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rfc:rfc7520

Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) M. Miller Request for Comments: 7520 Cisco Systems, Inc. Category: Informational May 2015 ISSN: 2070-1721

                Examples of Protecting Content Using
             JSON Object Signing and Encryption (JOSE)

Abstract

 This document contains a set of examples using JSON Object Signing
 and Encryption (JOSE) technology to protect data.  These examples
 present a representative sampling of JSON Web Key (JWK) objects as
 well as various JSON Web Signature (JWS) and JSON Web Encryption
 (JWE) results given similar inputs.

Status of This Memo

 This document is not an Internet Standards Track specification; it is
 published for informational purposes.
 This document is a product of the Internet Engineering Task Force
 (IETF).  It represents the consensus of the IETF community.  It has
 received public review and has been approved for publication by the
 Internet Engineering Steering Group (IESG).  Not all documents
 approved by the IESG are a candidate for any level of Internet
 Standard; see Section 2 of RFC 5741.
 Information about the current status of this document, any errata,
 and how to provide feedback on it may be obtained at
 http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7520.

Copyright Notice

 Copyright (c) 2015 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
 document authors.  All rights reserved.
 This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
 Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
 (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
 publication of this document.  Please review these documents
 carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
 to this document.  Code Components extracted from this document must
 include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
 the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
 described in the Simplified BSD License.

Miller Informational [Page 1] RFC 7520 JOSE Cookbook May 2015

Table of Contents

 1. Introduction ....................................................5
    1.1. Conventions Used in This Document ..........................5
 2. Terminology .....................................................6
 3. JSON Web Key Examples ...........................................6
    3.1. EC Public Key ..............................................6
    3.2. EC Private Key .............................................7
    3.3. RSA Public Key .............................................8
    3.4. RSA Private Key ............................................8
    3.5. Symmetric Key (MAC Computation) ...........................10
    3.6. Symmetric Key (Encryption) ................................11
 4. JSON Web Signature Examples ....................................11
    4.1. RSA v1.5 Signature ........................................12
         4.1.1. Input Factors ......................................12
         4.1.2. Signing Operation ..................................12
         4.1.3. Output Results .....................................13
    4.2. RSA-PSS Signature .........................................15
         4.2.1. Input Factors ......................................15
         4.2.2. Signing Operation ..................................16
         4.2.3. Output Results .....................................17
    4.3. ECDSA Signature ...........................................19
         4.3.1. Input Factors ......................................19
         4.3.2. Signing Operation ..................................19
         4.3.3. Output Results .....................................20
    4.4. HMAC-SHA2 Integrity Protection ............................21
         4.4.1. Input Factors ......................................22
         4.4.2. Signing Operation ..................................22
         4.4.3. Output Results .....................................23
    4.5. Signature with Detached Content ...........................24
         4.5.1. Input Factors ......................................25
         4.5.2. Signing Operation ..................................25
         4.5.3. Output Results .....................................26
    4.6. Protecting Specific Header Fields .........................27
         4.6.1. Input Factors ......................................27
         4.6.2. Signing Operation ..................................27
         4.6.3. Output Results .....................................28
    4.7. Protecting Content Only ...................................29
         4.7.1. Input Factors ......................................30
         4.7.2. Signing Operation ..................................30
         4.7.3. Output Results .....................................31
    4.8. Multiple Signatures .......................................32
         4.8.1. Input Factors ......................................32
         4.8.2. First Signing Operation ............................33
         4.8.3. Second Signing Operation ...........................34
         4.8.4. Third Signing Operation ............................36
         4.8.5. Output Results .....................................37
 5. JSON Web Encryption Examples ...................................39

Miller Informational [Page 2] RFC 7520 JOSE Cookbook May 2015

    5.1. Key Encryption Using RSA v1.5 and AES-HMAC-SHA2 ...........39
         5.1.1. Input Factors ......................................39
         5.1.2. Generated Factors ..................................41
         5.1.3. Encrypting the Key .................................41
         5.1.4. Encrypting the Content .............................42
         5.1.5. Output Results .....................................43
    5.2. Key Encryption Using RSA-OAEP with AES-GCM ................45
         5.2.1. Input Factors ......................................46
         5.2.2. Generated Factors ..................................47
         5.2.3. Encrypting the Key .................................48
         5.2.4. Encrypting the Content .............................48
         5.2.5. Output Results .....................................49
    5.3. Key Wrap Using PBES2-AES-KeyWrap with AES-CBC-HMAC-SHA2 ...52
         5.3.1. Input Factors ......................................53
         5.3.2. Generated Factors ..................................54
         5.3.3. Encrypting the Key .................................54
         5.3.4. Encrypting the Content .............................55
         5.3.5. Output Results .....................................56
    5.4. Key Agreement with Key Wrapping Using ECDH-ES and
         AES-KeyWrap with AES-GCM ..................................59
         5.4.1. Input Factors ......................................59
         5.4.2. Generated Factors ..................................60
         5.4.3. Encrypting the Key .................................60
         5.4.4. Encrypting the Content .............................61
         5.4.5. Output Results .....................................63
    5.5. Key Agreement Using ECDH-ES with AES-CBC-HMAC-SHA2 ........65
         5.5.1. Input Factors ......................................66
         5.5.2. Generated Factors ..................................66
         5.5.3. Key Agreement ......................................67
         5.5.4. Encrypting the Content .............................67
         5.5.5. Output Results .....................................68
    5.6. Direct Encryption Using AES-GCM ...........................70
         5.6.1. Input Factors ......................................70
         5.6.2. Generated Factors ..................................70
         5.6.3. Encrypting the Content .............................71
         5.6.4. Output Results .....................................72
    5.7. Key Wrap Using AES-GCM KeyWrap with AES-CBC-HMAC-SHA2 .....73
         5.7.1. Input Factors ......................................73
         5.7.2. Generated Factors ..................................74
         5.7.3. Encrypting the Key .................................74
         5.7.4. Encrypting the Content .............................75
         5.7.5. Output Results .....................................77
    5.8. Key Wrap Using AES-KeyWrap with AES-GCM ...................79
         5.8.1. Input Factors ......................................79
         5.8.2. Generated Factors ..................................80
         5.8.3. Encrypting the Key .................................80
         5.8.4. Encrypting the Content .............................80
         5.8.5. Output Results .....................................82

Miller Informational [Page 3] RFC 7520 JOSE Cookbook May 2015

    5.9. Compressed Content ........................................84
         5.9.1. Input Factors ......................................84
         5.9.2. Generated Factors ..................................84
         5.9.3. Encrypting the Key .................................85
         5.9.4. Encrypting the Content .............................85
         5.9.5. Output Results .....................................86
    5.10. Including Additional Authenticated Data ..................88
         5.10.1. Input Factors .....................................88
         5.10.2. Generated Factors .................................89
         5.10.3. Encrypting the Key ................................90
         5.10.4. Encrypting the Content ............................90
         5.10.5. Output Results ....................................91
    5.11. Protecting Specific Header Fields ........................93
         5.11.1. Input Factors .....................................93
         5.11.2. Generated Factors .................................94
         5.11.3. Encrypting the Key ................................94
         5.11.4. Encrypting the Content ............................94
         5.11.5. Output Results ....................................95
    5.12. Protecting Content Only ..................................97
         5.12.1. Input Factors .....................................97
         5.12.2. Generated Factors .................................98
         5.12.3. Encrypting the Key ................................98
         5.12.4. Encrypting the Content ............................98
         5.12.5. Output Results ....................................99
    5.13. Encrypting to Multiple Recipients .......................101
         5.13.1. Input Factors ....................................101
         5.13.2. Generated Factors ................................101
         5.13.3. Encrypting the Key to the First Recipient ........102
         5.13.4. Encrypting the Key to the Second Recipient .......103
         5.13.5. Encrypting the Key to the Third Recipient ........105
         5.13.6. Encrypting the Content ...........................106
         5.13.7. Output Results ...................................108
 6. Nesting Signatures and Encryption .............................110
    6.1. Signing Input Factors ....................................110
    6.2. Signing Operation ........................................112
    6.3. Signing Output ...........................................112
    6.4. Encryption Input Factors .................................113
    6.5. Encryption Generated Factors .............................113
    6.6. Encrypting the Key .......................................114
    6.7. Encrypting the Content ...................................114
    6.8. Encryption Output ........................................115
 7. Security Considerations .......................................119
 8. References ....................................................119
    8.1. Normative References .....................................119
    8.2. Informative References ...................................120
 Acknowledgements .................................................120
 Author's Address .................................................120

Miller Informational [Page 4] RFC 7520 JOSE Cookbook May 2015

1. Introduction

 The JSON Object Signing and Encryption (JOSE) technologies -- JSON
 Web Signature [JWS], JSON Web Encryption [JWE], JSON Web Key [JWK],
 and JSON Web Algorithms [JWA] -- can be used collectively to encrypt
 and/or sign content using a variety of algorithms.  While the full
 set of permutations is extremely large, and might be daunting to
 some, it is expected that most applications will only use a small set
 of algorithms to meet their needs.
 This document provides a number of examples of signing or encrypting
 content using JOSE.  While not exhaustive, it does compile a
 representative sampling of JOSE features.  As much as possible, the
 same signature payload or encryption plaintext content is used to
 illustrate differences in various signing and encryption results.
 This document also provides a number of example JWK objects.  These
 examples illustrate the distinguishing properties of various key
 types and emphasize important characteristics.  Most of the JWK
 examples are then used in the signature or encryption examples that
 follow.
 All of the examples contained herein are available in a machine-
 readable format at <https://github.com/ietf-jose/cookbook>.

1.1. Conventions Used in This Document

 This document separates data that are expected to be input to an
 implementation of JOSE from data that are expected to be generated by
 an implementation of JOSE.  Each example, wherever possible, provides
 enough information both to replicate the results of this document and
 to validate the results by running its inverse operation (e.g.,
 signature results can be validated by performing the JWS verify).
 However, some algorithms inherently use random data; therefore,
 computations employing them cannot be exactly replicated.  Such cases
 are explicitly stated in the relevant sections.
 All instances of binary octet strings are represented using base64url
 [RFC4648] encoding.
 Wherever possible and unless otherwise noted, the examples include
 the JWS or JWE Compact Serialization, general JWS or JWE JSON
 Serialization, and flattened JWS or JWE JSON Serialization.
 All of the examples in this document have whitespace added to improve
 formatting and readability.  Except for JWE Plaintext or JWS Payload
 content, whitespace is not part of the cryptographic operations nor
 the exchange results.

Miller Informational [Page 5] RFC 7520 JOSE Cookbook May 2015

 Unless otherwise noted, the JWE Plaintext or JWS Payload content does
 include " " (U+0020 SPACE) characters.  Line breaks (U+000A LINE
 FEED) replace some " " (U+0020 SPACE) characters to improve
 readability but are not present in the JWE Plaintext or JWS Payload.

2. Terminology

 This document inherits terminology regarding JSON Web Signature (JWS)
 technology from [JWS], terminology regarding JSON Web Encryption
 (JWE) technology from [JWE], terminology regarding JSON Web Key (JWK)
 technology from [JWK], and terminology regarding algorithms from
 [JWA].

3. JSON Web Key Examples

 The following sections demonstrate how to represent various JWK and
 JWK Set objects.

3.1. EC Public Key

 This example illustrates an Elliptic Curve (EC) public key.  This
 example is the public key corresponding to the private key in
 Figure 2.
 Note that whitespace is added for readability as described in
 Section 1.1.
 {
   "kty": "EC",
   "kid": "bilbo.baggins@hobbiton.example",
   "use": "sig",
   "crv": "P-521",
   "x": "AHKZLLOsCOzz5cY97ewNUajB957y-C-U88c3v13nmGZx6sYl_oJXu9
       A5RkTKqjqvjyekWF-7ytDyRXYgCF5cj0Kt",
   "y": "AdymlHvOiLxXkEhayXQnNCvDX4h9htZaCJN34kfmC6pV5OhQHiraVy
       SsUdaQkAgDPrwQrJmbnX9cwlGfP-HqHZR1"
 }
               Figure 1: Elliptic Curve P-521 Public Key
 The field "kty" value of "EC" identifies this as an Elliptic Curve
 key.  The field "crv" identifies the curve, which is curve P-521 for
 this example.  The values of the fields "x" and "y" are the
 base64url-encoded X and Y coordinates (respectively).

Miller Informational [Page 6] RFC 7520 JOSE Cookbook May 2015

 The values of the fields "x" and "y" decoded are the octets necessary
 to represent each full coordinate to the order of the curve.  For a
 key over curve P-521, the values of the fields "x" and "y" are
 exactly 66 octets in length when decoded, padded with leading zero
 (0x00) octets to reach the expected length.

3.2. EC Private Key

 This example illustrates an Elliptic Curve private key.  This example
 is the private key corresponding to the public key in Figure 1.
 Note that whitespace is added for readability as described in
 Section 1.1.
 {
   "kty": "EC",
   "kid": "bilbo.baggins@hobbiton.example",
   "use": "sig",
   "crv": "P-521",
   "x": "AHKZLLOsCOzz5cY97ewNUajB957y-C-U88c3v13nmGZx6sYl_oJXu9
       A5RkTKqjqvjyekWF-7ytDyRXYgCF5cj0Kt",
   "y": "AdymlHvOiLxXkEhayXQnNCvDX4h9htZaCJN34kfmC6pV5OhQHiraVy
       SsUdaQkAgDPrwQrJmbnX9cwlGfP-HqHZR1",
   "d": "AAhRON2r9cqXX1hg-RoI6R1tX5p2rUAYdmpHZoC1XNM56KtscrX6zb
       KipQrCW9CGZH3T4ubpnoTKLDYJ_fF3_rJt"
 }
              Figure 2: Elliptic Curve P-521 Private Key
 The field "kty" value of "EC" identifies this as an Elliptic Curve
 key.  The field "crv" identifies the curve, which is curve P-521
 (also known as SECG curve secp521r1) for this example.  The values of
 the fields "x" and "y" are the base64url-encoded X and Y coordinates
 (respectively).  The field "d" value is the base64url-encoded private
 key.
 The values of the fields "d", "x", and "y" decoded are the octets
 necessary to represent the private key or each full coordinate
 (respectively) to the order of the curve.  For a key over curve
 P-521, the values of the "d", "x", and "y" fields are each exactly 66
 octets in length when decoded, padded with leading zero (0x00) octets
 to reach the expected length.

Miller Informational [Page 7] RFC 7520 JOSE Cookbook May 2015

3.3. RSA Public Key

 This example illustrates an RSA public key.  This example is the
 public key corresponding to the private key in Figure 4.
 Note that whitespace is added for readability as described in
 Section 1.1.
 {
   "kty": "RSA",
   "kid": "bilbo.baggins@hobbiton.example",
   "use": "sig",
   "n": "n4EPtAOCc9AlkeQHPzHStgAbgs7bTZLwUBZdR8_KuKPEHLd4rHVTeT
       -O-XV2jRojdNhxJWTDvNd7nqQ0VEiZQHz_AJmSCpMaJMRBSFKrKb2wqV
       wGU_NsYOYL-QtiWN2lbzcEe6XC0dApr5ydQLrHqkHHig3RBordaZ6Aj-
       oBHqFEHYpPe7Tpe-OfVfHd1E6cS6M1FZcD1NNLYD5lFHpPI9bTwJlsde
       3uhGqC0ZCuEHg8lhzwOHrtIQbS0FVbb9k3-tVTU4fg_3L_vniUFAKwuC
       LqKnS2BYwdq_mzSnbLY7h_qixoR7jig3__kRhuaxwUkRz5iaiQkqgc5g
       HdrNP5zw",
   "e": "AQAB"
 }
                   Figure 3: RSA 2048-Bit Public Key
 The field "kty" value of "RSA" identifies this as an RSA key.  The
 fields "n" and "e" values are the modulus and (public) exponent
 (respectively) using the minimum octets necessary.
 For a 2048-bit key, the field "n" value is 256 octets in length when
 decoded.

3.4. RSA Private Key

 This example illustrates an RSA private key.  This example is the
 private key corresponding to the public key in Figure 3.
 Note that whitespace is added for readability as described in
 Section 1.1.

