  When processing messages,
 if a label appears multiple times, the message MUST be rejected as
 malformed.  Applications SHOULD verify that the same label does not
 occur in both the protected and unprotected headers.  If the message
 is not rejected as malformed, attributes MUST be obtained from the
 protected bucket before they are obtained from the unprotected
 bucket.

Schaad Standards Track [Page 11] RFC 8152 CBOR Object Signing and Encryption (COSE) July 2017

 The following CDDL fragment represents the two header buckets.  A
 group "Headers" is defined in CDDL that represents the two buckets in
 which attributes are placed.  This group is used to provide these two
 fields consistently in all locations.  A type is also defined that
 represents the map of common headers.
 Headers = (
     protected : empty_or_serialized_map,
     unprotected : header_map
 )
 header_map = {
     Generic_Headers,
     * label => values
 }
 empty_or_serialized_map = bstr .cbor header_map / bstr .size 0

3.1. Common COSE Headers Parameters

 This section defines a set of common header parameters.  A summary of
 these parameters can be found in Table 2.  This table should be
 consulted to determine the value of label and the type of the value.
 The set of header parameters defined in this section are:
 alg:  This parameter is used to indicate the algorithm used for the
    security processing.  This parameter MUST be authenticated where
    the ability to do so exists.  This support is provided by AEAD
    algorithms or construction (COSE_Sign, COSE_Sign0, COSE_Mac, and
    COSE_Mac0).  This authentication can be done either by placing the
    header in the protected header bucket or as part of the externally
    supplied data.  The value is taken from the "COSE Algorithms"
    registry (see Section 16.4).
 crit:  The parameter is used to indicate which protected header
    labels an application that is processing a message is required to
    understand.  Parameters defined in this document do not need to be
    included as they should be understood by all implementations.
    When present, this parameter MUST be placed in the protected
    header bucket.  The array MUST have at least one value in it.
    Not all labels need to be included in the 'crit' parameter.  The
    rules for deciding which header labels are placed in the array
    are:
  • Integer labels in the range of 0 to 8 SHOULD be omitted.

Schaad Standards Track [Page 12] RFC 8152 CBOR Object Signing and Encryption (COSE) July 2017

  • Integer labels in the range -1 to -128 can be omitted as they

are algorithm dependent. If an application can correctly

       process an algorithm, it can be assumed that it will correctly
       process all of the common parameters associated with that
       algorithm.  Integer labels in the range -129 to -65536 SHOULD
       be included as these would be less common parameters that might
       not be generally supported.
  • Labels for parameters required for an application MAY be

omitted. Applications should have a statement if the label can

       be omitted.
    The header parameter values indicated by 'crit' can be processed
    by either the security library code or an application using a
    security library; the only requirement is that the parameter is
    processed.  If the 'crit' value list includes a value for which
    the parameter is not in the protected bucket, this is a fatal
    error in processing the message.
 content type:  This parameter is used to indicate the content type of
    the data in the payload or ciphertext fields.  Integers are from
    the "CoAP Content-Formats" IANA registry table [COAP.Formats].
    Text values following the syntax of "<type-name>/<subtype-name>"
    where <type-name> and <subtype-name> are defined in Section 4.2 of
    [RFC6838].  Leading and trailing whitespace is also omitted.
    Textual content values along with parameters and subparameters can
    be located using the IANA "Media Types" registry.  Applications
    SHOULD provide this parameter if the content structure is
    potentially ambiguous.
 kid:  This parameter identifies one piece of data that can be used as
    input to find the needed cryptographic key.  The value of this
    parameter can be matched against the 'kid' member in a COSE_Key
    structure.  Other methods of key distribution can define an
    equivalent field to be matched.  Applications MUST NOT assume that
    'kid' values are unique.  There may be more than one key with the
    same 'kid' value, so all of the keys associated with this 'kid'
    may need to be checked.  The internal structure of 'kid' values is
    not defined and cannot be relied on by applications.  Key
    identifier values are hints about which key to use.  This is not a
    security-critical field.  For this reason, it can be placed in the
    unprotected headers bucket.
 IV:  This parameter holds the Initialization Vector (IV) value.  For
    some symmetric encryption algorithms, this may be referred to as a
    nonce.  The IV can be placed in the unprotected header as
    modifying the IV will cause the decryption to yield plaintext that
    is readily detectable as garbled.

Schaad Standards Track [Page 13] RFC 8152 CBOR Object Signing and Encryption (COSE) July 2017

 Partial IV:  This parameter holds a part of the IV value.  When using
    the COSE_Encrypt0 structure, a portion of the IV can be part of
    the context associated with the key.  This field is used to carry
    a value that causes the IV to be changed for each message.  The IV
    can be placed in the unprotected header as modifying the IV will
    cause the decryption to yield plaintext that is readily detectable
    as garbled.  The 'Initialization Vector' and 'Partial
    Initialization Vector' parameters MUST NOT both be present in the
    same security layer.
    The message IV is generated by the following steps:
    1.  Left-pad the Partial IV with zeros to the length of IV.
    2.  XOR the padded Partial IV with the context IV.
 counter signature:  This parameter holds one or more counter
    signature values.  Counter signatures provide a method of having a
    second party sign some data.  The counter signature parameter can
    occur as an unprotected attribute in any of the following
    structures: COSE_Sign1, COSE_Signature, COSE_Encrypt,
    COSE_recipient, COSE_Encrypt0, COSE_Mac, and COSE_Mac0.  These
    structures all have the same beginning elements, so that a
    consistent calculation of the counter signature can be computed.
    Details on computing counter signatures are found in Section 4.5.

Schaad Standards Track [Page 14] RFC 8152 CBOR Object Signing and Encryption (COSE) July 2017

 +-----------+-------+----------------+-------------+----------------+
 | Name      | Label | Value Type     | Value       | Description    |
 |           |       |                | Registry    |                |
 +-----------+-------+----------------+-------------+----------------+
 | alg       | 1     | int / tstr     | COSE        | Cryptographic  |
 |           |       |                | Algorithms  | algorithm to   |
 |           |       |                | registry    | use            |
 | crit      | 2     | [+ label]      | COSE Header | Critical       |
 |           |       |                | Parameters  | headers to be  |
 |           |       |                | registry    | understood     |
 | content   | 3     | tstr / uint    | CoAP        | Content type   |
 | type      |       |                | Content-    | of the payload |
 |           |       |                | Formats or  |                |
 |           |       |                | Media Types |                |
 |           |       |                | registries  |                |
 | kid       | 4     | bstr           |             | Key identifier |
 | IV        | 5     | bstr           |             | Full           |
 |           |       |                |             | Initialization |
 |           |       |                |             | Vector         |
 | Partial   | 6     | bstr           |             | Partial        |
 | IV        |       |                |             | Initialization |
 |           |       |                |             | Vector         |
 | counter   | 7     | COSE_Signature |             | CBOR-encoded   |
 | signature |       | / [+           |             | signature      |
 |           |       | COSE_Signature |             | structure      |
 |           |       | ]              |             |                |
 +-----------+-------+----------------+-------------+----------------+
                   Table 2: Common Header Parameters
 The CDDL fragment that represents the set of headers defined in this
 section is given below.  Each of the headers is tagged as optional
 because they do not need to be in every map; headers required in
 specific maps are discussed above.
 Generic_Headers = (
     ? 1 => int / tstr,  ; algorithm identifier
     ? 2 => [+label],    ; criticality
     ? 3 => tstr / int,  ; content type
     ? 4 => bstr,        ; key identifier
     ? 5 => bstr,        ; IV
     ? 6 => bstr,        ; Partial IV
     ? 7 => COSE_Signature / [+COSE_Signature] ; Counter signature
 )

Schaad Standards Track [Page 15] RFC 8152 CBOR Object Signing and Encryption (COSE) July 2017

4. Signing Objects

 COSE supports two different signature structures.  COSE_Sign allows
 for one or more signatures to be applied to the same content.
 COSE_Sign1 is restricted to a single signer.  The structures cannot
 be converted between each other; as the signature computation
 includes a parameter identifying which structure is being used, the
 converted structure will fail signature validation.

4.1. Signing with One or More Signers

 The COSE_Sign structure allows for one or more signatures to be
 applied to a message payload.  Parameters relating to the content and
 parameters relating to the signature are carried along with the
 signature itself.  These parameters may be authenticated by the
 signature, or just present.  An example of a parameter about the
 content is the content type.  Examples of parameters about the
 signature would be the algorithm and key used to create the signature
 and counter signatures.
 RFC 5652 indicates that:
    When more than one signature is present, the successful validation
    of one signature associated with a given signer is usually treated
    as a successful signature by that signer.  However, there are some
    application environments where other rules are needed.  An
    application that employs a rule other than one valid signature for
    each signer must specify those rules.  Also, where simple matching
    of the signer identifier is not sufficient to determine whether
    the signatures were generated by the same signer, the application
    specification must describe how to determine which signatures were
    generated by the same signer.  Support for different communities
    of recipients is the primary reason that signers choose to include
    more than one signature.
 For example, the COSE_Sign structure might include signatures
 generated with the Edwards-curve Digital Signature Algorithm (EdDSA)
 [RFC8032] and with the Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm
 (ECDSA) [DSS].  This allows recipients to verify the signature
 associated with one algorithm or the other.  More-detailed
 information on multiple signature evaluations can be found in
 [RFC5752].

Schaad Standards Track [Page 16] RFC 8152 CBOR Object Signing and Encryption (COSE) July 2017

 The signature structure can be encoded as either tagged or untagged
 depending on the context it will be used in.  A tagged COSE_Sign
 structure is identified by the CBOR tag 98.  The CDDL fragment that
 represents this is:
 COSE_Sign_Tagged = #6.98(COSE_Sign)
 A COSE Signed Message is defined in two parts.  The CBOR object that
 carries the body and information about the body is called the
 COSE_Sign structure.  The CBOR object that carries the signature and
 information about the signature is called the COSE_Signature
 structure.  Examples of COSE Signed Messages can be found in
 Appendix C.1.
 The COSE_Sign structure is a CBOR array.  The fields of the array in
 order are:
 protected:  This is as described in Section 3.
 unprotected:  This is as described in Section 3.
 payload:  This field contains the serialized content to be signed.
    If the payload is not present in the message, the application is
    required to supply the payload separately.  The payload is wrapped
    in a bstr to ensure that it is transported without changes.  If
    the payload is transported separately ("detached content"), then a
    nil CBOR object is placed in this location, and it is the
    responsibility of the application to ensure that it will be
    transported without changes.
    Note: When a signature with a message recovery algorithm is used
    (Section 8), the maximum number of bytes that can be recovered is
    the length of the payload.  The size of the payload is reduced by
    the number of bytes that will be recovered.  If all of the bytes
    of the payload are consumed, then the payload is encoded as a
    zero-length binary string rather than as being absent.
 signatures:  This field is an array of signatures.  Each signature is
    represented as a COSE_Signature structure.

Schaad Standards Track [Page 17] RFC 8152 CBOR Object Signing and Encryption (COSE) July 2017

 The CDDL fragment that represents the above text for COSE_Sign
 follows.
 COSE_Sign = [
     Headers,
     payload : bstr / nil,
     signatures : [+ COSE_Signature]
 ]
 The COSE_Signature structure is a CBOR array.  The fields of the
 array in order are:
 protected:  This is as described in Section 3.
 unprotected:  This is as described in Section 3.
 signature:  This field contains the computed signature value.  The
    type of the field is a bstr.  Algorithms MUST specify padding if
    the signature value is not a multiple of 8 bits.
 The CDDL fragment that represents the above text for COSE_Signature
 follows.
 COSE_Signature =  [
     Headers,
     signature : bstr
 ]

4.2. Signing with One Signer

 The COSE_Sign1 signature structure is used when only one signature is
 going to be placed on a message.  The parameters dealing with the
 content and the signature are placed in the same pair of buckets
 rather than having the separation of COSE_Sign.
 The structure can be encoded as either tagged or untagged depending
 on the context it will be used in.  A tagged COSE_Sign1 structure is
 identified by the CBOR tag 18.  The CDDL fragment that represents
 this is:
 COSE_Sign1_Tagged = #6.18(COSE_Sign1)
 The CBOR object that carries the body, the signature, and the
 information about the body and signature is called the COSE_Sign1
 structure.  Examples of COSE_Sign1 messages can be found in
 Appendix C.2.

Schaad Standards Track [Page 18] RFC 8152 CBOR Object Signing and Encryption (COSE) July 2017

 The COSE_Sign1 structure is a CBOR array.  The fields of the array in
 order are:
 protected:  This is as described in Section 3.
 unprotected:  This is as described in Section 3.
 payload:  This is as described in Section 4.1.
 signature:  This field contains the computed signature value.  The
    type of the field is a bstr.
 The CDDL fragment that represents the above text for COSE_Sign1
 follows.
 COSE_Sign1 = [
     Headers,
     payload : bstr / nil,
     signature : bstr
 ]

4.3. Externally Supplied Data

 One of the features offered in the COSE document is the ability for
 applications to provide additional data to be authenticated, but that
 is not carried as part of the COSE object.  The primary reason for
 supporting this can be seen by looking at the CoAP message structure
 [RFC7252], where the facility exists for options to be carried before
 the payload.  Examples of data that can be placed in this location
 would be the CoAP code or CoAP options.  If the data is in the header
 section, then it is available for proxies to help in performing its
 operations.  For example, the Accept Option can be used by a proxy to
 determine if an appropriate value is in the proxy's cache.  But the
 sender can prevent a proxy from changing the set of values that it
 will accept by including that value in the resulting authentication
 tag.  However, it may also be desired to protect these values so that
 if they are modified in transit, it can be detected.
 This document describes the process for using a byte array of
 externally supplied authenticated data; however, the method of
 constructing the byte array is a function of the application.
 Applications that use this feature need to define how the externally
 supplied authenticated data is to be constructed.  Such a
 construction needs to take into account the following issues:
 o  If multiple items are included, applications need to ensure that
    the same byte string is not produced if there are different
    inputs.  This could occur by appending the strings 'AB' and 'CDE'

Schaad Standards Track [Page 19] RFC 8152 CBOR Object Signing and Encryption (COSE) July 2017

    or by appending the strings 'ABC' and 'DE'.  This is usually
    addressed by making fields a fixed width and/or encoding the
    length of the field as part of the output.  Using options from
    CoAP [RFC7252] as an example, these fields use a TLV structure so
    they can be concatenated without any problems.
 o  If multiple items are included, an order for the items needs to be
    defined.  Using options from CoAP as an example, an application
    could state that the fields are to be ordered by the option
    number.
 o  Applications need to ensure that the byte stream is going to be
    the same on both sides.  Using options from CoAP might give a
    problem if the same relative numbering is kept.  An intermediate
    node could insert or remove an option, changing how the relative
    number is done.  An application would need to specify that the
    relative number must be re-encoded to be relative only to the
    options that are in the external data.

4.4. Signing and Verification Process

 In order to create a signature, a well-defined byte stream is needed.
 The Sig_structure is used to create the canonical form.  This signing
 and verification process takes in the body information (COSE_Sign or
 COSE_Sign1), the signer information (COSE_Signature), and the
 application data (external source).  A Sig_structure is a CBOR array.
 The fields of the Sig_structure in order are:
 1.  A text string identifying the context of the signature.  The
     context string is:
        "Signature" for signatures using the COSE_Signature structure.
        "Signature1" for signatures using the COSE_Sign1 structure.
        "CounterSignature" for signatures used as counter signature
        attributes.
 2.  The protected attributes from the body structure encoded in a
     bstr type.  If there are no protected attributes, a bstr of
     length zero is used.
 3.  The protected attributes from the signer structure encoded in a
     bstr type.  If there are no protected attributes, a bstr of
     length zero is used.  This field is omitted for the COSE_Sign1
     signature structure.

Schaad Standards Track [Page 20] RFC 8152 CBOR Object Signing and Encryption (COSE) July 2017

 4.  The protected attributes from the application encoded in a bstr
     type.  If this field is not supplied, it defaults to a zero-
     length binary string.  (See Section 4.3 for application guidance
     on constructing this field.)
 5.  The payload to be signed encoded in a bstr type.  The payload is
     placed here independent of how it is transported.
 The CDDL fragment that describes the above text is:
 Sig_structure = [
     context : "Signature" / "Signature1" / "CounterSignature",
     body_protected : empty_or_serialized_map,
     ? sign_protected : empty_or_serialized_map,
     external_aad : bstr,
     payload : bstr
 ]
 How to compute a signature:
 1.  Create a Sig_structure and populate it with the appropriate
     fields.
 2.  Create the value ToBeSigned by encoding the Sig_structure to a
     byte string, using the encoding described in Section 14.
 3.  Call the signature creation algorithm passing in K (the key to
     sign with), alg (the algorithm to sign with), and ToBeSigned (the
     value to sign).
 4.  Place the resulting signature value in the 'signature' field of
     the array.
 The steps for verifying a signature are:
 1.  Create a Sig_structure object and populate it with the
     appropriate fields.
 2.  Create the value ToBeSigned by encoding the Sig_structure to a
     byte string, using the encoding described in Section 14.
 3.  Call the signature verification algorithm passing in K (the key
     to verify with), alg (the algorithm used sign with), ToBeSigned
     (the value to sign), and sig (the signature to be verified).

Schaad Standards Track [Page 21] RFC 8152 CBOR Object Signing and Encryption (COSE) July 2017

 In addition to performing the signature verification, the application
 may also perform the appropriate checks to ensure that the key is
 correctly paired with the signing identity and that the signing
 identity is authorized before performing actions.

4.5. Computing Counter Signatures

 Counter signatures provide a method of associating a different
 signature generated by different signers with some piece of content.
 This is normally used to provide a signature on a signature allowing
 for a proof that a signature existed at a given time (i.e., a
 Timestamp).  In this document, we allow for counter signatures to
 exist in a greater number of environments.  As an example, it is
 possible to place a counter signature in the unprotected attributes
 of a COSE_Encrypt object.  This would allow for an intermediary to
 either verify that the encrypted byte stream has not been modified,
 without being able to decrypt it, or assert that an encrypted byte
 stream either existed at a given time or passed through it in terms
 of routing (i.e., a proxy signature).
 An example of a counter signature on a signature can be found in
 Appendix C.1.3.  An example of a counter signature in an encryption
 object can be found in Appendix C.3.3.
 The creation and validation of counter signatures over the different
 items relies on the fact that the objects have the same structure.
 The elements are a set of protected attributes, a set of unprotected
 attributes, and a body, in that order.  This means that the
 Sig_structure can be used in a uniform manner to get the byte stream
 for processing a signature.  If the counter signature is going to be
 computed over a COSE_Encrypt structure, the body_protected and
 payload items can be mapped into the Sig_structure in the same manner
 as from the COSE_Sign structure.
 It should be noted that only a signature algorithm with appendix (see
 Section 8) can be used for counter signatures.  This is because the
 body should be able to be processed without having to evaluate the
 counter signature, and this is not possible for signature schemes
 with message recovery.

5. Encryption Objects

 COSE supports two different encryption structures.  COSE_Encrypt0 is
 used when a recipient structure is not needed because the key to be
 used is known implicitly.  COSE_Encrypt is used the rest of the time.
 This includes cases where there are multiple recipients or a
 recipient algorithm other than direct is used.

Schaad Standards Track [Page 22] RFC 8152 CBOR Object Signing and Encryption (COSE) July 2017

5.1. Enveloped COSE Structure

 The enveloped structure allows for one or more recipients of a
 message.  There are provisions for parameters about the content and
 parameters about the recipient information to be carried in the
 message.  The protected parameters associated with the content are
 authenticated by the content encryption algorithm.  The protected
 parameters associated with the recipient are authenticated by the
 recipient algorithm (when the algorithm supports it).  Examples of
 parameters about the content are the type of the content and the
 content encryption algorithm.  Examples of parameters about the
 recipient are the recipient's key identifier and the recipient's
 encryption algorithm.
 The same techniques and structures are used for encrypting both the
 plaintext and the keys.  This is different from the approach used by
 both "Cryptographic Message Syntax (CMS)" [RFC5652] and "JSON Web
 Encryption (JWE)" [RFC7516] where different structures are used for
 the content layer and for the recipient layer.  Two structures are
 defined: COSE_Encrypt to hold the encrypted content and
 COSE_recipient to hold the encrypted keys for recipients.  Examples
 of encrypted messages can be found in Appendix C.3.
 The COSE_Encrypt structure can be encoded as either tagged or
 untagged depending on the context it will be used in.  A tagged
 COSE_Encrypt structure is identified by the CBOR tag 96.  The CDDL
 fragment that represents this is:
 COSE_Encrypt_Tagged = #6.96(COSE_Encrypt)
 The COSE_Encrypt structure is a CBOR array.  The fields of the array
 in order are:
 protected:  This is as described in Section 3.
 unprotected:  This is as described in Section 3.
 ciphertext:  This field contains the ciphertext encoded as a bstr.
    If the ciphertext is to be transported independently of the
    control information about the encryption process (i.e., detached
    content), then the field is encoded as a nil value.
 recipients:  This field contains an array of recipient information
    structures.  The type for the recipient information structure is a
    COSE_recipient.

Schaad Standards Track [Page 23] RFC 8152 CBOR Object Signing and Encryption (COSE) July 2017

 The CDDL fragment that corresponds to the above text is:
 COSE_Encrypt = [
     Headers,
     ciphertext : bstr / nil,
     recipients : [+COSE_recipient]
 ]
 The COSE_recipient structure is a CBOR array.  The fields of the
 array in order are:
 protected:  This is as described in Section 3.
 unprotected:  This is as described in Section 3.
 ciphertext:  This field contains the encrypted key encoded as a bstr.
    All encoded keys are symmetric keys; the binary value of the key
    is the content.  If there is not an encrypted key, then this field
    is encoded as a nil value.
 recipients:  This field contains an array of recipient information
    structures.  The type for the recipient information structure is a
    COSE_recipient (an example of this can be found in Appendix B).
    If there are no recipient information structures, this element is
    absent.
 The CDDL fragment that corresponds to the above text for
 COSE_recipient is:
 COSE_recipient = [
     Headers,
     ciphertext : bstr / nil,
     ? recipients : [+COSE_recipient]
 ]

5.1.1. Content Key Distribution Methods

 An encrypted message consists of an encrypted content and an
 encrypted CEK for one or more recipients.  The CEK is encrypted for
 each recipient, using a key specific to that recipient.  The details
 of this encryption depend on which class the recipient algorithm
 falls into.  Specific details on each of the classes can be found in
 Section 12.  A short summary of the five content key distribution
 methods is:
 direct:  The CEK is the same as the identified previously distributed
    symmetric key or is derived from a previously distributed secret.
    No CEK is transported in the message.

Schaad Standards Track [Page 24] RFC 8152 CBOR Object Signing and Encryption (COSE) July 2017

 symmetric key-encryption keys (KEK):  The CEK is encrypted using a
    previously distributed symmetric KEK.  Also known as key wrap.
 key agreement:  The recipient's public key and a sender's private key
    are used to generate a pairwise secret, a Key Derivation Function
    (KDF) is applied to derive a key, and then the CEK is either the
    derived key or encrypted by the derived key.
 key transport:  The CEK is encrypted with the recipient's public key.
    No key transport algorithms are defined in this document.
 passwords:  The CEK is encrypted in a KEK that is derived from a
    password.  No password algorithms are defined in this document.

