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rfc:rfc7563

Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) R. Pazhyannur Request for Comments: 7563 S. Speicher Updates: 6757 S. Gundavelli Category: Standards Track Cisco Systems ISSN: 2070-1721 J. Korhonen

                                                  Broadcom Corporation
                                                     J. Kaippallimalil
                                                                Huawei
                                                             June 2015

Extensions to the Proxy Mobile IPv6 (PMIPv6) Access Network Identifier

                               Option

Abstract

 The Access Network Identifier (ANI) mobility option was introduced in
 RFC 6757, "Access Network Identifier (ANI) Option for Proxy Mobile
 IPv6".  This enables a Mobile Access Gateway (MAG) to convey
 identifiers like the network identifier, geolocation, and operator
 identifier.  This specification extends the Access Network Identifier
 mobility option with sub-options to carry the civic location and the
 MAG group identifier.  This specification also defines an ANI Update-
 Timer sub-option that determines when and how often the ANI option
 will be updated.

Status of This Memo

 This is an Internet Standards Track document.
 This document is a product of the Internet Engineering Task Force
 (IETF).  It represents the consensus of the IETF community.  It has
 received public review and has been approved for publication by the
 Internet Engineering Steering Group (IESG).  Further information on
 Internet Standards is available in Section 2 of RFC 5741.
 Information about the current status of this document, any errata,
 and how to provide feedback on it may be obtained at
 http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7563.

Pazhyannur, et al. Standards Track [Page 1] RFC 7563 Extensions to ANI June 2015

Copyright Notice

 Copyright (c) 2015 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
 document authors.  All rights reserved.
 This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
 Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
 (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
 publication of this document.  Please review these documents
 carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
 to this document.  Code Components extracted from this document must
 include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
 the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
 described in the Simplified BSD License.

Table of Contents

 1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
 2.  Conventions and Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
   2.1.  Conventions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
   2.2.  Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
 3.  Protocol Extension  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
   3.1.  Civic-Location Sub-Option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
   3.2.  MAG-Group-Identifier Sub-Option . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
   3.3.  ANI Update-Timer Sub-Option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
 4.  Protocol Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
   4.1.  MAG Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
   4.2.  LMA Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
 5.  IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
 6.  Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
 7.  References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
   7.1.  Normative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
   7.2.  Informative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
 Acknowledgements  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
 Authors' Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12

Pazhyannur, et al. Standards Track [Page 2] RFC 7563 Extensions to ANI June 2015

1. Introduction

 "Access Network Identifier (ANI) Option for Proxy Mobile IPv6"
 [RFC6757] introduced the ANI mobility option.  This enabled a Mobile
 Access Gateway (MAG) to provide the Network-Identifier, Geo-Location,
 and Operator-Identifier sub-options.  When the access network is
 WLAN, the Network-Identifier sub-option may contain the Service Set
 Identifier (SSID) and the Basic Service Set Identifier (BSSID) of the
 Access Point (AP) and the geolocation of the AP, and the Operator-
 Identifier may contain the realm of the operator managing the WLAN.
 The MAG sends the above information to the Local Mobility Anchor
 (LMA).  The LMA may use this information to determine access-network-
 specific policies (in terms of Quality of Service (QoS), Deep Packet
 Inspection (DPI), etc.).  Further, the LMA may make this information
 available to location-based applications.
 While the above mentioned sub-options provide a rich set of
 information, in this document we describe the need for extending the
 ANI sub-options that are particularly useful in WLAN deployments.  In
 WLAN deployments (especially indoor AP deployments), it is difficult
 to provide geospatial coordinates of APs.  At the same time, for many
 location-based applications the civic location is sufficient.  This
 motivates the need for an ANI Civic-Location sub-option.  In many
 deployments, operators tend to create groups of APs into "AP-Groups".
 These groups have a group identifier.  The group identifier is used
 as a proxy for coarse location (such as the floor of a building or a
 small building).  The group identifier may also be used to provide a
 common policy (e.g., QoS, charging, DPI) for all APs in that group.
 This specification provides a sub-option for the MAG to convey a
 group identifier to the LMA.  The provisioning of the group
 identifier is outside the scope of this specification and is
 typically done via a configuration mechanism such as CLI (Command-
 line Interface) or via Control and Provisioning of Wireless Access
 Points (CAPWAP) [RFC5415] [RFC5416].
 This document also provides a new sub-option that determines how
 often the MAG will update the ANI.  In typical deployments, it is
 expected that the MAG will update the ANI as soon as it changes.
 This is certainly true when the MAG is co-located with the AP.  When
 a client roams from one AP to another AP, the MAG on the roamed (or
 sometimes referred to as the target) AP will provide the new ANI (for
 example, the network identifier and geolocation of the new AP).
 However, if the MAG is co-located with an Access Controller (also
 known as Wireless LAN Controller (WLC)), then a client roaming from
 one AP to another AP does not necessarily perform an ANI update.  The
 WLC handles client mobility between APs and as a result, intra-WLC
 mobility is hidden from the LMA.