Miller Informational [Page 8] RFC 7520 JOSE Cookbook May 2015

 {
   "kty": "RSA",
   "kid": "bilbo.baggins@hobbiton.example",
   "use": "sig",
   "n": "n4EPtAOCc9AlkeQHPzHStgAbgs7bTZLwUBZdR8_KuKPEHLd4rHVTeT
       -O-XV2jRojdNhxJWTDvNd7nqQ0VEiZQHz_AJmSCpMaJMRBSFKrKb2wqV
       wGU_NsYOYL-QtiWN2lbzcEe6XC0dApr5ydQLrHqkHHig3RBordaZ6Aj-
       oBHqFEHYpPe7Tpe-OfVfHd1E6cS6M1FZcD1NNLYD5lFHpPI9bTwJlsde
       3uhGqC0ZCuEHg8lhzwOHrtIQbS0FVbb9k3-tVTU4fg_3L_vniUFAKwuC
       LqKnS2BYwdq_mzSnbLY7h_qixoR7jig3__kRhuaxwUkRz5iaiQkqgc5g
       HdrNP5zw",
   "e": "AQAB",
   "d": "bWUC9B-EFRIo8kpGfh0ZuyGPvMNKvYWNtB_ikiH9k20eT-O1q_I78e
       iZkpXxXQ0UTEs2LsNRS-8uJbvQ-A1irkwMSMkK1J3XTGgdrhCku9gRld
       Y7sNA_AKZGh-Q661_42rINLRCe8W-nZ34ui_qOfkLnK9QWDDqpaIsA-b
       MwWWSDFu2MUBYwkHTMEzLYGqOe04noqeq1hExBTHBOBdkMXiuFhUq1BU
       6l-DqEiWxqg82sXt2h-LMnT3046AOYJoRioz75tSUQfGCshWTBnP5uDj
       d18kKhyv07lhfSJdrPdM5Plyl21hsFf4L_mHCuoFau7gdsPfHPxxjVOc
       OpBrQzwQ",
   "p": "3Slxg_DwTXJcb6095RoXygQCAZ5RnAvZlno1yhHtnUex_fp7AZ_9nR
       aO7HX_-SFfGQeutao2TDjDAWU4Vupk8rw9JR0AzZ0N2fvuIAmr_WCsmG
       peNqQnev1T7IyEsnh8UMt-n5CafhkikzhEsrmndH6LxOrvRJlsPp6Zv8
       bUq0k",
   "q": "uKE2dh-cTf6ERF4k4e_jy78GfPYUIaUyoSSJuBzp3Cubk3OCqs6grT
       8bR_cu0Dm1MZwWmtdqDyI95HrUeq3MP15vMMON8lHTeZu2lmKvwqW7an
       V5UzhM1iZ7z4yMkuUwFWoBvyY898EXvRD-hdqRxHlSqAZ192zB3pVFJ0
       s7pFc",
   "dp": "B8PVvXkvJrj2L-GYQ7v3y9r6Kw5g9SahXBwsWUzp19TVlgI-YV85q
       1NIb1rxQtD-IsXXR3-TanevuRPRt5OBOdiMGQp8pbt26gljYfKU_E9xn
       -RULHz0-ed9E9gXLKD4VGngpz-PfQ_q29pk5xWHoJp009Qf1HvChixRX
       59ehik",
   "dq": "CLDmDGduhylc9o7r84rEUVn7pzQ6PF83Y-iBZx5NT-TpnOZKF1pEr
       AMVeKzFEl41DlHHqqBLSM0W1sOFbwTxYWZDm6sI6og5iTbwQGIC3gnJK
       bi_7k_vJgGHwHxgPaX2PnvP-zyEkDERuf-ry4c_Z11Cq9AqC2yeL6kdK
       T1cYF8",
   "qi": "3PiqvXQN0zwMeE-sBvZgi289XP9XCQF3VWqPzMKnIgQp7_Tugo6-N
       ZBKCQsMf3HaEGBjTVJs_jcK8-TRXvaKe-7ZMaQj8VfBdYkssbu0NKDDh
       jJ-GtiseaDVWt7dcH0cfwxgFUHpQh7FoCrjFJ6h6ZEpMF6xmujs4qMpP
       z8aaI4"
 }
                  Figure 4: RSA 2048-Bit Private Key

Miller Informational [Page 9] RFC 7520 JOSE Cookbook May 2015

 The field "kty" value of "RSA" identifies this as an RSA key.  The
 fields "n" and "e" values are the base64url-encoded modulus and
 (public) exponent (respectively) using the minimum number of octets
 necessary.  The field "d" value is the base64url-encoded private
 exponent using the minimum number of octets necessary.  The fields
 "p", "q", "dp", "dq", and "qi" are the base64url-encoded additional
 private information using the minimum number of octets necessary.
 For a 2048-bit key, the field "n" is 256 octets in length when
 decoded, and the field "d" is not longer than 256 octets in length
 when decoded.

3.5. Symmetric Key (MAC Computation)

 This example illustrates a symmetric key used for computing Message
 Authentication Codes (MACs).
 Note that whitespace is added for readability as described in
 Section 1.1.
 {
   "kty": "oct",
   "kid": "018c0ae5-4d9b-471b-bfd6-eef314bc7037",
   "use": "sig",
   "alg": "HS256",
   "k": "hJtXIZ2uSN5kbQfbtTNWbpdmhkV8FJG-Onbc6mxCcYg"
 }
                 Figure 5: HMAC SHA-256 Symmetric Key
 The field "kty" value of "oct" identifies this as a symmetric key.
 The field "k" value is the symmetric key.
 When used for the signing algorithm "HS256" (HMAC-SHA256), the field
 "k" value is 32 octets (or more) in length when decoded, padded with
 leading zero (0x00) octets to reach the minimum expected length.

Miller Informational [Page 10] RFC 7520 JOSE Cookbook May 2015

3.6. Symmetric Key (Encryption)

 This example illustrates a symmetric key used for encryption.
 Note that whitespace is added for readability as described in
 Section 1.1.
 {
   "kty": "oct",
   "kid": "1e571774-2e08-40da-8308-e8d68773842d",
   "use": "enc",
   "alg": "A256GCM",
   "k": "AAPapAv4LbFbiVawEjagUBluYqN5rhna-8nuldDvOx8"
 }
            Figure 6: AES 256-Bit Symmetric Encryption Key
 The field "kty" value of "oct" identifies this as a symmetric key.
 The field "k" value is the symmetric key.
 For the content encryption algorithm "A256GCM", the field "k" value
 is exactly 32 octets in length when decoded, padded with leading zero
 (0x00) octets to reach the expected length.

4. JSON Web Signature Examples

 The following sections demonstrate how to generate various JWS
 objects.
 All of the signature examples use the following payload content (an
 abridged quote from "The Fellowship of the Ring" [LOTR-FELLOWSHIP]),
 serialized as UTF-8.  The payload is presented here as a series of
 quoted strings that are concatenated to produce the JWS Payload.  The
 sequence "\xe2\x80\x99" is substituted for (U+2019 RIGHT SINGLE
 QUOTATION MARK), and quotation marks (U+0022 QUOTATION MARK) are
 added for readability but are not present in the JWS Payload.
 "It\xe2\x80\x99s a dangerous business, Frodo, going out your "
 "door. You step onto the road, and if you don't keep your feet, "
 "there\xe2\x80\x99s no knowing where you might be swept off "
 "to."
                  Figure 7: Payload Content Plaintext

Miller Informational [Page 11] RFC 7520 JOSE Cookbook May 2015

 The payload -- with the sequence "\xe2\x80\x99" replaced with (U+2019
 RIGHT SINGLE QUOTATION MARK) and quotations marks (U+0022 QUOTATION
 MARK) are removed -- is encoded as UTF-8 and then as base64url
 [RFC4648]:
 SXTigJlzIGEgZGFuZ2Vyb3VzIGJ1c2luZXNzLCBGcm9kbywgZ29pbmcgb3V0IH
 lvdXIgZG9vci4gWW91IHN0ZXAgb250byB0aGUgcm9hZCwgYW5kIGlmIHlvdSBk
 b24ndCBrZWVwIHlvdXIgZmVldCwgdGhlcmXigJlzIG5vIGtub3dpbmcgd2hlcm
 UgeW91IG1pZ2h0IGJlIHN3ZXB0IG9mZiB0by4
             Figure 8: Payload Content, base64url-encoded

4.1. RSA v1.5 Signature

 This example illustrates signing content using the "RS256" (RSASSA-
 PKCS1-v1_5 with SHA-256) algorithm.
 Note that whitespace is added for readability as described in
 Section 1.1.

4.1.1. Input Factors

 The following are supplied before beginning the signing operation:
 o  Payload content; this example uses the content from Figure 7,
    encoded using base64url [RFC4648] to produce Figure 8.
 o  RSA private key; this example uses the key from Figure 4.
 o  "alg" parameter of "RS256".

4.1.2. Signing Operation

 The following is generated to complete the signing operation:
 o  JWS Protected Header; this example uses the header from Figure 9,
    encoded using base64url [RFC4648] to produce Figure 10.
 {
   "alg": "RS256",
   "kid": "bilbo.baggins@hobbiton.example"
 }
                  Figure 9: JWS Protected Header JSON

Miller Informational [Page 12] RFC 7520 JOSE Cookbook May 2015

 eyJhbGciOiJSUzI1NiIsImtpZCI6ImJpbGJvLmJhZ2dpbnNAaG9iYml0b24uZX
 hhbXBsZSJ9
          Figure 10: JWS Protected Header, base64url-encoded
 The JWS Protected Header (Figure 10) and JWS Payload (Figure 8) are
 combined as described in Section 5.1 of [JWS] to produce the JWS
 Signing Input (Figure 11).
 eyJhbGciOiJSUzI1NiIsImtpZCI6ImJpbGJvLmJhZ2dpbnNAaG9iYml0b24uZX
 hhbXBsZSJ9
 .
 SXTigJlzIGEgZGFuZ2Vyb3VzIGJ1c2luZXNzLCBGcm9kbywgZ29pbmcgb3V0IH
 lvdXIgZG9vci4gWW91IHN0ZXAgb250byB0aGUgcm9hZCwgYW5kIGlmIHlvdSBk
 b24ndCBrZWVwIHlvdXIgZmVldCwgdGhlcmXigJlzIG5vIGtub3dpbmcgd2hlcm
 UgeW91IG1pZ2h0IGJlIHN3ZXB0IG9mZiB0by4
                     Figure 11: JWS Signing Input
 Performing the signature operation over the JWS Signing Input
 (Figure 11) produces the JWS Signature (Figure 12).
 MRjdkly7_-oTPTS3AXP41iQIGKa80A0ZmTuV5MEaHoxnW2e5CZ5NlKtainoFmK
 ZopdHM1O2U4mwzJdQx996ivp83xuglII7PNDi84wnB-BDkoBwA78185hX-Es4J
 IwmDLJK3lfWRa-XtL0RnltuYv746iYTh_qHRD68BNt1uSNCrUCTJDt5aAE6x8w
 W1Kt9eRo4QPocSadnHXFxnt8Is9UzpERV0ePPQdLuW3IS_de3xyIrDaLGdjluP
 xUAhb6L2aXic1U12podGU0KLUQSE_oI-ZnmKJ3F4uOZDnd6QZWJushZ41Axf_f
 cIe8u9ipH84ogoree7vjbU5y18kDquDg
              Figure 12: JWS Signature, base64url-encoded

4.1.3. Output Results

 The following compose the resulting JWS object:
 o  JWS Protected Header (Figure 9)
 o  Payload content (Figure 8)
 o  Signature (Figure 12)

Miller Informational [Page 13] RFC 7520 JOSE Cookbook May 2015

 The resulting JWS object using the JWS Compact Serialization:
 eyJhbGciOiJSUzI1NiIsImtpZCI6ImJpbGJvLmJhZ2dpbnNAaG9iYml0b24uZX
 hhbXBsZSJ9
 .
 SXTigJlzIGEgZGFuZ2Vyb3VzIGJ1c2luZXNzLCBGcm9kbywgZ29pbmcgb3V0IH
 lvdXIgZG9vci4gWW91IHN0ZXAgb250byB0aGUgcm9hZCwgYW5kIGlmIHlvdSBk
 b24ndCBrZWVwIHlvdXIgZmVldCwgdGhlcmXigJlzIG5vIGtub3dpbmcgd2hlcm
 UgeW91IG1pZ2h0IGJlIHN3ZXB0IG9mZiB0by4
 .
 MRjdkly7_-oTPTS3AXP41iQIGKa80A0ZmTuV5MEaHoxnW2e5CZ5NlKtainoFmK
 ZopdHM1O2U4mwzJdQx996ivp83xuglII7PNDi84wnB-BDkoBwA78185hX-Es4J
 IwmDLJK3lfWRa-XtL0RnltuYv746iYTh_qHRD68BNt1uSNCrUCTJDt5aAE6x8w
 W1Kt9eRo4QPocSadnHXFxnt8Is9UzpERV0ePPQdLuW3IS_de3xyIrDaLGdjluP
 xUAhb6L2aXic1U12podGU0KLUQSE_oI-ZnmKJ3F4uOZDnd6QZWJushZ41Axf_f
 cIe8u9ipH84ogoree7vjbU5y18kDquDg
                 Figure 13: JWS Compact Serialization
 The resulting JWS object using the general JWS JSON Serialization:
 {
   "payload": "SXTigJlzIGEgZGFuZ2Vyb3VzIGJ1c2luZXNzLCBGcm9kbywg
       Z29pbmcgb3V0IHlvdXIgZG9vci4gWW91IHN0ZXAgb250byB0aGUgcm9h
       ZCwgYW5kIGlmIHlvdSBkb24ndCBrZWVwIHlvdXIgZmVldCwgdGhlcmXi
       gJlzIG5vIGtub3dpbmcgd2hlcmUgeW91IG1pZ2h0IGJlIHN3ZXB0IG9m
       ZiB0by4",
   "signatures": [
     {
       "protected": "eyJhbGciOiJSUzI1NiIsImtpZCI6ImJpbGJvLmJhZ2
           dpbnNAaG9iYml0b24uZXhhbXBsZSJ9",
       "signature": "MRjdkly7_-oTPTS3AXP41iQIGKa80A0ZmTuV5MEaHo
           xnW2e5CZ5NlKtainoFmKZopdHM1O2U4mwzJdQx996ivp83xuglII
           7PNDi84wnB-BDkoBwA78185hX-Es4JIwmDLJK3lfWRa-XtL0Rnlt
           uYv746iYTh_qHRD68BNt1uSNCrUCTJDt5aAE6x8wW1Kt9eRo4QPo
           cSadnHXFxnt8Is9UzpERV0ePPQdLuW3IS_de3xyIrDaLGdjluPxU
           Ahb6L2aXic1U12podGU0KLUQSE_oI-ZnmKJ3F4uOZDnd6QZWJush
           Z41Axf_fcIe8u9ipH84ogoree7vjbU5y18kDquDg"
     }
   ]
 }
               Figure 14: General JWS JSON Serialization

Miller Informational [Page 14] RFC 7520 JOSE Cookbook May 2015

 The resulting JWS object using the flattened JWS JSON Serialization:
 {
   "payload": "SXTigJlzIGEgZGFuZ2Vyb3VzIGJ1c2luZXNzLCBGcm9kbywg
       Z29pbmcgb3V0IHlvdXIgZG9vci4gWW91IHN0ZXAgb250byB0aGUgcm9h
       ZCwgYW5kIGlmIHlvdSBkb24ndCBrZWVwIHlvdXIgZmVldCwgdGhlcmXi
       gJlzIG5vIGtub3dpbmcgd2hlcmUgeW91IG1pZ2h0IGJlIHN3ZXB0IG9m
       ZiB0by4",
   "protected": "eyJhbGciOiJSUzI1NiIsImtpZCI6ImJpbGJvLmJhZ2dpbn
       NAaG9iYml0b24uZXhhbXBsZSJ9",
   "signature": "MRjdkly7_-oTPTS3AXP41iQIGKa80A0ZmTuV5MEaHoxnW2
       e5CZ5NlKtainoFmKZopdHM1O2U4mwzJdQx996ivp83xuglII7PNDi84w
       nB-BDkoBwA78185hX-Es4JIwmDLJK3lfWRa-XtL0RnltuYv746iYTh_q
       HRD68BNt1uSNCrUCTJDt5aAE6x8wW1Kt9eRo4QPocSadnHXFxnt8Is9U
       zpERV0ePPQdLuW3IS_de3xyIrDaLGdjluPxUAhb6L2aXic1U12podGU0
       KLUQSE_oI-ZnmKJ3F4uOZDnd6QZWJushZ41Axf_fcIe8u9ipH84ogore
       e7vjbU5y18kDquDg"
 }
              Figure 15: Flattened JWS JSON Serialization

4.2. RSA-PSS Signature

 This example illustrates signing content using the "PS384" (RSASSA-
 PSS with SHA-384) algorithm.
 Note that RSASSA-PSS uses random data to generate the signature; it
 might not be possible to exactly replicate the results in this
 section.
 Note that whitespace is added for readability as described in
 Section 1.1.

4.2.1. Input Factors

 The following are supplied before beginning the signing operation:
 o  Payload content; this example uses the content from Figure 7,
    encoded using base64url [RFC4648] to produce Figure 8.
 o  RSA private key; this example uses the key from Figure 4.
 o  "alg" parameter of "PS384".