5.2. Single Recipient Encrypted

 The COSE_Encrypt0 encrypted structure does not have the ability to
 specify recipients of the message.  The structure assumes that the
 recipient of the object will already know the identity of the key to
 be used in order to decrypt the message.  If a key needs to be
 identified to the recipient, the enveloped structure ought to be
 used.
 Examples of encrypted messages can be found in Appendix C.3.
 The COSE_Encrypt0 structure can be encoded as either tagged or
 untagged depending on the context it will be used in.  A tagged
 COSE_Encrypt0 structure is identified by the CBOR tag 16.  The CDDL
 fragment that represents this is:
 COSE_Encrypt0_Tagged = #6.16(COSE_Encrypt0)
 The COSE_Encrypt0 structure is a CBOR array.  The fields of the array
 in order are:
 protected:  This is as described in Section 3.
 unprotected:  This is as described in Section 3.
 ciphertext:  This is as described in Section 5.1.
 The CDDL fragment for COSE_Encrypt0 that corresponds to the above
 text is:
 COSE_Encrypt0 = [
     Headers,
     ciphertext : bstr / nil,
 ]

Schaad Standards Track [Page 25] RFC 8152 CBOR Object Signing and Encryption (COSE) July 2017

5.3. How to Encrypt and Decrypt for AEAD Algorithms

 The encryption algorithm for AEAD algorithms is fairly simple.  The
 first step is to create a consistent byte stream for the
 authenticated data structure.  For this purpose, we use an
 Enc_structure.  The Enc_structure is a CBOR array.  The fields of the
 Enc_structure in order are:
 1.  A text string identifying the context of the authenticated data
     structure.  The context string is:
        "Encrypt0" for the content encryption of a COSE_Encrypt0 data
        structure.
        "Encrypt" for the first layer of a COSE_Encrypt data structure
        (i.e., for content encryption).
        "Enc_Recipient" for a recipient encoding to be placed in an
        COSE_Encrypt data structure.
        "Mac_Recipient" for a recipient encoding to be placed in a
        MACed message structure.
        "Rec_Recipient" for a recipient encoding to be placed in a
        recipient structure.
 2.  The protected attributes from the body structure encoded in a
     bstr type.  If there are no protected attributes, a bstr of
     length zero is used.
 3.  The protected attributes from the application encoded in a bstr
     type.  If this field is not supplied, it defaults to a zero-
     length bstr.  (See Section 4.3 for application guidance on
     constructing this field.)
 The CDDL fragment that describes the above text is:
 Enc_structure = [
     context : "Encrypt" / "Encrypt0" / "Enc_Recipient" /
         "Mac_Recipient" / "Rec_Recipient",
     protected : empty_or_serialized_map,
     external_aad : bstr
 ]
 How to encrypt a message:
 1.  Create an Enc_structure and populate it with the appropriate
     fields.

Schaad Standards Track [Page 26] RFC 8152 CBOR Object Signing and Encryption (COSE) July 2017

 2.  Encode the Enc_structure to a byte stream (Additional
     Authenticated Data (AAD)), using the encoding described in
     Section 14.
 3.  Determine the encryption key (K).  This step is dependent on the
     class of recipient algorithm being used.  For:
     No Recipients:  The key to be used is determined by the algorithm
        and key at the current layer.  Examples are key transport keys
        (Section 12.3), key wrap keys (Section 12.2.1), or pre-shared
        secrets.
     Direct Encryption and Direct Key Agreement:  The key is
        determined by the key and algorithm in the recipient
        structure.  The encryption algorithm and size of the key to be
        used are inputs into the KDF used for the recipient.  (For
        direct, the KDF can be thought of as the identity operation.)
        Examples of these algorithms are found in Sections 12.1.2 and
        12.4.1.
     Other:  The key is randomly or pseudorandomly generated.
 4.  Call the encryption algorithm with K (the encryption key), P (the
     plaintext), and AAD.  Place the returned ciphertext into the
     'ciphertext' field of the structure.
 5.  For recipients of the message, recursively perform the encryption
     algorithm for that recipient, using K (the encryption key) as the
     plaintext.
 How to decrypt a message:
 1.  Create an Enc_structure and populate it with the appropriate
     fields.
 2.  Encode the Enc_structure to a byte stream (AAD), using the
     encoding described in Section 14.
 3.  Determine the decryption key.  This step is dependent on the
     class of recipient algorithm being used.  For:
     No Recipients:  The key to be used is determined by the algorithm
        and key at the current layer.  Examples are key transport keys
        (Section 12.3), key wrap keys (Section 12.2.1), or pre-shared
        secrets.

Schaad Standards Track [Page 27] RFC 8152 CBOR Object Signing and Encryption (COSE) July 2017

     Direct Encryption and Direct Key Agreement:  The key is
        determined by the key and algorithm in the recipient
        structure.  The encryption algorithm and size of the key to be
        used are inputs into the KDF used for the recipient.  (For
        direct, the KDF can be thought of as the identity operation.)
        Examples of these algorithms are found in Sections 12.1.2 and
        12.4.1.
     Other:  The key is determined by decoding and decrypting one of
        the recipient structures.
 4.  Call the decryption algorithm with K (the decryption key to use),
     C (the ciphertext), and AAD.

5.4. How to Encrypt and Decrypt for AE Algorithms

 How to encrypt a message:
 1.  Verify that the 'protected' field is empty.
 2.  Verify that there was no external additional authenticated data
     supplied for this operation.
 3.  Determine the encryption key.  This step is dependent on the
     class of recipient algorithm being used.  For:
     No Recipients:  The key to be used is determined by the algorithm
        and key at the current layer.  Examples are key transport keys
        (Section 12.3), key wrap keys (Section 12.2.1), or pre-shared
        secrets.
     Direct Encryption and Direct Key Agreement:  The key is
        determined by the key and algorithm in the recipient
        structure.  The encryption algorithm and size of the key to be
        used are inputs into the KDF used for the recipient.  (For
        direct, the KDF can be thought of as the identity operation.)
        Examples of these algorithms are found in Sections 12.1.2 and
        12.4.1.
     Other:  The key is randomly generated.
 4.  Call the encryption algorithm with K (the encryption key to use)
     and P (the plaintext).  Place the returned ciphertext into the
     'ciphertext' field of the structure.
 5.  For recipients of the message, recursively perform the encryption
     algorithm for that recipient, using K (the encryption key) as the
     plaintext.

Schaad Standards Track [Page 28] RFC 8152 CBOR Object Signing and Encryption (COSE) July 2017

 How to decrypt a message:
 1.  Verify that the 'protected' field is empty.
 2.  Verify that there was no external additional authenticated data
     supplied for this operation.
 3.  Determine the decryption key.  This step is dependent on the
     class of recipient algorithm being used.  For:
     No Recipients:  The key to be used is determined by the algorithm
        and key at the current layer.  Examples are key transport keys
        (Section 12.3), key wrap keys (Section 12.2.1), or pre-shared
        secrets.
     Direct Encryption and Direct Key Agreement:  The key is
        determined by the key and algorithm in the recipient
        structure.  The encryption algorithm and size of the key to be
        used are inputs into the KDF used for the recipient.  (For
        direct, the KDF can be thought of as the identity operation.)
        Examples of these algorithms are found in Sections 12.1.2 and
        12.4.1.
     Other:  The key is determined by decoding and decrypting one of
        the recipient structures.
 4.  Call the decryption algorithm with K (the decryption key to use)
     and C (the ciphertext).

6. MAC Objects

 COSE supports two different MAC structures.  COSE_MAC0 is used when a
 recipient structure is not needed because the key to be used is
 implicitly known.  COSE_MAC is used for all other cases.  These
 include a requirement for multiple recipients, the key being unknown,
 and a recipient algorithm of other than direct.
 In this section, we describe the structure and methods to be used
 when doing MAC authentication in COSE.  This document allows for the
 use of all of the same classes of recipient algorithms as are allowed
 for encryption.
 When using MAC operations, there are two modes in which they can be
 used.  The first is just a check that the content has not been
 changed since the MAC was computed.  Any class of recipient algorithm
 can be used for this purpose.  The second mode is to both check that
 the content has not been changed since the MAC was computed and to
 use the recipient algorithm to verify who sent it.  The classes of

Schaad Standards Track [Page 29] RFC 8152 CBOR Object Signing and Encryption (COSE) July 2017

 recipient algorithms that support this are those that use a pre-
 shared secret or do static-static (SS) key agreement (without the key
 wrap step).  In both of these cases, the entity that created and sent
 the message MAC can be validated.  (This knowledge of the sender
 assumes that there are only two parties involved and that you did not
 send the message to yourself.)  The origination property can be
 obtained with both of the MAC message structures.

6.1. MACed Message with Recipients

 The multiple recipient MACed message uses two structures: the
 COSE_Mac structure defined in this section for carrying the body and
 the COSE_recipient structure (Section 5.1) to hold the key used for
 the MAC computation.  Examples of MACed messages can be found in
 Appendix C.5.
 The MAC structure can be encoded as either tagged or untagged
 depending on the context it will be used in.  A tagged COSE_Mac
 structure is identified by the CBOR tag 97.  The CDDL fragment that
 represents this is:
 COSE_Mac_Tagged = #6.97(COSE_Mac)
 The COSE_Mac structure is a CBOR array.  The fields of the array in
 order are:
 protected:  This is as described in Section 3.
 unprotected:  This is as described in Section 3.
 payload:  This field contains the serialized content to be MACed.  If
    the payload is not present in the message, the application is
    required to supply the payload separately.  The payload is wrapped
    in a bstr to ensure that it is transported without changes.  If
    the payload is transported separately (i.e., detached content),
    then a nil CBOR value is placed in this location, and it is the
    responsibility of the application to ensure that it will be
    transported without changes.
 tag:  This field contains the MAC value.
 recipients:  This is as described in Section 5.1.

Schaad Standards Track [Page 30] RFC 8152 CBOR Object Signing and Encryption (COSE) July 2017

 The CDDL fragment that represents the above text for COSE_Mac
 follows.
 COSE_Mac = [
    Headers,
    payload : bstr / nil,
    tag : bstr,
    recipients :[+COSE_recipient]
 ]

6.2. MACed Messages with Implicit Key

 In this section, we describe the structure and methods to be used
 when doing MAC authentication for those cases where the recipient is
 implicitly known.
 The MACed message uses the COSE_Mac0 structure defined in this
 section for carrying the body.  Examples of MACed messages with an
 implicit key can be found in Appendix C.6.
 The MAC structure can be encoded as either tagged or untagged
 depending on the context it will be used in.  A tagged COSE_Mac0
 structure is identified by the CBOR tag 17.  The CDDL fragment that
 represents this is:
 COSE_Mac0_Tagged = #6.17(COSE_Mac0)
 The COSE_Mac0 structure is a CBOR array.  The fields of the array in
 order are:
 protected:  This is as described in Section 3.
 unprotected:  This is as described in Section 3.
 payload:  This is as described in Section 6.1.
 tag:  This field contains the MAC value.
 The CDDL fragment that corresponds to the above text is:
 COSE_Mac0 = [
    Headers,
    payload : bstr / nil,
    tag : bstr,
 ]

Schaad Standards Track [Page 31] RFC 8152 CBOR Object Signing and Encryption (COSE) July 2017

6.3. How to Compute and Verify a MAC

 In order to get a consistent encoding of the data to be
 authenticated, the MAC_structure is used to have a canonical form.
 The MAC_structure is a CBOR array.  The fields of the MAC_structure
 in order are:
 1.  A text string that identifies the structure that is being
     encoded.  This string is "MAC" for the COSE_Mac structure.  This
     string is "MAC0" for the COSE_Mac0 structure.
 2.  The protected attributes from the COSE_MAC structure.  If there
     are no protected attributes, a zero-length bstr is used.
 3.  The protected attributes from the application encoded as a bstr
     type.  If this field is not supplied, it defaults to a zero-
     length binary string.  (See Section 4.3 for application guidance
     on constructing this field.)
 4.  The payload to be MACed encoded in a bstr type.  The payload is
     placed here independent of how it is transported.
 The CDDL fragment that corresponds to the above text is:
 MAC_structure = [
      context : "MAC" / "MAC0",
      protected : empty_or_serialized_map,
      external_aad : bstr,
      payload : bstr
 ]
 The steps to compute a MAC are:
 1.  Create a MAC_structure and populate it with the appropriate
     fields.
 2.  Create the value ToBeMaced by encoding the MAC_structure to a
     byte stream, using the encoding described in Section 14.
 3.  Call the MAC creation algorithm passing in K (the key to use),
     alg (the algorithm to MAC with), and ToBeMaced (the value to
     compute the MAC on).
 4.  Place the resulting MAC in the 'tag' field of the COSE_Mac or
     COSE_Mac0 structure.
 5.  Encrypt and encode the MAC key for each recipient of the message.

Schaad Standards Track [Page 32] RFC 8152 CBOR Object Signing and Encryption (COSE) July 2017

 The steps to verify a MAC are:
 1.  Create a MAC_structure object and populate it with the
     appropriate fields.
 2.  Create the value ToBeMaced by encoding the MAC_structure to a
     byte stream, using the encoding described in Section 14.
 3.  Obtain the cryptographic key from one of the recipients of the
     message.
 4.  Call the MAC creation algorithm passing in K (the key to use),
     alg (the algorithm to MAC with), and ToBeMaced (the value to
     compute the MAC on).
 5.  Compare the MAC value to the 'tag' field of the COSE_Mac or
     COSE_Mac0 structure.

7. Key Objects

 A COSE Key structure is built on a CBOR map object.  The set of
 common parameters that can appear in a COSE Key can be found in the
 IANA "COSE Key Common Parameters" registry (Section 16.5).
 Additional parameters defined for specific key types can be found in
 the IANA "COSE Key Type Parameters" registry (Section 16.6).
 A COSE Key Set uses a CBOR array object as its underlying type.  The
 values of the array elements are COSE Keys.  A COSE Key Set MUST have
 at least one element in the array.  Examples of COSE Key Sets can be
 found in Appendix C.7.
 Each element in a COSE Key Set MUST be processed independently.  If
 one element in a COSE Key Set is either malformed or uses a key that
 is not understood by an application, that key is ignored and the
 other keys are processed normally.
 The element "kty" is a required element in a COSE_Key map.

Schaad Standards Track [Page 33] RFC 8152 CBOR Object Signing and Encryption (COSE) July 2017

 The CDDL grammar describing COSE_Key and COSE_KeySet is:
 COSE_Key = {
     1 => tstr / int,          ; kty
     ? 2 => bstr,              ; kid
     ? 3 => tstr / int,        ; alg
     ? 4 => [+ (tstr / int) ], ; key_ops
     ? 5 => bstr,              ; Base IV
     * label => values
 }
 COSE_KeySet = [+COSE_Key]

7.1. COSE Key Common Parameters

 This document defines a set of common parameters for a COSE Key
 object.  Table 3 provides a summary of the parameters defined in this
 section.  There are also parameters that are defined for specific key
 types.  Key-type-specific parameters can be found in Section 13.

Schaad Standards Track [Page 34] RFC 8152 CBOR Object Signing and Encryption (COSE) July 2017

 +---------+-------+----------------+------------+-------------------+
 | Name    | Label | CBOR Type      | Value      | Description       |
 |         |       |                | Registry   |                   |
 +---------+-------+----------------+------------+-------------------+
 | kty     | 1     | tstr / int     | COSE Key   | Identification of |
 |         |       |                | Common     | the key type      |
 |         |       |                | Parameters |                   |
 |         |       |                |            |                   |
 | kid     | 2     | bstr           |            | Key               |
 |         |       |                |            | identification    |
 |         |       |                |            | value -- match to |
 |         |       |                |            | kid in message    |
 |         |       |                |            |                   |
 | alg     | 3     | tstr / int     | COSE       | Key usage         |
 |         |       |                | Algorithms | restriction to    |
 |         |       |                |            | this algorithm    |
 |         |       |                |            |                   |
 | key_ops | 4     | [+ (tstr/int)] |            | Restrict set of   |
 |         |       |                |            | permissible       |
 |         |       |                |            | operations        |
 |         |       |                |            |                   |
 | Base IV | 5     | bstr           |            | Base IV to be     |
 |         |       |                |            | xor-ed with       |
 |         |       |                |            | Partial IVs       |
 +---------+-------+----------------+------------+-------------------+
                        Table 3: Key Map Labels
 kty:  This parameter is used to identify the family of keys for this
    structure and, thus, the set of key-type-specific parameters to be
    found.  The set of values defined in this document can be found in
    Table 21.  This parameter MUST be present in a key object.
    Implementations MUST verify that the key type is appropriate for
    the algorithm being processed.  The key type MUST be included as
    part of the trust decision process.
 alg:  This parameter is used to restrict the algorithm that is used
    with the key.  If this parameter is present in the key structure,
    the application MUST verify that this algorithm matches the
    algorithm for which the key is being used.  If the algorithms do
    not match, then this key object MUST NOT be used to perform the
    cryptographic operation.  Note that the same key can be in a
    different key structure with a different or no algorithm
    specified; however, this is considered to be a poor security
    practice.

Schaad Standards Track [Page 35] RFC 8152 CBOR Object Signing and Encryption (COSE) July 2017

 kid:  This parameter is used to give an identifier for a key.  The
    identifier is not structured and can be anything from a user-
    provided string to a value computed on the public portion of the
    key.  This field is intended for matching against a 'kid'
    parameter in a message in order to filter down the set of keys
    that need to be checked.
 key_ops:  This parameter is defined to restrict the set of operations
    that a key is to be used for.  The value of the field is an array
    of values from Table 4.  Algorithms define the values of key ops
    that are permitted to appear and are required for specific
    operations.  The set of values matches that in [RFC7517] and
    [W3C.WebCrypto].
 Base IV:  This parameter is defined to carry the base portion of an
    IV.  It is designed to be used with the Partial IV header
    parameter defined in Section 3.1.  This field provides the ability
    to associate a Partial IV with a key that is then modified on a
    per message basis with the Partial IV.
    Extreme care needs to be taken when using a Base IV in an
    application.  Many encryption algorithms lose security if the same
    IV is used twice.
    If different keys are derived for each sender, using the same Base
    IV with Partial IVs starting at zero is likely to ensure that the
    IV would not be used twice for a single key.  If different keys
    are derived for each sender, starting at the same Base IV is
    likely to satisfy this condition.  If the same key is used for
    multiple senders, then the application needs to provide for a
    method of dividing the IV space up between the senders.  This
    could be done by providing a different base point to start from or
    a different Partial IV to start with and restricting the number of
    messages to be sent before rekeying.

Schaad Standards Track [Page 36] RFC 8152 CBOR Object Signing and Encryption (COSE) July 2017

 +---------+-------+-------------------------------------------------+
 | Name    | Value | Description                                     |
 +---------+-------+-------------------------------------------------+
 | sign    | 1     | The key is used to create signatures.  Requires |
 |         |       | private key fields.                             |
 | verify  | 2     | The key is used for verification of signatures. |
 | encrypt | 3     | The key is used for key transport encryption.   |
 | decrypt | 4     | The key is used for key transport decryption.   |
 |         |       | Requires private key fields.                    |
 | wrap    | 5     | The key is used for key wrap encryption.        |
 | key     |       |                                                 |
 | unwrap  | 6     | The key is used for key wrap decryption.        |
 | key     |       | Requires private key fields.                    |
 | derive  | 7     | The key is used for deriving keys.  Requires    |
 | key     |       | private key fields.                             |
 | derive  | 8     | The key is used for deriving bits not to be     |
 | bits    |       | used as a key.  Requires private key fields.    |
 | MAC     | 9     | The key is used for creating MACs.              |
 | create  |       |                                                 |
 | MAC     | 10    | The key is used for validating MACs.            |
 | verify  |       |                                                 |
 +---------+-------+-------------------------------------------------+
                     Table 4: Key Operation Values

8. Signature Algorithms

 There are two signature algorithm schemes.  The first is signature
 with appendix.  In this scheme, the message content is processed and
 a signature is produced; the signature is called the appendix.  This
 is the scheme used by algorithms such as ECDSA and the RSA
 Probabilistic Signature Scheme (RSASSA-PSS).  (In fact, the SSA in
 RSASSA-PSS stands for Signature Scheme with Appendix.)
 The signature functions for this scheme are:
    signature = Sign(message content, key)
    valid = Verification(message content, key, signature)
 The second scheme is signature with message recovery (an example of
 such an algorithm is [PVSig]).  In this scheme, the message content
 is processed, but part of it is included in the signature.  Moving
 bytes of the message content into the signature allows for smaller
 signatures; the signature size is still potentially large, but the
 message content has shrunk.  This has implications for systems
 implementing these algorithms and for applications that use them.
 The first is that the message content is not fully available until

Schaad Standards Track [Page 37] RFC 8152 CBOR Object Signing and Encryption (COSE) July 2017

 after a signature has been validated.  Until that point, the part of
 the message contained inside of the signature is unrecoverable.  The
 second is that the security analysis of the strength of the signature
 is very much based on the structure of the message content.  Messages
 that are highly predictable require additional randomness to be
 supplied as part of the signature process.  In the worst case, it
 becomes the same as doing a signature with appendix.  Finally, in the
 event that multiple signatures are applied to a message, all of the
 signature algorithms are going to be required to consume the same
 number of bytes of message content.  This means that the mixing of
 the different schemes in a single message is not supported, and if a
 recovery signature scheme is used, then the same amount of content
 needs to be consumed by all of the signatures.
 The signature functions for this scheme are:
  signature, message sent = Sign(message content, key)
  valid, message content = Verification(message sent, key, signature)
 Signature algorithms are used with the COSE_Signature and COSE_Sign1
 structures.  At this time, only signatures with appendixes are
 defined for use with COSE; however, considerable interest has been
 expressed in using a signature with message recovery algorithm due to
 the effective size reduction that is possible.  Implementations will
 need to keep this in mind for later possible integration.

8.1. ECDSA

 ECDSA [DSS] defines a signature algorithm using ECC.  Implementations
 SHOULD use a deterministic version of ECDSA such as the one defined
 in [RFC6979].  The use of a deterministic signature algorithm allows
 for systems to avoid relying on random number generators in order to
 avoid generating the same value of 'k' (the per-message random
 value).  Biased generation of the value 'k' can be attacked, and
 collisions of this value leads to leaked keys.  It additionally
 allows for doing deterministic tests for the signature algorithm.
 The use of deterministic ECDSA does not lessen the need to have good
 random number generation when creating the private key.
 The ECDSA signature algorithm is parameterized with a hash function
 (h).  In the event that the length of the hash function output is
 greater than the group of the key, the leftmost bytes of the hash
 output are used.

Schaad Standards Track [Page 38] RFC 8152 CBOR Object Signing and Encryption (COSE) July 2017

 The algorithms defined in this document can be found in Table 5.
            +-------+-------+---------+------------------+
            | Name  | Value | Hash    | Description      |
            +-------+-------+---------+------------------+
            | ES256 | -7    | SHA-256 | ECDSA w/ SHA-256 |
            | ES384 | -35   | SHA-384 | ECDSA w/ SHA-384 |
            | ES512 | -36   | SHA-512 | ECDSA w/ SHA-512 |
            +-------+-------+---------+------------------+
                    Table 5: ECDSA Algorithm Values
 This document defines ECDSA to work only with the curves P-256,
 P-384, and P-521.  This document requires that the curves be encoded
 using the 'EC2' (2 coordinate elliptic curve) key type.
 Implementations need to check that the key type and curve are correct
 when creating and verifying a signature.  Other documents can define
 it to work with other curves and points in the future.
 In order to promote interoperability, it is suggested that SHA-256 be
 used only with curve P-256, SHA-384 be used only with curve P-384,
 and SHA-512 be used with curve P-521.  This is aligned with the
 recommendation in Section 4 of [RFC5480].
 The signature algorithm results in a pair of integers (R, S).  These
 integers will be the same length as the length of the key used for
 the signature process.  The signature is encoded by converting the
 integers into byte strings of the same length as the key size.  The
 length is rounded up to the nearest byte and is left padded with zero
 bits to get to the correct length.  The two integers are then
 concatenated together to form a byte string that is the resulting
 signature.
 Using the function defined in [RFC8017], the signature is:
 Signature = I2OSP(R, n) | I2OSP(S, n)
 where n = ceiling(key_length / 8)
 When using a COSE key for this algorithm, the following checks are
 made:
 o  The 'kty' field MUST be present, and it MUST be 'EC2'.
 o  If the 'alg' field is present, it MUST match the ECDSA signature
    algorithm being used.
 o  If the 'key_ops' field is present, it MUST include 'sign' when
    creating an ECDSA signature.