Pazhyannur, et al. Standards Track [Page 3] RFC 7563 Extensions to ANI June 2015

 In such deployments, the information conveyed in the ANI sub-options
 (e.g., location) becomes stale and is only refreshed at the time of
 lifetime expiry.  The MAG could deal with this by sending a Proxy
 Binding Update (PBU) whenever a client moves between APs just for the
 purpose of updating the ANI sub-option.  Alternately, this document
 allows the LMA to determine how often it wants to know about the
 changes in the ANI sub-option; for example, in some cases the LMA may
 not care about the ANI sub-option except at the time of initial
 binding, or in some cases it may care about every AP transition.  The
 sub-option allows the LMA to tell the MAG the desired update
 frequency.  As always, mobility events or re-registration events will
 update the ANI sub-options.  The LMA can use the ANI Update-Timer
 option to set the maximum frequency at which it wants to receive ANI
 updates.  This is particularly useful in environments where a MAG
 covers a large number of Wi-Fi APs and there is high client mobility
 between the APs; for example, in a stadium Wi-Fi deployment, if a LMA
 does not want ANI updates any more often than 100 seconds, then it
 can propose 100 seconds as the value for ANI Update-Timer.
 [RFC6757] provides ANI sub-options to carry geolocation information.
 In this document, we provide additional sub-options to carry the
 civic location and group identifier.  This document also defines an
 ANI sub-option to enable a MAG to communicate how often the MAG will
 update the ANI information.

2. Conventions and Terminology

2.1. Conventions

 The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
 "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
 document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [RFC2119].

2.2. Terminology

 All of the mobility-related terms used in this document are to be
 interpreted as defined in [RFC5213] and [RFC5844].  In this document,
 Civic Location is defined as follows.
    Civic Location: There are two common ways to identify the location
    of an object, either through geospatial coordinates or by so-
    called civic addresses.  Geospatial coordinates indicate
    longitude, latitude, and altitude, while civic addresses indicate
    a street address or sometimes the location within a building (such
    as a room number).  Civic location refers to the civic address.

Pazhyannur, et al. Standards Track [Page 4] RFC 7563 Extensions to ANI June 2015

3. Protocol Extension

3.1. Civic-Location Sub-Option

 The Civic-Location is a mobility sub-option carried in the Access
 Network Identifier option defined in [RFC6757].  This sub-option
 carries the civic location information of the mobile node as known to
 the MAG.  The format of this option is defined below.
  0                   1                   2                   3
  0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
 +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
 |ANI Type=4     |  ANI Length   |   Format      | Reserved      |
 +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
 |            civic location                                     ~
 +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
                  Figure 1: Civic-Location Sub-Option
 ANI Type:  4
 ANI Length:  Total length of this sub-option in octets, excluding the
    ANI Type and ANI Length fields.
 Format:  This specifies the encoding format of the civic location.
    The value 0 is defined in this specification as described below.
    The remaining values (1 through 255) are reserved.
          0: This value denotes Binary Encoding.  The location format
          is based on the encoding format defined in Section 3.1 of
          [RFC4776], whereby the first 3 octets are not put into the
          civic location field (i.e., the code for the DHCP option,
          the length of the DHCP option, and the 'what' element are
          not included).  What is included is the two-octet country
          code field, followed by one or more civic address elements.
          The country-code is a two-letter ISO 3166 country code in
          capital ASCII letters, e.g., US.  The structure of the civic
          address elements that follow the country code field is as
          defined in Section 3.3 of [RFC4776].
 Reserved:  This MUST be set to zero when sending and ignored when
    received.
 civic location:  This field will contain the civic location.  The
    format (encoding) type is specified in the format field of this
    sub-option.  Note that the length SHALL NOT exceed 253 bytes.