Miller Informational [Page 15] RFC 7520 JOSE Cookbook May 2015

4.2.2. Signing Operation

 The following is generated to complete the signing operation:
 o  JWS Protected Header; this example uses the header from Figure 16,
    encoded using base64url [RFC4648] to produce Figure 17.
 {
   "alg": "PS384",
   "kid": "bilbo.baggins@hobbiton.example"
 }
                 Figure 16: JWS Protected Header JSON
 eyJhbGciOiJQUzM4NCIsImtpZCI6ImJpbGJvLmJhZ2dpbnNAaG9iYml0b24uZX
 hhbXBsZSJ9
          Figure 17: JWS Protected Header, base64url-encoded
 The JWS Protected Header (Figure 17) and JWS Payload (Figure 8) are
 combined as described in [JWS] to produce the JWS Signing Input
 (Figure 18).
 eyJhbGciOiJQUzM4NCIsImtpZCI6ImJpbGJvLmJhZ2dpbnNAaG9iYml0b24uZX
 hhbXBsZSJ9
 .
 SXTigJlzIGEgZGFuZ2Vyb3VzIGJ1c2luZXNzLCBGcm9kbywgZ29pbmcgb3V0IH
 lvdXIgZG9vci4gWW91IHN0ZXAgb250byB0aGUgcm9hZCwgYW5kIGlmIHlvdSBk
 b24ndCBrZWVwIHlvdXIgZmVldCwgdGhlcmXigJlzIG5vIGtub3dpbmcgd2hlcm
 UgeW91IG1pZ2h0IGJlIHN3ZXB0IG9mZiB0by4
                     Figure 18: JWS Signing Input
 Performing the signature operation over the JWS Signing Input
 (Figure 18) produces the JWS Signature (Figure 19).
 cu22eBqkYDKgIlTpzDXGvaFfz6WGoz7fUDcfT0kkOy42miAh2qyBzk1xEsnk2I
 pN6-tPid6VrklHkqsGqDqHCdP6O8TTB5dDDItllVo6_1OLPpcbUrhiUSMxbbXU
 vdvWXzg-UD8biiReQFlfz28zGWVsdiNAUf8ZnyPEgVFn442ZdNqiVJRmBqrYRX
 e8P_ijQ7p8Vdz0TTrxUeT3lm8d9shnr2lfJT8ImUjvAA2Xez2Mlp8cBE5awDzT
 0qI0n6uiP1aCN_2_jLAeQTlqRHtfa64QQSUmFAAjVKPbByi7xho0uTOcbH510a
 6GYmJUAfmWjwZ6oD4ifKo8DYM-X72Eaw
              Figure 19: JWS Signature, base64url-encoded

Miller Informational [Page 16] RFC 7520 JOSE Cookbook May 2015

4.2.3. Output Results

 The following compose the resulting JWS object:
 o  JWS Protected Header (Figure 17)
 o  Payload content (Figure 8)
 o  Signature (Figure 19)
 The resulting JWS object using the JWS Compact Serialization:
 eyJhbGciOiJQUzM4NCIsImtpZCI6ImJpbGJvLmJhZ2dpbnNAaG9iYml0b24uZX
 hhbXBsZSJ9
 .
 SXTigJlzIGEgZGFuZ2Vyb3VzIGJ1c2luZXNzLCBGcm9kbywgZ29pbmcgb3V0IH
 lvdXIgZG9vci4gWW91IHN0ZXAgb250byB0aGUgcm9hZCwgYW5kIGlmIHlvdSBk
 b24ndCBrZWVwIHlvdXIgZmVldCwgdGhlcmXigJlzIG5vIGtub3dpbmcgd2hlcm
 UgeW91IG1pZ2h0IGJlIHN3ZXB0IG9mZiB0by4
 .
 cu22eBqkYDKgIlTpzDXGvaFfz6WGoz7fUDcfT0kkOy42miAh2qyBzk1xEsnk2I
 pN6-tPid6VrklHkqsGqDqHCdP6O8TTB5dDDItllVo6_1OLPpcbUrhiUSMxbbXU
 vdvWXzg-UD8biiReQFlfz28zGWVsdiNAUf8ZnyPEgVFn442ZdNqiVJRmBqrYRX
 e8P_ijQ7p8Vdz0TTrxUeT3lm8d9shnr2lfJT8ImUjvAA2Xez2Mlp8cBE5awDzT
 0qI0n6uiP1aCN_2_jLAeQTlqRHtfa64QQSUmFAAjVKPbByi7xho0uTOcbH510a
 6GYmJUAfmWjwZ6oD4ifKo8DYM-X72Eaw
                 Figure 20: JWS Compact Serialization

Miller Informational [Page 17] RFC 7520 JOSE Cookbook May 2015

 The resulting JWS object using the general JWS JSON Serialization:
 {
   "payload": "SXTigJlzIGEgZGFuZ2Vyb3VzIGJ1c2luZXNzLCBGcm9kbywg
       Z29pbmcgb3V0IHlvdXIgZG9vci4gWW91IHN0ZXAgb250byB0aGUgcm9h
       ZCwgYW5kIGlmIHlvdSBkb24ndCBrZWVwIHlvdXIgZmVldCwgdGhlcmXi
       gJlzIG5vIGtub3dpbmcgd2hlcmUgeW91IG1pZ2h0IGJlIHN3ZXB0IG9m
       ZiB0by4",
   "signatures": [
     {
       "protected": "eyJhbGciOiJQUzM4NCIsImtpZCI6ImJpbGJvLmJhZ2
           dpbnNAaG9iYml0b24uZXhhbXBsZSJ9",
       "signature": "cu22eBqkYDKgIlTpzDXGvaFfz6WGoz7fUDcfT0kkOy
           42miAh2qyBzk1xEsnk2IpN6-tPid6VrklHkqsGqDqHCdP6O8TTB5
           dDDItllVo6_1OLPpcbUrhiUSMxbbXUvdvWXzg-UD8biiReQFlfz2
           8zGWVsdiNAUf8ZnyPEgVFn442ZdNqiVJRmBqrYRXe8P_ijQ7p8Vd
           z0TTrxUeT3lm8d9shnr2lfJT8ImUjvAA2Xez2Mlp8cBE5awDzT0q
           I0n6uiP1aCN_2_jLAeQTlqRHtfa64QQSUmFAAjVKPbByi7xho0uT
           OcbH510a6GYmJUAfmWjwZ6oD4ifKo8DYM-X72Eaw"
     }
   ]
 }
               Figure 21: General JWS JSON Serialization
 The resulting JWS object using the flattened JWS JSON Serialization:
 {
   "payload": "SXTigJlzIGEgZGFuZ2Vyb3VzIGJ1c2luZXNzLCBGcm9kbywg
       Z29pbmcgb3V0IHlvdXIgZG9vci4gWW91IHN0ZXAgb250byB0aGUgcm9h
       ZCwgYW5kIGlmIHlvdSBkb24ndCBrZWVwIHlvdXIgZmVldCwgdGhlcmXi
       gJlzIG5vIGtub3dpbmcgd2hlcmUgeW91IG1pZ2h0IGJlIHN3ZXB0IG9m
       ZiB0by4",
   "protected": "eyJhbGciOiJQUzM4NCIsImtpZCI6ImJpbGJvLmJhZ2dpbn
       NAaG9iYml0b24uZXhhbXBsZSJ9",
   "signature": "cu22eBqkYDKgIlTpzDXGvaFfz6WGoz7fUDcfT0kkOy42mi
       Ah2qyBzk1xEsnk2IpN6-tPid6VrklHkqsGqDqHCdP6O8TTB5dDDItllV
       o6_1OLPpcbUrhiUSMxbbXUvdvWXzg-UD8biiReQFlfz28zGWVsdiNAUf
       8ZnyPEgVFn442ZdNqiVJRmBqrYRXe8P_ijQ7p8Vdz0TTrxUeT3lm8d9s
       hnr2lfJT8ImUjvAA2Xez2Mlp8cBE5awDzT0qI0n6uiP1aCN_2_jLAeQT
       lqRHtfa64QQSUmFAAjVKPbByi7xho0uTOcbH510a6GYmJUAfmWjwZ6oD
       4ifKo8DYM-X72Eaw"
 }
              Figure 22: Flattened JWS JSON Serialization

Miller Informational [Page 18] RFC 7520 JOSE Cookbook May 2015

4.3. ECDSA Signature

 This example illustrates signing content using the "ES512" (Elliptic
 Curve Digital Signature Algorithm (ECDSA) with curve P-521 and SHA-
 512) algorithm.
 Note that ECDSA uses random data to generate the signature; it might
 not be possible to exactly replicate the results in this section.
 Note that whitespace is added for readability as described in
 Section 1.1.

4.3.1. Input Factors

 The following are supplied before beginning the signing operation:
 o  Payload content; this example uses the content from Figure 7,
    encoded using base64url [RFC4648] to produce Figure 8.
 o  EC private key on the curve P-521; this example uses the key from
    Figure 2.
 o  "alg" parameter of "ES512".

4.3.2. Signing Operation

 The following is generated before beginning the signature process:
 o  JWS Protected Header; this example uses the header from Figure 23,
    encoded using base64url [RFC4648] to produce Figure 24.
 {
   "alg": "ES512",
   "kid": "bilbo.baggins@hobbiton.example"
 }
                 Figure 23: JWS Protected Header JSON
 eyJhbGciOiJFUzUxMiIsImtpZCI6ImJpbGJvLmJhZ2dpbnNAaG9iYml0b24uZX
 hhbXBsZSJ9
          Figure 24: JWS Protected Header, base64url-encoded

Miller Informational [Page 19] RFC 7520 JOSE Cookbook May 2015

 The JWS Protected Header (Figure 24) and JWS Payload (Figure 8) are
 combined as described in [JWS] to produce the JWS Signing Input
 (Figure 25).
 eyJhbGciOiJFUzUxMiIsImtpZCI6ImJpbGJvLmJhZ2dpbnNAaG9iYml0b24uZX
 hhbXBsZSJ9
 .
 SXTigJlzIGEgZGFuZ2Vyb3VzIGJ1c2luZXNzLCBGcm9kbywgZ29pbmcgb3V0IH
 lvdXIgZG9vci4gWW91IHN0ZXAgb250byB0aGUgcm9hZCwgYW5kIGlmIHlvdSBk
 b24ndCBrZWVwIHlvdXIgZmVldCwgdGhlcmXigJlzIG5vIGtub3dpbmcgd2hlcm
 UgeW91IG1pZ2h0IGJlIHN3ZXB0IG9mZiB0by4
                     Figure 25: JWS Signing Input
 Performing the signature operation over the JWS Signing Input
 (Figure 25) produces the JWS Signature (Figure 26).
 AE_R_YZCChjn4791jSQCrdPZCNYqHXCTZH0-JZGYNlaAjP2kqaluUIIUnC9qvb
 u9Plon7KRTzoNEuT4Va2cmL1eJAQy3mtPBu_u_sDDyYjnAMDxXPn7XrT0lw-kv
 AD890jl8e2puQens_IEKBpHABlsbEPX6sFY8OcGDqoRuBomu9xQ2
              Figure 26: JWS Signature, base64url-encoded

4.3.3. Output Results

 The following compose the resulting JWS object:
 o  JWS Protected Header (Figure 24)
 o  Payload content (Figure 8)
 o  Signature (Figure 26)
 The resulting JWS object using the JWS Compact Serialization:
 eyJhbGciOiJFUzUxMiIsImtpZCI6ImJpbGJvLmJhZ2dpbnNAaG9iYml0b24uZX
 hhbXBsZSJ9
 .
 SXTigJlzIGEgZGFuZ2Vyb3VzIGJ1c2luZXNzLCBGcm9kbywgZ29pbmcgb3V0IH
 lvdXIgZG9vci4gWW91IHN0ZXAgb250byB0aGUgcm9hZCwgYW5kIGlmIHlvdSBk
 b24ndCBrZWVwIHlvdXIgZmVldCwgdGhlcmXigJlzIG5vIGtub3dpbmcgd2hlcm
 UgeW91IG1pZ2h0IGJlIHN3ZXB0IG9mZiB0by4
 .
 AE_R_YZCChjn4791jSQCrdPZCNYqHXCTZH0-JZGYNlaAjP2kqaluUIIUnC9qvb
 u9Plon7KRTzoNEuT4Va2cmL1eJAQy3mtPBu_u_sDDyYjnAMDxXPn7XrT0lw-kv
 AD890jl8e2puQens_IEKBpHABlsbEPX6sFY8OcGDqoRuBomu9xQ2
                 Figure 27: JWS Compact Serialization

Miller Informational [Page 20] RFC 7520 JOSE Cookbook May 2015

 The resulting JWS object using the general JWS JSON Serialization:
 {
   "payload": "SXTigJlzIGEgZGFuZ2Vyb3VzIGJ1c2luZXNzLCBGcm9kbywg
       Z29pbmcgb3V0IHlvdXIgZG9vci4gWW91IHN0ZXAgb250byB0aGUgcm9h
       ZCwgYW5kIGlmIHlvdSBkb24ndCBrZWVwIHlvdXIgZmVldCwgdGhlcmXi
       gJlzIG5vIGtub3dpbmcgd2hlcmUgeW91IG1pZ2h0IGJlIHN3ZXB0IG9m
       ZiB0by4",
   "signatures": [
     {
       "protected": "eyJhbGciOiJFUzUxMiIsImtpZCI6ImJpbGJvLmJhZ2
           dpbnNAaG9iYml0b24uZXhhbXBsZSJ9",
       "signature": "AE_R_YZCChjn4791jSQCrdPZCNYqHXCTZH0-JZGYNl
           aAjP2kqaluUIIUnC9qvbu9Plon7KRTzoNEuT4Va2cmL1eJAQy3mt
           PBu_u_sDDyYjnAMDxXPn7XrT0lw-kvAD890jl8e2puQens_IEKBp
           HABlsbEPX6sFY8OcGDqoRuBomu9xQ2"
     }
   ]
 }
               Figure 28: General JWS JSON Serialization
 The resulting JWS object using the flattened JWS JSON Serialization:
 {
   "payload": "SXTigJlzIGEgZGFuZ2Vyb3VzIGJ1c2luZXNzLCBGcm9kbywg
       Z29pbmcgb3V0IHlvdXIgZG9vci4gWW91IHN0ZXAgb250byB0aGUgcm9h
       ZCwgYW5kIGlmIHlvdSBkb24ndCBrZWVwIHlvdXIgZmVldCwgdGhlcmXi
       gJlzIG5vIGtub3dpbmcgd2hlcmUgeW91IG1pZ2h0IGJlIHN3ZXB0IG9m
       ZiB0by4",
   "protected": "eyJhbGciOiJFUzUxMiIsImtpZCI6ImJpbGJvLmJhZ2dpbn
       NAaG9iYml0b24uZXhhbXBsZSJ9",
   "signature": "AE_R_YZCChjn4791jSQCrdPZCNYqHXCTZH0-JZGYNlaAjP
       2kqaluUIIUnC9qvbu9Plon7KRTzoNEuT4Va2cmL1eJAQy3mtPBu_u_sD
       DyYjnAMDxXPn7XrT0lw-kvAD890jl8e2puQens_IEKBpHABlsbEPX6sF
       Y8OcGDqoRuBomu9xQ2"
 }
              Figure 29: Flattened JWS JSON Serialization

4.4. HMAC-SHA2 Integrity Protection

 This example illustrates integrity protecting content using the
 "HS256" (HMAC-SHA-256) algorithm.
 Note that whitespace is added for readability as described in
 Section 1.1.

Miller Informational [Page 21] RFC 7520 JOSE Cookbook May 2015

4.4.1. Input Factors

 The following are supplied before beginning the signing operation:
 o  Payload content; this example uses the content from Figure 7,
    encoded using base64url [RFC4648] to produce Figure 8.
 o  HMAC symmetric key; this example uses the key from Figure 5.
 o  "alg" parameter of "HS256".