Schaad Standards Track [Page 39] RFC 8152 CBOR Object Signing and Encryption (COSE) July 2017

 o  If the 'key_ops' field is present, it MUST include 'verify' when
    verifying an ECDSA signature.

8.1.1. Security Considerations

 The security strength of the signature is no greater than the minimum
 of the security strength associated with the bit length of the key
 and the security strength of the hash function.
 Note: Use of this technique is a good idea even when good random
 number generation exists.  Doing so both reduces the possibility of
 having the same value of 'k' in two signature operations and allows
 for reproducible signature values, which helps testing.
 There are two substitution attacks that can theoretically be mounted
 against the ECDSA signature algorithm.
 o  Changing the curve used to validate the signature: If one changes
    the curve used to validate the signature, then potentially one
    could have two messages with the same signature, each computed
    under a different curve.  The only requirement on the new curve is
    that its order be the same as the old one and it be acceptable to
    the client.  An example would be to change from using the curve
    secp256r1 (aka P-256) to using secp256k1.  (Both are 256-bit
    curves.)  We currently do not have any way to deal with this
    version of the attack except to restrict the overall set of curves
    that can be used.
 o  Change the hash function used to validate the signature: If one
    either has two different hash functions of the same length or can
    truncate a hash function down, then one could potentially find
    collisions between the hash functions rather than within a single
    hash function (for example, truncating SHA-512 to 256 bits might
    collide with a SHA-256 bit hash value).  As the hash algorithm is
    part of the signature algorithm identifier, this attack is
    mitigated by including a signature algorithm identifier in the
    protected header.

8.2. Edwards-Curve Digital Signature Algorithms (EdDSAs)

 [RFC8032] describes the elliptic curve signature scheme Edwards-curve
 Digital Signature Algorithm (EdDSA).  In that document, the signature
 algorithm is instantiated using parameters for edwards25519 and
 edwards448 curves.  The document additionally describes two variants
 of the EdDSA algorithm: Pure EdDSA, where no hash function is applied
 to the content before signing, and HashEdDSA, where a hash function
 is applied to the content before signing and the result of that hash
 function is signed.  For EdDSA, the content to be signed (either the

Schaad Standards Track [Page 40] RFC 8152 CBOR Object Signing and Encryption (COSE) July 2017

 message or the pre-hash value) is processed twice inside of the
 signature algorithm.  For use with COSE, only the pure EdDSA version
 is used.  This is because it is not expected that extremely large
 contents are going to be needed and, based on the arrangement of the
 message structure, the entire message is going to need to be held in
 memory in order to create or verify a signature.  This means that
 there does not appear to be a need to be able to do block updates of
 the hash, followed by eliminating the message from memory.
 Applications can provide the same features by defining the content of
 the message as a hash value and transporting the COSE object (with
 the hash value) and the content as separate items.
 The algorithms defined in this document can be found in Table 6.  A
 single signature algorithm is defined, which can be used for multiple
 curves.
                    +-------+-------+-------------+
                    | Name  | Value | Description |
                    +-------+-------+-------------+
                    | EdDSA | -8    | EdDSA       |
                    +-------+-------+-------------+
                    Table 6: EdDSA Algorithm Values
 [RFC8032] describes the method of encoding the signature value.
 When using a COSE key for this algorithm, the following checks are
 made:
 o  The 'kty' field MUST be present, and it MUST be 'OKP' (Octet Key
    Pair).
 o  The 'crv' field MUST be present, and it MUST be a curve defined
    for this signature algorithm.
 o  If the 'alg' field is present, it MUST match 'EdDSA'.
 o  If the 'key_ops' field is present, it MUST include 'sign' when
    creating an EdDSA signature.
 o  If the 'key_ops' field is present, it MUST include 'verify' when
    verifying an EdDSA signature.

8.2.1. Security Considerations

 How public values are computed is not the same when looking at EdDSA
 and Elliptic Curve Diffie-Hellman (ECDH); for this reason, they
 should not be used with the other algorithm.

Schaad Standards Track [Page 41] RFC 8152 CBOR Object Signing and Encryption (COSE) July 2017

 If batch signature verification is performed, a well-seeded
 cryptographic random number generator is REQUIRED.  Signing and non-
 batch signature verification are deterministic operations and do not
 need random numbers of any kind.

9. Message Authentication Code (MAC) Algorithms

 Message Authentication Codes (MACs) provide data authentication and
 integrity protection.  They provide either no or very limited data
 origination.  A MAC, for example, can be used to prove the identity
 of the sender to a third party.
 MACs use the same scheme as signature with appendix algorithms.  The
 message content is processed and an authentication code is produced.
 The authentication code is frequently called a tag.
 The MAC functions are:
 tag = MAC_Create(message content, key)
 valid = MAC_Verify(message content, key, tag)
 MAC algorithms can be based on either a block cipher algorithm (i.e.,
 AES-MAC) or a hash algorithm (i.e., a Hash-based Message
 Authentication Code (HMAC)).  This document defines a MAC algorithm
 using each of these constructions.
 MAC algorithms are used in the COSE_Mac and COSE_Mac0 structures.

9.1. Hash-Based Message Authentication Codes (HMACs)

 HMAC [RFC2104] [RFC4231] was designed to deal with length extension
 attacks.  The algorithm was also designed to allow for new hash
 algorithms to be directly plugged in without changes to the hash
 function.  The HMAC design process has been shown as solid since,
 while the security of hash algorithms such as MD5 has decreased over
 time; the security of HMAC combined with MD5 has not yet been shown
 to be compromised [RFC6151].
 The HMAC algorithm is parameterized by an inner and outer padding, a
 hash function (h), and an authentication tag value length.  For this
 specification, the inner and outer padding are fixed to the values
 set in [RFC2104].  The length of the authentication tag corresponds
 to the difficulty of producing a forgery.  For use in constrained
 environments, we define a set of HMAC algorithms that are truncated.

Schaad Standards Track [Page 42] RFC 8152 CBOR Object Signing and Encryption (COSE) July 2017

 There are currently no known issues with truncation; however, the
 security strength of the message tag is correspondingly reduced in
 strength.  When truncating, the leftmost tag length bits are kept and
 transmitted.
 The algorithms defined in this document can be found in Table 7.
 +-----------+-------+---------+----------+--------------------------+
 | Name      | Value | Hash    | Tag      | Description              |
 |           |       |         | Length   |                          |
 +-----------+-------+---------+----------+--------------------------+
 | HMAC      | 4     | SHA-256 | 64       | HMAC w/ SHA-256          |
 | 256/64    |       |         |          | truncated to 64 bits     |
 | HMAC      | 5     | SHA-256 | 256      | HMAC w/ SHA-256          |
 | 256/256   |       |         |          |                          |
 | HMAC      | 6     | SHA-384 | 384      | HMAC w/ SHA-384          |
 | 384/384   |       |         |          |                          |
 | HMAC      | 7     | SHA-512 | 512      | HMAC w/ SHA-512          |
 | 512/512   |       |         |          |                          |
 +-----------+-------+---------+----------+--------------------------+
                    Table 7: HMAC Algorithm Values
 Some recipient algorithms carry the key while others derive a key
 from secret data.  For those algorithms that carry the key (such as
 AES Key Wrap), the size of the HMAC key SHOULD be the same size as
 the underlying hash function.  For those algorithms that derive the
 key (such as ECDH), the derived key MUST be the same size as the
 underlying hash function.
 When using a COSE key for this algorithm, the following checks are
 made:
 o  The 'kty' field MUST be present, and it MUST be 'Symmetric'.
 o  If the 'alg' field is present, it MUST match the HMAC algorithm
    being used.
 o  If the 'key_ops' field is present, it MUST include 'MAC create'
    when creating an HMAC authentication tag.
 o  If the 'key_ops' field is present, it MUST include 'MAC verify'
    when verifying an HMAC authentication tag.
 Implementations creating and validating MAC values MUST validate that
 the key type, key length, and algorithm are correct and appropriate
 for the entities involved.

Schaad Standards Track [Page 43] RFC 8152 CBOR Object Signing and Encryption (COSE) July 2017

9.1.1. Security Considerations

 HMAC has proved to be resistant to attack even when used with
 weakened hash algorithms.  The current best known attack is to brute
 force the key.  This means that key size is going to be directly
 related to the security of an HMAC operation.

9.2. AES Message Authentication Code (AES-CBC-MAC)

 AES-CBC-MAC is defined in [MAC].  (Note that this is not the same
 algorithm as AES Cipher-Based Message Authentication Code (AES-CMAC)
 [RFC4493].)
 AES-CBC-MAC is parameterized by the key length, the authentication
 tag length, and the IV used.  For all of these algorithms, the IV is
 fixed to all zeros.  We provide an array of algorithms for various
 key lengths and tag lengths.  The algorithms defined in this document
 are found in Table 8.
 +-------------+-------+----------+----------+-----------------------+
 | Name        | Value | Key      | Tag      | Description           |
 |             |       | Length   | Length   |                       |
 +-------------+-------+----------+----------+-----------------------+
 | AES-MAC     | 14    | 128      | 64       | AES-MAC 128-bit key,  |
 | 128/64      |       |          |          | 64-bit tag            |
 | AES-MAC     | 15    | 256      | 64       | AES-MAC 256-bit key,  |
 | 256/64      |       |          |          | 64-bit tag            |
 | AES-MAC     | 25    | 128      | 128      | AES-MAC 128-bit key,  |
 | 128/128     |       |          |          | 128-bit tag           |
 | AES-MAC     | 26    | 256      | 128      | AES-MAC 256-bit key,  |
 | 256/128     |       |          |          | 128-bit tag           |
 +-------------+-------+----------+----------+-----------------------+
                   Table 8: AES-MAC Algorithm Values
 Keys may be obtained either from a key structure or from a recipient
 structure.  Implementations creating and validating MAC values MUST
 validate that the key type, key length, and algorithm are correct and
 appropriate for the entities involved.
 When using a COSE key for this algorithm, the following checks are
 made:
 o  The 'kty' field MUST be present, and it MUST be 'Symmetric'.
 o  If the 'alg' field is present, it MUST match the AES-MAC algorithm
    being used.

Schaad Standards Track [Page 44] RFC 8152 CBOR Object Signing and Encryption (COSE) July 2017

 o  If the 'key_ops' field is present, it MUST include 'MAC create'
    when creating an AES-MAC authentication tag.
 o  If the 'key_ops' field is present, it MUST include 'MAC verify'
    when verifying an AES-MAC authentication tag.

9.2.1. Security Considerations

 A number of attacks exist against Cipher Block Chaining Message
 Authentication Code (CBC-MAC) that need to be considered.
 o  A single key must only be used for messages of a fixed and known
    length.  If this is not the case, an attacker will be able to
    generate a message with a valid tag given two message and tag
    pairs.  This can be addressed by using different keys for messages
    of different lengths.  The current structure mitigates this
    problem, as a specific encoding structure that includes lengths is
    built and signed.  (CMAC also addresses this issue.)
 o  Cipher Block Chaining (CBC) mode, if the same key is used for both
    encryption and authentication operations, an attacker can produce
    messages with a valid authentication code.
 o  If the IV can be modified, then messages can be forged.  This is
    addressed by fixing the IV to all zeros.

10. Content Encryption Algorithms

 Content encryption algorithms provide data confidentiality for
 potentially large blocks of data using a symmetric key.  They provide
 integrity on the data that was encrypted; however, they provide
 either no or very limited data origination.  (One cannot, for
 example, be used to prove the identity of the sender to a third
 party.)  The ability to provide data origination is linked to how the
 CEK is obtained.
 COSE restricts the set of legal content encryption algorithms to
 those that support authentication both of the content and additional
 data.  The encryption process will generate some type of
 authentication value, but that value may be either explicit or
 implicit in terms of the algorithm definition.  For simplicity's
 sake, the authentication code will normally be defined as being
 appended to the ciphertext stream.  The encryption functions are:
 ciphertext = Encrypt(message content, key, additional data)
 valid, message content = Decrypt(cipher text, key, additional data)

Schaad Standards Track [Page 45] RFC 8152 CBOR Object Signing and Encryption (COSE) July 2017

 Most AEAD algorithms are logically defined as returning the message
 content only if the decryption is valid.  Many but not all
 implementations will follow this convention.  The message content
 MUST NOT be used if the decryption does not validate.
 These algorithms are used in COSE_Encrypt and COSE_Encrypt0.

10.1. AES GCM

 The Galois/Counter Mode (GCM) mode is a generic authenticated
 encryption block cipher mode defined in [AES-GCM].  The GCM mode is
 combined with the AES block encryption algorithm to define an AEAD
 cipher.
 The GCM mode is parameterized by the size of the authentication tag
 and the size of the nonce.  This document fixes the size of the nonce
 at 96 bits.  The size of the authentication tag is limited to a small
 set of values.  For this document however, the size of the
 authentication tag is fixed at 128 bits.
 The set of algorithms defined in this document are in Table 9.
    +---------+-------+------------------------------------------+
    | Name    | Value | Description                              |
    +---------+-------+------------------------------------------+
    | A128GCM | 1     | AES-GCM mode w/ 128-bit key, 128-bit tag |
    | A192GCM | 2     | AES-GCM mode w/ 192-bit key, 128-bit tag |
    | A256GCM | 3     | AES-GCM mode w/ 256-bit key, 128-bit tag |
    +---------+-------+------------------------------------------+
                 Table 9: Algorithm Value for AES-GCM
 Keys may be obtained either from a key structure or from a recipient
 structure.  Implementations encrypting and decrypting MUST validate
 that the key type, key length, and algorithm are correct and
 appropriate for the entities involved.
 When using a COSE key for this algorithm, the following checks are
 made:
 o  The 'kty' field MUST be present, and it MUST be 'Symmetric'.
 o  If the 'alg' field is present, it MUST match the AES-GCM algorithm
    being used.
 o  If the 'key_ops' field is present, it MUST include 'encrypt' or
    'wrap key' when encrypting.

Schaad Standards Track [Page 46] RFC 8152 CBOR Object Signing and Encryption (COSE) July 2017

 o  If the 'key_ops' field is present, it MUST include 'decrypt' or
    'unwrap key' when decrypting.

10.1.1. Security Considerations

 When using AES-GCM, the following restrictions MUST be enforced:
 o  The key and nonce pair MUST be unique for every message encrypted.
 o  The total amount of data encrypted for a single key MUST NOT
    exceed 2^39 - 256 bits.  An explicit check is required only in
    environments where it is expected that it might be exceeded.
 Consideration was given to supporting smaller tag values; the
 constrained community would desire tag sizes in the 64-bit range.
 Doing so drastically changes both the maximum messages size
 (generally not an issue) and the number of times that a key can be
 used.  Given that Counter with CBC-MAC (CCM) is the usual mode for
 constrained environments, restricted modes are not supported.

10.2. AES CCM

 CCM is a generic authentication encryption block cipher mode defined
 in [RFC3610].  The CCM mode is combined with the AES block encryption
 algorithm to define a commonly used content encryption algorithm used
 in constrained devices.
 The CCM mode has two parameter choices.  The first choice is M, the
 size of the authentication field.  The choice of the value for M
 involves a trade-off between message growth (from the tag) and the
 probability that an attacker can undetectably modify a message.  The
 second choice is L, the size of the length field.  This value
 requires a trade-off between the maximum message size and the size of
 the Nonce.
 It is unfortunate that the specification for CCM specified L and M as
 a count of bytes rather than a count of bits.  This leads to possible
 misunderstandings where AES-CCM-8 is frequently used to refer to a
 version of CCM mode where the size of the authentication is 64 bits
 and not 8 bits.  These values have traditionally been specified as
 bit counts rather than byte counts.  This document will follow the
 convention of using bit counts so that it is easier to compare the
 different algorithms presented in this document.
 We define a matrix of algorithms in this document over the values of
 L and M.  Constrained devices are usually operating in situations
 where they use short messages and want to avoid doing recipient-
 specific cryptographic operations.  This favors smaller values of

Schaad Standards Track [Page 47] RFC 8152 CBOR Object Signing and Encryption (COSE) July 2017

 both L and M.  Less-constrained devices will want to be able to use
 larger messages and are more willing to generate new keys for every
 operation.  This favors larger values of L and M.
 The following values are used for L:
 16 bits (2):  This limits messages to 2^16 bytes (64 KiB) in length.
    This is sufficiently long for messages in the constrained world.
    The nonce length is 13 bytes allowing for 2^(13*8) possible values
    of the nonce without repeating.
 64 bits (8):  This limits messages to 2^64 bytes in length.  The
    nonce length is 7 bytes allowing for 2^56 possible values of the
    nonce without repeating.
 The following values are used for M:
 64 bits (8):  This produces a 64-bit authentication tag.  This
    implies that there is a 1 in 2^64 chance that a modified message
    will authenticate.
 128 bits (16):  This produces a 128-bit authentication tag.  This
    implies that there is a 1 in 2^128 chance that a modified message
    will authenticate.

Schaad Standards Track [Page 48] RFC 8152 CBOR Object Signing and Encryption (COSE) July 2017

 +--------------------+-------+----+-----+-----+---------------------+
 | Name               | Value | L  | M   | k   | Description         |
 +--------------------+-------+----+-----+-----+---------------------+
 | AES-CCM-16-64-128  | 10    | 16 | 64  | 128 | AES-CCM mode        |
 |                    |       |    |     |     | 128-bit key, 64-bit |
 |                    |       |    |     |     | tag, 13-byte nonce  |
 | AES-CCM-16-64-256  | 11    | 16 | 64  | 256 | AES-CCM mode        |
 |                    |       |    |     |     | 256-bit key, 64-bit |
 |                    |       |    |     |     | tag, 13-byte nonce  |
 | AES-CCM-64-64-128  | 12    | 64 | 64  | 128 | AES-CCM mode        |
 |                    |       |    |     |     | 128-bit key, 64-bit |
 |                    |       |    |     |     | tag, 7-byte nonce   |
 | AES-CCM-64-64-256  | 13    | 64 | 64  | 256 | AES-CCM mode        |
 |                    |       |    |     |     | 256-bit key, 64-bit |
 |                    |       |    |     |     | tag, 7-byte nonce   |
 | AES-CCM-16-128-128 | 30    | 16 | 128 | 128 | AES-CCM mode        |
 |                    |       |    |     |     | 128-bit key,        |
 |                    |       |    |     |     | 128-bit tag,        |
 |                    |       |    |     |     | 13-byte nonce       |
 | AES-CCM-16-128-256 | 31    | 16 | 128 | 256 | AES-CCM mode        |
 |                    |       |    |     |     | 256-bit key,        |
 |                    |       |    |     |     | 128-bit tag,        |
 |                    |       |    |     |     | 13-byte nonce       |
 | AES-CCM-64-128-128 | 32    | 64 | 128 | 128 | AES-CCM mode        |
 |                    |       |    |     |     | 128-bit key,        |
 |                    |       |    |     |     | 128-bit tag, 7-byte |
 |                    |       |    |     |     | nonce               |
 | AES-CCM-64-128-256 | 33    | 64 | 128 | 256 | AES-CCM mode        |
 |                    |       |    |     |     | 256-bit key,        |
 |                    |       |    |     |     | 128-bit tag, 7-byte |
 |                    |       |    |     |     | nonce               |
 +--------------------+-------+----+-----+-----+---------------------+
                Table 10: Algorithm Values for AES-CCM
 Keys may be obtained either from a key structure or from a recipient
 structure.  Implementations encrypting and decrypting MUST validate
 that the key type, key length, and algorithm are correct and
 appropriate for the entities involved.
 When using a COSE key for this algorithm, the following checks are
 made:
 o  The 'kty' field MUST be present, and it MUST be 'Symmetric'.
 o  If the 'alg' field is present, it MUST match the AES-CCM algorithm
    being used.

Schaad Standards Track [Page 49] RFC 8152 CBOR Object Signing and Encryption (COSE) July 2017

 o  If the 'key_ops' field is present, it MUST include 'encrypt' or
    'wrap key' when encrypting.
 o  If the 'key_ops' field is present, it MUST include 'decrypt' or
    'unwrap key' when decrypting.

10.2.1. Security Considerations

 When using AES-CCM, the following restrictions MUST be enforced:
 o  The key and nonce pair MUST be unique for every message encrypted.
    Note that the value of L influences the number of unique nonces.
 o  The total number of times the AES block cipher is used MUST NOT
    exceed 2^61 operations.  This limitation is the sum of times the
    block cipher is used in computing the MAC value and in performing
    stream encryption operations.  An explicit check is required only
    in environments where it is expected that it might be exceeded.
 [RFC3610] additionally calls out one other consideration of note.  It
 is possible to do a pre-computation attack against the algorithm in
 cases where portions of the plaintext are highly predictable.  This
 reduces the security of the key size by half.  Ways to deal with this
 attack include adding a random portion to the nonce value and/or
 increasing the key size used.  Using a portion of the nonce for a
 random value will decrease the number of messages that a single key
 can be used for.  Increasing the key size may require more resources
 in the constrained device.  See Sections 5 and 10 of [RFC3610] for
 more information.

10.3. ChaCha20 and Poly1305

 ChaCha20 and Poly1305 combined together is an AEAD mode that is
 defined in [RFC7539].  This is an algorithm defined to be a cipher
 that is not AES and thus would not suffer from any future weaknesses
 found in AES.  These cryptographic functions are designed to be fast
 in software-only implementations.
 The ChaCha20/Poly1305 AEAD construction defined in [RFC7539] has no
 parameterization.  It takes a 256-bit key and a 96-bit nonce, as well
 as the plaintext and additional data as inputs and produces the
 ciphertext as an option.  We define one algorithm identifier for this
 algorithm in Table 11.

Schaad Standards Track [Page 50] RFC 8152 CBOR Object Signing and Encryption (COSE) July 2017

 +-------------------+-------+---------------------------------------+
 | Name              | Value | Description                           |
 +-------------------+-------+---------------------------------------+
 | ChaCha20/Poly1305 | 24    | ChaCha20/Poly1305 w/ 256-bit key,     |
 |                   |       | 128-bit tag                           |
 +-------------------+-------+---------------------------------------+
                 Table 11: Algorithm Value for AES-GCM
 Keys may be obtained either from a key structure or from a recipient
 structure.  Implementations encrypting and decrypting MUST validate
 that the key type, key length, and algorithm are correct and
 appropriate for the entities involved.
 When using a COSE key for this algorithm, the following checks are
 made:
 o  The 'kty' field MUST be present, and it MUST be 'Symmetric'.
 o  If the 'alg' field is present, it MUST match the ChaCha20/Poly1305
    algorithm being used.
 o  If the 'key_ops' field is present, it MUST include 'encrypt' or
    'wrap key' when encrypting.
 o  If the 'key_ops' field is present, it MUST include 'decrypt' or
    'unwrap key' when decrypting.

10.3.1. Security Considerations

 The key and nonce values MUST be a unique pair for every invocation
 of the algorithm.  Nonce counters are considered to be an acceptable
 way of ensuring that they are unique.

11. Key Derivation Functions (KDFs)

 KDFs are used to take some secret value and generate a different one.
 The secret value comes in three flavors:
 o  Secrets that are uniformly random: This is the type of secret that
    is created by a good random number generator.
 o  Secrets that are not uniformly random: This is type of secret that
    is created by operations like key agreement.
 o  Secrets that are not random: This is the type of secret that
    people generate for things like passwords.