Pazhyannur, et al. Standards Track [Page 5] RFC 7563 Extensions to ANI June 2015

3.2. MAG-Group-Identifier Sub-Option

 The MAG group identifier is a mobility sub-option carried in the
 Access Network Identifier option defined in [RFC6757].  The MAG group
 identifier identifies the group affiliation of the MAG within that
 Proxy Mobile IPv6 domain.  The group identifier is not assumed to be
 globally unique across different network operators.  However, the
 group identifier should be unique within an operator network.  In
 domains spanning multiple operators, it is recommended that the
 Operator-Identifier sub-option (defined in [RFC6757]) be used in
 addition to the MAG-Group-Identifier sub-option to ensure uniqueness.
 When the MAG is configured with a group identifier, the MAG should
 send its group identifier in the PBU.  Note that the configuration of
 this identifier is outside the scope of this specification; the usage
 of the identifier by the LMA is left to implementation.  The format
 of this sub-option is defined below.
  0                   1                   2                   3
  0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
 +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
 |ANI Type=5     |  ANI Length   |  group identifier             |
 +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
               Figure 2: MAG-Group-Identifier Sub-Option
 ANI Type:  5
 ANI Length:  Total length of this sub-option in octets, excluding the
    ANI Type and ANI Length fields.  The value is always 2.
 group identifier:  This is a 3-octet unsigned integer value assigned
    to a group of MAGs.

3.3. ANI Update-Timer Sub-Option

 The ANI Update-Timer is a mobility sub-option carried in the ANI
 option defined in [RFC6757].  Section 4 describes how the MAG and LMA
 use this sub-option.
  0                   1                   2                   3
  0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
 +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
 |ANI Type=6     |  ANI Length   |       Update-Timer            |
 +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
                 Figure 3: ANI Update-Timer Sub-Option

Pazhyannur, et al. Standards Track [Page 6] RFC 7563 Extensions to ANI June 2015

 ANI Type:  6
 ANI Length:  Total length of this sub-option in octets, excluding the
    ANI Type and ANI Length fields.  The value is always 2.
 Update-Timer:  Update-Timer is a 16-bit unsigned integer.  The unit
    of time is 4 seconds (time unit of 4 seconds ensures consistency
    with the time units for the binding lifetime).  A value of 0
    indicates that the MAG will send an updated ANI mobility option as
    soon as it discovers a change in ANI values.  A non-zero value
    indicates that the MAG may not send ANI values immediately after
    they have changed but rather send ANI updates when the
    Update-Timer expires.

4. Protocol Considerations

 The following considerations apply to the LMA and the MAG.

4.1. MAG Considerations

 o  The conceptual Binding Update List entry data structure maintained
    by the mobile access gateway, described in Section 6.1 of
    [RFC5213], is extended to store the access-network-related
    information elements associated with the current session.
    Specifically, the following parameters are defined:
  • civic location
  • MAG group identifier
  • ANI Update-Timer
 o  If the mobile access gateway is configured to support the Access
    Network Information sub-options defined in this specification, it
    includes this option with the specific sub-options in all PBU
    messages (including PBUs for lifetime extension and for
    deregistration) that it sends to the LMA.  The Access Network
    Information option is constructed as specified in Section 3.
 o  ANI Update-Timer Considerations: The MAG sets the Update-Timer
    based on an exchange of timer values with the LMA.  When the ANI
    Update-Timer sub-option is carried in a PBU, it is considered as a
    proposed value for the Update-Timer.  The LMA may change the value
    of the Update-Timer received in the PBU.  When the LMA-provided
    value for the Update-Timer is different than what is sent by the
    MAG, the MAG should use the LMA-provided value.  If the MAG does
    not receive an ANI Update-Timer sub-option in the Proxy Binding
    Acknowledgement (PBA) (in response to sending the sub-option in