4.4.2. Signing Operation

 The following is generated before completing the signing operation:
 o  JWS Protected Header; this example uses the header from Figure 30,
    encoded using base64url [RFC4648] to produce Figure 31.
 {
   "alg": "HS256",
   "kid": "018c0ae5-4d9b-471b-bfd6-eef314bc7037"
 }
                 Figure 30: JWS Protected Header JSON
 eyJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiIsImtpZCI6IjAxOGMwYWU1LTRkOWItNDcxYi1iZmQ2LW
 VlZjMxNGJjNzAzNyJ9
          Figure 31: JWS Protected Header, base64url-encoded
 The JWS Protected Header (Figure 31) and JWS Payload (Figure 8) are
 combined as described in [JWS] to produce the JWS Signing Input
 (Figure 32).
 eyJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiIsImtpZCI6IjAxOGMwYWU1LTRkOWItNDcxYi1iZmQ2LW
 VlZjMxNGJjNzAzNyJ9
 .
 SXTigJlzIGEgZGFuZ2Vyb3VzIGJ1c2luZXNzLCBGcm9kbywgZ29pbmcgb3V0IH
 lvdXIgZG9vci4gWW91IHN0ZXAgb250byB0aGUgcm9hZCwgYW5kIGlmIHlvdSBk
 b24ndCBrZWVwIHlvdXIgZmVldCwgdGhlcmXigJlzIG5vIGtub3dpbmcgd2hlcm
 UgeW91IG1pZ2h0IGJlIHN3ZXB0IG9mZiB0by4
                     Figure 32: JWS Signing Input

Miller Informational [Page 22] RFC 7520 JOSE Cookbook May 2015

 Performing the signature operation over the JWS Signing Input
 (Figure 32) produces the JWS Signature (Figure 33).
 s0h6KThzkfBBBkLspW1h84VsJZFTsPPqMDA7g1Md7p0
              Figure 33: JWS Signature, base64url-encoded

4.4.3. Output Results

 The following compose the resulting JWS object:
 o  JWS Protected Header (Figure 31)
 o  Payload content (Figure 8)
 o  Signature (Figure 33)
 The resulting JWS object using the JWS Compact Serialization:
 eyJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiIsImtpZCI6IjAxOGMwYWU1LTRkOWItNDcxYi1iZmQ2LW
 VlZjMxNGJjNzAzNyJ9
 .
 SXTigJlzIGEgZGFuZ2Vyb3VzIGJ1c2luZXNzLCBGcm9kbywgZ29pbmcgb3V0IH
 lvdXIgZG9vci4gWW91IHN0ZXAgb250byB0aGUgcm9hZCwgYW5kIGlmIHlvdSBk
 b24ndCBrZWVwIHlvdXIgZmVldCwgdGhlcmXigJlzIG5vIGtub3dpbmcgd2hlcm
 UgeW91IG1pZ2h0IGJlIHN3ZXB0IG9mZiB0by4
 .
 s0h6KThzkfBBBkLspW1h84VsJZFTsPPqMDA7g1Md7p0
                 Figure 34: JWS Compact Serialization

Miller Informational [Page 23] RFC 7520 JOSE Cookbook May 2015

 The resulting JWS object using the general JWS JSON Serialization:
 {
   "payload": "SXTigJlzIGEgZGFuZ2Vyb3VzIGJ1c2luZXNzLCBGcm9kbywg
       Z29pbmcgb3V0IHlvdXIgZG9vci4gWW91IHN0ZXAgb250byB0aGUgcm9h
       ZCwgYW5kIGlmIHlvdSBkb24ndCBrZWVwIHlvdXIgZmVldCwgdGhlcmXi
       gJlzIG5vIGtub3dpbmcgd2hlcmUgeW91IG1pZ2h0IGJlIHN3ZXB0IG9m
       ZiB0by4",
   "signatures": [
     {
       "protected": "eyJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiIsImtpZCI6IjAxOGMwYWU1LT
           RkOWItNDcxYi1iZmQ2LWVlZjMxNGJjNzAzNyJ9",
       "signature": "s0h6KThzkfBBBkLspW1h84VsJZFTsPPqMDA7g1Md7p
           0"
     }
   ]
 }
               Figure 35: General JWS JSON Serialization
 The resulting JWS object using the flattened JWS JSON Serialization:
 {
   "payload": "SXTigJlzIGEgZGFuZ2Vyb3VzIGJ1c2luZXNzLCBGcm9kbywg
       Z29pbmcgb3V0IHlvdXIgZG9vci4gWW91IHN0ZXAgb250byB0aGUgcm9h
       ZCwgYW5kIGlmIHlvdSBkb24ndCBrZWVwIHlvdXIgZmVldCwgdGhlcmXi
       gJlzIG5vIGtub3dpbmcgd2hlcmUgeW91IG1pZ2h0IGJlIHN3ZXB0IG9m
       ZiB0by4",
   "protected": "eyJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiIsImtpZCI6IjAxOGMwYWU1LTRkOW
       ItNDcxYi1iZmQ2LWVlZjMxNGJjNzAzNyJ9",
   "signature": "s0h6KThzkfBBBkLspW1h84VsJZFTsPPqMDA7g1Md7p0"
 }
              Figure 36: Flattened JWS JSON Serialization

4.5. Signature with Detached Content

 This example illustrates a signature with detached content.  This
 example is identical to other examples in Section 4, except the
 resulting JWS objects do not include the JWS Payload field.  Instead,
 the application is expected to locate it elsewhere.  For example, the
 signature might be in a metadata section, with the payload being the
 content.
 Note that whitespace is added for readability as described in
 Section 1.1.

Miller Informational [Page 24] RFC 7520 JOSE Cookbook May 2015

4.5.1. Input Factors

 The following are supplied before beginning the signing operation:
 o  Payload content; this example uses the content from Figure 7,
    encoded using base64url [RFC4648] to produce Figure 8.
 o  Signing key; this example uses the AES symmetric key from
    Figure 5.
 o  Signing algorithm; this example uses "HS256".

4.5.2. Signing Operation

 The following is generated before completing the signing operation:
 o  JWS Protected Header; this example uses the header from Figure 37,
    encoded using base64url [RFC4648] to produce Figure 38.
 {
   "alg": "HS256",
   "kid": "018c0ae5-4d9b-471b-bfd6-eef314bc7037"
 }
                 Figure 37: JWS Protected Header JSON
 eyJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiIsImtpZCI6IjAxOGMwYWU1LTRkOWItNDcxYi1iZmQ2LW
 VlZjMxNGJjNzAzNyJ9
          Figure 38: JWS Protected Header, base64url-encoded
 The JWS Protected Header (Figure 38) and JWS Payload (Figure 8) are
 combined as described in [JWS] to produce the JWS Signing Input
 (Figure 39).
 eyJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiIsImtpZCI6IjAxOGMwYWU1LTRkOWItNDcxYi1iZmQ2LW
 VlZjMxNGJjNzAzNyJ9
 .
 SXTigJlzIGEgZGFuZ2Vyb3VzIGJ1c2luZXNzLCBGcm9kbywgZ29pbmcgb3V0IH
 lvdXIgZG9vci4gWW91IHN0ZXAgb250byB0aGUgcm9hZCwgYW5kIGlmIHlvdSBk
 b24ndCBrZWVwIHlvdXIgZmVldCwgdGhlcmXigJlzIG5vIGtub3dpbmcgd2hlcm
 UgeW91IG1pZ2h0IGJlIHN3ZXB0IG9mZiB0by4
                     Figure 39: JWS Signing Input

Miller Informational [Page 25] RFC 7520 JOSE Cookbook May 2015

 Performing the signature operation over the JWS Signing Input
 (Figure 39) produces the JWS Signature (Figure 40).
 s0h6KThzkfBBBkLspW1h84VsJZFTsPPqMDA7g1Md7p0
              Figure 40: JWS Signature, base64url-encoded

4.5.3. Output Results

 The following compose the resulting JWS object:
 o  JWS Protected Header (Figure 38)
 o  Signature (Figure 40)
 The resulting JWS object using the JWS Compact Serialization:
 eyJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiIsImtpZCI6IjAxOGMwYWU1LTRkOWItNDcxYi1iZmQ2LW
 VlZjMxNGJjNzAzNyJ9
 .
 .
 s0h6KThzkfBBBkLspW1h84VsJZFTsPPqMDA7g1Md7p0
               Figure 41: General JWS JSON Serialization
 The resulting JWS object using the general JWS JSON Serialization:
 {
   "signatures": [
     {
       "protected": "eyJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiIsImtpZCI6IjAxOGMwYWU1LT
           RkOWItNDcxYi1iZmQ2LWVlZjMxNGJjNzAzNyJ9",
       "signature": "s0h6KThzkfBBBkLspW1h84VsJZFTsPPqMDA7g1Md7p
           0"
     }
   ]
 }
               Figure 42: General JWS JSON Serialization

Miller Informational [Page 26] RFC 7520 JOSE Cookbook May 2015

 The resulting JWS object using the flattened JWS JSON Serialization:
 {
   "protected": "eyJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiIsImtpZCI6IjAxOGMwYWU1LTRkOW
       ItNDcxYi1iZmQ2LWVlZjMxNGJjNzAzNyJ9",
   "signature": "s0h6KThzkfBBBkLspW1h84VsJZFTsPPqMDA7g1Md7p0"
 }
              Figure 43: Flattened JWS JSON Serialization

4.6. Protecting Specific Header Fields

 This example illustrates a signature where only certain Header
 Parameters are protected.  Since this example contains both
 unprotected and protected Header Parameters, only the general JWS
 JSON Serialization and flattened JWS JSON Serialization are possible.
 Note that whitespace is added for readability as described in
 Section 1.1.

4.6.1. Input Factors

 The following are supplied before beginning the signing operation:
 o  Payload content; this example uses the content from Figure 7,
    encoded using base64url [RFC4648] to produce Figure 8.
 o  Signing key; this example uses the AES symmetric key from
    Figure 5.
 o  Signing algorithm; this example uses "HS256".

4.6.2. Signing Operation

 The following are generated before completing the signing operation:
 o  JWS Protected Header; this example uses the header from Figure 44,
    encoded using base64url [RFC4648] to produce Figure 45.
 o  JWS Unprotected Header; this example uses the header from
    Figure 46.
 {
   "alg": "HS256"
 }
                 Figure 44: JWS Protected Header JSON

Miller Informational [Page 27] RFC 7520 JOSE Cookbook May 2015

 eyJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiJ9
          Figure 45: JWS Protected Header, base64url-encoded
 {
   "kid": "018c0ae5-4d9b-471b-bfd6-eef314bc7037"
 }
                Figure 46: JWS Unprotected Header JSON
 The JWS Protected Header (Figure 45) and JWS Payload (Figure 8) are
 combined as described in [JWS] to produce the JWS Signing Input
 (Figure 47).
 eyJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiJ9
 .
 SXTigJlzIGEgZGFuZ2Vyb3VzIGJ1c2luZXNzLCBGcm9kbywgZ29pbmcgb3V0IH
 lvdXIgZG9vci4gWW91IHN0ZXAgb250byB0aGUgcm9hZCwgYW5kIGlmIHlvdSBk
 b24ndCBrZWVwIHlvdXIgZmVldCwgdGhlcmXigJlzIG5vIGtub3dpbmcgd2hlcm
 UgeW91IG1pZ2h0IGJlIHN3ZXB0IG9mZiB0by4
                     Figure 47: JWS Signing Input
 Performing the signature operation over the JWS Signing Input
 (Figure 47) produces the JWS Signature (Figure 48).
 bWUSVaxorn7bEF1djytBd0kHv70Ly5pvbomzMWSOr20
              Figure 48: JWS Signature, base64url-encoded

4.6.3. Output Results

 The following compose the resulting JWS object:
 o  JWS Protected Header (Figure 45)
 o  JWS Unprotected Header (Figure 46)
 o  Payload content (Figure 8)
 o  Signature (Figure 48)
 The JWS Compact Serialization is not presented because it does not
 support this use case.

Miller Informational [Page 28] RFC 7520 JOSE Cookbook May 2015

 The resulting JWS object using the general JWS JSON Serialization:
 {
   "payload": "SXTigJlzIGEgZGFuZ2Vyb3VzIGJ1c2luZXNzLCBGcm9kbywg
       Z29pbmcgb3V0IHlvdXIgZG9vci4gWW91IHN0ZXAgb250byB0aGUgcm9h
       ZCwgYW5kIGlmIHlvdSBkb24ndCBrZWVwIHlvdXIgZmVldCwgdGhlcmXi
       gJlzIG5vIGtub3dpbmcgd2hlcmUgeW91IG1pZ2h0IGJlIHN3ZXB0IG9m
       ZiB0by4",
   "signatures": [
     {
       "protected": "eyJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiJ9",
       "header": {
         "kid": "018c0ae5-4d9b-471b-bfd6-eef314bc7037"
       },
       "signature": "bWUSVaxorn7bEF1djytBd0kHv70Ly5pvbomzMWSOr2
           0"
     }
   ]
 }
               Figure 49: General JWS JSON Serialization
 The resulting JWS object using the flattened JWS JSON Serialization:
 {
   "payload": "SXTigJlzIGEgZGFuZ2Vyb3VzIGJ1c2luZXNzLCBGcm9kbywg
       Z29pbmcgb3V0IHlvdXIgZG9vci4gWW91IHN0ZXAgb250byB0aGUgcm9h
       ZCwgYW5kIGlmIHlvdSBkb24ndCBrZWVwIHlvdXIgZmVldCwgdGhlcmXi
       gJlzIG5vIGtub3dpbmcgd2hlcmUgeW91IG1pZ2h0IGJlIHN3ZXB0IG9m
       ZiB0by4",
   "protected": "eyJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiJ9",
   "header": {
     "kid": "018c0ae5-4d9b-471b-bfd6-eef314bc7037"
   },
   "signature": "bWUSVaxorn7bEF1djytBd0kHv70Ly5pvbomzMWSOr20"
 }
              Figure 50: Flattened JWS JSON Serialization

4.7. Protecting Content Only

 This example illustrates a signature where none of the Header
 Parameters are protected.  Since this example contains only
 unprotected Header Parameters, only the general JWS JSON
 Serialization and flattened JWS JSON Serialization are possible.
 Note that whitespace is added for readability as described in
 Section 1.1.

Miller Informational [Page 29] RFC 7520 JOSE Cookbook May 2015

4.7.1. Input Factors

 The following are supplied before beginning the signing operation:
 o  Payload content; this example uses the content from Figure 7,
    encoded using base64url [RFC4648] to produce Figure 8.
 o  Signing key; this example uses the AES symmetric key from
    Figure 5.
 o  Signing algorithm; this example uses "HS256".

4.7.2. Signing Operation

 The following is generated before completing the signing operation:
 o  JWS Unprotected Header; this example uses the header from
    Figure 51.
 {
   "alg": "HS256",
   "kid": "018c0ae5-4d9b-471b-bfd6-eef314bc7037"
 }
                Figure 51: JWS Unprotected Header JSON
 The empty string (as there is no JWS Protected Header) and JWS
 Payload (Figure 8) are combined as described in [JWS] to produce the
 JWS Signing Input (Figure 52).
 .
 SXTigJlzIGEgZGFuZ2Vyb3VzIGJ1c2luZXNzLCBGcm9kbywgZ29pbmcgb3V0IH
 lvdXIgZG9vci4gWW91IHN0ZXAgb250byB0aGUgcm9hZCwgYW5kIGlmIHlvdSBk
 b24ndCBrZWVwIHlvdXIgZmVldCwgdGhlcmXigJlzIG5vIGtub3dpbmcgd2hlcm
 UgeW91IG1pZ2h0IGJlIHN3ZXB0IG9mZiB0by4
                     Figure 52: JWS Signing Input
 Performing the signature operation over the JWS Signing Input
 (Figure 52) produces the JWS Signature (Figure 53).
 xuLifqLGiblpv9zBpuZczWhNj1gARaLV3UxvxhJxZuk
              Figure 53: JWS Signature, base64url-encoded

Miller Informational [Page 30] RFC 7520 JOSE Cookbook May 2015

4.7.3. Output Results

 The following compose the resulting JWS object:
 o  JWS Unprotected Header (Figure 51)
 o  Payload content (Figure 8)
 o  Signature (Figure 53)
 The JWS Compact Serialization is not presented because it does not
 support this use case.
 The resulting JWS object using the general JWS JSON Serialization:
 {
   "payload": "SXTigJlzIGEgZGFuZ2Vyb3VzIGJ1c2luZXNzLCBGcm9kbywg
       Z29pbmcgb3V0IHlvdXIgZG9vci4gWW91IHN0ZXAgb250byB0aGUgcm9h
       ZCwgYW5kIGlmIHlvdSBkb24ndCBrZWVwIHlvdXIgZmVldCwgdGhlcmXi
       gJlzIG5vIGtub3dpbmcgd2hlcmUgeW91IG1pZ2h0IGJlIHN3ZXB0IG9m
       ZiB0by4",
   "signatures": [
     {
       "header": {
         "alg": "HS256",
         "kid": "018c0ae5-4d9b-471b-bfd6-eef314bc7037"
       },
       "signature": "xuLifqLGiblpv9zBpuZczWhNj1gARaLV3UxvxhJxZu
           k"
     }
   ]
 }
               Figure 54: General JWS JSON Serialization

Miller Informational [Page 31] RFC 7520 JOSE Cookbook May 2015

 The resulting JWS object using the flattened JWS JSON Serialization:
 {
   "payload": "SXTigJlzIGEgZGFuZ2Vyb3VzIGJ1c2luZXNzLCBGcm9kbywg
       Z29pbmcgb3V0IHlvdXIgZG9vci4gWW91IHN0ZXAgb250byB0aGUgcm9h
       ZCwgYW5kIGlmIHlvdSBkb24ndCBrZWVwIHlvdXIgZmVldCwgdGhlcmXi
       gJlzIG5vIGtub3dpbmcgd2hlcmUgeW91IG1pZ2h0IGJlIHN3ZXB0IG9m
       ZiB0by4",
   "header": {
     "alg": "HS256",
     "kid": "018c0ae5-4d9b-471b-bfd6-eef314bc7037"
   },
   "signature": "xuLifqLGiblpv9zBpuZczWhNj1gARaLV3UxvxhJxZuk"
 }
              Figure 55: Flattened JWS JSON Serialization

4.8. Multiple Signatures

 This example illustrates multiple signatures applied to the same
 payload.  Since this example contains more than one signature, only
 the JSON General Serialization is possible.
 Note that whitespace is added for readability as described in
 Section 1.1.