Schaad Standards Track [Page 51] RFC 8152 CBOR Object Signing and Encryption (COSE) July 2017

 General KDFs work well with the first type of secret, can do
 reasonably well with the second type of secret, and generally do
 poorly with the last type of secret.  None of the KDFs in this
 section are designed to deal with the type of secrets that are used
 for passwords.  Functions like PBES2 [RFC8018] need to be used for
 that type of secret.
 The same KDF can be set up to deal with the first two types of
 secrets in a different way.  The KDF defined in Section 11.1 is such
 a function.  This is reflected in the set of algorithms defined for
 the HMAC-based Extract-and-Expand Key Derivation Function (HKDF).
 When using KDFs, one component that is included is context
 information.  Context information is used to allow for different
 keying information to be derived from the same secret.  The use of
 context-based keying material is considered to be a good security
 practice.
 This document defines a single context structure and a single KDF.
 These elements are used for all of the recipient algorithms defined
 in this document that require a KDF process.  These algorithms are
 defined in Sections 12.1.2, 12.4.1, and 12.5.1.

11.1. HMAC-Based Extract-and-Expand Key Derivation Function (HKDF)

 The HKDF key derivation algorithm is defined in [RFC5869].
 The HKDF algorithm takes these inputs:
    secret -- a shared value that is secret.  Secrets may be either
    previously shared or derived from operations like a Diffie-Hellman
    (DH) key agreement.
    salt -- an optional value that is used to change the generation
    process.  The salt value can be either public or private.  If the
    salt is public and carried in the message, then the 'salt'
    algorithm header parameter defined in Table 13 is used.  While
    [RFC5869] suggests that the length of the salt be the same as the
    length of the underlying hash value, any amount of salt will
    improve the security as different key values will be generated.
    This parameter is protected by being included in the key
    computation and does not need to be separately authenticated.  The
    salt value does not need to be unique for every message sent.
    length -- the number of bytes of output that need to be generated.

Schaad Standards Track [Page 52] RFC 8152 CBOR Object Signing and Encryption (COSE) July 2017

    context information -- Information that describes the context in
    which the resulting value will be used.  Making this information
    specific to the context in which the material is going to be used
    ensures that the resulting material will always be tied to that
    usage.  The context structure defined in Section 11.2 is used by
    the KDFs in this document.
    PRF -- The underlying pseudorandom function to be used in the HKDF
    algorithm.  The PRF is encoded into the HKDF algorithm selection.
 HKDF is defined to use HMAC as the underlying PRF.  However, it is
 possible to use other functions in the same construct to provide a
 different KDF that is more appropriate in the constrained world.
 Specifically, one can use AES-CBC-MAC as the PRF for the expand step,
 but not for the extract step.  When using a good random shared secret
 of the correct length, the extract step can be skipped.  For the AES
 algorithm versions, the extract step is always skipped.
 The extract step cannot be skipped if the secret is not uniformly
 random, for example, if it is the result of an ECDH key agreement
 step.  This implies that the AES HKDF version cannot be used with
 ECDH.  If the extract step is skipped, the 'salt' value is not used
 as part of the HKDF functionality.
 The algorithms defined in this document are found in Table 12.
 +---------------+-----------------+---------------------------------+
 | Name          | PRF             | Description                     |
 +---------------+-----------------+---------------------------------+
 | HKDF SHA-256  | HMAC with       | HKDF using HMAC SHA-256 as the  |
 |               | SHA-256         | PRF                             |
 | HKDF SHA-512  | HMAC with       | HKDF using HMAC SHA-512 as the  |
 |               | SHA-512         | PRF                             |
 | HKDF AES-     | AES-CBC-MAC-128 | HKDF using AES-MAC as the PRF   |
 | MAC-128       |                 | w/ 128-bit key                  |
 | HKDF AES-     | AES-CBC-MAC-256 | HKDF using AES-MAC as the PRF   |
 | MAC-256       |                 | w/ 256-bit key                  |
 +---------------+-----------------+---------------------------------+
                       Table 12: HKDF Algorithms

Schaad Standards Track [Page 53] RFC 8152 CBOR Object Signing and Encryption (COSE) July 2017

 +------+-------+------+-------------------------------+-------------+
 | Name | Label | Type | Algorithm                     | Description |
 +------+-------+------+-------------------------------+-------------+
 | salt | -20   | bstr | direct+HKDF-SHA-256, direct   | Random salt |
 |      |       |      | +HKDF-SHA-512, direct+HKDF-   |             |
 |      |       |      | AES-128, direct+HKDF-AES-256, |             |
 |      |       |      | ECDH-ES+HKDF-256, ECDH-       |             |
 |      |       |      | ES+HKDF-512, ECDH-            |             |
 |      |       |      | SS+HKDF-256, ECDH-            |             |
 |      |       |      | SS+HKDF-512, ECDH-ES+A128KW,  |             |
 |      |       |      | ECDH-ES+A192KW, ECDH-         |             |
 |      |       |      | ES+A256KW, ECDH-SS+A128KW,    |             |
 |      |       |      | ECDH-SS+A192KW, ECDH-         |             |
 |      |       |      | SS+A256KW                     |             |
 +------+-------+------+-------------------------------+-------------+
                  Table 13: HKDF Algorithm Parameters

11.2. Context Information Structure

 The context information structure is used to ensure that the derived
 keying material is "bound" to the context of the transaction.  The
 context information structure used here is based on that defined in
 [SP800-56A].  By using CBOR for the encoding of the context
 information structure, we automatically get the same type and length
 separation of fields that is obtained by the use of ASN.1.  This
 means that there is no need to encode the lengths for the base
 elements, as it is done by the encoding used in JOSE (Section 4.6.2
 of [RFC7518]).
 The context information structure refers to PartyU and PartyV as the
 two parties that are doing the key derivation.  Unless the
 application protocol defines differently, we assign PartyU to the
 entity that is creating the message and PartyV to the entity that is
 receiving the message.  By doing this association, different keys
 will be derived for each direction as the context information is
 different in each direction.
 The context structure is built from information that is known to both
 entities.  This information can be obtained from a variety of
 sources:
 o  Fields can be defined by the application.  This is commonly used
    to assign fixed names to parties, but it can be used for other
    items such as nonces.
 o  Fields can be defined by usage of the output.  Examples of this
    are the algorithm and key size that are being generated.

Schaad Standards Track [Page 54] RFC 8152 CBOR Object Signing and Encryption (COSE) July 2017

 o  Fields can be defined by parameters from the message.  We define a
    set of parameters in Table 14 that can be used to carry the values
    associated with the context structure.  Examples of this are
    identities and nonce values.  These parameters are designed to be
    placed in the unprotected bucket of the recipient structure; they
    do not need to be in the protected bucket since they already are
    included in the cryptographic computation by virtue of being
    included in the context structure.

Schaad Standards Track [Page 55] RFC 8152 CBOR Object Signing and Encryption (COSE) July 2017

 +----------+-------+------+---------------------------+-------------+
 | Name     | Label | Type | Algorithm                 | Description |
 +----------+-------+------+---------------------------+-------------+
 | PartyU   | -21   | bstr | direct+HKDF-SHA-256,      | Party U     |
 | identity |       |      | direct+HKDF-SHA-512,      | identity    |
 |          |       |      | direct+HKDF-AES-128,      | information |
 |          |       |      | direct+HKDF-AES-256,      |             |
 |          |       |      | ECDH-ES+HKDF-256, ECDH-   |             |
 |          |       |      | ES+HKDF-512, ECDH-        |             |
 |          |       |      | SS+HKDF-256, ECDH-        |             |
 |          |       |      | SS+HKDF-512, ECDH-        |             |
 |          |       |      | ES+A128KW, ECDH-          |             |
 |          |       |      | ES+A192KW, ECDH-          |             |
 |          |       |      | ES+A256KW, ECDH-          |             |
 |          |       |      | SS+A128KW, ECDH-          |             |
 |          |       |      | SS+A192KW, ECDH-SS+A256KW |             |
 |          |       |      |                           |             |
 | PartyU   | -22   | bstr | direct+HKDF-SHA-256,      | Party U     |
 | nonce    |       | /    | direct+HKDF-SHA-512,      | provided    |
 |          |       | int  | direct+HKDF-AES-128,      | nonce       |
 |          |       |      | direct+HKDF-AES-256,      |             |
 |          |       |      | ECDH-ES+HKDF-256, ECDH-   |             |
 |          |       |      | ES+HKDF-512, ECDH-        |             |
 |          |       |      | SS+HKDF-256, ECDH-        |             |
 |          |       |      | SS+HKDF-512, ECDH-        |             |
 |          |       |      | ES+A128KW, ECDH-          |             |
 |          |       |      | ES+A192KW, ECDH-          |             |
 |          |       |      | ES+A256KW, ECDH-          |             |
 |          |       |      | SS+A128KW, ECDH-          |             |
 |          |       |      | SS+A192KW, ECDH-SS+A256KW |             |
 |          |       |      |                           |             |
 | PartyU   | -23   | bstr | direct+HKDF-SHA-256,      | Party U     |
 | other    |       |      | direct+HKDF-SHA-512,      | other       |
 |          |       |      | direct+HKDF-AES-128,      | provided    |
 |          |       |      | direct+HKDF-AES-256,      | information |
 |          |       |      | ECDH-ES+HKDF-256, ECDH-   |             |
 |          |       |      | ES+HKDF-512, ECDH-        |             |
 |          |       |      | SS+HKDF-256, ECDH-        |             |
 |          |       |      | SS+HKDF-512, ECDH-        |             |
 |          |       |      | ES+A128KW, ECDH-          |             |
 |          |       |      | ES+A192KW, ECDH-          |             |
 |          |       |      | ES+A256KW, ECDH-          |             |
 |          |       |      | SS+A128KW, ECDH-          |             |
 |          |       |      | SS+A192KW, ECDH-SS+A256KW |             |

Schaad Standards Track [Page 56] RFC 8152 CBOR Object Signing and Encryption (COSE) July 2017

 | PartyV   | -24   | bstr | direct+HKDF-SHA-256,      | Party V     |
 | identity |       |      | direct+HKDF-SHA-512,      | identity    |
 |          |       |      | direct+HKDF-AES-128,      | information |
 |          |       |      | direct+HKDF-AES-256,      |             |
 |          |       |      | ECDH-ES+HKDF-256, ECDH-   |             |
 |          |       |      | ES+HKDF-512, ECDH-        |             |
 |          |       |      | SS+HKDF-256, ECDH-        |             |
 |          |       |      | SS+HKDF-512, ECDH-        |             |
 |          |       |      | ES+A128KW, ECDH-          |             |
 |          |       |      | ES+A192KW, ECDH-          |             |
 |          |       |      | ES+A256KW, ECDH-          |             |
 |          |       |      | SS+A128KW, ECDH-          |             |
 |          |       |      | SS+A192KW, ECDH-SS+A256KW |             |
 |          |       |      |                           |             |
 | PartyV   | -25   | bstr | direct+HKDF-SHA-256,      | Party V     |
 | nonce    |       | /    | direct+HKDF-SHA-512,      | provided    |
 |          |       | int  | direct+HKDF-AES-128,      | nonce       |
 |          |       |      | direct+HKDF-AES-256,      |             |
 |          |       |      | ECDH-ES+HKDF-256, ECDH-   |             |
 |          |       |      | ES+HKDF-512, ECDH-        |             |
 |          |       |      | SS+HKDF-256, ECDH-        |             |
 |          |       |      | SS+HKDF-512, ECDH-        |             |
 |          |       |      | ES+A128KW, ECDH-          |             |
 |          |       |      | ES+A192KW, ECDH-          |             |
 |          |       |      | ES+A256KW, ECDH-          |             |
 |          |       |      | SS+A128KW, ECDH-          |             |
 |          |       |      | SS+A192KW, ECDH-SS+A256KW |             |
 |          |       |      |                           |             |
 | PartyV   | -26   | bstr | direct+HKDF-SHA-256,      | Party V     |
 | other    |       |      | direct+HKDF-SHA-512,      | other       |
 |          |       |      | direct+HKDF-AES-128,      | provided    |
 |          |       |      | direct+HKDF-AES-256,      | information |
 |          |       |      | ECDH-ES+HKDF-256, ECDH-   |             |
 |          |       |      | ES+HKDF-512, ECDH-        |             |
 |          |       |      | SS+HKDF-256, ECDH-        |             |
 |          |       |      | SS+HKDF-512, ECDH-        |             |
 |          |       |      | ES+A128KW, ECDH-          |             |
 |          |       |      | ES+A192KW, ECDH-          |             |
 |          |       |      | ES+A256KW, ECDH-          |             |
 |          |       |      | SS+A128KW, ECDH-          |             |
 |          |       |      | SS+A192KW, ECDH-SS+A256KW |             |
 +----------+-------+------+---------------------------+-------------+
                Table 14: Context Algorithm Parameters

Schaad Standards Track [Page 57] RFC 8152 CBOR Object Signing and Encryption (COSE) July 2017

 We define a CBOR object to hold the context information.  This object
 is referred to as COSE_KDF_Context.  The object is based on a CBOR
 array type.  The fields in the array are:
 AlgorithmID:  This field indicates the algorithm for which the key
    material will be used.  This normally is either a key wrap
    algorithm identifier or a content encryption algorithm identifier.
    The values are from the "COSE Algorithms" registry.  This field is
    required to be present.  The field exists in the context
    information so that if the same environment is used for different
    algorithms, then completely different keys will be generated for
    each of those algorithms.  This practice means if algorithm A is
    broken and thus is easier to find, the key derived for algorithm B
    will not be the same as the key derived for algorithm A.
 PartyUInfo:  This field holds information about party U.  The
    PartyUInfo is encoded as a CBOR array.  The elements of PartyUInfo
    are encoded in the order presented.  The elements of the
    PartyUInfo array are:
    identity:  This contains the identity information for party U.
       The identities can be assigned in one of two manners.  First, a
       protocol can assign identities based on roles.  For example,
       the roles of "client" and "server" may be assigned to different
       entities in the protocol.  Each entity would then use the
       correct label for the data they send or receive.  The second
       way for a protocol to assign identities is to use a name based
       on a naming system (i.e., DNS, X.509 names).
       We define an algorithm parameter 'PartyU identity' that can be
       used to carry identity information in the message.  However,
       identity information is often known as part of the protocol and
       can thus be inferred rather than made explicit.  If identity
       information is carried in the message, applications SHOULD have
       a way of validating the supplied identity information.  The
       identity information does not need to be specified and is set
       to nil in that case.
    nonce:  This contains a nonce value.  The nonce can either be
       implicit from the protocol or be carried as a value in the
       unprotected headers.
       We define an algorithm parameter 'PartyU nonce' that can be
       used to carry this value in the message; however, the nonce
       value could be determined by the application and the value
       determined from elsewhere.

Schaad Standards Track [Page 58] RFC 8152 CBOR Object Signing and Encryption (COSE) July 2017

       This option does not need to be specified and is set to nil in
       that case.
    other:  This contains other information that is defined by the
       protocol.  This option does not need to be specified and is set
       to nil in that case.
 PartyVInfo:  This field holds information about party V.  The content
    of the structure is the same as for the PartyUInfo but for party
    V.
 SuppPubInfo:  This field contains public information that is mutually
    known to both parties.
    keyDataLength:  This is set to the number of bits of the desired
       output value.  This practice means if algorithm A can use two
       different key lengths, the key derived for longer key size will
       not contain the key for shorter key size as a prefix.
    protected:  This field contains the protected parameter field.  If
       there are no elements in the protected field, then use a zero-
       length bstr.
    other:  This field is for free form data defined by the
       application.  An example is that an application could define
       two different strings to be placed here to generate different
       keys for a data stream versus a control stream.  This field is
       optional and will only be present if the application defines a
       structure for this information.  Applications that define this
       SHOULD use CBOR to encode the data so that types and lengths
       are correctly included.
 SuppPrivInfo:  This field contains private information that is
    mutually known private information.  An example of this
    information would be a preexisting shared secret.  (This could,
    for example, be used in combination with an ECDH key agreement to
    provide a secondary proof of identity.)  The field is optional and
    will only be present if the application defines a structure for
    this information.  Applications that define this SHOULD use CBOR
    to encode the data so that types and lengths are correctly
    included.

Schaad Standards Track [Page 59] RFC 8152 CBOR Object Signing and Encryption (COSE) July 2017

 The following CDDL fragment corresponds to the text above.
 PartyInfo = (
     identity : bstr / nil,
     nonce : bstr / int / nil,
     other : bstr / nil
 )
 COSE_KDF_Context = [
     AlgorithmID : int / tstr,
     PartyUInfo : [ PartyInfo ],
     PartyVInfo : [ PartyInfo ],
     SuppPubInfo : [
         keyDataLength : uint,
         protected : empty_or_serialized_map,
         ? other : bstr
     ],
     ? SuppPrivInfo : bstr
 ]

12. Content Key Distribution Methods

 Content key distribution methods (recipient algorithms) can be
 defined into a number of different classes.  COSE has the ability to
 support many classes of recipient algorithms.  In this section, a
 number of classes are listed, and then a set of algorithms are
 specified for each of the classes.  The names of the recipient
 algorithm classes used here are the same as those defined in
 [RFC7516].  Other specifications use different terms for the
 recipient algorithm classes or do not support some of the recipient
 algorithm classes.

12.1. Direct Encryption

 The direct encryption class algorithms share a secret between the
 sender and the recipient that is used either directly or after
 manipulation as the CEK.  When direct encryption mode is used, it
 MUST be the only mode used on the message.
 The COSE_Recipient structure for the recipient is organized as
 follows:
 o  The 'protected' field MUST be a zero-length item unless it is used
    in the computation of the content key.
 o  The 'alg' parameter MUST be present.
 o  A parameter identifying the shared secret SHOULD be present.

Schaad Standards Track [Page 60] RFC 8152 CBOR Object Signing and Encryption (COSE) July 2017

 o  The 'ciphertext' field MUST be a zero-length item.
 o  The 'recipients' field MUST be absent.

12.1.1. Direct Key

 This recipient algorithm is the simplest; the identified key is
 directly used as the key for the next layer down in the message.
 There are no algorithm parameters defined for this algorithm.  The
 algorithm identifier value is assigned in Table 15.
 When this algorithm is used, the protected field MUST be zero length.
 The key type MUST be 'Symmetric'.
                +--------+-------+-------------------+
                | Name   | Value | Description       |
                +--------+-------+-------------------+
                | direct | -6    | Direct use of CEK |
                +--------+-------+-------------------+
                         Table 15: Direct Key

12.1.1.1. Security Considerations

 This recipient algorithm has several potential problems that need to
 be considered:
 o  These keys need to have some method to be regularly updated over
    time.  All of the content encryption algorithms specified in this
    document have limits on how many times a key can be used without
    significant loss of security.
 o  These keys need to be dedicated to a single algorithm.  There have
    been a number of attacks developed over time when a single key is
    used for multiple different algorithms.  One example of this is
    the use of a single key for both the CBC encryption mode and the
    CBC-MAC authentication mode.
 o  Breaking one message means all messages are broken.  If an
    adversary succeeds in determining the key for a single message,
    then the key for all messages is also determined.

12.1.2. Direct Key with KDF

 These recipient algorithms take a common shared secret between the
 two parties and applies the HKDF function (Section 11.1), using the
 context structure defined in Section 11.2 to transform the shared

Schaad Standards Track [Page 61] RFC 8152 CBOR Object Signing and Encryption (COSE) July 2017

 secret into the CEK.  The 'protected' field can be of non-zero
 length.  Either the 'salt' parameter of HKDF or the 'PartyU nonce'
 parameter of the context structure MUST be present.  The salt/nonce
 parameter can be generated either randomly or deterministically.  The
 requirement is that it be a unique value for the shared secret in
 question.
 If the salt/nonce value is generated randomly, then it is suggested
 that the length of the random value be the same length as the hash
 function underlying HKDF.  While there is no way to guarantee that it
 will be unique, there is a high probability that it will be unique.
 If the salt/nonce value is generated deterministically, it can be
 guaranteed to be unique, and thus there is no length requirement.
 A new IV must be used for each message if the same key is used.  The
 IV can be modified in a predictable manner, a random manner, or an
 unpredictable manner (i.e., encrypting a counter).
 The IV used for a key can also be generated from the same HKDF
 functionality as the key is generated.  If HKDF is used for
 generating the IV, the algorithm identifier is set to "IV-
 GENERATION".
 When these algorithms are used, the key type MUST be 'symmetric'.
 The set of algorithms defined in this document can be found in
 Table 16.
 +---------------------+-------+-------------+-----------------------+
 | Name                | Value | KDF         | Description           |
 +---------------------+-------+-------------+-----------------------+
 | direct+HKDF-SHA-256 | -10   | HKDF        | Shared secret w/ HKDF |
 |                     |       | SHA-256     | and SHA-256           |
 | direct+HKDF-SHA-512 | -11   | HKDF        | Shared secret w/ HKDF |
 |                     |       | SHA-512     | and SHA-512           |
 | direct+HKDF-AES-128 | -12   | HKDF AES-   | Shared secret w/ AES- |
 |                     |       | MAC-128     | MAC 128-bit key       |
 | direct+HKDF-AES-256 | -13   | HKDF AES-   | Shared secret w/ AES- |
 |                     |       | MAC-256     | MAC 256-bit key       |
 +---------------------+-------+-------------+-----------------------+
                     Table 16: Direct Key with KDF

Schaad Standards Track [Page 62] RFC 8152 CBOR Object Signing and Encryption (COSE) July 2017

 When using a COSE key for this algorithm, the following checks are
 made:
 o  The 'kty' field MUST be present, and it MUST be 'Symmetric'.
 o  If the 'alg' field is present, it MUST match the algorithm being
    used.
 o  If the 'key_ops' field is present, it MUST include 'deriveKey' or
    'deriveBits'.

12.1.2.1. Security Considerations

 The shared secret needs to have some method to be regularly updated
 over time.  The shared secret forms the basis of trust.  Although not
 used directly, it should still be subject to scheduled rotation.
 While these methods do not provide for perfect forward secrecy, as
 the same shared secret is used for all of the keys generated, if the
 key for any single message is discovered, only the message (or series
 of messages) using that derived key are compromised.  A new key
 derivation step will generate a new key that requires the same amount
 of work to get the key.

12.2. Key Wrap

 In key wrap mode, the CEK is randomly generated and that key is then
 encrypted by a shared secret between the sender and the recipient.
 All of the currently defined key wrap algorithms for COSE are AE
 algorithms.  Key wrap mode is considered to be superior to direct
 encryption if the system has any capability for doing random key
 generation.  This is because the shared key is used to wrap random
 data rather than data that has some degree of organization and may in
 fact be repeating the same content.  The use of key wrap loses the
 weak data origination that is provided by the direct encryption
 algorithms.
 The COSE_Encrypt structure for the recipient is organized as follows:
 o  The 'protected' field MUST be absent if the key wrap algorithm is
    an AE algorithm.
 o  The 'recipients' field is normally absent, but can be used.
    Applications MUST deal with a recipient field being present, not
    being able to decrypt that recipient is an acceptable way of
    dealing with it.  Failing to process the message is not an
    acceptable way of dealing with it.

Schaad Standards Track [Page 63] RFC 8152 CBOR Object Signing and Encryption (COSE) July 2017

 o  The plaintext to be encrypted is the key from next layer down
    (usually the content layer).
 o  At a minimum, the 'unprotected' field MUST contain the 'alg'
    parameter and SHOULD contain a parameter identifying the shared
    secret.