Pazhyannur, et al. Standards Track [Page 7] RFC 7563 Extensions to ANI June 2015

    the PBU), then MAG behavior is in accordance to [RFC6757].  When
    ANI parameters of a mobility session change, the MAG checks
    whether the Update-Timer has expired.  If the Update-Timer has
    expired, the MAG sends a PBU with the ANI option.  The ANI option
    reflects the updated access network parameters for that mobility
    session.  If the Update-Timer has not expired, the MAG does not
    send a PBU.  When the Update-Timer for a mobility session expires,
    the MAG checks whether the ANI parameters have changed.  If the
    parameters have changed from the last reported values, the MAG
    sends a PBU with an ANI option.  If the parameters have not
    changed, the MAG does not send a PBU (and the Update-Timer remains
    expired).  Note that the MAG may send a PBU even before the
    Update-Timer expires.  This could be, for example, to initiate a
    QoS service request to the LMA (see [RFC7222]).  In such cases,
    the MAG must reset the Update-Timer when it sends a PBU.
 o  If the mobile access gateway had any of the Access Network
    Information mobility options included in the PBU sent to an LMA,
    then the PBA received from the LMA should contain the Access
    Network Information mobility option with the specific sub-options.
    If the mobile access gateway receives a PBA with a successful
    Status Value but without an Access Network Information mobility
    option, then the mobile access gateway may log the event and,
    based on its local policy, even proceed to terminate the mobility
    session.  In this case, the mobile access gateway knows the LMA
    does not understand the Access Network Information mobility
    option.

4.2. LMA Considerations

 o  The conceptual Binding Cache entry data structure maintained by
    the LMA, described in Section 5.1 of [RFC5213], is extended to
    store the access-network-related information elements associated
    with the current session.  Specifically, the following parameters
    are defined:
  • civic location
  • MAG group identifier
  • ANI Update-Timer
 o  On receiving a PBU message from a MAG with the ANI option, the LMA
    must process the option and update the corresponding fields in the
    Binding Cache entry.  If the option is not understood by that LMA
    implementation, it will skip the option and process the PBU
    without these options.

Pazhyannur, et al. Standards Track [Page 8] RFC 7563 Extensions to ANI June 2015

 o  If the received PBU message does not include the Access Network
    Information option, then the mobility session associated with that
    PBU is updated to remove any access network information elements.
 o  If the LMA understands/supports the Access Network Identifier
    mobility sub-options defined in this specification, then the LMA
    echoes the Access Network Identifier mobility option with the
    specific sub-option(s) that it accepted back to the mobile access
    gateway in a PBA.  The Civic-Location and MAG-Group-Identifier
    sub-options defined in this specification should not be altered by
    the LMA.  The LMA may change the value of the ANI Update-Timer
    sub-option.  It may choose to either echo the same value or
    increase or decrease the timer value.  For example, if the LMA
    does not want to receive frequent updates (as implied by the timer
    value), it may choose to increase the value.  Similarly, if the
    LMA needs to receive ANI updates as soon as possible, then it may
    set the value to zero (0) in the PBA.

5. IANA Considerations

 IANA has registered the values described below.
 o  This specification defines a new Access Network Identifier sub-
    option called the Civic-Location sub-option.  This mobility sub-
    option is described in Section 3.1 and this sub-option can be
    carried in the Access Network Identifier mobility option.  The
    type value <4> has been allocated from the registry "Access
    Network Information (ANI) Sub-Option Type Values".
 o  This specification defines a new Access Network Identifier sub-
    option called the MAG-Group-Identifier sub-option.  This mobility
    sub-option is described in Section 3.2 and this sub-option can be
    carried in Access Network Identifier mobility option.  The type
    value <5> has been allocated from the registry "Access Network
    Information (ANI) Sub-Option Type Values".
 o  This specification defines a new Access Network Identifier sub-
    option called the ANI Update-Timer sub-option.  This sub-option is
    described in Section 3.3 and this sub-option can be carried in the
    Access Network Identifier mobility option.  The type value <6> has
    been allocated from the registry "Access Network Information (ANI)
    Sub-Option Type Values".