4.8.1. Input Factors

 The following are supplied before beginning the signing operation:
 o  Payload content; this example uses the content from Figure 7,
    encoded using base64url [RFC4648] to produce Figure 8.
 o  Signing keys; this example uses the following:
  • RSA private key from Figure 4 for the first signature
  • EC private key from Figure 2 for the second signature
  • AES symmetric key from Figure 5 for the third signature
 o  Signing algorithms; this example uses the following:
  • "RS256" for the first signature
  • "ES512" for the second signature
  • "HS256" for the third signature

Miller Informational [Page 32] RFC 7520 JOSE Cookbook May 2015

4.8.2. First Signing Operation

 The following are generated before completing the first signing
 operation:
 o  JWS Protected Header; this example uses the header from Figure 56,
    encoded using base64url [RFC4648] to produce Figure 57.
 o  JWS Unprotected Header; this example uses the header from
    Figure 58.
 {
   "alg": "RS256"
 }
           Figure 56: Signature #1 JWS Protected Header JSON
 eyJhbGciOiJSUzI1NiJ9
    Figure 57: Signature #1 JWS Protected Header, base64url-encoded
 {
   "kid": "bilbo.baggins@hobbiton.example"
 }
          Figure 58: Signature #1 JWS Unprotected Header JSON
 The JWS Protected Header (Figure 57) and JWS Payload (Figure 8) are
 combined as described in [JWS] to produce the JWS Signing Input
 (Figure 59).
 eyJhbGciOiJSUzI1NiJ9
 .
 SXTigJlzIGEgZGFuZ2Vyb3VzIGJ1c2luZXNzLCBGcm9kbywgZ29pbmcgb3V0IH
 lvdXIgZG9vci4gWW91IHN0ZXAgb250byB0aGUgcm9hZCwgYW5kIGlmIHlvdSBk
 b24ndCBrZWVwIHlvdXIgZmVldCwgdGhlcmXigJlzIG5vIGtub3dpbmcgd2hlcm
 UgeW91IG1pZ2h0IGJlIHN3ZXB0IG9mZiB0by4
                     Figure 59: JWS Signing Input

Miller Informational [Page 33] RFC 7520 JOSE Cookbook May 2015

 Performing the signature operation over the JWS Signing Input
 (Figure 59) produces the JWS Signature (Figure 60).
 MIsjqtVlOpa71KE-Mss8_Nq2YH4FGhiocsqrgi5NvyG53uoimic1tcMdSg-qpt
 rzZc7CG6Svw2Y13TDIqHzTUrL_lR2ZFcryNFiHkSw129EghGpwkpxaTn_THJTC
 glNbADko1MZBCdwzJxwqZc-1RlpO2HibUYyXSwO97BSe0_evZKdjvvKSgsIqjy
 tKSeAMbhMBdMma622_BG5t4sdbuCHtFjp9iJmkio47AIwqkZV1aIZsv33uPUqB
 BCXbYoQJwt7mxPftHmNlGoOSMxR_3thmXTCm4US-xiNOyhbm8afKK64jU6_TPt
 QHiJeQJxz9G3Tx-083B745_AfYOnlC9w
            Figure 60: JWS Signature #1, base64url-encoded
 The following is the assembled first signature serialized as JSON:
 {
   "protected": "eyJhbGciOiJSUzI1NiJ9",
   "header": {
     "kid": "bilbo.baggins@hobbiton.example"
   },
   "signature": "MIsjqtVlOpa71KE-Mss8_Nq2YH4FGhiocsqrgi5NvyG53u
       oimic1tcMdSg-qptrzZc7CG6Svw2Y13TDIqHzTUrL_lR2ZFcryNFiHkS
       w129EghGpwkpxaTn_THJTCglNbADko1MZBCdwzJxwqZc-1RlpO2HibUY
       yXSwO97BSe0_evZKdjvvKSgsIqjytKSeAMbhMBdMma622_BG5t4sdbuC
       HtFjp9iJmkio47AIwqkZV1aIZsv33uPUqBBCXbYoQJwt7mxPftHmNlGo
       OSMxR_3thmXTCm4US-xiNOyhbm8afKK64jU6_TPtQHiJeQJxz9G3Tx-0
       83B745_AfYOnlC9w"
 }
                     Figure 61: Signature #1 JSON

4.8.3. Second Signing Operation

 The following is generated before completing the second signing
 operation:
 o  JWS Unprotected Header; this example uses the header from
    Figure 62.
 {
   "alg": "ES512",
   "kid": "bilbo.baggins@hobbiton.example"
 }
          Figure 62: Signature #2 JWS Unprotected Header JSON

Miller Informational [Page 34] RFC 7520 JOSE Cookbook May 2015

 The empty string (as there is no JWS Protected Header) and JWS
 Payload (Figure 8) are combined as described in [JWS] to produce the
 JWS Signing Input (Figure 63).
 .
 SXTigJlzIGEgZGFuZ2Vyb3VzIGJ1c2luZXNzLCBGcm9kbywgZ29pbmcgb3V0IH
 lvdXIgZG9vci4gWW91IHN0ZXAgb250byB0aGUgcm9hZCwgYW5kIGlmIHlvdSBk
 b24ndCBrZWVwIHlvdXIgZmVldCwgdGhlcmXigJlzIG5vIGtub3dpbmcgd2hlcm
 UgeW91IG1pZ2h0IGJlIHN3ZXB0IG9mZiB0by4
                     Figure 63: JWS Signing Input
 Performing the signature operation over the JWS Signing Input
 (Figure 63) produces the JWS Signature (Figure 64).
 ARcVLnaJJaUWG8fG-8t5BREVAuTY8n8YHjwDO1muhcdCoFZFFjfISu0Cdkn9Yb
 dlmi54ho0x924DUz8sK7ZXkhc7AFM8ObLfTvNCrqcI3Jkl2U5IX3utNhODH6v7
 xgy1Qahsn0fyb4zSAkje8bAWz4vIfj5pCMYxxm4fgV3q7ZYhm5eD
            Figure 64: JWS Signature #2, base64url-encoded
 The following is the assembled second signature serialized as JSON:
 {
   "header": {
     "alg": "ES512",
     "kid": "bilbo.baggins@hobbiton.example"
   },
   "signature": "ARcVLnaJJaUWG8fG-8t5BREVAuTY8n8YHjwDO1muhcdCoF
       ZFFjfISu0Cdkn9Ybdlmi54ho0x924DUz8sK7ZXkhc7AFM8ObLfTvNCrq
       cI3Jkl2U5IX3utNhODH6v7xgy1Qahsn0fyb4zSAkje8bAWz4vIfj5pCM
       Yxxm4fgV3q7ZYhm5eD"
 }
                     Figure 65: Signature #2 JSON

Miller Informational [Page 35] RFC 7520 JOSE Cookbook May 2015

4.8.4. Third Signing Operation

 The following is generated before completing the third signing
 operation:
 o  JWS Protected Header; this example uses the header from Figure 66,
    encoded using base64url [RFC4648] to produce Figure 67.
 {
   "alg": "HS256",
   "kid": "018c0ae5-4d9b-471b-bfd6-eef314bc7037"
 }
           Figure 66: Signature #3 JWS Protected Header JSON
 eyJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiIsImtpZCI6IjAxOGMwYWU1LTRkOWItNDcxYi1iZmQ2LW
 VlZjMxNGJjNzAzNyJ9
    Figure 67: Signature #3 JWS Protected Header, base64url-encoded
 The JWS Protected Header (Figure 67) and JWS Payload (Figure 8) are
 combined as described in [JWS] to produce the JWS Signing Input
 (Figure 68).
 eyJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiIsImtpZCI6IjAxOGMwYWU1LTRkOWItNDcxYi1iZmQ2LW
 VlZjMxNGJjNzAzNyJ9
 .
 SXTigJlzIGEgZGFuZ2Vyb3VzIGJ1c2luZXNzLCBGcm9kbywgZ29pbmcgb3V0IH
 lvdXIgZG9vci4gWW91IHN0ZXAgb250byB0aGUgcm9hZCwgYW5kIGlmIHlvdSBk
 b24ndCBrZWVwIHlvdXIgZmVldCwgdGhlcmXigJlzIG5vIGtub3dpbmcgd2hlcm
 UgeW91IG1pZ2h0IGJlIHN3ZXB0IG9mZiB0by4
                     Figure 68: JWS Signing Input
 Performing the signature operation over the JWS Signing Input
 (Figure 68) produces the JWS Signature (Figure 69).
 s0h6KThzkfBBBkLspW1h84VsJZFTsPPqMDA7g1Md7p0
            Figure 69: JWS Signature #3, base64url-encoded

Miller Informational [Page 36] RFC 7520 JOSE Cookbook May 2015

 The following is the assembled third signature serialized as JSON:
 {
   "protected": "eyJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiIsImtpZCI6IjAxOGMwYWU1LTRkOW
       ItNDcxYi1iZmQ2LWVlZjMxNGJjNzAzNyJ9",
   "signature": "s0h6KThzkfBBBkLspW1h84VsJZFTsPPqMDA7g1Md7p0"
 }
                     Figure 70: Signature #3 JSON

4.8.5. Output Results

 The following compose the resulting JWS object:
 o  Payload content (Figure 8)
 o  Signature #1 JSON (Figure 61)
 o  Signature #2 JSON (Figure 65)
 o  Signature #3 JSON (Figure 70)
 The JWS Compact Serialization is not presented because it does not
 support this use case; the flattened JWS JSON Serialization is not
 presented because there is more than one signature.

Miller Informational [Page 37] RFC 7520 JOSE Cookbook May 2015

 The resulting JWS object using the general JWS JSON Serialization:
 {
   "payload": "SXTigJlzIGEgZGFuZ2Vyb3VzIGJ1c2luZXNzLCBGcm9kbywg
       Z29pbmcgb3V0IHlvdXIgZG9vci4gWW91IHN0ZXAgb250byB0aGUgcm9h
       ZCwgYW5kIGlmIHlvdSBkb24ndCBrZWVwIHlvdXIgZmVldCwgdGhlcmXi
       gJlzIG5vIGtub3dpbmcgd2hlcmUgeW91IG1pZ2h0IGJlIHN3ZXB0IG9m
       ZiB0by4",
   "signatures": [
     {
       "protected": "eyJhbGciOiJSUzI1NiJ9",
       "header": {
         "kid": "bilbo.baggins@hobbiton.example"
       },
       "signature": "MIsjqtVlOpa71KE-Mss8_Nq2YH4FGhiocsqrgi5Nvy
           G53uoimic1tcMdSg-qptrzZc7CG6Svw2Y13TDIqHzTUrL_lR2ZFc
           ryNFiHkSw129EghGpwkpxaTn_THJTCglNbADko1MZBCdwzJxwqZc
           -1RlpO2HibUYyXSwO97BSe0_evZKdjvvKSgsIqjytKSeAMbhMBdM
           ma622_BG5t4sdbuCHtFjp9iJmkio47AIwqkZV1aIZsv33uPUqBBC
           XbYoQJwt7mxPftHmNlGoOSMxR_3thmXTCm4US-xiNOyhbm8afKK6
           4jU6_TPtQHiJeQJxz9G3Tx-083B745_AfYOnlC9w"
     },
     {
       "header": {
         "alg": "ES512",
         "kid": "bilbo.baggins@hobbiton.example"
       },
       "signature": "ARcVLnaJJaUWG8fG-8t5BREVAuTY8n8YHjwDO1muhc
           dCoFZFFjfISu0Cdkn9Ybdlmi54ho0x924DUz8sK7ZXkhc7AFM8Ob
           LfTvNCrqcI3Jkl2U5IX3utNhODH6v7xgy1Qahsn0fyb4zSAkje8b
           AWz4vIfj5pCMYxxm4fgV3q7ZYhm5eD"
     },
     {
       "protected": "eyJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiIsImtpZCI6IjAxOGMwYWU1LT
           RkOWItNDcxYi1iZmQ2LWVlZjMxNGJjNzAzNyJ9",
       "signature": "s0h6KThzkfBBBkLspW1h84VsJZFTsPPqMDA7g1Md7p
           0"
     }
   ]
 }
               Figure 71: General JWS JSON Serialization

Miller Informational [Page 38] RFC 7520 JOSE Cookbook May 2015

5. JSON Web Encryption Examples

 The following sections demonstrate how to generate various JWE
 objects.
 All of the encryption examples (unless otherwise noted) use the
 following Plaintext content (an abridged quote from "The Fellowship
 of the Ring" [LOTR-FELLOWSHIP]), serialized as UTF-8.  The Plaintext
 is presented here as a series of quoted strings that are concatenated
 to produce the JWE Plaintext.  The sequence "\xe2\x80\x93" is
 substituted for (U+2013 EN DASH), and quotation marks (U+0022
 QUOTATION MARK) are added for readability but are not present in the
 JWE Plaintext.
 "You can trust us to stick with you through thick and "
 "thin\xe2\x80\x93to the bitter end. And you can trust us to "
 "keep any secret of yours\xe2\x80\x93closer than you keep it "
 "yourself. But you cannot trust us to let you face trouble "
 "alone, and go off without a word. We are your friends, Frodo."
                     Figure 72: Plaintext Content

5.1. Key Encryption Using RSA v1.5 and AES-HMAC-SHA2

 This example illustrates encrypting content using the "RSA1_5"
 (RSAES-PKCS1-v1_5) key encryption algorithm and the "A128CBC-HS256"
 (AES-128-CBC-HMAC-SHA-256) content encryption algorithm.
 Note that RSAES-PKCS1-v1_5 uses random data to generate the
 ciphertext; it might not be possible to exactly replicate the results
 in this section.
 Note that only the RSA public key is necessary to perform the
 encryption.  However, the example includes the RSA private key to
 allow readers to validate the output.
 Note that whitespace is added for readability as described in
 Section 1.1.

5.1.1. Input Factors

 The following are supplied before beginning the encryption process:
 o  Plaintext content; this example uses the content from Figure 72.
 o  RSA public key; this example uses the key from Figure 73.

Miller Informational [Page 39] RFC 7520 JOSE Cookbook May 2015

 o  "alg" parameter of "RSA1_5".
 o  "enc" parameter of "A128CBC-HS256".
 {
   "kty": "RSA",
   "kid": "frodo.baggins@hobbiton.example",
   "use": "enc",
   "n": "maxhbsmBtdQ3CNrKvprUE6n9lYcregDMLYNeTAWcLj8NnPU9XIYegT
       HVHQjxKDSHP2l-F5jS7sppG1wgdAqZyhnWvXhYNvcM7RfgKxqNx_xAHx
       6f3yy7s-M9PSNCwPC2lh6UAkR4I00EhV9lrypM9Pi4lBUop9t5fS9W5U
       NwaAllhrd-osQGPjIeI1deHTwx-ZTHu3C60Pu_LJIl6hKn9wbwaUmA4c
       R5Bd2pgbaY7ASgsjCUbtYJaNIHSoHXprUdJZKUMAzV0WOKPfA6OPI4oy
       pBadjvMZ4ZAj3BnXaSYsEZhaueTXvZB4eZOAjIyh2e_VOIKVMsnDrJYA
       VotGlvMQ",
   "e": "AQAB",
   "d": "Kn9tgoHfiTVi8uPu5b9TnwyHwG5dK6RE0uFdlpCGnJN7ZEi963R7wy
       bQ1PLAHmpIbNTztfrheoAniRV1NCIqXaW_qS461xiDTp4ntEPnqcKsyO
       5jMAji7-CL8vhpYYowNFvIesgMoVaPRYMYT9TW63hNM0aWs7USZ_hLg6
       Oe1mY0vHTI3FucjSM86Nff4oIENt43r2fspgEPGRrdE6fpLc9Oaq-qeP
       1GFULimrRdndm-P8q8kvN3KHlNAtEgrQAgTTgz80S-3VD0FgWfgnb1PN
       miuPUxO8OpI9KDIfu_acc6fg14nsNaJqXe6RESvhGPH2afjHqSy_Fd2v
       pzj85bQQ",
   "p": "2DwQmZ43FoTnQ8IkUj3BmKRf5Eh2mizZA5xEJ2MinUE3sdTYKSLtaE
       oekX9vbBZuWxHdVhM6UnKCJ_2iNk8Z0ayLYHL0_G21aXf9-unynEpUsH
       7HHTklLpYAzOOx1ZgVljoxAdWNn3hiEFrjZLZGS7lOH-a3QQlDDQoJOJ
       2VFmU",
   "q": "te8LY4-W7IyaqH1ExujjMqkTAlTeRbv0VLQnfLY2xINnrWdwiQ93_V
       F099aP1ESeLja2nw-6iKIe-qT7mtCPozKfVtUYfz5HrJ_XY2kfexJINb
       9lhZHMv5p1skZpeIS-GPHCC6gRlKo1q-idn_qxyusfWv7WAxlSVfQfk8
       d6Et0",
   "dp": "UfYKcL_or492vVc0PzwLSplbg4L3-Z5wL48mwiswbpzOyIgd2xHTH
       QmjJpFAIZ8q-zf9RmgJXkDrFs9rkdxPtAsL1WYdeCT5c125Fkdg317JV
       RDo1inX7x2Kdh8ERCreW8_4zXItuTl_KiXZNU5lvMQjWbIw2eTx1lpsf
       lo0rYU",
   "dq": "iEgcO-QfpepdH8FWd7mUFyrXdnOkXJBCogChY6YKuIHGc_p8Le9Mb
       pFKESzEaLlN1Ehf3B6oGBl5Iz_ayUlZj2IoQZ82znoUrpa9fVYNot87A
       CfzIG7q9Mv7RiPAderZi03tkVXAdaBau_9vs5rS-7HMtxkVrxSUvJY14
       TkXlHE",
   "qi": "kC-lzZOqoFaZCr5l0tOVtREKoVqaAYhQiqIRGL-MzS4sCmRkxm5vZ
       lXYx6RtE1n_AagjqajlkjieGlxTTThHD8Iga6foGBMaAr5uR1hGQpSc7
       Gl7CF1DZkBJMTQN6EshYzZfxW08mIO8M6Rzuh0beL6fG9mkDcIyPrBXx
       2bQ_mM"
 }
              Figure 73: RSA 2048-Bit Key, in JWK Format

Miller Informational [Page 40] RFC 7520 JOSE Cookbook May 2015

 (NOTE: While the key includes the private parameters, only the public
 parameters "e" and "n" are necessary for the encryption operation.)