12.2.1. AES Key Wrap

 The AES Key Wrap algorithm is defined in [RFC3394].  This algorithm
 uses an AES key to wrap a value that is a multiple of 64 bits.  As
 such, it can be used to wrap a key for any of the content encryption
 algorithms defined in this document.  The algorithm requires a single
 fixed parameter, the initial value.  This is fixed to the value
 specified in Section 2.2.3.1 of [RFC3394].  There are no public
 parameters that vary on a per-invocation basis.  The protected header
 field MUST be empty.
 Keys may be obtained either from a key structure or from a recipient
 structure.  Implementations encrypting and decrypting MUST validate
 that the key type, key length, and algorithm are correct and
 appropriate for the entities involved.
 When using a COSE key for this algorithm, the following checks are
 made:
 o  The 'kty' field MUST be present, and it MUST be 'Symmetric'.
 o  If the 'alg' field is present, it MUST match the AES Key Wrap
    algorithm being used.
 o  If the 'key_ops' field is present, it MUST include 'encrypt' or
    'wrap key' when encrypting.
 o  If the 'key_ops' field is present, it MUST include 'decrypt' or
    'unwrap key' when decrypting.
      +--------+-------+----------+-----------------------------+
      | Name   | Value | Key Size | Description                 |
      +--------+-------+----------+-----------------------------+
      | A128KW | -3    | 128      | AES Key Wrap w/ 128-bit key |
      | A192KW | -4    | 192      | AES Key Wrap w/ 192-bit key |
      | A256KW | -5    | 256      | AES Key Wrap w/ 256-bit key |
      +--------+-------+----------+-----------------------------+
                Table 17: AES Key Wrap Algorithm Values

Schaad Standards Track [Page 64] RFC 8152 CBOR Object Signing and Encryption (COSE) July 2017

12.2.1.1. Security Considerations for AES-KW

 The shared secret needs to have some method to be regularly updated
 over time.  The shared secret is the basis of trust.

12.3. Key Transport

 Key transport mode is also called key encryption mode in some
 standards.  Key transport mode differs from key wrap mode in that it
 uses an asymmetric encryption algorithm rather than a symmetric
 encryption algorithm to protect the key.  This document does not
 define any key transport mode algorithms.
 When using a key transport algorithm, the COSE_Encrypt structure for
 the recipient is organized as follows:
 o  The 'protected' field MUST be absent.
 o  The plaintext to be encrypted is the key from the next layer down
    (usually the content layer).
 o  At a minimum, the 'unprotected' field MUST contain the 'alg'
    parameter and SHOULD contain a parameter identifying the
    asymmetric key.

12.4. Direct Key Agreement

 The 'direct key agreement' class of recipient algorithms uses a key
 agreement method to create a shared secret.  A KDF is then applied to
 the shared secret to derive a key to be used in protecting the data.
 This key is normally used as a CEK or MAC key, but could be used for
 other purposes if more than two layers are in use (see Appendix B).
 The most commonly used key agreement algorithm is Diffie-Hellman, but
 other variants exist.  Since COSE is designed for a store and forward
 environment rather than an online environment, many of the DH
 variants cannot be used as the receiver of the message cannot provide
 any dynamic key material.  One side effect of this is that perfect
 forward secrecy (see [RFC4949]) is not achievable.  A static key will
 always be used for the receiver of the COSE object.
 Two variants of DH that are supported are:
    Ephemeral-Static (ES) DH: where the sender of the message creates
    a one-time DH key and uses a static key for the recipient.  The
    use of the ephemeral sender key means that no additional random
    input is needed as this is randomly generated for each message.

Schaad Standards Track [Page 65] RFC 8152 CBOR Object Signing and Encryption (COSE) July 2017

    Static-Static DH: where a static key is used for both the sender
    and the recipient.  The use of static keys allows for the
    recipient to get a weak version of data origination for the
    message.  When static-static key agreement is used, then some
    piece of unique data for the KDF is required to ensure that a
    different key is created for each message.
 When direct key agreement mode is used, there MUST be only one
 recipient in the message.  This method creates the key directly, and
 that makes it difficult to mix with additional recipients.  If
 multiple recipients are needed, then the version with key wrap needs
 to be used.
 The COSE_Encrypt structure for the recipient is organized as follows:
 o  At a minimum, headers MUST contain the 'alg' parameter and SHOULD
    contain a parameter identifying the recipient's asymmetric key.
 o  The headers SHOULD identify the sender's key for the static-static
    versions and MUST contain the sender's ephemeral key for the
    ephemeral-static versions.

12.4.1. ECDH

 The mathematics for ECDH can be found in [RFC6090].  In this
 document, the algorithm is extended to be used with the two curves
 defined in [RFC7748].
 ECDH is parameterized by the following:
 o  Curve Type/Curve: The curve selected controls not only the size of
    the shared secret, but the mathematics for computing the shared
    secret.  The curve selected also controls how a point in the curve
    is represented and what happens for the identity points on the
    curve.  In this specification, we allow for a number of different
    curves to be used.  A set of curves are defined in Table 22.
    The math used to obtain the computed secret is based on the curve
    selected and not on the ECDH algorithm.  For this reason, a new
    algorithm does not need to be defined for each of the curves.
 o  Computed Secret to Shared Secret: Once the computed secret is
    known, the resulting value needs to be converted to a byte string
    to run the KDF.  The x-coordinate is used for all of the curves
    defined in this document.  For curves X25519 and X448, the
    resulting value is used directly as it is a byte string of a known
    length.  For the P-256, P-384, and P-521 curves, the x-coordinate
    is run through the I2OSP function defined in [RFC8017], using the
    same computation for n as is defined in Section 8.1.

Schaad Standards Track [Page 66] RFC 8152 CBOR Object Signing and Encryption (COSE) July 2017

 o  Ephemeral-Static or Static-Static: The key agreement process may
    be done using either a static or an ephemeral key for the sender's
    side.  When using ephemeral keys, the sender MUST generate a new
    ephemeral key for every key agreement operation.  The ephemeral
    key is placed in the 'ephemeral key' parameter and MUST be present
    for all algorithm identifiers that use ephemeral keys.  When using
    static keys, the sender MUST either generate a new random value or
    create a unique value.  For the KDFs used, this means either the
    'salt' parameter for HKDF (Table 13) or the 'PartyU nonce'
    parameter for the context structure (Table 14) MUST be present
    (both can be present if desired).  The value in the parameter MUST
    be unique for the pair of keys being used.  It is acceptable to
    use a global counter that is incremented for every static-static
    operation and use the resulting value.  When using static keys,
    the static key should be identified to the recipient.  The static
    key can be identified either by providing the key ('static key')
    or by providing a key identifier for the static key ('static key
    id').  Both of these parameters are defined in Table 19.
 o  Key Derivation Algorithm: The result of an ECDH key agreement
    process does not provide a uniformly random secret.  As such, it
    needs to be run through a KDF in order to produce a usable key.
    Processing the secret through a KDF also allows for the
    introduction of context material: how the key is going to be used
    and one-time material for static-static key agreement.  All of the
    algorithms defined in this document use one of the HKDF algorithms
    defined in Section 11.1 with the context structure defined in
    Section 11.2.
 o  Key Wrap Algorithm: No key wrap algorithm is used.  This is
    represented in Table 18 as 'none'.  The key size for the context
    structure is the content layer encryption algorithm size.
 The set of direct ECDH algorithms defined in this document are found
 in Table 18.

Schaad Standards Track [Page 67] RFC 8152 CBOR Object Signing and Encryption (COSE) July 2017

 +-----------+-------+---------+------------+--------+---------------+
 | Name      | Value | KDF     | Ephemeral- | Key    | Description   |
 |           |       |         | Static     | Wrap   |               |
 +-----------+-------+---------+------------+--------+---------------+
 | ECDH-ES + | -25   | HKDF -  | yes        | none   | ECDH ES w/    |
 | HKDF-256  |       | SHA-256 |            |        | HKDF -        |
 |           |       |         |            |        | generate key  |
 |           |       |         |            |        | directly      |
 | ECDH-ES + | -26   | HKDF -  | yes        | none   | ECDH ES w/    |
 | HKDF-512  |       | SHA-512 |            |        | HKDF -        |
 |           |       |         |            |        | generate key  |
 |           |       |         |            |        | directly      |
 | ECDH-SS + | -27   | HKDF -  | no         | none   | ECDH SS w/    |
 | HKDF-256  |       | SHA-256 |            |        | HKDF -        |
 |           |       |         |            |        | generate key  |
 |           |       |         |            |        | directly      |
 | ECDH-SS + | -28   | HKDF -  | no         | none   | ECDH SS w/    |
 | HKDF-512  |       | SHA-512 |            |        | HKDF -        |
 |           |       |         |            |        | generate key  |
 |           |       |         |            |        | directly      |
 +-----------+-------+---------+------------+--------+---------------+
                    Table 18: ECDH Algorithm Values
 +-----------+-------+----------+---------------------+--------------+
 | Name      | Label | Type     | Algorithm           | Description  |
 +-----------+-------+----------+---------------------+--------------+
 | ephemeral | -1    | COSE_Key | ECDH-ES+HKDF-256,   | Ephemeral    |
 | key       |       |          | ECDH-ES+HKDF-512,   | public key   |
 |           |       |          | ECDH-ES+A128KW,     | for the      |
 |           |       |          | ECDH-ES+A192KW,     | sender       |
 |           |       |          | ECDH-ES+A256KW      |              |
 | static    | -2    | COSE_Key | ECDH-SS+HKDF-256,   | Static       |
 | key       |       |          | ECDH-SS+HKDF-512,   | public key   |
 |           |       |          | ECDH-SS+A128KW,     | for the      |
 |           |       |          | ECDH-SS+A192KW,     | sender       |
 |           |       |          | ECDH-SS+A256KW      |              |
 | static    | -3    | bstr     | ECDH-SS+HKDF-256,   | Static       |
 | key id    |       |          | ECDH-SS+HKDF-512,   | public key   |
 |           |       |          | ECDH-SS+A128KW,     | identifier   |
 |           |       |          | ECDH-SS+A192KW,     | for the      |
 |           |       |          | ECDH-SS+A256KW      | sender       |
 +-----------+-------+----------+---------------------+--------------+
                  Table 19: ECDH Algorithm Parameters

Schaad Standards Track [Page 68] RFC 8152 CBOR Object Signing and Encryption (COSE) July 2017

 This document defines these algorithms to be used with the curves
 P-256, P-384, P-521, X25519, and X448.  Implementations MUST verify
 that the key type and curve are correct.  Different curves are
 restricted to different key types.  Implementations MUST verify that
 the curve and algorithm are appropriate for the entities involved.
 When using a COSE key for this algorithm, the following checks are
 made:
 o  The 'kty' field MUST be present, and it MUST be 'EC2' or 'OKP'.
 o  If the 'alg' field is present, it MUST match the key agreement
    algorithm being used.
 o  If the 'key_ops' field is present, it MUST include 'derive key' or
    'derive bits' for the private key.
 o  If the 'key_ops' field is present, it MUST be empty for the public
    key.

12.4.2. Security Considerations

 There is a method of checking that points provided from external
 entities are valid.  For the 'EC2' key format, this can be done by
 checking that the x and y values form a point on the curve.  For the
 'OKP' format, there is no simple way to do point validation.
 Consideration was given to requiring that the public keys of both
 entities be provided as part of the key derivation process (as
 recommended in Section 6.1 of [RFC7748]).  This was not done as COSE
 is used in a store and forward format rather than in online key
 exchange.  In order for this to be a problem, either the receiver
 public key has to be chosen maliciously or the sender has to be
 malicious.  In either case, all security evaporates anyway.
 A proof of possession of the private key associated with the public
 key is recommended when a key is moved from untrusted to trusted
 (either by the end user or by the entity that is responsible for
 making trust statements on keys).

12.5. Key Agreement with Key Wrap

 Key Agreement with Key Wrap uses a randomly generated CEK.  The CEK
 is then encrypted using a key wrap algorithm and a key derived from
 the shared secret computed by the key agreement algorithm.  The
 function for this would be:
 encryptedKey = KeyWrap(KDF(DH-Shared, context), CEK)

Schaad Standards Track [Page 69] RFC 8152 CBOR Object Signing and Encryption (COSE) July 2017

 The COSE_Encrypt structure for the recipient is organized as follows:
 o  The 'protected' field is fed into the KDF context structure.
 o  The plaintext to be encrypted is the key from the next layer down
    (usually the content layer).
 o  The 'alg' parameter MUST be present in the layer.
 o  A parameter identifying the recipient's key SHOULD be present.  A
    parameter identifying the sender's key SHOULD be present.

12.5.1. ECDH

 These algorithms are defined in Table 20.
 ECDH with Key Agreement is parameterized by the same parameters as
 for ECDH; see Section 12.4.1, with the following modifications:
 o  Key Wrap Algorithm: Any of the key wrap algorithms defined in
    Section 12.2.1 are supported.  The size of the key used for the
    key wrap algorithm is fed into the KDF.  The set of identifiers
    are found in Table 20.

Schaad Standards Track [Page 70] RFC 8152 CBOR Object Signing and Encryption (COSE) July 2017

 +-----------+-------+---------+------------+--------+---------------+
 | Name      | Value | KDF     | Ephemeral- | Key    | Description   |
 |           |       |         | Static     | Wrap   |               |
 +-----------+-------+---------+------------+--------+---------------+
 | ECDH-ES + | -29   | HKDF -  | yes        | A128KW | ECDH ES w/    |
 | A128KW    |       | SHA-256 |            |        | Concat KDF    |
 |           |       |         |            |        | and AES Key   |
 |           |       |         |            |        | Wrap w/       |
 |           |       |         |            |        | 128-bit key   |
 |           |       |         |            |        |               |
 | ECDH-ES + | -30   | HKDF -  | yes        | A192KW | ECDH ES w/    |
 | A192KW    |       | SHA-256 |            |        | Concat KDF    |
 |           |       |         |            |        | and AES Key   |
 |           |       |         |            |        | Wrap w/       |
 |           |       |         |            |        | 192-bit key   |
 |           |       |         |            |        |               |
 | ECDH-ES + | -31   | HKDF -  | yes        | A256KW | ECDH ES w/    |
 | A256KW    |       | SHA-256 |            |        | Concat KDF    |
 |           |       |         |            |        | and AES Key   |
 |           |       |         |            |        | Wrap w/       |
 |           |       |         |            |        | 256-bit key   |
 |           |       |         |            |        |               |
 | ECDH-SS + | -32   | HKDF -  | no         | A128KW | ECDH SS w/    |
 | A128KW    |       | SHA-256 |            |        | Concat KDF    |
 |           |       |         |            |        | and AES Key   |
 |           |       |         |            |        | Wrap w/       |
 |           |       |         |            |        | 128-bit key   |
 |           |       |         |            |        |               |
 | ECDH-SS + | -33   | HKDF -  | no         | A192KW | ECDH SS w/    |
 | A192KW    |       | SHA-256 |            |        | Concat KDF    |
 |           |       |         |            |        | and AES Key   |
 |           |       |         |            |        | Wrap w/       |
 |           |       |         |            |        | 192-bit key   |
 |           |       |         |            |        |               |
 | ECDH-SS + | -34   | HKDF -  | no         | A256KW | ECDH SS w/    |
 | A256KW    |       | SHA-256 |            |        | Concat KDF    |
 |           |       |         |            |        | and AES Key   |
 |           |       |         |            |        | Wrap w/       |
 |           |       |         |            |        | 256-bit key   |
 +-----------+-------+---------+------------+--------+---------------+
             Table 20: ECDH Algorithm Values with Key Wrap

Schaad Standards Track [Page 71] RFC 8152 CBOR Object Signing and Encryption (COSE) July 2017

 When using a COSE key for this algorithm, the following checks are
 made:
 o  The 'kty' field MUST be present, and it MUST be 'EC2' or 'OKP'.
 o  If the 'alg' field is present, it MUST match the key agreement
    algorithm being used.
 o  If the 'key_ops' field is present, it MUST include 'derive key' or
    'derive bits' for the private key.
 o  If the 'key_ops' field is present, it MUST be empty for the public
    key.

13. Key Object Parameters

 The COSE_Key object defines a way to hold a single key object.  It is
 still required that the members of individual key types be defined.
 This section of the document is where we define an initial set of
 members for specific key types.
 For each of the key types, we define both public and private members.
 The public members are what is transmitted to others for their usage.
 Private members allow for the archival of keys by individuals.
 However, there are some circumstances in which private keys may be
 distributed to entities in a protocol.  Examples include: entities
 that have poor random number generation, centralized key creation for
 multi-cast type operations, and protocols in which a shared secret is
 used as a bearer token for authorization purposes.
 Key types are identified by the 'kty' member of the COSE_Key object.
 In this document, we define four values for the member:
 +-----------+-------+-----------------------------------------------+
 | Name      | Value | Description                                   |
 +-----------+-------+-----------------------------------------------+
 | OKP       | 1     | Octet Key Pair                                |
 | EC2       | 2     | Elliptic Curve Keys w/ x- and y-coordinate    |
 |           |       | pair                                          |
 | Symmetric | 4     | Symmetric Keys                                |
 | Reserved  | 0     | This value is reserved                        |
 +-----------+-------+-----------------------------------------------+
                       Table 21: Key Type Values

Schaad Standards Track [Page 72] RFC 8152 CBOR Object Signing and Encryption (COSE) July 2017

13.1. Elliptic Curve Keys

 Two different key structures are defined for elliptic curve keys.
 One version uses both an x-coordinate and a y-coordinate, potentially
 with point compression ('EC2').  This is the traditional EC point
 representation that is used in [RFC5480].  The other version uses
 only the x-coordinate as the y-coordinate is either to be recomputed
 or not needed for the key agreement operation ('OKP').
 Applications MUST check that the curve and the key type are
 consistent and reject a key if they are not.
  +---------+-------+----------+------------------------------------+
  | Name    | Value | Key Type | Description                        |
  +---------+-------+----------+------------------------------------+
  | P-256   | 1     | EC2      | NIST P-256 also known as secp256r1 |
  | P-384   | 2     | EC2      | NIST P-384 also known as secp384r1 |
  | P-521   | 3     | EC2      | NIST P-521 also known as secp521r1 |
  | X25519  | 4     | OKP      | X25519 for use w/ ECDH only        |
  | X448    | 5     | OKP      | X448 for use w/ ECDH only          |
  | Ed25519 | 6     | OKP      | Ed25519 for use w/ EdDSA only      |
  | Ed448   | 7     | OKP      | Ed448 for use w/ EdDSA only        |
  +---------+-------+----------+------------------------------------+
                       Table 22: Elliptic Curves

13.1.1. Double Coordinate Curves

 The traditional way of sending ECs has been to send either both the
 x-coordinate and y-coordinate or the x-coordinate and a sign bit for
 the y-coordinate.  The latter encoding has not been recommended in
 the IETF due to potential IPR issues.  However, for operations in
 constrained environments, the ability to shrink a message by not
 sending the y-coordinate is potentially useful.
 For EC keys with both coordinates, the 'kty' member is set to 2
 (EC2).  The key parameters defined in this section are summarized in
 Table 23.  The members that are defined for this key type are:
 crv: This contains an identifier of the curve to be used with the
      key.  The curves defined in this document for this key type can
      be found in Table 22.  Other curves may be registered in the
      future, and private curves can be used as well.
 x:   This contains the x-coordinate for the EC point.  The integer is
      converted to an octet string as defined in [SEC1].  Leading zero
      octets MUST be preserved.

Schaad Standards Track [Page 73] RFC 8152 CBOR Object Signing and Encryption (COSE) July 2017

 y:   This contains either the sign bit or the value of the
      y-coordinate for the EC point.  When encoding the value y, the
      integer is converted to an octet string (as defined in [SEC1])
      and encoded as a CBOR bstr.  Leading zero octets MUST be
      preserved.  The compressed point encoding is also supported.
      Compute the sign bit as laid out in the Elliptic-Curve-Point-to-
      Octet-String Conversion function of [SEC1].  If the sign bit is
      zero, then encode y as a CBOR false value; otherwise, encode y
      as a CBOR true value.  The encoding of the infinity point is not
      supported.
 d:   This contains the private key.
 For public keys, it is REQUIRED that 'crv', 'x', and 'y' be present
 in the structure.  For private keys, it is REQUIRED that 'crv' and
 'd' be present in the structure.  For private keys, it is RECOMMENDED
 that 'x' and 'y' also be present, but they can be recomputed from the
 required elements and omitting them saves on space.
 +-------+------+-------+--------+-----------------------------------+
 | Key   | Name | Label | CBOR   | Description                       |
 | Type  |      |       | Type   |                                   |
 +-------+------+-------+--------+-----------------------------------+
 | 2     | crv  | -1    | int /  | EC identifier - Taken from the    |
 |       |      |       | tstr   | "COSE Elliptic Curves" registry   |
 | 2     | x    | -2    | bstr   | x-coordinate                      |
 | 2     | y    | -3    | bstr / | y-coordinate                      |
 |       |      |       | bool   |                                   |
 | 2     | d    | -4    | bstr   | Private key                       |
 +-------+------+-------+--------+-----------------------------------+
                      Table 23: EC Key Parameters

13.2. Octet Key Pair

 A new key type is defined for Octet Key Pairs (OKP).  Do not assume
 that keys using this type are elliptic curves.  This key type could
 be used for other curve types (for example, mathematics based on
 hyper-elliptic surfaces).
 The key parameters defined in this section are summarized in
 Table 24.  The members that are defined for this key type are:
 crv: This contains an identifier of the curve to be used with the
      key.  The curves defined in this document for this key type can
      be found in Table 22.  Other curves may be registered in the
      future and private curves can be used as well.

Schaad Standards Track [Page 74] RFC 8152 CBOR Object Signing and Encryption (COSE) July 2017

 x:   This contains the x-coordinate for the EC point.  The octet
      string represents a little-endian encoding of x.
 d:   This contains the private key.
 For public keys, it is REQUIRED that 'crv' and 'x' be present in the
 structure.  For private keys, it is REQUIRED that 'crv' and 'd' be
 present in the structure.  For private keys, it is RECOMMENDED that
 'x' also be present, but it can be recomputed from the required
 elements and omitting it saves on space.
 +------+-------+-------+--------+-----------------------------------+
 | Name | Key   | Label | Type   | Description                       |
 |      | Type  |       |        |                                   |
 +------+-------+-------+--------+-----------------------------------+
 | crv  | 1     | -1    | int /  | EC identifier - Taken from the    |
 |      |       |       | tstr   | "COSE Key Common Parameters"      |
 |      |       |       |        | registry                          |
 | x    | 1     | -2    | bstr   | x-coordinate                      |
 | d    | 1     | -4    | bstr   | Private key                       |
 +------+-------+-------+--------+-----------------------------------+
                  Table 24: Octet Key Pair Parameters

13.3. Symmetric Keys

 Occasionally it is required that a symmetric key be transported
 between entities.  This key structure allows for that to happen.
 For symmetric keys, the 'kty' member is set to 4 ('Symmetric').  The
 member that is defined for this key type is:
 k: This contains the value of the key.
 This key structure does not have a form that contains only public
 members.  As it is expected that this key structure is going to be
 transmitted, care must be taken that it is never transmitted
 accidentally or insecurely.  For symmetric keys, it is REQUIRED that
 'k' be present in the structure.
           +------+----------+-------+------+-------------+
           | Name | Key Type | Label | Type | Description |
           +------+----------+-------+------+-------------+
           | k    | 4        | -1    | bstr | Key Value   |
           +------+----------+-------+------+-------------+
                  Table 25: Symmetric Key Parameters

Schaad Standards Track [Page 75] RFC 8152 CBOR Object Signing and Encryption (COSE) July 2017

14. CBOR Encoder Restrictions

 There has been an attempt to limit the number of places where the
 document needs to impose restrictions on how the CBOR Encoder needs
 to work.  We have managed to narrow it down to the following
 restrictions:
 o  The restriction applies to the encoding of the Sig_structure, the
    Enc_structure, and the MAC_structure.
 o  The rules for "Canonical CBOR" (Section 3.9 of RFC 7049) MUST be
    used in these locations.  The main rule that needs to be enforced
    is that all lengths in these structures MUST be encoded such that
    they are using definite lengths, and the minimum length encoding
    is used.
 o  Applications MUST NOT generate messages with the same label used
    twice as a key in a single map.  Applications MUST NOT parse and
    process messages with the same label used twice as a key in a
    single map.  Applications can enforce the parse and process
    requirement by using parsers that will fail the parse step or by
    using parsers that will pass all keys to the application, and the
    application can perform the check for duplicate keys.