Pazhyannur, et al. Standards Track [Page 9] RFC 7563 Extensions to ANI June 2015

6. Security Considerations

 The Civic-Location sub-option defined in this specification is
 carried in the Access Network Identifier option defined in [RFC6757].
 This sub-option is carried in PBU and PBA messages.  This sub-option
 is carried like any other Access Network Identifier sub-option as
 defined in [RFC6757].  Therefore, it inherits its security guidelines
 from [RFC5213] and [RFC6757] and does not require any additional
 security considerations.
 The Civic-Location sub-option exposes the civic location of the
 network to which the mobile node is attached.  This information is
 considered to be very sensitive, so care must be taken to secure the
 Proxy Mobile IPv6 signaling messages when carrying this sub-option.
 The base Proxy Mobile IPv6 specification [RFC5213] specifies the use
 of IPsec for securing the signaling messages, and those mechanisms
 can be enabled for protecting this information.  Operators can
 potentially apply IPsec Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP) with
 confidentiality and integrity protection for protecting the location
 information.  The other way to protect the sensitive location
 information of network users is of course to not send it in the first
 place.  Users of the Civic-Location sub-option should provision
 location values with the highest possible level of granularity, e.g.,
 to the province or city level rather than provisioning specific
 addresses.
 Access-network-specific information elements that the mobile access
 gateway sends may have been dynamically learned over DHCP or using
 other protocols.  If proper security mechanisms are not in place, the
 exchanged information between the MAG and LMA may be compromised.
 This situation may result in incorrect service policy enforcement at
 the LMA and impact other services that depend on this access network
 information.  This threat can be mitigated by ensuring the
 communication path between the mobile access gateway and the access
 points is properly secured by the use of IPsec, Transport Layer
 Security (TLS), or other security protocols.

Pazhyannur, et al. Standards Track [Page 10] RFC 7563 Extensions to ANI June 2015

7. References

7.1. Normative References

 [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
            Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119,
            DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997,
            <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>.
 [RFC4776]  Schulzrinne, H., "Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol
            (DHCPv4 and DHCPv6) Option for Civic Addresses
            Configuration Information", RFC 4776,
            DOI 10.17487/RFC4776, November 2006,
            <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4776>.
 [RFC5213]  Gundavelli, S., Ed., Leung, K., Devarapalli, V.,
            Chowdhury, K., and B. Patil, "Proxy Mobile IPv6",
            RFC 5213, DOI 10.17487/RFC5213, August 2008,
            <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5213>.
 [RFC5844]  Wakikawa, R. and S. Gundavelli, "IPv4 Support for Proxy
            Mobile IPv6", RFC 5844, DOI 10.17487/RFC5844, May 2010,
            <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5844>.
 [RFC6757]  Gundavelli, S., Ed., Korhonen, J., Ed., Grayson, M.,
            Leung, K., and R. Pazhyannur, "Access Network Identifier
            (ANI) Option for Proxy Mobile IPv6", RFC 6757,
            DOI 10.17487/RFC6757, October 2012,
            <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6757>.
 [RFC7222]  Liebsch, M., Seite, P., Yokota, H., Korhonen, J., and S.
            Gundavelli, "Quality-of-Service Option for Proxy Mobile
            IPv6", RFC 7222, DOI 10.17487/RFC7222, May 2014,
            <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7222>.

7.2. Informative References

 [RFC5415]  Calhoun, P., Ed., Montemurro, M., Ed., and D. Stanley,
            Ed., "Control And Provisioning of Wireless Access Points
            (CAPWAP) Protocol Specification", RFC 5415,
            DOI 10.17487/RFC5415, March 2009,
            <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5415>.
 [RFC5416]  Calhoun, P., Ed., Montemurro, M., Ed., and D. Stanley,
            Ed., "Control and Provisioning of Wireless Access Points
            (CAPWAP) Protocol Binding for IEEE 802.11", RFC 5416,
            DOI 10.17487/RFC5416, March 2009,
            <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5416>.

Pazhyannur, et al. Standards Track [Page 11] RFC 7563 Extensions to ANI June 2015

Acknowledgements

 This document benefited considerably from the numerous improvements
 proposed by Kent Leung.

Authors' Addresses

 Rajesh S. Pazhyannur
 Cisco Systems
 170 West Tasman Drive
 San Jose, California  95134
 United States
 EMail: rpazhyan@cisco.com
 Sebastian Speicher
 Cisco Systems
 Richtistrasse 7
 Wallisellen, Zurich  8304
 Switzerland
 EMail: sespeich@cisco.com
 Sri Gundavelli
 Cisco Systems
 170 West Tasman Drive
 San Jose, California  95134
 United States
 EMail: sgundave@cisco.com
 Jouni Korhonen
 Broadcom Corporation
 3151 Zanker Road
 San Jose, California  95134
 United States
 EMail: jouni.nospam@gmail.com
 John Kaippallimalil
 Huawei
 5340 Legacy Drive, Suite 175
 Plano, Texas  75024
 United States
 EMail: john.kaippallimalil@huawei.com

Pazhyannur, et al. Standards Track [Page 12]

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