5.1.2. Generated Factors

 The following are generated before encrypting:
 o  AES symmetric key as the Content Encryption Key (CEK); this
    example uses the key from Figure 74.
 o  Initialization Vector; this example uses the Initialization Vector
    from Figure 75.
 3qyTVhIWt5juqZUCpfRqpvauwB956MEJL2Rt-8qXKSo
         Figure 74: Content Encryption Key, base64url-encoded
 bbd5sTkYwhAIqfHsx8DayA
          Figure 75: Initialization Vector, base64url-encoded

5.1.3. Encrypting the Key

 Performing the key encryption operation over the CEK (Figure 74) with
 the RSA key (Figure 73) results in the following Encrypted Key:
 laLxI0j-nLH-_BgLOXMozKxmy9gffy2gTdvqzfTihJBuuzxg0V7yk1WClnQePF
 vG2K-pvSlWc9BRIazDrn50RcRai__3TDON395H3c62tIouJJ4XaRvYHFjZTZ2G
 Xfz8YAImcc91Tfk0WXC2F5Xbb71ClQ1DDH151tlpH77f2ff7xiSxh9oSewYrcG
 TSLUeeCt36r1Kt3OSj7EyBQXoZlN7IxbyhMAfgIe7Mv1rOTOI5I8NQqeXXW8Vl
 zNmoxaGMny3YnGir5Wf6Qt2nBq4qDaPdnaAuuGUGEecelIO1wx1BpyIfgvfjOh
 MBs9M8XL223Fg47xlGsMXdfuY-4jaqVw
              Figure 76: Encrypted Key, base64url-encoded

Miller Informational [Page 41] RFC 7520 JOSE Cookbook May 2015

5.1.4. Encrypting the Content

 The following is generated before encrypting the Plaintext:
 o  JWE Protected Header; this example uses the header from Figure 77,
    encoded using base64url [RFC4648] to produce Figure 78.
 {
   "alg": "RSA1_5",
   "kid": "frodo.baggins@hobbiton.example",
   "enc": "A128CBC-HS256"
 }
                 Figure 77: JWE Protected Header JSON
 eyJhbGciOiJSU0ExXzUiLCJraWQiOiJmcm9kby5iYWdnaW5zQGhvYmJpdG9uLm
 V4YW1wbGUiLCJlbmMiOiJBMTI4Q0JDLUhTMjU2In0
          Figure 78: JWE Protected Header, base64url-encoded
 Performing the content encryption operation on the Plaintext
 (Figure 72) using the following:
 o  CEK (Figure 74);
 o  Initialization Vector (Figure 75); and
 o  JWE Protected Header (Figure 77) as authenticated data
 produces the following:
 o  Ciphertext from Figure 79.
 o  Authentication Tag from Figure 80.
 0fys_TY_na7f8dwSfXLiYdHaA2DxUjD67ieF7fcVbIR62JhJvGZ4_FNVSiGc_r
 aa0HnLQ6s1P2sv3Xzl1p1l_o5wR_RsSzrS8Z-wnI3Jvo0mkpEEnlDmZvDu_k8O
 WzJv7eZVEqiWKdyVzFhPpiyQU28GLOpRc2VbVbK4dQKPdNTjPPEmRqcaGeTWZV
 yeSUvf5k59yJZxRuSvWFf6KrNtmRdZ8R4mDOjHSrM_s8uwIFcqt4r5GX8TKaI0
 zT5CbL5Qlw3sRc7u_hg0yKVOiRytEAEs3vZkcfLkP6nbXdC_PkMdNS-ohP78T2
 O6_7uInMGhFeX4ctHG7VelHGiT93JfWDEQi5_V9UN1rhXNrYu-0fVMkZAKX3VW
 i7lzA6BP430m
               Figure 79: Ciphertext, base64url-encoded
 kvKuFBXHe5mQr4lqgobAUg
           Figure 80: Authentication Tag, base64url-encoded

Miller Informational [Page 42] RFC 7520 JOSE Cookbook May 2015

5.1.5. Output Results

 The following compose the resulting JWE object:
 o  JWE Protected Header (Figure 78)
 o  Encrypted Key (Figure 76)
 o  Initialization Vector (Figure 75)
 o  Ciphertext (Figure 79)
 o  Authentication Tag (Figure 80)
 The resulting JWE object using the JWE Compact Serialization:
 eyJhbGciOiJSU0ExXzUiLCJraWQiOiJmcm9kby5iYWdnaW5zQGhvYmJpdG9uLm
 V4YW1wbGUiLCJlbmMiOiJBMTI4Q0JDLUhTMjU2In0
 .
 laLxI0j-nLH-_BgLOXMozKxmy9gffy2gTdvqzfTihJBuuzxg0V7yk1WClnQePF
 vG2K-pvSlWc9BRIazDrn50RcRai__3TDON395H3c62tIouJJ4XaRvYHFjZTZ2G
 Xfz8YAImcc91Tfk0WXC2F5Xbb71ClQ1DDH151tlpH77f2ff7xiSxh9oSewYrcG
 TSLUeeCt36r1Kt3OSj7EyBQXoZlN7IxbyhMAfgIe7Mv1rOTOI5I8NQqeXXW8Vl
 zNmoxaGMny3YnGir5Wf6Qt2nBq4qDaPdnaAuuGUGEecelIO1wx1BpyIfgvfjOh
 MBs9M8XL223Fg47xlGsMXdfuY-4jaqVw
 .
 bbd5sTkYwhAIqfHsx8DayA
 .
 0fys_TY_na7f8dwSfXLiYdHaA2DxUjD67ieF7fcVbIR62JhJvGZ4_FNVSiGc_r
 aa0HnLQ6s1P2sv3Xzl1p1l_o5wR_RsSzrS8Z-wnI3Jvo0mkpEEnlDmZvDu_k8O
 WzJv7eZVEqiWKdyVzFhPpiyQU28GLOpRc2VbVbK4dQKPdNTjPPEmRqcaGeTWZV
 yeSUvf5k59yJZxRuSvWFf6KrNtmRdZ8R4mDOjHSrM_s8uwIFcqt4r5GX8TKaI0
 zT5CbL5Qlw3sRc7u_hg0yKVOiRytEAEs3vZkcfLkP6nbXdC_PkMdNS-ohP78T2
 O6_7uInMGhFeX4ctHG7VelHGiT93JfWDEQi5_V9UN1rhXNrYu-0fVMkZAKX3VW
 i7lzA6BP430m
 .
 kvKuFBXHe5mQr4lqgobAUg
                 Figure 81: JWE Compact Serialization

Miller Informational [Page 43] RFC 7520 JOSE Cookbook May 2015

 The resulting JWE object using the general JWE JSON Serialization:
 {
   "recipients": [
     {
       "encrypted_key": "laLxI0j-nLH-_BgLOXMozKxmy9gffy2gTdvqzf
           TihJBuuzxg0V7yk1WClnQePFvG2K-pvSlWc9BRIazDrn50RcRai_
           _3TDON395H3c62tIouJJ4XaRvYHFjZTZ2GXfz8YAImcc91Tfk0WX
           C2F5Xbb71ClQ1DDH151tlpH77f2ff7xiSxh9oSewYrcGTSLUeeCt
           36r1Kt3OSj7EyBQXoZlN7IxbyhMAfgIe7Mv1rOTOI5I8NQqeXXW8
           VlzNmoxaGMny3YnGir5Wf6Qt2nBq4qDaPdnaAuuGUGEecelIO1wx
           1BpyIfgvfjOhMBs9M8XL223Fg47xlGsMXdfuY-4jaqVw"
     }
   ],
   "protected": "eyJhbGciOiJSU0ExXzUiLCJraWQiOiJmcm9kby5iYWdnaW
       5zQGhvYmJpdG9uLmV4YW1wbGUiLCJlbmMiOiJBMTI4Q0JDLUhTMjU2In
       0",
   "iv": "bbd5sTkYwhAIqfHsx8DayA",
   "ciphertext": "0fys_TY_na7f8dwSfXLiYdHaA2DxUjD67ieF7fcVbIR62
       JhJvGZ4_FNVSiGc_raa0HnLQ6s1P2sv3Xzl1p1l_o5wR_RsSzrS8Z-wn
       I3Jvo0mkpEEnlDmZvDu_k8OWzJv7eZVEqiWKdyVzFhPpiyQU28GLOpRc
       2VbVbK4dQKPdNTjPPEmRqcaGeTWZVyeSUvf5k59yJZxRuSvWFf6KrNtm
       RdZ8R4mDOjHSrM_s8uwIFcqt4r5GX8TKaI0zT5CbL5Qlw3sRc7u_hg0y
       KVOiRytEAEs3vZkcfLkP6nbXdC_PkMdNS-ohP78T2O6_7uInMGhFeX4c
       tHG7VelHGiT93JfWDEQi5_V9UN1rhXNrYu-0fVMkZAKX3VWi7lzA6BP4
       30m",
   "tag": "kvKuFBXHe5mQr4lqgobAUg"
 }
               Figure 82: General JWE JSON Serialization

Miller Informational [Page 44] RFC 7520 JOSE Cookbook May 2015

 The resulting JWE object using the flattened JWE JSON Serialization:
 {
   "protected": "eyJhbGciOiJSU0ExXzUiLCJraWQiOiJmcm9kby5iYWdnaW
       5zQGhvYmJpdG9uLmV4YW1wbGUiLCJlbmMiOiJBMTI4Q0JDLUhTMjU2In
       0",
   "encrypted_key": "laLxI0j-nLH-_BgLOXMozKxmy9gffy2gTdvqzfTihJ
       Buuzxg0V7yk1WClnQePFvG2K-pvSlWc9BRIazDrn50RcRai__3TDON39
       5H3c62tIouJJ4XaRvYHFjZTZ2GXfz8YAImcc91Tfk0WXC2F5Xbb71ClQ
       1DDH151tlpH77f2ff7xiSxh9oSewYrcGTSLUeeCt36r1Kt3OSj7EyBQX
       oZlN7IxbyhMAfgIe7Mv1rOTOI5I8NQqeXXW8VlzNmoxaGMny3YnGir5W
       f6Qt2nBq4qDaPdnaAuuGUGEecelIO1wx1BpyIfgvfjOhMBs9M8XL223F
       g47xlGsMXdfuY-4jaqVw",
   "iv": "bbd5sTkYwhAIqfHsx8DayA",
   "ciphertext": "0fys_TY_na7f8dwSfXLiYdHaA2DxUjD67ieF7fcVbIR62
       JhJvGZ4_FNVSiGc_raa0HnLQ6s1P2sv3Xzl1p1l_o5wR_RsSzrS8Z-wn
       I3Jvo0mkpEEnlDmZvDu_k8OWzJv7eZVEqiWKdyVzFhPpiyQU28GLOpRc
       2VbVbK4dQKPdNTjPPEmRqcaGeTWZVyeSUvf5k59yJZxRuSvWFf6KrNtm
       RdZ8R4mDOjHSrM_s8uwIFcqt4r5GX8TKaI0zT5CbL5Qlw3sRc7u_hg0y
       KVOiRytEAEs3vZkcfLkP6nbXdC_PkMdNS-ohP78T2O6_7uInMGhFeX4c
       tHG7VelHGiT93JfWDEQi5_V9UN1rhXNrYu-0fVMkZAKX3VWi7lzA6BP4
       30m",
   "tag": "kvKuFBXHe5mQr4lqgobAUg"
 }
              Figure 83: Flattened JWE JSON Serialization

5.2. Key Encryption Using RSA-OAEP with AES-GCM

 This example illustrates encrypting content using the "RSA-OAEP"
 (RSAES-OAEP) key encryption algorithm and the "A256GCM" (AES-GCM)
 content encryption algorithm.
 Note that RSAES-OAEP uses random data to generate the ciphertext; it
 might not be possible to exactly replicate the results in this
 section.
 Note that only the RSA public key is necessary to perform the
 encryption.  However, the example includes the RSA private key to
 allow readers to validate the output.
 Note that whitespace is added for readability as described in
 Section 1.1.

Miller Informational [Page 45] RFC 7520 JOSE Cookbook May 2015

5.2.1. Input Factors

 The following are supplied before beginning the encryption process:
 o  Plaintext content; this example uses the Plaintext from Figure 72.
 o  RSA public key; this example uses the key from Figure 84.
 o  "alg" parameter of "RSA-OAEP".
 o  "enc" parameter of "A256GCM".
 {
   "kty": "RSA",
   "kid": "samwise.gamgee@hobbiton.example",
   "use": "enc",
   "n": "wbdxI55VaanZXPY29Lg5hdmv2XhvqAhoxUkanfzf2-5zVUxa6prHRr
       I4pP1AhoqJRlZfYtWWd5mmHRG2pAHIlh0ySJ9wi0BioZBl1XP2e-C-Fy
       XJGcTy0HdKQWlrfhTm42EW7Vv04r4gfao6uxjLGwfpGrZLarohiWCPnk
       Nrg71S2CuNZSQBIPGjXfkmIy2tl_VWgGnL22GplyXj5YlBLdxXp3XeSt
       sqo571utNfoUTU8E4qdzJ3U1DItoVkPGsMwlmmnJiwA7sXRItBCivR4M
       5qnZtdw-7v4WuR4779ubDuJ5nalMv2S66-RPcnFAzWSKxtBDnFJJDGIU
       e7Tzizjg1nms0Xq_yPub_UOlWn0ec85FCft1hACpWG8schrOBeNqHBOD
       FskYpUc2LC5JA2TaPF2dA67dg1TTsC_FupfQ2kNGcE1LgprxKHcVWYQb
       86B-HozjHZcqtauBzFNV5tbTuB-TpkcvJfNcFLlH3b8mb-H_ox35FjqB
       SAjLKyoeqfKTpVjvXhd09knwgJf6VKq6UC418_TOljMVfFTWXUxlnfhO
       OnzW6HSSzD1c9WrCuVzsUMv54szidQ9wf1cYWf3g5qFDxDQKis99gcDa
       iCAwM3yEBIzuNeeCa5dartHDb1xEB_HcHSeYbghbMjGfasvKn0aZRsnT
       yC0xhWBlsolZE",
   "e": "AQAB",
   "alg": "RSA-OAEP",
   "d": "n7fzJc3_WG59VEOBTkayzuSMM780OJQuZjN_KbH8lOZG25ZoA7T4Bx
       cc0xQn5oZE5uSCIwg91oCt0JvxPcpmqzaJZg1nirjcWZ-oBtVk7gCAWq
       -B3qhfF3izlbkosrzjHajIcY33HBhsy4_WerrXg4MDNE4HYojy68TcxT
       2LYQRxUOCf5TtJXvM8olexlSGtVnQnDRutxEUCwiewfmmrfveEogLx9E
       A-KMgAjTiISXxqIXQhWUQX1G7v_mV_Hr2YuImYcNcHkRvp9E7ook0876
       DhkO8v4UOZLwA1OlUX98mkoqwc58A_Y2lBYbVx1_s5lpPsEqbbH-nqIj
       h1fL0gdNfihLxnclWtW7pCztLnImZAyeCWAG7ZIfv-Rn9fLIv9jZ6r7r
       -MSH9sqbuziHN2grGjD_jfRluMHa0l84fFKl6bcqN1JWxPVhzNZo01yD
       F-1LiQnqUYSepPf6X3a2SOdkqBRiquE6EvLuSYIDpJq3jDIsgoL8Mo1L
       oomgiJxUwL_GWEOGu28gplyzm-9Q0U0nyhEf1uhSR8aJAQWAiFImWH5W
       _IQT9I7-yrindr_2fWQ_i1UgMsGzA7aOGzZfPljRy6z-tY_KuBG00-28
       S_aWvjyUc-Alp8AUyKjBZ-7CWH32fGWK48j1t-zomrwjL_mnhsPbGs0c
       9WsWgRzI-K8gE",
   "p": "7_2v3OQZzlPFcHyYfLABQ3XP85Es4hCdwCkbDeltaUXgVy9l9etKgh
       vM4hRkOvbb01kYVuLFmxIkCDtpi-zLCYAdXKrAK3PtSbtzld_XZ9nlsY
       a_QZWpXB_IrtFjVfdKUdMz94pHUhFGFj7nr6NNxfpiHSHWFE1zD_AC3m
       Y46J961Y2LRnreVwAGNw53p07Db8yD_92pDa97vqcZOdgtybH9q6uma-