15. Application Profiling Considerations

 This document is designed to provide a set of security services, but
 not implementation requirements for specific usage.  The
 interoperability requirements are provided for how each of the
 individual services are used and how the algorithms are to be used
 for interoperability.  The requirements about which algorithms and
 which services are needed are deferred to each application.
 An example of a profile can be found in [OSCOAP] where two profiles
 are being developed.  One is for carrying content by itself, and the
 other is for carrying content in combination with CoAP headers.
 It is intended that a profile of this document be created that
 defines the interoperability requirements for that specific
 application.  This section provides a set of guidelines and topics
 that need to be considered when profiling this document.
 o  Applications need to determine the set of messages defined in this
    document that they will be using.  The set of messages corresponds
    fairly directly to the set of security services that are needed
    and to the security levels needed.

Schaad Standards Track [Page 76] RFC 8152 CBOR Object Signing and Encryption (COSE) July 2017

 o  Applications may define new header parameters for a specific
    purpose.  Applications will often times select specific header
    parameters to use or not to use.  For example, an application
    would normally state a preference for using either the IV or the
    Partial IV parameter.  If the Partial IV parameter is specified,
    then the application would also need to define how the fixed
    portion of the IV would be determined.
 o  When applications use externally defined authenticated data, they
    need to define how that data is encoded.  This document assumes
    that the data will be provided as a byte stream.  More information
    can be found in Section 4.3.
 o  Applications need to determine the set of security algorithms that
    are to be used.  When selecting the algorithms to be used as the
    mandatory-to-implement set, consideration should be given to
    choosing different types of algorithms when two are chosen for a
    specific purpose.  An example of this would be choosing HMAC-
    SHA512 and AES-CMAC as different MAC algorithms; the construction
    is vastly different between these two algorithms.  This means that
    a weakening of one algorithm would be unlikely to lead to a
    weakening of the other algorithms.  Of course, these algorithms do
    not provide the same level of security and thus may not be
    comparable for the desired security functionality.
 o  Applications may need to provide some type of negotiation or
    discovery method if multiple algorithms or message structures are
    permitted.  The method can be as simple as requiring
    preconfiguration of the set of algorithms to providing a discovery
    method built into the protocol.  S/MIME provided a number of
    different ways to approach the problem that applications could
    follow:
  • Advertising in the message (S/MIME capabilities) [RFC5751].
  • Advertising in the certificate (capabilities extension)

[RFC4262].

  • Minimum requirements for the S/MIME, which have been updated

over time [RFC2633] [RFC5751] (note that [RFC2633] has been

       obsoleted by [RFC5751]).

Schaad Standards Track [Page 77] RFC 8152 CBOR Object Signing and Encryption (COSE) July 2017

16. IANA Considerations

16.1. CBOR Tag Assignment

 IANA has assigned the following tags from the "CBOR Tags" registry.
 The tags for COSE_Sign1, COSE_Encrypt0, and COSE_Mac0 were assigned
 in the 1 to 23 value range (one byte long when encoded).  The tags
 for COSE_Sign, COSE_Encrypt, and COSE_Mac were assigned in the 24 to
 255 value range (two bytes long when encoded).
 The tags assigned are in Table 1.

16.2. COSE Header Parameters Registry

 IANA has created a new registry titled "COSE Header Parameters".  The
 registry has been created to use the "Expert Review Required"
 registration procedure [RFC8126].  Guidelines for the experts are
 provided in Section 16.11.  It should be noted that, in addition to
 the expert review, some portions of the registry require a
 specification, potentially a Standards Track RFC, be supplied as
 well.
 The columns of the registry are:
 Name:  The name is present to make it easier to refer to and discuss
    the registration entry.  The value is not used in the protocol.
    Names are to be unique in the table.
 Label:  This is the value used for the label.  The label can be
    either an integer or a string.  Registration in the table is based
    on the value of the label requested.  Integer values between 1 and
    255 and strings of length 1 are designated as "Standards Action".
    Integer values from 256 to 65535 and strings of length 2 are
    designated as "Specification Required".  Integer values of greater
    than 65535 and strings of length greater than 2 are designated as
    "Expert Review".  Integer values in the range -1 to -65536 are
    "delegated to the COSE Header Algorithm Parameters registry".
    Integer values less than -65536 are marked as private use.
 Value Type:  This contains the CBOR type for the value portion of the
    label.
 Value Registry:  This contains a pointer to the registry used to
    contain values where the set is limited.
 Description:  This contains a brief description of the header field.

Schaad Standards Track [Page 78] RFC 8152 CBOR Object Signing and Encryption (COSE) July 2017

 Reference:  This contains a pointer to the specification defining the
    header field (where public).
 The initial contents of the registry can be found in Tables 2 and 27.
 All of the entries in the "References" column of this registry point
 to this document.
 Additionally, the label of 0 is to be marked as 'Reserved'.

16.3. COSE Header Algorithm Parameters Registry

 IANA has created a new registry titled "COSE Header Algorithm
 Parameters".  The registry uses the "Expert Review Required"
 registration procedure.  Expert review guidelines are provided in
 Section 16.11.
 The columns of the registry are:
 Name:  The name is present to make it easier to refer to and discuss
    the registration entry.  The value is not used in the protocol.
 Algorithm:  The algorithm(s) that this registry entry is used for.
    This value is taken from the "COSE Algorithms" registry.  Multiple
    algorithms can be specified in this entry.  For the table, the
    algorithm/label pair MUST be unique.
 Label:  This is the value used for the label.  The label is an
    integer in the range of -1 to -65536.
 Type:  This contains the CBOR type for the value portion of the
    label.
 Description:  This contains a brief description of the header field.
 Reference:  This contains a pointer to the specification defining the
    header field (where public).
 The initial contents of the registry can be found in Tables 13, 14,
 and 19.  All of the entries in the "References" column of this
 registry point to this document.

16.4. COSE Algorithms Registry

 IANA has created a new registry titled "COSE Algorithms".  The
 registry has been created to use the "Expert Review Required"
 registration procedure.  Guidelines for the experts are provided in

Schaad Standards Track [Page 79] RFC 8152 CBOR Object Signing and Encryption (COSE) July 2017

 Section 16.11.  It should be noted that, in addition to the expert
 review, some portions of the registry require a specification,
 potentially a Standards Track RFC, be supplied as well.
 The columns of the registry are:
 Name:  A value that can be used to identify an algorithm in documents
    for easier comprehension.  The name SHOULD be unique.  However,
    the 'Value' field is what is used to identify the algorithm, not
    the 'name' field.
 Value:  The value to be used to identify this algorithm.  Algorithm
    values MUST be unique.  The value can be a positive integer, a
    negative integer, or a string.  Integer values between -256 and
    255 and strings of length 1 are designated as "Standards Action".
    Integer values from -65536 to 65535 and strings of length 2 are
    designated as "Specification Required".  Integer values greater
    than 65535 and strings of length greater than 2 are designated as
    "Expert Review".  Integer values less than -65536 are marked as
    private use.
 Description:  A short description of the algorithm.
 Reference:  A document where the algorithm is defined (if publicly
    available).
 Recommended:  Does the IETF have a consensus recommendation to use
    the algorithm?  The legal values are 'Yes', 'No', and
    'Deprecated'.
 The initial contents of the registry can be found in Tables 5, 6, 7,
 8, 9, 10, 11, 15, 16, 17, 18, and 20.  All of the entries in the
 "References" column of this registry point to this document.  All of
 the entries in the "Recommended" column are set to "Yes".
 Additionally, the label of 0 is to be marked as 'Reserved'.
 NOTE: The assignment of algorithm identifiers in this document was
 done so that positive numbers were used for the first layer objects
 (COSE_Sign, COSE_Sign1, COSE_Encrypt, COSE_Encrypt0, COSE_Mac, and
 COSE_Mac0).  Negative numbers were used for second layer objects
 (COSE_Signature and COSE_recipient).  Expert reviewers should
 consider this practice, but are not expected to be restricted by this
 precedent.

Schaad Standards Track [Page 80] RFC 8152 CBOR Object Signing and Encryption (COSE) July 2017

16.5. COSE Key Common Parameters Registry

 IANA has created a new registry titled "COSE Key Common Parameters".
 The registry has been created to use the "Expert Review Required"
 registration procedure.  Guidelines for the experts are provided in
 Section 16.11.  It should be noted that, in addition to the expert
 review, some portions of the registry require a specification,
 potentially a Standards Track RFC, be supplied as well.
 The columns of the registry are:
 Name:  This is a descriptive name that enables easier reference to
    the item.  It is not used in the encoding.
 Label:  The value to be used to identify this algorithm.  Key map
    labels MUST be unique.  The label can be a positive integer, a
    negative integer, or a string.  Integer values between 0 and 255
    and strings of length 1 are designated as "Standards Action".
    Integer values from 256 to 65535 and strings of length 2 are
    designated as "Specification Required".  Integer values of greater
    than 65535 and strings of length greater than 2 are designated as
    "Expert Review".  Integer values in the range -65536 to -1 are
    "used for key parameters specific to a single algorithm delegated
    to the COSE Key Type Parameters registry".  Integer values less
    than -65536 are marked as private use.
 CBOR Type:  This field contains the CBOR type for the field.
 Value Registry:  This field denotes the registry that values come
    from, if one exists.
 Description:  This field contains a brief description for the field.
 Reference:  This contains a pointer to the public specification for
    the field if one exists.
 This registry has been initially populated by the values in Table 3.
 All of the entries in the "References" column of this registry point
 to this document.

16.6. COSE Key Type Parameters Registry

 IANA has created a new registry titled "COSE Key Type Parameters".
 The registry has been created to use the "Expert Review Required"
 registration procedure.  Expert review guidelines are provided in
 Section 16.11.

Schaad Standards Track [Page 81] RFC 8152 CBOR Object Signing and Encryption (COSE) July 2017

 The columns of the table are:
 Key Type:  This field contains a descriptive string of a key type.
    This should be a value that is in the "COSE Key Common Parameters"
    registry and is placed in the 'kty' field of a COSE Key structure.
 Name:  This is a descriptive name that enables easier reference to
    the item.  It is not used in the encoding.
 Label:  The label is to be unique for every value of key type.  The
    range of values is from -65536 to -1.  Labels are expected to be
    reused for different keys.
 CBOR Type:  This field contains the CBOR type for the field.
 Description:  This field contains a brief description for the field.
 Reference:  This contains a pointer to the public specification for
    the field if one exists.
 This registry has been initially populated by the values in Tables
 23, 24, and 25.  All of the entries in the "References" column of
 this registry point to this document.

16.7. COSE Key Types Registry

 IANA has created a new registry titled "COSE Key Types".  The
 registry has been created to use the "Expert Review Required"
 registration procedure.  Expert review guidelines are provided in
 Section 16.11.
 The columns of this table are:
 Name:  This is a descriptive name that enables easier reference to
    the item.  The name MUST be unique.  It is not used in the
    encoding.
 Value:  This is the value used to identify the curve.  These values
    MUST be unique.  The value can be a positive integer, a negative
    integer, or a string.
 Description:  This field contains a brief description of the curve.
 References:  This contains a pointer to the public specification for
    the curve if one exists.

Schaad Standards Track [Page 82] RFC 8152 CBOR Object Signing and Encryption (COSE) July 2017

 This registry has been initially populated by the values in Table 21.
 The specification column for all of these entries will be this
 document.

16.8. COSE Elliptic Curves Registry

 IANA has created a new registry titled "COSE Elliptic Curves".  The
 registry has been created to use the "Expert Review Required"
 registration procedure.  Guidelines for the experts are provided in
 Section 16.11.  It should be noted that, in addition to the expert
 review, some portions of the registry require a specification,
 potentially a Standards Track RFC, be supplied as well.
 The columns of the table are:
 Name:  This is a descriptive name that enables easier reference to
    the item.  It is not used in the encoding.
 Value:  This is the value used to identify the curve.  These values
    MUST be unique.  The integer values from -256 to 255 are
    designated as "Standards Action".  The integer values from 256 to
    65535 and -65536 to -257 are designated as "Specification
    Required".  Integer values over 65535 are designated as "Expert
    Review".  Integer values less than -65536 are marked as private
    use.
 Key Type:  This designates the key type(s) that can be used with this
    curve.
 Description:  This field contains a brief description of the curve.
 Reference:  This contains a pointer to the public specification for
    the curve if one exists.
 Recommended:  Does the IETF have a consensus recommendation to use
    the algorithm?  The legal values are 'Yes', 'No', and
    'Deprecated'.
 This registry has been initially populated by the values in Table 22.
 All of the entries in the "References" column of this registry point
 to this document.  All of the entries in the "Recommended" column are
 set to "Yes".

Schaad Standards Track [Page 83] RFC 8152 CBOR Object Signing and Encryption (COSE) July 2017

16.9. Media Type Registrations

16.9.1. COSE Security Message

 This section registers the 'application/cose' media type in the
 "Media Types" registry.  These media types are used to indicate that
 the content is a COSE message.
    Type name: application
    Subtype name: cose
    Required parameters: N/A
    Optional parameters: cose-type
    Encoding considerations: binary
    Security considerations: See the Security Considerations section
    of RFC 8152.
    Interoperability considerations: N/A
    Published specification: RFC 8152
    Applications that use this media type: IoT applications sending
    security content over HTTP(S) transports.
    Fragment identifier considerations: N/A
    Additional information:
  • Deprecated alias names for this type: N/A
  • Magic number(s): N/A
  • File extension(s): cbor
  • Macintosh file type code(s): N/A
    Person & email address to contact for further information:
    iesg@ietf.org
    Intended usage: COMMON
    Restrictions on usage: N/A
    Author: Jim Schaad, ietf@augustcellars.com

Schaad Standards Track [Page 84] RFC 8152 CBOR Object Signing and Encryption (COSE) July 2017

    Change Controller: IESG
    Provisional registration?  No

16.9.2. COSE Key Media Type

 This section registers the 'application/cose-key' and 'application/
 cose-key-set' media types in the "Media Types" registry.  These media
 types are used to indicate, respectively, that content is a COSE_Key
 or COSE_KeySet object.
 The template for registering 'application/cose-key' is:
    Type name: application
    Subtype name: cose-key
    Required parameters: N/A
    Optional parameters: N/A
    Encoding considerations: binary
    Security considerations: See the Security Considerations section
    of RFC 8152.
    Interoperability considerations: N/A
    Published specification: RFC 8152
    Applications that use this media type: Distribution of COSE based
    keys for IoT applications.
    Fragment identifier considerations: N/A
    Additional information:
  • Deprecated alias names for this type: N/A
  • Magic number(s): N/A
  • File extension(s): cbor
  • Macintosh file type code(s): N/A
    Person & email address to contact for further information:
    iesg@ietf.org

Schaad Standards Track [Page 85] RFC 8152 CBOR Object Signing and Encryption (COSE) July 2017

    Intended usage: COMMON
    Restrictions on usage: N/A
    Author: Jim Schaad, ietf@augustcellars.com
    Change Controller: IESG
    Provisional registration?  No
 The template for registering 'application/cose-key-set' is:
    Type name: application
    Subtype name: cose-key-set
    Required parameters: N/A
    Optional parameters: N/A
    Encoding considerations: binary
    Security considerations: See the Security Considerations section
    of RFC 8152.
    Interoperability considerations: N/A
    Published specification: RFC 8152
    Applications that use this media type: Distribution of COSE based
    keys for IoT applications.
    Fragment identifier considerations: N/A
    Additional information:
  • Deprecated alias names for this type: N/A
  • Magic number(s): N/A
  • File extension(s): cbor
  • Macintosh file type code(s): N/A
    Person & email address to contact for further information:
    iesg@ietf.org
    Intended usage: COMMON

Schaad Standards Track [Page 86] RFC 8152 CBOR Object Signing and Encryption (COSE) July 2017

    Restrictions on usage: N/A
    Author: Jim Schaad, ietf@augustcellars.com
    Change Controller: IESG
    Provisional registration?  No

16.10. CoAP Content-Formats Registry

 IANA has added the following entries to the "CoAP Content-Formats"
 registry.
 +--------------------------------------+----------+-----+-----------+
 | Media Type                           | Encoding | ID  | Reference |
 +--------------------------------------+----------+-----+-----------+
 | application/cose; cose-type="cose-   |          | 98  | [RFC8152] |
 | sign"                                |          |     |           |
 | application/cose; cose-type="cose-   |          | 18  | [RFC8152] |
 | sign1"                               |          |     |           |
 | application/cose; cose-type="cose-   |          | 96  | [RFC8152] |
 | encrypt"                             |          |     |           |
 | application/cose; cose-type="cose-   |          | 16  | [RFC8152] |
 | encrypt0"                            |          |     |           |
 | application/cose; cose-type="cose-   |          | 97  | [RFC8152] |
 | mac"                                 |          |     |           |
 | application/cose; cose-type="cose-   |          | 17  | [RFC8152] |
 | mac0"                                |          |     |           |
 | application/cose-key                 |          | 101 | [RFC8152] |
 | application/cose-key-set             |          | 102 | [RFC8152] |
 +--------------------------------------+----------+-----+-----------+
                Table 26: CoAP Content-Formats for COSE

16.11. Expert Review Instructions

 All of the IANA registries established in this document are defined
 as expert review.  This section gives some general guidelines for
 what the experts should be looking for, but they are being designated
 as experts for a reason, so they should be given substantial
 latitude.
 Expert reviewers should take into consideration the following points:
 o  Point squatting should be discouraged.  Reviewers are encouraged
    to get sufficient information for registration requests to ensure
    that the usage is not going to duplicate one that is already
    registered, and that the point is likely to be used in

Schaad Standards Track [Page 87] RFC 8152 CBOR Object Signing and Encryption (COSE) July 2017

    deployments.  The zones tagged as private use are intended for
    testing purposes and closed environments; code points in other
    ranges should not be assigned for testing.
 o  Specifications are required for the standards track range of point
    assignment.  Specifications should exist for specification
    required ranges, but early assignment before a specification is
    available is considered to be permissible.  Specifications are
    needed for the first-come, first-serve range if they are expected
    to be used outside of closed environments in an interoperable way.
    When specifications are not provided, the description provided
    needs to have sufficient information to identify what the point is
    being used for.
 o  Experts should take into account the expected usage of fields when
    approving point assignment.  The fact that there is a range for
    standards track documents does not mean that a standards track
    document cannot have points assigned outside of that range.  The
    length of the encoded value should be weighed against how many
    code points of that length are left, the size of device it will be
    used on, and the number of code points left that encode to that
    size.
 o  When algorithms are registered, vanity registrations should be
    discouraged.  One way to do this is to require registrations to
    provide additional documentation on security analysis of the
    algorithm.  Another thing that should be considered is requesting
    an opinion on the algorithm from the Crypto Forum Research Group
    (CFRG).  Algorithms that do not meet the security requirements of
    the community and the messages structures should not be
    registered.

17. Security Considerations

 There are a number of security considerations that need to be taken
 into account by implementers of this specification.  The security
 considerations that are specific to an individual algorithm are
 placed next to the description of the algorithm.  While some
 considerations have been highlighted here, additional considerations
 may be found in the documents listed in the references.
 Implementations need to protect the private key material for any
 individuals.  There are some cases in this document that need to be
 highlighted on this issue.
 o  Using the same key for two different algorithms can leak
    information about the key.  It is therefore recommended that keys
    be restricted to a single algorithm.

Schaad Standards Track [Page 88] RFC 8152 CBOR Object Signing and Encryption (COSE) July 2017

 o  Use of 'direct' as a recipient algorithm combined with a second
    recipient algorithm exposes the direct key to the second
    recipient.
 o  Several of the algorithms in this document have limits on the
    number of times that a key can be used without leaking information
    about the key.
 The use of ECDH and direct plus KDF (with no key wrap) will not
 directly lead to the private key being leaked; the one way function
 of the KDF will prevent that.  There is, however, a different issue
 that needs to be addressed.  Having two recipients requires that the
 CEK be shared between two recipients.  The second recipient therefore
 has a CEK that was derived from material that can be used for the
 weak proof of origin.  The second recipient could create a message
 using the same CEK and send it to the first recipient; the first
 recipient would, for either static-static ECDH or direct plus KDF,
 make an assumption that the CEK could be used for proof of origin
 even though it is from the wrong entity.  If the key wrap step is
 added, then no proof of origin is implied and this is not an issue.
 Although it has been mentioned before, the use of a single key for
 multiple algorithms has been demonstrated in some cases to leak
 information about a key, provide the opportunity for attackers to
 forge integrity tags, or gain information about encrypted content.
 Binding a key to a single algorithm prevents these problems.  Key
 creators and key consumers are strongly encouraged not only to create
 new keys for each different algorithm, but to include that selection
 of algorithm in any distribution of key material and strictly enforce
 the matching of algorithms in the key structure to algorithms in the
 message structure.  In addition to checking that algorithms are
 correct, the key form needs to be checked as well.  Do not use an
 'EC2' key where an 'OKP' key is expected.
 Before using a key for transmission, or before acting on information
 received, a trust decision on a key needs to be made.  Is the data or
 action something that the entity associated with the key has a right
 to see or a right to request?  A number of factors are associated
 with this trust decision.  Some of the ones that are highlighted here
 are:
 o  What are the permissions associated with the key owner?
 o  Is the cryptographic algorithm acceptable in the current context?
 o  Have the restrictions associated with the key, such as algorithm
    or freshness, been checked and are they correct?

Schaad Standards Track [Page 89] RFC 8152 CBOR Object Signing and Encryption (COSE) July 2017

 o  Is the request something that is reasonable, given the current
    state of the application?
 o  Have any security considerations that are part of the message been
    enforced (as specified by the application or 'crit' parameter)?
 There are a large number of algorithms presented in this document
 that use nonce values.  For all of the nonces defined in this
 document, there is some type of restriction on the nonce being a
 unique value either for a key or for some other conditions.  In all
 of these cases, there is no known requirement on the nonce being both
 unique and unpredictable; under these circumstances, it's reasonable
 to use a counter for creation of the nonce.  In cases where one wants
 the pattern of the nonce to be unpredictable as well as unique, one
 can use a key created for that purpose and encrypt the counter to
 produce the nonce value.
 One area that has been starting to get exposure is doing traffic
 analysis of encrypted messages based on the length of the message.
 This specification does not provide for a uniform method of providing
 padding as part of the message structure.  An observer can
 distinguish between two different strings (for example, 'YES' and
 'NO') based on the length for all of the content encryption
 algorithms that are defined in this document.  This means that it is
 up to the applications to document how content padding is to be done
 in order to prevent or discourage such analysis.  (For example, the
 strings could be defined as 'YES' and 'NO '.)