Miller Informational [Page 46] RFC 7520 JOSE Cookbook May 2015

       RFNhO1AoiJhYZj69hjmMRXx-x56HO9cnXNbmzNSCFCKnQmn4GQLmRj9s
       fbZRqL94bbtE4_e0Zrpo8RNo8vxRLqQNwIy85fc6BRgBJomt8QdQvIgP
       gWCv5HoQ",
   "q": "zqOHk1P6WN_rHuM7ZF1cXH0x6RuOHq67WuHiSknqQeefGBA9PWs6Zy
       KQCO-O6mKXtcgE8_Q_hA2kMRcKOcvHil1hqMCNSXlflM7WPRPZu2qCDc
       qssd_uMbP-DqYthH_EzwL9KnYoH7JQFxxmcv5An8oXUtTwk4knKjkIYG
       RuUwfQTus0w1NfjFAyxOOiAQ37ussIcE6C6ZSsM3n41UlbJ7TCqewzVJ
       aPJN5cxjySPZPD3Vp01a9YgAD6a3IIaKJdIxJS1ImnfPevSJQBE79-EX
       e2kSwVgOzvt-gsmM29QQ8veHy4uAqca5dZzMs7hkkHtw1z0jHV90epQJ
       JlXXnH8Q",
   "dp": "19oDkBh1AXelMIxQFm2zZTqUhAzCIr4xNIGEPNoDt1jK83_FJA-xn
       x5kA7-1erdHdms_Ef67HsONNv5A60JaR7w8LHnDiBGnjdaUmmuO8XAxQ
       J_ia5mxjxNjS6E2yD44USo2JmHvzeeNczq25elqbTPLhUpGo1IZuG72F
       ZQ5gTjXoTXC2-xtCDEUZfaUNh4IeAipfLugbpe0JAFlFfrTDAMUFpC3i
       XjxqzbEanflwPvj6V9iDSgjj8SozSM0dLtxvu0LIeIQAeEgT_yXcrKGm
       pKdSO08kLBx8VUjkbv_3Pn20Gyu2YEuwpFlM_H1NikuxJNKFGmnAq9Lc
       nwwT0jvoQ",
   "dq": "S6p59KrlmzGzaQYQM3o0XfHCGvfqHLYjCO557HYQf72O9kLMCfd_1
       VBEqeD-1jjwELKDjck8kOBl5UvohK1oDfSP1DleAy-cnmL29DqWmhgwM
       1ip0CCNmkmsmDSlqkUXDi6sAaZuntyukyflI-qSQ3C_BafPyFaKrt1fg
       dyEwYa08pESKwwWisy7KnmoUvaJ3SaHmohFS78TJ25cfc10wZ9hQNOrI
       ChZlkiOdFCtxDqdmCqNacnhgE3bZQjGp3n83ODSz9zwJcSUvODlXBPc2
       AycH6Ci5yjbxt4Ppox_5pjm6xnQkiPgj01GpsUssMmBN7iHVsrE7N2iz
       nBNCeOUIQ",
   "qi": "FZhClBMywVVjnuUud-05qd5CYU0dK79akAgy9oX6RX6I3IIIPckCc
       iRrokxglZn-omAY5CnCe4KdrnjFOT5YUZE7G_Pg44XgCXaarLQf4hl80
       oPEf6-jJ5Iy6wPRx7G2e8qLxnh9cOdf-kRqgOS3F48Ucvw3ma5V6KGMw
       QqWFeV31XtZ8l5cVI-I3NzBS7qltpUVgz2Ju021eyc7IlqgzR98qKONl
       27DuEES0aK0WE97jnsyO27Yp88Wa2RiBrEocM89QZI1seJiGDizHRUP4
       UZxw9zsXww46wy0P6f9grnYp7t8LkyDDk8eoI4KX6SNMNVcyVS9IWjlq
       8EzqZEKIA"
 }
                      Figure 84: RSA 4096-Bit Key
 (NOTE: While the key includes the private parameters, only the public
 parameters "e" and "n" are necessary for the encryption operation.)

5.2.2. Generated Factors

 The following are generated before encrypting:
 o  AES symmetric key as the Content Encryption Key (CEK); this
    example uses the key from Figure 85.
 o  Initialization Vector; this example uses the Initialization Vector
    from Figure 86.

Miller Informational [Page 47] RFC 7520 JOSE Cookbook May 2015

 mYMfsggkTAm0TbvtlFh2hyoXnbEzJQjMxmgLN3d8xXA
         Figure 85: Content Encryption Key, base64url-encoded
  1. nBoKLH0YkLZPSI9
          Figure 86: Initialization Vector, base64url-encoded

5.2.3. Encrypting the Key

 Performing the key encryption operation over the CEK (Figure 85) with
 the RSA key (Figure 84) produces the following Encrypted Key:
 rT99rwrBTbTI7IJM8fU3Eli7226HEB7IchCxNuh7lCiud48LxeolRdtFF4nzQi
 beYOl5S_PJsAXZwSXtDePz9hk-BbtsTBqC2UsPOdwjC9NhNupNNu9uHIVftDyu
 cvI6hvALeZ6OGnhNV4v1zx2k7O1D89mAzfw-_kT3tkuorpDU-CpBENfIHX1Q58
 -Aad3FzMuo3Fn9buEP2yXakLXYa15BUXQsupM4A1GD4_H4Bd7V3u9h8Gkg8Bpx
 KdUV9ScfJQTcYm6eJEBz3aSwIaK4T3-dwWpuBOhROQXBosJzS1asnuHtVMt2pK
 IIfux5BC6huIvmY7kzV7W7aIUrpYm_3H4zYvyMeq5pGqFmW2k8zpO878TRlZx7
 pZfPYDSXZyS0CfKKkMozT_qiCwZTSz4duYnt8hS4Z9sGthXn9uDqd6wycMagnQ
 fOTs_lycTWmY-aqWVDKhjYNRf03NiwRtb5BE-tOdFwCASQj3uuAgPGrO2AWBe3
 8UjQb0lvXn1SpyvYZ3WFc7WOJYaTa7A8DRn6MC6T-xDmMuxC0G7S2rscw5lQQU
 06MvZTlFOt0UvfuKBa03cxA_nIBIhLMjY2kOTxQMmpDPTr6Cbo8aKaOnx6ASE5
 Jx9paBpnNmOOKH35j_QlrQhDWUN6A2Gg8iFayJ69xDEdHAVCGRzN3woEI2ozDR
 s
              Figure 87: Encrypted Key, base64url-encoded

5.2.4. Encrypting the Content

 The following is generated before encrypting the Plaintext:
 o  JWE Protected Header; this example uses the header from Figure 88,
    encoded using base64url [RFC4648] to produce Figure 89.
 {
   "alg": "RSA-OAEP",
   "kid": "samwise.gamgee@hobbiton.example",
   "enc": "A256GCM"
 }
                 Figure 88: JWE Protected Header JSON
 eyJhbGciOiJSU0EtT0FFUCIsImtpZCI6InNhbXdpc2UuZ2FtZ2VlQGhvYmJpdG
 9uLmV4YW1wbGUiLCJlbmMiOiJBMjU2R0NNIn0
          Figure 89: JWE Protected Header, base64url-encoded

Miller Informational [Page 48] RFC 7520 JOSE Cookbook May 2015

 Performing the content encryption operation over the Plaintext
 (Figure 72) with the following:
 o  CEK (Figure 85);
 o  Initialization Vector (Figure 86); and
 o  JWE Protected Header (Figure 89) as authenticated data
 produces the following:
 o  Ciphertext from Figure 90.
 o  Authentication Tag from Figure 91.
 o4k2cnGN8rSSw3IDo1YuySkqeS_t2m1GXklSgqBdpACm6UJuJowOHC5ytjqYgR
 L-I-soPlwqMUf4UgRWWeaOGNw6vGW-xyM01lTYxrXfVzIIaRdhYtEMRBvBWbEw
 P7ua1DRfvaOjgZv6Ifa3brcAM64d8p5lhhNcizPersuhw5f-pGYzseva-TUaL8
 iWnctc-sSwy7SQmRkfhDjwbz0fz6kFovEgj64X1I5s7E6GLp5fnbYGLa1QUiML
 7Cc2GxgvI7zqWo0YIEc7aCflLG1-8BboVWFdZKLK9vNoycrYHumwzKluLWEbSV
 maPpOslY2n525DxDfWaVFUfKQxMF56vn4B9QMpWAbnypNimbM8zVOw
               Figure 90: Ciphertext, base64url-encoded
 UCGiqJxhBI3IFVdPalHHvA
           Figure 91: Authentication Tag, base64url-encoded

5.2.5. Output Results

 The following compose the resulting JWE object:
 o  JWE Protected Header (Figure 89)
 o  Encrypted Key (Figure 87)
 o  Initialization Vector (Figure 86)
 o  Ciphertext (Figure 90)
 o  Authentication Tag (Figure 91)

Miller Informational [Page 49] RFC 7520 JOSE Cookbook May 2015

 The resulting JWE object using the JWE Compact Serialization:
 eyJhbGciOiJSU0EtT0FFUCIsImtpZCI6InNhbXdpc2UuZ2FtZ2VlQGhvYmJpdG
 9uLmV4YW1wbGUiLCJlbmMiOiJBMjU2R0NNIn0
 .
 rT99rwrBTbTI7IJM8fU3Eli7226HEB7IchCxNuh7lCiud48LxeolRdtFF4nzQi
 beYOl5S_PJsAXZwSXtDePz9hk-BbtsTBqC2UsPOdwjC9NhNupNNu9uHIVftDyu
 cvI6hvALeZ6OGnhNV4v1zx2k7O1D89mAzfw-_kT3tkuorpDU-CpBENfIHX1Q58
 -Aad3FzMuo3Fn9buEP2yXakLXYa15BUXQsupM4A1GD4_H4Bd7V3u9h8Gkg8Bpx
 KdUV9ScfJQTcYm6eJEBz3aSwIaK4T3-dwWpuBOhROQXBosJzS1asnuHtVMt2pK
 IIfux5BC6huIvmY7kzV7W7aIUrpYm_3H4zYvyMeq5pGqFmW2k8zpO878TRlZx7
 pZfPYDSXZyS0CfKKkMozT_qiCwZTSz4duYnt8hS4Z9sGthXn9uDqd6wycMagnQ
 fOTs_lycTWmY-aqWVDKhjYNRf03NiwRtb5BE-tOdFwCASQj3uuAgPGrO2AWBe3
 8UjQb0lvXn1SpyvYZ3WFc7WOJYaTa7A8DRn6MC6T-xDmMuxC0G7S2rscw5lQQU
 06MvZTlFOt0UvfuKBa03cxA_nIBIhLMjY2kOTxQMmpDPTr6Cbo8aKaOnx6ASE5
 Jx9paBpnNmOOKH35j_QlrQhDWUN6A2Gg8iFayJ69xDEdHAVCGRzN3woEI2ozDR
 s
 .
 -nBoKLH0YkLZPSI9
 .
 o4k2cnGN8rSSw3IDo1YuySkqeS_t2m1GXklSgqBdpACm6UJuJowOHC5ytjqYgR
 L-I-soPlwqMUf4UgRWWeaOGNw6vGW-xyM01lTYxrXfVzIIaRdhYtEMRBvBWbEw
 P7ua1DRfvaOjgZv6Ifa3brcAM64d8p5lhhNcizPersuhw5f-pGYzseva-TUaL8
 iWnctc-sSwy7SQmRkfhDjwbz0fz6kFovEgj64X1I5s7E6GLp5fnbYGLa1QUiML
 7Cc2GxgvI7zqWo0YIEc7aCflLG1-8BboVWFdZKLK9vNoycrYHumwzKluLWEbSV
 maPpOslY2n525DxDfWaVFUfKQxMF56vn4B9QMpWAbnypNimbM8zVOw
 .
 UCGiqJxhBI3IFVdPalHHvA
                 Figure 92: JWE Compact Serialization

Miller Informational [Page 50] RFC 7520 JOSE Cookbook May 2015

 The resulting JWE object using the general JWE JSON Serialization:
 {
   "recipients": [
     {
       "encrypted_key": "rT99rwrBTbTI7IJM8fU3Eli7226HEB7IchCxNu
           h7lCiud48LxeolRdtFF4nzQibeYOl5S_PJsAXZwSXtDePz9hk-Bb
           tsTBqC2UsPOdwjC9NhNupNNu9uHIVftDyucvI6hvALeZ6OGnhNV4
           v1zx2k7O1D89mAzfw-_kT3tkuorpDU-CpBENfIHX1Q58-Aad3FzM
           uo3Fn9buEP2yXakLXYa15BUXQsupM4A1GD4_H4Bd7V3u9h8Gkg8B
           pxKdUV9ScfJQTcYm6eJEBz3aSwIaK4T3-dwWpuBOhROQXBosJzS1
           asnuHtVMt2pKIIfux5BC6huIvmY7kzV7W7aIUrpYm_3H4zYvyMeq
           5pGqFmW2k8zpO878TRlZx7pZfPYDSXZyS0CfKKkMozT_qiCwZTSz
           4duYnt8hS4Z9sGthXn9uDqd6wycMagnQfOTs_lycTWmY-aqWVDKh
           jYNRf03NiwRtb5BE-tOdFwCASQj3uuAgPGrO2AWBe38UjQb0lvXn
           1SpyvYZ3WFc7WOJYaTa7A8DRn6MC6T-xDmMuxC0G7S2rscw5lQQU
           06MvZTlFOt0UvfuKBa03cxA_nIBIhLMjY2kOTxQMmpDPTr6Cbo8a
           KaOnx6ASE5Jx9paBpnNmOOKH35j_QlrQhDWUN6A2Gg8iFayJ69xD
           EdHAVCGRzN3woEI2ozDRs"
     }
   ],
   "protected": "eyJhbGciOiJSU0EtT0FFUCIsImtpZCI6InNhbXdpc2UuZ2
       FtZ2VlQGhvYmJpdG9uLmV4YW1wbGUiLCJlbmMiOiJBMjU2R0NNIn0",
   "iv": "-nBoKLH0YkLZPSI9",
   "ciphertext": "o4k2cnGN8rSSw3IDo1YuySkqeS_t2m1GXklSgqBdpACm6
       UJuJowOHC5ytjqYgRL-I-soPlwqMUf4UgRWWeaOGNw6vGW-xyM01lTYx
       rXfVzIIaRdhYtEMRBvBWbEwP7ua1DRfvaOjgZv6Ifa3brcAM64d8p5lh
       hNcizPersuhw5f-pGYzseva-TUaL8iWnctc-sSwy7SQmRkfhDjwbz0fz
       6kFovEgj64X1I5s7E6GLp5fnbYGLa1QUiML7Cc2GxgvI7zqWo0YIEc7a
       CflLG1-8BboVWFdZKLK9vNoycrYHumwzKluLWEbSVmaPpOslY2n525Dx
       DfWaVFUfKQxMF56vn4B9QMpWAbnypNimbM8zVOw",
   "tag": "UCGiqJxhBI3IFVdPalHHvA"
 }
               Figure 93: General JWE JSON Serialization