18. References

18.1. Normative References

 [AES-GCM]  National Institute of Standards and Technology,
            "Recommendation for Block Cipher Modes of Operation:
            Galois/Counter Mode (GCM) and GMAC", NIST Special
            Publication 800-38D, DOI 10.6028/NIST.SP.800-38D, November
            2007, <https://csrc.nist.gov/publications/nistpubs/800-
            38D/SP-800-38D.pdf>.
 [COAP.Formats]
            IANA, "Constrained RESTful Environments (CoRE)
            Parameters",
            <http://www.iana.org/assignments/core-parameters/>.
 [DSS]      National Institute of Standards and Technology, "Digital
            Signature Standard (DSS)", FIPS PUB 186-4,
            DOI 10.6028/NIST.FIPS.186-4, July 2013,
            <http://nvlpubs.nist.gov/nistpubs/FIPS/

Schaad Standards Track [Page 90] RFC 8152 CBOR Object Signing and Encryption (COSE) July 2017

            NIST.FIPS.186-4.pdf>.
 [MAC]      National Institute of Standards and Technology, "Computer
            Data Authentication", FIPS PUB 113, May 1985,
            <http://csrc.nist.gov/publications/fips/fips113/
            fips113.html>.
 [RFC2104]  Krawczyk, H., Bellare, M., and R. Canetti, "HMAC: Keyed-
            Hashing for Message Authentication", RFC 2104,
            DOI 10.17487/RFC2104, February 1997,
            <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2104>.
 [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
            Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119,
            DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997,
            <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>.
 [RFC3394]  Schaad, J. and R. Housley, "Advanced Encryption Standard
            (AES) Key Wrap Algorithm", RFC 3394, DOI 10.17487/RFC3394,
            September 2002, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3394>.
 [RFC3610]  Whiting, D., Housley, R., and N. Ferguson, "Counter with
            CBC-MAC (CCM)", RFC 3610, DOI 10.17487/RFC3610, September
            2003, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3610>.
 [RFC5869]  Krawczyk, H. and P. Eronen, "HMAC-based Extract-and-Expand
            Key Derivation Function (HKDF)", RFC 5869,
            DOI 10.17487/RFC5869, May 2010,
            <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5869>.
 [RFC6090]  McGrew, D., Igoe, K., and M. Salter, "Fundamental Elliptic
            Curve Cryptography Algorithms", RFC 6090,
            DOI 10.17487/RFC6090, February 2011,
            <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6090>.
 [RFC6979]  Pornin, T., "Deterministic Usage of the Digital Signature
            Algorithm (DSA) and Elliptic Curve Digital Signature
            Algorithm (ECDSA)", RFC 6979, DOI 10.17487/RFC6979, August
            2013, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6979>.
 [RFC7049]  Bormann, C. and P. Hoffman, "Concise Binary Object
            Representation (CBOR)", RFC 7049, DOI 10.17487/RFC7049,
            October 2013, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7049>.
 [RFC7539]  Nir, Y. and A. Langley, "ChaCha20 and Poly1305 for IETF
            Protocols", RFC 7539, DOI 10.17487/RFC7539, May 2015,
            <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7539>.

Schaad Standards Track [Page 91] RFC 8152 CBOR Object Signing and Encryption (COSE) July 2017

 [RFC7748]  Langley, A., Hamburg, M., and S. Turner, "Elliptic Curves
            for Security", RFC 7748, DOI 10.17487/RFC7748, January
            2016, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7748>.
 [RFC8032]  Josefsson, S. and I. Liusvaara, "Edwards-Curve Digital
            Signature Algorithm (EdDSA)", RFC 8032,
            DOI 10.17487/RFC8032, January 2017,
            <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8032>.
 [RFC8174]  Leiba, B., "Ambiguity of Uppercase vs Lowercase in RFC
            2119 Key Words", BCP 14, RFC 8174, DOI 10.17487/RFC8174,
            May 2017, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8174>.
 [SEC1]     Certicom Research, "SEC 1: Elliptic Curve Cryptography",
            Standards for Efficient Cryptography, Version 2.0, May
            2009, <http://www.secg.org/sec1-v2.pdf>.

18.2. Informative References

 [CDDL]     Vigano, C. and H. Birkholz, "CBOR data definition language
            (CDDL): a notational convention to express CBOR data
            structures", Work in Progress, draft-greevenbosch-appsawg-
            cbor-cddl-09, March 2017.
 [OSCOAP]   Selander, G., Mattsson, J., Palombini, F., and L. Seitz,
            "Object Security of CoAP (OSCOAP)", Work in Progress,
            draft-ietf-core-object-security-03, May 2017.
 [PVSig]    Brown, D. and D. Johnson, "Formal Security Proofs for a
            Signature Scheme with Partial Message Recovery",
            DOI 10.1007/3-540-45353-9_11, LNCS Volume 2020, June 2000.
 [RFC2633]  Ramsdell, B., Ed., "S/MIME Version 3 Message
            Specification", RFC 2633, DOI 10.17487/RFC2633, June 1999,
            <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2633>.
 [RFC4231]  Nystrom, M., "Identifiers and Test Vectors for HMAC-SHA-
            224, HMAC-SHA-256, HMAC-SHA-384, and HMAC-SHA-512",
            RFC 4231, DOI 10.17487/RFC4231, December 2005,
            <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4231>.
 [RFC4262]  Santesson, S., "X.509 Certificate Extension for Secure/
            Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (S/MIME)
            Capabilities", RFC 4262, DOI 10.17487/RFC4262, December
            2005, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4262>.

Schaad Standards Track [Page 92] RFC 8152 CBOR Object Signing and Encryption (COSE) July 2017

 [RFC4493]  Song, JH., Poovendran, R., Lee, J., and T. Iwata, "The
            AES-CMAC Algorithm", RFC 4493, DOI 10.17487/RFC4493, June
            2006, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4493>.
 [RFC4949]  Shirey, R., "Internet Security Glossary, Version 2",
            FYI 36, RFC 4949, DOI 10.17487/RFC4949, August 2007,
            <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4949>.
 [RFC5116]  McGrew, D., "An Interface and Algorithms for Authenticated
            Encryption", RFC 5116, DOI 10.17487/RFC5116, January 2008,
            <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5116>.
 [RFC5480]  Turner, S., Brown, D., Yiu, K., Housley, R., and T. Polk,
            "Elliptic Curve Cryptography Subject Public Key
            Information", RFC 5480, DOI 10.17487/RFC5480, March 2009,
            <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5480>.
 [RFC5652]  Housley, R., "Cryptographic Message Syntax (CMS)", STD 70,
            RFC 5652, DOI 10.17487/RFC5652, September 2009,
            <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5652>.
 [RFC5751]  Ramsdell, B. and S. Turner, "Secure/Multipurpose Internet
            Mail Extensions (S/MIME) Version 3.2 Message
            Specification", RFC 5751, DOI 10.17487/RFC5751, January
            2010, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5751>.
 [RFC5752]  Turner, S. and J. Schaad, "Multiple Signatures in
            Cryptographic Message Syntax (CMS)", RFC 5752,
            DOI 10.17487/RFC5752, January 2010,
            <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5752>.
 [RFC5990]  Randall, J., Kaliski, B., Brainard, J., and S. Turner,
            "Use of the RSA-KEM Key Transport Algorithm in the
            Cryptographic Message Syntax (CMS)", RFC 5990,
            DOI 10.17487/RFC5990, September 2010,
            <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5990>.
 [RFC6151]  Turner, S. and L. Chen, "Updated Security Considerations
            for the MD5 Message-Digest and the HMAC-MD5 Algorithms",
            RFC 6151, DOI 10.17487/RFC6151, March 2011,
            <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6151>.
 [RFC6838]  Freed, N., Klensin, J., and T. Hansen, "Media Type
            Specifications and Registration Procedures", BCP 13,
            RFC 6838, DOI 10.17487/RFC6838, January 2013,
            <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6838>.

Schaad Standards Track [Page 93] RFC 8152 CBOR Object Signing and Encryption (COSE) July 2017

 [RFC7159]  Bray, T., Ed., "The JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) Data
            Interchange Format", RFC 7159, DOI 10.17487/RFC7159, March
            2014, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7159>.
 [RFC7252]  Shelby, Z., Hartke, K., and C. Bormann, "The Constrained
            Application Protocol (CoAP)", RFC 7252,
            DOI 10.17487/RFC7252, June 2014,
            <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7252>.
 [RFC7515]  Jones, M., Bradley, J., and N. Sakimura, "JSON Web
            Signature (JWS)", RFC 7515, DOI 10.17487/RFC7515, May
            2015, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7515>.
 [RFC7516]  Jones, M. and J. Hildebrand, "JSON Web Encryption (JWE)",
            RFC 7516, DOI 10.17487/RFC7516, May 2015,
            <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7516>.
 [RFC7517]  Jones, M., "JSON Web Key (JWK)", RFC 7517,
            DOI 10.17487/RFC7517, May 2015,
            <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7517>.
 [RFC7518]  Jones, M., "JSON Web Algorithms (JWA)", RFC 7518,
            DOI 10.17487/RFC7518, May 2015,
            <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7518>.
 [RFC8017]  Moriarty, K., Ed., Kaliski, B., Jonsson, J., and A. Rusch,
            "PKCS #1: RSA Cryptography Specifications Version 2.2",
            RFC 8017, DOI 10.17487/RFC8017, November 2016,
            <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8017>.
 [RFC8018]  Moriarty, K., Ed., Kaliski, B., and A. Rusch, "PKCS #5:
            Password-Based Cryptography Specification Version 2.1",
            RFC 8018, DOI 10.17487/RFC8018, January 2017,
            <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8018>.
 [RFC8126]  Cotton, M., Leiba, B., and T. Narten, "Guidelines for
            Writing an IANA Considerations Section in RFCs", BCP 26,
            RFC 8126, DOI 10.17487/RFC8126, June 2017,
            <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8126>.
 [SP800-56A]
            Barker, E., Chen, L., Roginsky, A., and M. Smid,
            "Recommendation for Pair-Wise Key Establishment Schemes
            Using Discrete Logarithm Cryptography", NIST Special
            Publication 800-56A, Revision 2,
            DOI 10.6028/NIST.SP.800-56Ar2, May 2013,
            <http://nvlpubs.nist.gov/nistpubs/SpecialPublications/
            NIST.SP.800-56Ar2.pdf>.

Schaad Standards Track [Page 94] RFC 8152 CBOR Object Signing and Encryption (COSE) July 2017

 [W3C.WebCrypto]
            Watson, M., "Web Cryptography API", W3C Recommendation,
            January 2017, <https://www.w3.org/TR/WebCryptoAPI/>.

Schaad Standards Track [Page 95] RFC 8152 CBOR Object Signing and Encryption (COSE) July 2017

Appendix A. Guidelines for External Data Authentication of Algorithms

 A portion of the working group has expressed a strong desire to relax
 the rule that the algorithm identifier be required to appear in each
 level of a COSE object.  There are two basic reasons that have been
 advanced to support this position.  First, the resulting message will
 be smaller if the algorithm identifier is omitted from the most
 common messages in a CoAP environment.  Second, there is a potential
 bug that will arise if full checking is not done correctly between
 the different places that an algorithm identifier could be placed
 (the message itself, an application statement, the key structure that
 the sender possesses, and the key structure the recipient possesses).
 This appendix lays out how such a change can be made and the details
 that an application needs to specify in order to use this option.
 Two different sets of details are specified: those needed to omit an
 algorithm identifier and those needed to use a variant on the counter
 signature attribute that contains no attributes about itself.

A.1. Algorithm Identification

 In this section, three sets of recommendations are laid out.  The
 first set of recommendations apply to having an implicit algorithm
 identified for a single layer of a COSE object.  The second set of
 recommendations apply to having multiple implicit algorithms
 identified for multiple layers of a COSE object.  The third set of
 recommendations apply to having implicit algorithms for multiple COSE
 object constructs.
 The key words from RFC 2119 are deliberately not used here.  This
 specification can provide recommendations, but it cannot enforce
 them.
 This set of recommendations applies to the case where an application
 is distributing a fixed algorithm along with the key information for
 use in a single COSE object.  This normally applies to the smallest
 of the COSE objects, specifically COSE_Sign1, COSE_Mac0, and
 COSE_Encrypt0, but could apply to the other structures as well.
 The following items should be taken into account:
 o  Applications need to list the set of COSE structures that implicit
    algorithms are to be used in.  Applications need to require that
    the receipt of an explicit algorithm identifier in one of these
    structures will lead to the message being rejected.  This
    requirement is stated so that there will never be a case where
    there is any ambiguity about the question of which algorithm
    should be used, the implicit or the explicit one.  This applies

Schaad Standards Track [Page 96] RFC 8152 CBOR Object Signing and Encryption (COSE) July 2017

    even if the transported algorithm identifier is a protected
    attribute.  This applies even if the transported algorithm is the
    same as the implicit algorithm.
 o  Applications need to define the set of information that is to be
    considered to be part of a context when omitting algorithm
    identifiers.  At a minimum, this would be the key identifier (if
    needed), the key, the algorithm, and the COSE structure it is used
    with.  Applications should restrict the use of a single key to a
    single algorithm.  As noted for some of the algorithms in this
    document, the use of the same key in different related algorithms
    can lead to leakage of information about the key, leakage about
    the data or the ability to perform forgeries.
 o  In many cases, applications that make the algorithm identifier
    implicit will also want to make the context identifier implicit
    for the same reason.  That is, omitting the context identifier
    will decrease the message size (potentially significantly
    depending on the length of the identifier).  Applications that do
    this will need to describe the circumstances where the context
    identifier is to be omitted and how the context identifier is to
    be inferred in these cases.  (An exhaustive search over all of the
    keys would normally not be considered to be acceptable.)  An
    example of how this can be done is to tie the context to a
    transaction identifier.  Both would be sent on the original
    message, but only the transaction identifier would need to be sent
    after that point as the context is tied into the transaction
    identifier.  Another way would be to associate a context with a
    network address.  All messages coming from a single network
    address can be assumed to be associated with a specific context.
    (In this case, the address would normally be distributed as part
    of the context.)
 o  Applications cannot rely on key identifiers being unique unless
    they take significant efforts to ensure that they are computed in
    such a way as to create this guarantee.  Even when an application
    does this, the uniqueness might be violated if the application is
    run in different contexts (i.e., with a different context
    provider) or if the system combines the security contexts from
    different applications together into a single store.
 o  Applications should continue the practice of protecting the
    algorithm identifier.  Since this is not done by placing it in the
    protected attributes field, applications should define an
    application-specific external data structure that includes this
    value.  This external data field can be used as such for content
    encryption, MAC, and signature algorithms.  It can be used in the
    SuppPrivInfo field for those algorithms that use a KDF to derive a

Schaad Standards Track [Page 97] RFC 8152 CBOR Object Signing and Encryption (COSE) July 2017

    key value.  Applications may also want to protect other
    information that is part of the context structure as well.  It
    should be noted that those fields, such as the key or a Base IV,
    are protected by virtue of being used in the cryptographic
    computation and do not need to be included in the external data
    field.
 The second case is having multiple implicit algorithm identifiers
 specified for a multiple layer COSE object.  An example of how this
 would work is the encryption context that an application specifies,
 which contains a content encryption algorithm, a key wrap algorithm,
 a key identifier, and a shared secret.  The sender omits sending the
 algorithm identifier for both the content layer and the recipient
 layer leaving only the key identifier.  The receiver then uses the
 key identifier to get the implicit algorithm identifiers.
 The following additional items need to be taken into consideration:
 o  Applications that want to support this will need to define a
    structure that allows for, and clearly identifies, both the COSE
    structure to be used with a given key and the structure and
    algorithm to be used for the secondary layer.  The key for the
    secondary layer is computed as normal from the recipient layer.
 The third case is having multiple implicit algorithm identifiers, but
 targeted at potentially unrelated layers or different COSE objects.
 There are a number of different scenarios where this might be
 applicable.  Some of these scenarios are:
 o  Two contexts are distributed as a pair.  Each of the contexts is
    for use with a COSE_Encrypt message.  Each context will consist of
    distinct secret keys and IVs and potentially even different
    algorithms.  One context is for sending messages from party A to
    party B, and the second context is for sending messages from party
    B to party A.  This means that there is no chance for a reflection
    attack to occur as each party uses different secret keys to send
    its messages; a message that is reflected back to it would fail to
    decrypt.
 o  Two contexts are distributed as a pair.  The first context is used
    for encryption of the message, and the second context is used to
    place a counter signature on the message.  The intention is that
    the second context can be distributed to other entities
    independently of the first context.  This allows these entities to
    validate that the message came from an individual without being
    able to decrypt the message and see the content.

Schaad Standards Track [Page 98] RFC 8152 CBOR Object Signing and Encryption (COSE) July 2017

 o  Two contexts are distributed as a pair.  The first context
    contains a key for dealing with MACed messages, and the second
    context contains a key for dealing with encrypted messages.  This
    allows for a unified distribution of keys to participants for
    different types of messages that have different keys, but where
    the keys may be used in a coordinated manner.
 For these cases, the following additional items need to be
 considered:
 o  Applications need to ensure that the multiple contexts stay
    associated.  If one of the contexts is invalidated for any reason,
    all of the contexts associated with it should also be invalidated.

A.2. Counter Signature without Headers

 There is a group of people who want to have a counter signature
 parameter that is directly tied to the value being signed, and thus
 the authenticated and unauthenticated buckets can be removed from the
 message being sent.  The focus on this is an even smaller size, as
 all of the information on the process of creating the counter
 signature is implicit rather than being explicitly carried in the
 message.  This includes not only the algorithm identifier as
 presented above, but also items such as the key identification, which
 is always external to the signature structure.  This means that the
 entities that are doing the validation of the counter signature are
 required to infer which key is to be used from context rather than
 being explicit.  One way of doing this would be to presume that all
 data coming from a specific port (or to a specific URL) is to be
 validated by a specific key.  (Note that this does not require that
 the key identifier be part of the value signed as it does not serve a
 cryptographic purpose.  If the key validates the counter signature,
 then it should be presumed that the entity associated with that key
 produced the signature.)
 When computing the signature for the bare counter signature header,
 the same Sig_structure defined in Section 4.4 is used.  The
 sign_protected field is omitted, as there is no protected header
 field in this counter signature header.  The value of
 "CounterSignature0" is placed in the context field of the
 Sig_stucture.

Schaad Standards Track [Page 99] RFC 8152 CBOR Object Signing and Encryption (COSE) July 2017

 +-------------------+-------+-------+-------+-----------------------+
 | Name              | Label | Value | Value | Description           |
 |                   |       | Type  |       |                       |
 +-------------------+-------+-------+-------+-----------------------+
 | CounterSignature0 | 9     | bstr  |       | Counter signature     |
 |                   |       |       |       | with implied signer   |
 |                   |       |       |       | and headers           |
 +-------------------+-------+-------+-------+-----------------------+
           Table 27: Header Parameter for CounterSignature0

Appendix B. Two Layers of Recipient Information

 All of the currently defined recipient algorithm classes only use two
 layers of the COSE_Encrypt structure.  The first layer is the message
 content, and the second layer is the content key encryption.
 However, if one uses a recipient algorithm such as the RSA Key
 Encapsulation Mechanism (RSA-KEM) (see Appendix A of RSA-KEM
 [RFC5990]), then it makes sense to have three layers of the
 COSE_Encrypt structure.
 These layers would be:
 o  Layer 0: The content encryption layer.  This layer contains the
    payload of the message.
 o  Layer 1: The encryption of the CEK by a KEK.
 o  Layer 2: The encryption of a long random secret using an RSA key
    and a key derivation function to convert that secret into the KEK.
 This is an example of what a triple layer message would look like.
 The message has the following layers:
 o  Layer 0: Has a content encrypted with AES-GCM using a 128-bit key.
 o  Layer 1: Uses the AES Key Wrap algorithm with a 128-bit key.
 o  Layer 2: Uses ECDH Ephemeral-Static direct to generate the layer 1
    key.

Schaad Standards Track [Page 100] RFC 8152 CBOR Object Signing and Encryption (COSE) July 2017

 In effect, this example is a decomposed version of using the
 ECDH-ES+A128KW algorithm.
 Size of binary file is 183 bytes
 96(
   [
     / protected / h'a10101' / {
         \ alg \ 1:1 \ AES-GCM 128 \
       } / ,
     / unprotected / {
       / iv / 5:h'02d1f7e6f26c43d4868d87ce'
     },
     / ciphertext / h'64f84d913ba60a76070a9a48f26e97e863e2852948658f0
 811139868826e89218a75715b',
     / recipients / [
       [
         / protected / h'',
         / unprotected / {
           / alg / 1:-3 / A128KW /
         },
         / ciphertext / h'dbd43c4e9d719c27c6275c67d628d493f090593db82
 18f11',
         / recipients / [
           [
             / protected / h'a1013818' / {
                 \ alg \ 1:-25 \ ECDH-ES + HKDF-256 \
               } / ,
             / unprotected / {
               / ephemeral / -1:{
                 / kty / 1:2,
                 / crv / -1:1,
                 / x / -2:h'b2add44368ea6d641f9ca9af308b4079aeb519f11
 e9b8a55a600b21233e86e68',
                 / y / -3:false
               },
               / kid / 4:'meriadoc.brandybuck@buckland.example'
             },
             / ciphertext / h''
           ]
         ]
       ]
     ]
   ]
 )

Schaad Standards Track [Page 101] RFC 8152 CBOR Object Signing and Encryption (COSE) July 2017

Appendix C. Examples

 This appendix includes a set of examples that show the different
 features and message types that have been defined in this document.
 To make the examples easier to read, they are presented using the
 extended CBOR diagnostic notation (defined in [CDDL]) rather than as
 a binary dump.
 A GitHub project has been created at <https://github.com/cose-wg/
 Examples> that contains not only the examples presented in this
 document, but a more complete set of testing examples as well.  Each
 example is found in a JSON file that contains the inputs used to
 create the example, some of the intermediate values that can be used
 in debugging the example and the output of the example presented in
 both a hex and a CBOR diagnostic notation format.  Some of the
 examples at the site are designed failure testing cases; these are
 clearly marked as such in the JSON file.  If errors in the examples
 in this document are found, the examples on GitHub will be updated,
 and a note to that effect will be placed in the JSON file.
 As noted, the examples are presented using the CBOR's diagnostic
 notation.  A Ruby-based tool exists that can convert between the
 diagnostic notation and binary.  This tool can be installed with the
 command line:
 gem install cbor-diag
 The diagnostic notation can be converted into binary files using the
 following command line:
 diag2cbor.rb < inputfile > outputfile
 The examples can be extracted from the XML version of this document
 via an XPath expression as all of the artwork is tagged with the
 attribute type='CBORdiag'.  (Depending on the XPath evaluator one is
 using, it may be necessary to deal with &gt; as an entity.)
 //artwork[@type='CDDL']/text()

Schaad Standards Track [Page 102] RFC 8152 CBOR Object Signing and Encryption (COSE) July 2017

C.1. Examples of Signed Messages

C.1.1. Single Signature

 This example uses the following:
 o  Signature Algorithm: ECDSA w/ SHA-256, Curve P-256
 Size of binary file is 103 bytes
 98(
   [
     / protected / h'',
     / unprotected / {},
     / payload / 'This is the content.',
     / signatures / [
       [
         / protected / h'a10126' / {
             \ alg \ 1:-7 \ ECDSA 256 \
           } / ,
         / unprotected / {
           / kid / 4:'11'
         },
         / signature / h'e2aeafd40d69d19dfe6e52077c5d7ff4e408282cbefb
 5d06cbf414af2e19d982ac45ac98b8544c908b4507de1e90b717c3d34816fe926a2b
 98f53afd2fa0f30a'
       ]
     ]
   ]
 )

C.1.2. Multiple Signers

 This example uses the following:
 o  Signature Algorithm: ECDSA w/ SHA-256, Curve P-256
 o  Signature Algorithm: ECDSA w/ SHA-512, Curve P-521

Schaad Standards Track [Page 103] RFC 8152 CBOR Object Signing and Encryption (COSE) July 2017

 Size of binary file is 277 bytes
 98(
   [
     / protected / h'',
     / unprotected / {},
     / payload / 'This is the content.',
     / signatures / [
       [
         / protected / h'a10126' / {
             \ alg \ 1:-7 \ ECDSA 256 \
           } / ,
         / unprotected / {
           / kid / 4:'11'
         },
         / signature / h'e2aeafd40d69d19dfe6e52077c5d7ff4e408282cbefb
 5d06cbf414af2e19d982ac45ac98b8544c908b4507de1e90b717c3d34816fe926a2b
 98f53afd2fa0f30a'
       ],
       [
         / protected / h'a1013823' / {
             \ alg \ 1:-36
           } / ,
         / unprotected / {
           / kid / 4:'bilbo.baggins@hobbiton.example'
         },
         / signature / h'00a2d28a7c2bdb1587877420f65adf7d0b9a06635dd1
 de64bb62974c863f0b160dd2163734034e6ac003b01e8705524c5c4ca479a952f024
 7ee8cb0b4fb7397ba08d009e0c8bf482270cc5771aa143966e5a469a09f613488030
 c5b07ec6d722e3835adb5b2d8c44e95ffb13877dd2582866883535de3bb03d01753f
 83ab87bb4f7a0297'
       ]
     ]
   ]
 )

C.1.3. Counter Signature

 This example uses the following:
 o  Signature Algorithm: ECDSA w/ SHA-256, Curve P-256
 o  The same parameters are used for both the signature and the
    counter signature.

Schaad Standards Track [Page 104] RFC 8152 CBOR Object Signing and Encryption (COSE) July 2017

 Size of binary file is 180 bytes
 98(
   [
     / protected / h'',
     / unprotected / {
       / countersign / 7:[
         / protected / h'a10126' / {
             \ alg \ 1:-7 \ ECDSA 256 \
           } / ,
         / unprotected / {
           / kid / 4:'11'
         },
         / signature / h'5ac05e289d5d0e1b0a7f048a5d2b643813ded50bc9e4
 9220f4f7278f85f19d4a77d655c9d3b51e805a74b099e1e085aacd97fc29d72f887e
 8802bb6650cceb2c'
       ]
     },
     / payload / 'This is the content.',
     / signatures / [
       [
         / protected / h'a10126' / {
             \ alg \ 1:-7 \ ECDSA 256 \
           } / ,
         / unprotected / {
           / kid / 4:'11'
         },
         / signature / h'e2aeafd40d69d19dfe6e52077c5d7ff4e408282cbefb
 5d06cbf414af2e19d982ac45ac98b8544c908b4507de1e90b717c3d34816fe926a2b
 98f53afd2fa0f30a'
       ]
     ]
   ]
 )

C.1.4. Signature with Criticality

 This example uses the following:
 o  Signature Algorithm: ECDSA w/ SHA-256, Curve P-256
 o  There is a criticality marker on the "reserved" header parameter

Schaad Standards Track [Page 105] RFC 8152 CBOR Object Signing and Encryption (COSE) July 2017

 Size of binary file is 125 bytes
 98(
   [
     / protected / h'a2687265736572766564f40281687265736572766564' /
 {
         "reserved":false,
         \ crit \ 2:[
           "reserved"
         ]
       } / ,
     / unprotected / {},
     / payload / 'This is the content.',
     / signatures / [
       [
         / protected / h'a10126' / {
             \ alg \ 1:-7 \ ECDSA 256 \
           } / ,
         / unprotected / {
           / kid / 4:'11'
         },
         / signature / h'3fc54702aa56e1b2cb20284294c9106a63f91bac658d
 69351210a031d8fc7c5ff3e4be39445b1a3e83e1510d1aca2f2e8a7c081c7645042b
 18aba9d1fad1bd9c'
       ]
     ]
   ]
 )

C.2. Single Signer Examples

C.2.1. Single ECDSA Signature

 This example uses the following:
 o  Signature Algorithm: ECDSA w/ SHA-256, Curve P-256

Schaad Standards Track [Page 106] RFC 8152 CBOR Object Signing and Encryption (COSE) July 2017

 Size of binary file is 98 bytes
 18(
   [
     / protected / h'a10126' / {
         \ alg \ 1:-7 \ ECDSA 256 \
       } / ,
     / unprotected / {
       / kid / 4:'11'
     },
     / payload / 'This is the content.',
     / signature / h'8eb33e4ca31d1c465ab05aac34cc6b23d58fef5c083106c4
 d25a91aef0b0117e2af9a291aa32e14ab834dc56ed2a223444547e01f11d3b0916e5
 a4c345cacb36'
   ]
 )

C.3. Examples of Enveloped Messages

C.3.1. Direct ECDH

 This example uses the following:
 o  CEK: AES-GCM w/ 128-bit key
 o  Recipient class: ECDH Ephemeral-Static, Curve P-256

Schaad Standards Track [Page 107] RFC 8152 CBOR Object Signing and Encryption (COSE) July 2017

 Size of binary file is 151 bytes
 96(
   [
     / protected / h'a10101' / {
         \ alg \ 1:1 \ AES-GCM 128 \
       } / ,
     / unprotected / {
       / iv / 5:h'c9cf4df2fe6c632bf7886413'
     },
     / ciphertext / h'7adbe2709ca818fb415f1e5df66f4e1a51053ba6d65a1a0
 c52a357da7a644b8070a151b0',
     / recipients / [
       [
         / protected / h'a1013818' / {
             \ alg \ 1:-25 \ ECDH-ES + HKDF-256 \
           } / ,
         / unprotected / {
           / ephemeral / -1:{
             / kty / 1:2,
             / crv / -1:1,
             / x / -2:h'98f50a4ff6c05861c8860d13a638ea56c3f5ad7590bbf
 bf054e1c7b4d91d6280',
             / y / -3:true
           },
           / kid / 4:'meriadoc.brandybuck@buckland.example'
         },
         / ciphertext / h''
       ]
     ]
   ]
 )

C.3.2. Direct Plus Key Derivation

 This example uses the following:
 o  CEK: AES-CCM w/ 128-bit key, truncate the tag to 64 bits
 o  Recipient class: Use HKDF on a shared secret with the following
    implicit fields as part of the context.
  • salt: "aabbccddeeffgghh"
  • PartyU identity: "lighting-client"
  • PartyV identity: "lighting-server"

Schaad Standards Track [Page 108] RFC 8152 CBOR Object Signing and Encryption (COSE) July 2017

  • Supplementary Public Other: "Encryption Example 02"
 Size of binary file is 91 bytes
 96(
   [
     / protected / h'a1010a' / {
         \ alg \ 1:10 \ AES-CCM-16-64-128 \
       } / ,
     / unprotected / {
       / iv / 5:h'89f52f65a1c580933b5261a76c'
     },
     / ciphertext / h'753548a19b1307084ca7b2056924ed95f2e3b17006dfe93
 1b687b847',
     / recipients / [
       [
         / protected / h'a10129' / {
             \ alg \ 1:-10
           } / ,
         / unprotected / {
           / salt / -20:'aabbccddeeffgghh',
           / kid / 4:'our-secret'
         },
         / ciphertext / h''
       ]
     ]
   ]
 )

C.3.3. Counter Signature on Encrypted Content

 This example uses the following:
 o  CEK: AES-GCM w/ 128-bit key
 o  Recipient class: ECDH Ephemeral-Static, Curve P-256

Schaad Standards Track [Page 109] RFC 8152 CBOR Object Signing and Encryption (COSE) July 2017

 Size of binary file is 326 bytes
 96(
   [
     / protected / h'a10101' / {
         \ alg \ 1:1 \ AES-GCM 128 \
       } / ,
     / unprotected / {
       / iv / 5:h'c9cf4df2fe6c632bf7886413',
       / countersign / 7:[
         / protected / h'a1013823' / {
             \ alg \ 1:-36
           } / ,
         / unprotected / {
           / kid / 4:'bilbo.baggins@hobbiton.example'
         },
         / signature / h'00929663c8789bb28177ae28467e66377da12302d7f9
 594d2999afa5dfa531294f8896f2b6cdf1740014f4c7f1a358e3a6cf57f4ed6fb02f
 cf8f7aa989f5dfd07f0700a3a7d8f3c604ba70fa9411bd10c2591b483e1d2c31de00
 3183e434d8fba18f17a4c7e3dfa003ac1cf3d30d44d2533c4989d3ac38c38b71481c
 c3430c9d65e7ddff'
       ]
     },
     / ciphertext / h'7adbe2709ca818fb415f1e5df66f4e1a51053ba6d65a1a0
 c52a357da7a644b8070a151b0',
     / recipients / [
       [
         / protected / h'a1013818' / {
             \ alg \ 1:-25 \ ECDH-ES + HKDF-256 \
           } / ,
         / unprotected / {
           / ephemeral / -1:{
             / kty / 1:2,
             / crv / -1:1,
             / x / -2:h'98f50a4ff6c05861c8860d13a638ea56c3f5ad7590bbf
 bf054e1c7b4d91d6280',
             / y / -3:true
           },
           / kid / 4:'meriadoc.brandybuck@buckland.example'
         },
         / ciphertext / h''
       ]
     ]
   ]
 )

Schaad Standards Track [Page 110] RFC 8152 CBOR Object Signing and Encryption (COSE) July 2017

C.3.4. Encrypted Content with External Data

 This example uses the following:
 o  CEK: AES-GCM w/ 128-bit key
 o  Recipient class: ECDH static-Static, Curve P-256 with AES Key Wrap
 o  Externally Supplied AAD: h'0011bbcc22dd44ee55ff660077'
 Size of binary file is 173 bytes
 96(
   [
     / protected / h'a10101' / {
         \ alg \ 1:1 \ AES-GCM 128 \
       } / ,
     / unprotected / {
       / iv / 5:h'02d1f7e6f26c43d4868d87ce'
     },
     / ciphertext / h'64f84d913ba60a76070a9a48f26e97e863e28529d8f5335
 e5f0165eee976b4a5f6c6f09d',
     / recipients / [
       [
         / protected / h'a101381f' / {
             \ alg \ 1:-32 \ ECHD-SS+A128KW \
           } / ,
         / unprotected / {
           / static kid / -3:'peregrin.took@tuckborough.example',
           / kid / 4:'meriadoc.brandybuck@buckland.example',
           / U nonce / -22:h'0101'
         },
         / ciphertext / h'41e0d76f579dbd0d936a662d54d8582037de2e366fd
 e1c62'
       ]
     ]
   ]
 )

C.4. Examples of Encrypted Messages

C.4.1. Simple Encrypted Message

 This example uses the following:
 o  CEK: AES-CCM w/ 128-bit key and a 64-bit tag

Schaad Standards Track [Page 111] RFC 8152 CBOR Object Signing and Encryption (COSE) July 2017

 Size of binary file is 52 bytes
 16(
   [
     / protected / h'a1010a' / {
         \ alg \ 1:10 \ AES-CCM-16-64-128 \
       } / ,
     / unprotected / {
       / iv / 5:h'89f52f65a1c580933b5261a78c'
     },
     / ciphertext / h'5974e1b99a3a4cc09a659aa2e9e7fff161d38ce71cb45ce
 460ffb569'
   ]
 )

C.4.2. Encrypted Message with a Partial IV

 This example uses the following:
 o  CEK: AES-CCM w/ 128-bit key and a 64-bit tag
 o  Prefix for IV is 89F52F65A1C580933B52
 Size of binary file is 41 bytes
 16(
   [
     / protected / h'a1010a' / {
         \ alg \ 1:10 \ AES-CCM-16-64-128 \
       } / ,
     / unprotected / {
       / partial iv / 6:h'61a7'
     },
     / ciphertext / h'252a8911d465c125b6764739700f0141ed09192de139e05
 3bd09abca'
   ]
 )

C.5. Examples of MACed Messages

C.5.1. Shared Secret Direct MAC

 This example uses the following:
 o  MAC: AES-CMAC, 256-bit key, truncated to 64 bits
 o  Recipient class: direct shared secret

Schaad Standards Track [Page 112] RFC 8152 CBOR Object Signing and Encryption (COSE) July 2017

 Size of binary file is 57 bytes
 97(
   [
     / protected / h'a1010f' / {
         \ alg \ 1:15 \ AES-CBC-MAC-256//64 \
       } / ,
     / unprotected / {},
     / payload / 'This is the content.',
     / tag / h'9e1226ba1f81b848',
     / recipients / [
       [
         / protected / h'',
         / unprotected / {
           / alg / 1:-6 / direct /,
           / kid / 4:'our-secret'
         },
         / ciphertext / h''
       ]
     ]
   ]
 )

C.5.2. ECDH Direct MAC

 This example uses the following:
 o  MAC: HMAC w/SHA-256, 256-bit key
 o  Recipient class: ECDH key agreement, two static keys, HKDF w/
    context structure

Schaad Standards Track [Page 113] RFC 8152 CBOR Object Signing and Encryption (COSE) July 2017

 Size of binary file is 214 bytes
 97(
   [
     / protected / h'a10105' / {
         \ alg \ 1:5 \ HMAC 256//256 \
       } / ,
     / unprotected / {},
     / payload / 'This is the content.',
     / tag / h'81a03448acd3d305376eaa11fb3fe416a955be2cbe7ec96f012c99
 4bc3f16a41',
     / recipients / [
       [
         / protected / h'a101381a' / {
             \ alg \ 1:-27 \ ECDH-SS + HKDF-256 \
           } / ,
         / unprotected / {
           / static kid / -3:'peregrin.took@tuckborough.example',
           / kid / 4:'meriadoc.brandybuck@buckland.example',
           / U nonce / -22:h'4d8553e7e74f3c6a3a9dd3ef286a8195cbf8a23d
 19558ccfec7d34b824f42d92bd06bd2c7f0271f0214e141fb779ae2856abf585a583
 68b017e7f2a9e5ce4db5'
         },
         / ciphertext / h''
       ]
     ]
   ]
 )

C.5.3. Wrapped MAC

 This example uses the following:
 o  MAC: AES-MAC, 128-bit key, truncated to 64 bits
 o  Recipient class: AES Key Wrap w/ a pre-shared 256-bit key

Schaad Standards Track [Page 114] RFC 8152 CBOR Object Signing and Encryption (COSE) July 2017

 Size of binary file is 109 bytes
 97(
   [
     / protected / h'a1010e' / {
         \ alg \ 1:14 \ AES-CBC-MAC-128//64 \
       } / ,
     / unprotected / {},
     / payload / 'This is the content.',
     / tag / h'36f5afaf0bab5d43',
     / recipients / [
       [
         / protected / h'',
         / unprotected / {
           / alg / 1:-5 / A256KW /,
           / kid / 4:'018c0ae5-4d9b-471b-bfd6-eef314bc7037'
         },
         / ciphertext / h'711ab0dc2fc4585dce27effa6781c8093eba906f227
 b6eb0'
       ]
     ]
   ]
 )

C.5.4. Multi-Recipient MACed Message

 This example uses the following:
 o  MAC: HMAC w/ SHA-256, 128-bit key
 o  Recipient class: Uses three different methods
    1.  ECDH Ephemeral-Static, Curve P-521, AES Key Wrap w/ 128-bit
        key
    2.  AES Key Wrap w/ 256-bit key

Schaad Standards Track [Page 115] RFC 8152 CBOR Object Signing and Encryption (COSE) July 2017

 Size of binary file is 309 bytes
 97(
   [
     / protected / h'a10105' / {
         \ alg \ 1:5 \ HMAC 256//256 \
       } / ,
     / unprotected / {},
     / payload / 'This is the content.',
     / tag / h'bf48235e809b5c42e995f2b7d5fa13620e7ed834e337f6aa43df16
 1e49e9323e',
     / recipients / [
       [
         / protected / h'a101381c' / {
             \ alg \ 1:-29 \ ECHD-ES+A128KW \
           } / ,
         / unprotected / {
           / ephemeral / -1:{
             / kty / 1:2,
             / crv / -1:3,
             / x / -2:h'0043b12669acac3fd27898ffba0bcd2e6c366d53bc4db
 71f909a759304acfb5e18cdc7ba0b13ff8c7636271a6924b1ac63c02688075b55ef2
 d613574e7dc242f79c3',
             / y / -3:true
           },
           / kid / 4:'bilbo.baggins@hobbiton.example'
         },
         / ciphertext / h'339bc4f79984cdc6b3e6ce5f315a4c7d2b0ac466fce
 a69e8c07dfbca5bb1f661bc5f8e0df9e3eff5'
       ],
       [
         / protected / h'',
         / unprotected / {
           / alg / 1:-5 / A256KW /,
           / kid / 4:'018c0ae5-4d9b-471b-bfd6-eef314bc7037'
         },
         / ciphertext / h'0b2c7cfce04e98276342d6476a7723c090dfdd15f9a
 518e7736549e998370695e6d6a83b4ae507bb'
       ]
     ]
   ]
 )

Schaad Standards Track [Page 116] RFC 8152 CBOR Object Signing and Encryption (COSE) July 2017

C.6. Examples of MAC0 Messages

C.6.1. Shared Secret Direct MAC

 This example uses the following:
 o  MAC: AES-CMAC, 256-bit key, truncated to 64 bits
 o  Recipient class: direct shared secret
 Size of binary file is 37 bytes
 17(
   [
     / protected / h'a1010f' / {
         \ alg \ 1:15 \ AES-CBC-MAC-256//64 \
       } / ,
     / unprotected / {},
     / payload / 'This is the content.',
     / tag / h'726043745027214f'
   ]
 )
 Note that this example uses the same inputs as Appendix C.5.1.

C.7. COSE Keys

C.7.1. Public Keys

 This is an example of a COSE Key Set.  This example includes the
 public keys for all of the previous examples.
 In order the keys are:
 o  An EC key with a kid of "meriadoc.brandybuck@buckland.example"
 o  An EC key with a kid of "peregrin.took@tuckborough.example"
 o  An EC key with a kid of "bilbo.baggins@hobbiton.example"
 o  An EC key with a kid of "11"

Schaad Standards Track [Page 117] RFC 8152 CBOR Object Signing and Encryption (COSE) July 2017

 Size of binary file is 481 bytes
 [
   {
     -1:1,
     -2:h'65eda5a12577c2bae829437fe338701a10aaa375e1bb5b5de108de439c0
 8551d',
     -3:h'1e52ed75701163f7f9e40ddf9f341b3dc9ba860af7e0ca7ca7e9eecd008
 4d19c',
     1:2,
     2:'meriadoc.brandybuck@buckland.example'
   },
   {
     -1:1,
     -2:h'bac5b11cad8f99f9c72b05cf4b9e26d244dc189f745228255a219a86d6a
 09eff',
     -3:h'20138bf82dc1b6d562be0fa54ab7804a3a64b6d72ccfed6b6fb6ed28bbf
 c117e',
     1:2,
     2:'11'
   },
   {
     -1:3,
     -2:h'0072992cb3ac08ecf3e5c63dedec0d51a8c1f79ef2f82f94f3c737bf5de
 7986671eac625fe8257bbd0394644caaa3aaf8f27a4585fbbcad0f2457620085e5c8
 f42ad',
     -3:h'01dca6947bce88bc5790485ac97427342bc35f887d86d65a089377e247e
 60baa55e4e8501e2ada5724ac51d6909008033ebc10ac999b9d7f5cc2519f3fe1ea1
 d9475',
     1:2,
     2:'bilbo.baggins@hobbiton.example'
   },
   {
     -1:1,
     -2:h'98f50a4ff6c05861c8860d13a638ea56c3f5ad7590bbfbf054e1c7b4d91
 d6280',
     -3:h'f01400b089867804b8e9fc96c3932161f1934f4223069170d924b7e03bf
 822bb',
     1:2,
     2:'peregrin.took@tuckborough.example'
   }
 ]

Schaad Standards Track [Page 118] RFC 8152 CBOR Object Signing and Encryption (COSE) July 2017

C.7.2. Private Keys

 This is an example of a COSE Key Set.  This example includes the
 private keys for all of the previous examples.
 In order the keys are:
 o  An EC key with a kid of "meriadoc.brandybuck@buckland.example"
 o  A shared-secret key with a kid of "our-secret"
 o  An EC key with a kid of "peregrin.took@tuckborough.example"
 o  A shared-secret key with a kid of "018c0ae5-4d9b-471b-
    bfd6-eef314bc7037"
 o  An EC key with a kid of "bilbo.baggins@hobbiton.example"
 o  An EC key with a kid of "11"
 Size of binary file is 816 bytes
 [
   {
     1:2,
     2:'meriadoc.brandybuck@buckland.example',
     -1:1,
     -2:h'65eda5a12577c2bae829437fe338701a10aaa375e1bb5b5de108de439c0
 8551d',
     -3:h'1e52ed75701163f7f9e40ddf9f341b3dc9ba860af7e0ca7ca7e9eecd008
 4d19c',
     -4:h'aff907c99f9ad3aae6c4cdf21122bce2bd68b5283e6907154ad911840fa
 208cf'
   },
   {
     1:2,
     2:'11',
     -1:1,
     -2:h'bac5b11cad8f99f9c72b05cf4b9e26d244dc189f745228255a219a86d6a
 09eff',
     -3:h'20138bf82dc1b6d562be0fa54ab7804a3a64b6d72ccfed6b6fb6ed28bbf
 c117e',
     -4:h'57c92077664146e876760c9520d054aa93c3afb04e306705db609030850
 7b4d3'
   },
   {
     1:2,
     2:'bilbo.baggins@hobbiton.example',

Schaad Standards Track [Page 119] RFC 8152 CBOR Object Signing and Encryption (COSE) July 2017

  1. 1:3,
  2. 2:h'0072992cb3ac08ecf3e5c63dedec0d51a8c1f79ef2f82f94f3c737bf5de

7986671eac625fe8257bbd0394644caaa3aaf8f27a4585fbbcad0f2457620085e5c8

 f42ad',
     -3:h'01dca6947bce88bc5790485ac97427342bc35f887d86d65a089377e247e
 60baa55e4e8501e2ada5724ac51d6909008033ebc10ac999b9d7f5cc2519f3fe1ea1
 d9475',
     -4:h'00085138ddabf5ca975f5860f91a08e91d6d5f9a76ad4018766a476680b
 55cd339e8ab6c72b5facdb2a2a50ac25bd086647dd3e2e6e99e84ca2c3609fdf177f
 eb26d'
   },
   {
     1:4,
     2:'our-secret',
     -1:h'849b57219dae48de646d07dbb533566e976686457c1491be3a76dcea6c4
 27188'
   },
   {
     1:2,
     -1:1,
     2:'peregrin.took@tuckborough.example',
     -2:h'98f50a4ff6c05861c8860d13a638ea56c3f5ad7590bbfbf054e1c7b4d91
 d6280',
     -3:h'f01400b089867804b8e9fc96c3932161f1934f4223069170d924b7e03bf
 822bb',
     -4:h'02d1f7e6f26c43d4868d87ceb2353161740aacf1f7163647984b522a848
 df1c3'
   },
   {
     1:4,
     2:'our-secret2',
     -1:h'849b5786457c1491be3a76dcea6c4271'
   },
   {
     1:4,
     2:'018c0ae5-4d9b-471b-bfd6-eef314bc7037',
     -1:h'849b57219dae48de646d07dbb533566e976686457c1491be3a76dcea6c4
 27188'
   }
 ]

Schaad Standards Track [Page 120] RFC 8152 CBOR Object Signing and Encryption (COSE) July 2017

Acknowledgments

 This document is a product of the COSE working group of the IETF.
 The following individuals are to blame for getting me started on this
 project in the first place: Richard Barnes, Matt Miller, and Martin
 Thomson.
 The initial version of the specification was based to some degree on
 the outputs of the JOSE and S/MIME working groups.
 The following individuals provided input into the final form of the
 document: Carsten Bormann, John Bradley, Brain Campbell, Michael B.
 Jones, Ilari Liusvaara, Francesca Palombini, Ludwig Seitz, and Goran
 Selander.

Author's Address

 Jim Schaad
 August Cellars
 Email: ietf@augustcellars.com

Schaad Standards Track [Page 121]

/data/webs/external/dokuwiki/data/pages/rfc/rfc8152.txt · Last modified: 2017/07/05 18:11 (external edit)