Miller Informational [Page 51] RFC 7520 JOSE Cookbook May 2015

 The resulting JWE object using the flattened JWE JSON Serialization:
 {
   "protected": "eyJhbGciOiJSU0EtT0FFUCIsImtpZCI6InNhbXdpc2UuZ2
       FtZ2VlQGhvYmJpdG9uLmV4YW1wbGUiLCJlbmMiOiJBMjU2R0NNIn0",
   "encrypted_key": "rT99rwrBTbTI7IJM8fU3Eli7226HEB7IchCxNuh7lC
       iud48LxeolRdtFF4nzQibeYOl5S_PJsAXZwSXtDePz9hk-BbtsTBqC2U
       sPOdwjC9NhNupNNu9uHIVftDyucvI6hvALeZ6OGnhNV4v1zx2k7O1D89
       mAzfw-_kT3tkuorpDU-CpBENfIHX1Q58-Aad3FzMuo3Fn9buEP2yXakL
       XYa15BUXQsupM4A1GD4_H4Bd7V3u9h8Gkg8BpxKdUV9ScfJQTcYm6eJE
       Bz3aSwIaK4T3-dwWpuBOhROQXBosJzS1asnuHtVMt2pKIIfux5BC6huI
       vmY7kzV7W7aIUrpYm_3H4zYvyMeq5pGqFmW2k8zpO878TRlZx7pZfPYD
       SXZyS0CfKKkMozT_qiCwZTSz4duYnt8hS4Z9sGthXn9uDqd6wycMagnQ
       fOTs_lycTWmY-aqWVDKhjYNRf03NiwRtb5BE-tOdFwCASQj3uuAgPGrO
       2AWBe38UjQb0lvXn1SpyvYZ3WFc7WOJYaTa7A8DRn6MC6T-xDmMuxC0G
       7S2rscw5lQQU06MvZTlFOt0UvfuKBa03cxA_nIBIhLMjY2kOTxQMmpDP
       Tr6Cbo8aKaOnx6ASE5Jx9paBpnNmOOKH35j_QlrQhDWUN6A2Gg8iFayJ
       69xDEdHAVCGRzN3woEI2ozDRs",
   "iv": "-nBoKLH0YkLZPSI9",
   "ciphertext": "o4k2cnGN8rSSw3IDo1YuySkqeS_t2m1GXklSgqBdpACm6
       UJuJowOHC5ytjqYgRL-I-soPlwqMUf4UgRWWeaOGNw6vGW-xyM01lTYx
       rXfVzIIaRdhYtEMRBvBWbEwP7ua1DRfvaOjgZv6Ifa3brcAM64d8p5lh
       hNcizPersuhw5f-pGYzseva-TUaL8iWnctc-sSwy7SQmRkfhDjwbz0fz
       6kFovEgj64X1I5s7E6GLp5fnbYGLa1QUiML7Cc2GxgvI7zqWo0YIEc7a
       CflLG1-8BboVWFdZKLK9vNoycrYHumwzKluLWEbSVmaPpOslY2n525Dx
       DfWaVFUfKQxMF56vn4B9QMpWAbnypNimbM8zVOw",
   "tag": "UCGiqJxhBI3IFVdPalHHvA"
 }
              Figure 94: Flattened JWE JSON Serialization

5.3. Key Wrap Using PBES2-AES-KeyWrap with AES-CBC-HMAC-SHA2

 The example illustrates encrypting content using the
 "PBES2-HS512+A256KW" (PBES2 Password-based Encryption using HMAC-
 SHA-512 and AES-256-KeyWrap) key encryption algorithm with the
 "A128CBC-HS256" (AES-128-CBC-HMAC-SHA-256) content encryption
 algorithm.
 A common use of password-based encryption is the import/export of
 keys.  Therefore, this example uses a JWK Set for the Plaintext
 content instead of the Plaintext from Figure 72.

Miller Informational [Page 52] RFC 7520 JOSE Cookbook May 2015

 Note that if password-based encryption is used for multiple
 recipients, it is expected that each recipient use different values
 for the PBES2 parameters "p2s" and "p2c".
 Note that whitespace is added for readability as described in
 Section 1.1.

5.3.1. Input Factors

 The following are supplied before beginning the encryption process:
 o  Plaintext content; this example uses the Plaintext from Figure 95
    (NOTE: All whitespace was added for readability).
 o  Password; this example uses the password from Figure 96 -- with
    the sequence "\xe2\x80\x93" replaced with (U+2013 EN DASH).
 o  "alg" parameter of "PBES2-HS512+A256KW".
 o  "enc" parameter of "A128CBC-HS256".
 {
   "keys": [
     {
       "kty": "oct",
       "kid": "77c7e2b8-6e13-45cf-8672-617b5b45243a",
       "use": "enc",
       "alg": "A128GCM",
       "k": "XctOhJAkA-pD9Lh7ZgW_2A"
     },
     {
       "kty": "oct",
       "kid": "81b20965-8332-43d9-a468-82160ad91ac8",
       "use": "enc",
       "alg": "A128KW",
       "k": "GZy6sIZ6wl9NJOKB-jnmVQ"
     },
     {
       "kty": "oct",
       "kid": "18ec08e1-bfa9-4d95-b205-2b4dd1d4321d",
       "use": "enc",
       "alg": "A256GCMKW",
       "k": "qC57l_uxcm7Nm3K-ct4GFjx8tM1U8CZ0NLBvdQstiS8"
     }
   ]
 }
                     Figure 95: Plaintext Content

Miller Informational [Page 53] RFC 7520 JOSE Cookbook May 2015

 entrap_o\xe2\x80\x93peter_long\xe2\x80\x93credit_tun
                          Figure 96: Password

5.3.2. Generated Factors

 The following are generated before encrypting:
 o  AES symmetric key as the Content Encryption Key (CEK); this
    example uses the key from Figure 97.
 o  Initialization Vector; this example uses the Initialization Vector
    from Figure 98.
 uwsjJXaBK407Qaf0_zpcpmr1Cs0CC50hIUEyGNEt3m0
         Figure 97: Content Encryption Key, base64url-encoded
 VBiCzVHNoLiR3F4V82uoTQ
          Figure 98: Initialization Vector, base64url-encoded

5.3.3. Encrypting the Key

 The following are generated before encrypting the CEK:
 o  Salt input; this example uses the salt input from Figure 99.
 o  Iteration count; this example uses the iteration count 8192.
 8Q1SzinasR3xchYz6ZZcHA
               Figure 99: Salt Input, base64url-encoded
 Performing the key encryption operation over the CEK (Figure 97) with
 the following:
 o  Password (Figure 96);
 o  Salt input (Figure 99), encoded as an octet string; and
 o  Iteration count (8192)
 produces the following Encrypted Key:
 d3qNhUWfqheyPp4H8sjOWsDYajoej4c5Je6rlUtFPWdgtURtmeDV1g
             Figure 100: Encrypted Key, base64url-encoded

Miller Informational [Page 54] RFC 7520 JOSE Cookbook May 2015

5.3.4. Encrypting the Content

 The following is generated before encrypting the content:
 o  JWE Protected Header; this example uses the header from
    Figure 101, encoded using base64url [RFC4648] to produce
    Figure 102.
 {
   "alg": "PBES2-HS512+A256KW",
   "p2s": "8Q1SzinasR3xchYz6ZZcHA",
   "p2c": 8192,
   "cty": "jwk-set+json",
   "enc": "A128CBC-HS256"
 }
                 Figure 101: JWE Protected Header JSON
 eyJhbGciOiJQQkVTMi1IUzUxMitBMjU2S1ciLCJwMnMiOiI4UTFTemluYXNSM3
 hjaFl6NlpaY0hBIiwicDJjIjo4MTkyLCJjdHkiOiJqd2stc2V0K2pzb24iLCJl
 bmMiOiJBMTI4Q0JDLUhTMjU2In0
          Figure 102: JWE Protected Header, base64url-encoded
 Performing the content encryption operation over the Plaintext
 (Figure 95) with the following:
 o  CEK (Figure 97);
 o  Initialization Vector (Figure 98); and
 o  JWE Protected Header (Figure 102) as authenticated data
 produces the following:
 o  Ciphertext from Figure 103.
 o  Authentication Tag from Figure 104.

Miller Informational [Page 55] RFC 7520 JOSE Cookbook May 2015

 23i-Tb1AV4n0WKVSSgcQrdg6GRqsUKxjruHXYsTHAJLZ2nsnGIX86vMXqIi6IR
 sfywCRFzLxEcZBRnTvG3nhzPk0GDD7FMyXhUHpDjEYCNA_XOmzg8yZR9oyjo6l
 TF6si4q9FZ2EhzgFQCLO_6h5EVg3vR75_hkBsnuoqoM3dwejXBtIodN84PeqMb
 6asmas_dpSsz7H10fC5ni9xIz424givB1YLldF6exVmL93R3fOoOJbmk2GBQZL
 _SEGllv2cQsBgeprARsaQ7Bq99tT80coH8ItBjgV08AtzXFFsx9qKvC982KLKd
 PQMTlVJKkqtV4Ru5LEVpBZXBnZrtViSOgyg6AiuwaS-rCrcD_ePOGSuxvgtrok
 AKYPqmXUeRdjFJwafkYEkiuDCV9vWGAi1DH2xTafhJwcmywIyzi4BqRpmdn_N-
 zl5tuJYyuvKhjKv6ihbsV_k1hJGPGAxJ6wUpmwC4PTQ2izEm0TuSE8oMKdTw8V
 3kobXZ77ulMwDs4p
               Figure 103: Ciphertext, base64url-encoded
 0HlwodAhOCILG5SQ2LQ9dg
           Figure 104: Authentication Tag, base64url-encoded

5.3.5. Output Results

 The following compose the resulting JWE object:
 o  JWE Protected Header (Figure 102)
 o  Encrypted Key (Figure 100)
 o  Initialization Vector (Figure 98)
 o  Ciphertext (Figure 103)
 o  Authentication Tag (Figure 104)

Miller Informational [Page 56] RFC 7520 JOSE Cookbook May 2015

 The resulting JWE object using the JWE Compact Serialization:
 eyJhbGciOiJQQkVTMi1IUzUxMitBMjU2S1ciLCJwMnMiOiI4UTFTemluYXNSM3
 hjaFl6NlpaY0hBIiwicDJjIjo4MTkyLCJjdHkiOiJqd2stc2V0K2pzb24iLCJl
 bmMiOiJBMTI4Q0JDLUhTMjU2In0
 .
 d3qNhUWfqheyPp4H8sjOWsDYajoej4c5Je6rlUtFPWdgtURtmeDV1g
 .
 VBiCzVHNoLiR3F4V82uoTQ
 .
 23i-Tb1AV4n0WKVSSgcQrdg6GRqsUKxjruHXYsTHAJLZ2nsnGIX86vMXqIi6IR
 sfywCRFzLxEcZBRnTvG3nhzPk0GDD7FMyXhUHpDjEYCNA_XOmzg8yZR9oyjo6l
 TF6si4q9FZ2EhzgFQCLO_6h5EVg3vR75_hkBsnuoqoM3dwejXBtIodN84PeqMb
 6asmas_dpSsz7H10fC5ni9xIz424givB1YLldF6exVmL93R3fOoOJbmk2GBQZL
 _SEGllv2cQsBgeprARsaQ7Bq99tT80coH8ItBjgV08AtzXFFsx9qKvC982KLKd
 PQMTlVJKkqtV4Ru5LEVpBZXBnZrtViSOgyg6AiuwaS-rCrcD_ePOGSuxvgtrok
 AKYPqmXUeRdjFJwafkYEkiuDCV9vWGAi1DH2xTafhJwcmywIyzi4BqRpmdn_N-
 zl5tuJYyuvKhjKv6ihbsV_k1hJGPGAxJ6wUpmwC4PTQ2izEm0TuSE8oMKdTw8V
 3kobXZ77ulMwDs4p
 .
 0HlwodAhOCILG5SQ2LQ9dg
                 Figure 105: JWE Compact Serialization

Miller Informational [Page 57] RFC 7520 JOSE Cookbook May 2015

 The resulting JWE object using the general JWE JSON Serialization:
 {
   "recipients": [
     {
       "encrypted_key": "d3qNhUWfqheyPp4H8sjOWsDYajoej4c5Je6rlU
           tFPWdgtURtmeDV1g"
     }
   ],
   "protected": "eyJhbGciOiJQQkVTMi1IUzUxMitBMjU2S1ciLCJwMnMiOi
       I4UTFTemluYXNSM3hjaFl6NlpaY0hBIiwicDJjIjo4MTkyLCJjdHkiOi
       Jqd2stc2V0K2pzb24iLCJlbmMiOiJBMTI4Q0JDLUhTMjU2In0",
   "iv": "VBiCzVHNoLiR3F4V82uoTQ",
   "ciphertext": "23i-Tb1AV4n0WKVSSgcQrdg6GRqsUKxjruHXYsTHAJLZ2
       nsnGIX86vMXqIi6IRsfywCRFzLxEcZBRnTvG3nhzPk0GDD7FMyXhUHpD
       jEYCNA_XOmzg8yZR9oyjo6lTF6si4q9FZ2EhzgFQCLO_6h5EVg3vR75_
       hkBsnuoqoM3dwejXBtIodN84PeqMb6asmas_dpSsz7H10fC5ni9xIz42
       4givB1YLldF6exVmL93R3fOoOJbmk2GBQZL_SEGllv2cQsBgeprARsaQ
       7Bq99tT80coH8ItBjgV08AtzXFFsx9qKvC982KLKdPQMTlVJKkqtV4Ru
       5LEVpBZXBnZrtViSOgyg6AiuwaS-rCrcD_ePOGSuxvgtrokAKYPqmXUe
       RdjFJwafkYEkiuDCV9vWGAi1DH2xTafhJwcmywIyzi4BqRpmdn_N-zl5
       tuJYyuvKhjKv6ihbsV_k1hJGPGAxJ6wUpmwC4PTQ2izEm0TuSE8oMKdT
       w8V3kobXZ77ulMwDs4p",
   "tag": "0HlwodAhOCILG5SQ2LQ9dg"
 }
              Figure 106: General JWE JSON Serialization

Miller Informational [Page 58] RFC 7520 JOSE Cookbook May 2015

 The resulting JWE object using the flattened JWE JSON Serialization:
 {
   "protected": "eyJhbGciOiJQQkVTMi1IUzUxMitBMjU2S1ciLCJwMnMiOi
       I4UTFTemluYXNSM3hjaFl6NlpaY0hBIiwicDJjIjo4MTkyLCJjdHkiOi
       Jqd2stc2V0K2pzb24iLCJlbmMiOiJBMTI4Q0JDLUhTMjU2In0",
   "encrypted_key": "d3qNhUWfqheyPp4H8sjOWsDYajoej4c5Je6rlUtFPW
       dgtURtmeDV1g",
   "iv": "VBiCzVHNoLiR3F4V82uoTQ",
   "ciphertext": "23i-Tb1AV4n0WKVSSgcQrdg6GRqsUKxjruHXYsTHAJLZ2
       nsnGIX86vMXqIi6IRsfywCRFzLxEcZBRnTvG3nhzPk0GDD7FMyXhUHpD
       jEYCNA_XOmzg8yZR9oyjo6lTF6si4q9FZ2EhzgFQCLO_6h5EVg3vR75_
       hkBsnuoqoM3dwejXBtIodN84PeqMb6asmas_dpSsz7H10fC5ni9xIz42
       4givB1YLldF6exVmL93R3fOoOJbmk2GBQZL_SEGllv2cQsBgeprARsaQ
       7Bq99tT80coH8ItBjgV08AtzXFFsx9qKvC982KLKdPQMTlVJKkqtV4Ru
       5LEVpBZXBnZrtViSOgyg6AiuwaS-rCrcD_ePOGSuxvgtrokAKYPqmXUe
       RdjFJwafkYEkiuDCV9vWGAi1DH2xTafhJwcmywIyzi4BqRpmdn_N-zl5
       tuJYyuvKhjKv6ihbsV_k1hJGPGAxJ6wUpmwC4PTQ2izEm0TuSE8oMKdT
       w8V3kobXZ77ulMwDs4p",
   "tag": "0HlwodAhOCILG5SQ2LQ9dg"
 }
             Figure 107: Flattened JWE JSON Serialization

5.4. Key Agreement with Key Wrapping Using ECDH-ES and AES-KeyWrap with

    AES-GCM
 This example illustrates encrypting content using the "ECDH-
 ES+A128KW" (Elliptic Curve Diffie-Hellman Ephemeral-Static with AES-
 128-KeyWrap) key encryption algorithm and the "A128GCM" (AES-GCM)
 content encryption algorithm.
 Note that only the EC public key is necessary to perform the key
 agreement.  However, the example includes the EC private key to allow
 readers to validate the output.
 Note that whitespace is added for readability as described in
 Section 1.1.

5.4.1. Input Factors

 The following are supplied before beginning the encryption process:
 o  Plaintext content; this example uses the content from Figure 72.
 o  EC public key; this example uses the public key from Figure 108.

Miller Informational [Page 59] RFC 7520 JOSE Cookbook May 2015

 o  "alg" parameter of "ECDH-ES+A128KW".
 o  "enc" parameter of "A128GCM".
 {
   "kty": "EC",
   "kid": "peregrin.took@tuckborough.example",
   "use": "enc",
   "crv": "P-384",
   "x": "YU4rRUzdmVqmRtWOs2OpDE_T5fsNIodcG8G5FWPrTPMyxpzsSOGaQL
       pe2FpxBmu2",
   "y": "A8-yxCHxkfBz3hKZfI1jUYMjUhsEveZ9THuwFjH2sCNdtksRJU7D5-
       SkgaFL1ETP",
   "d": "iTx2pk7wW-GqJkHcEkFQb2EFyYcO7RugmaW3mRrQVAOUiPommT0Idn
       YK2xDlZh-j"
 }
          Figure 108: Elliptic Curve P-384 Key, in JWK Format
 (NOTE: While the key includes the private parameters, only the public
 parameters "crv", "x", and "y" are necessary for the encryption
 operation.)

5.4.2. Generated Factors

 The following are generated before encrypting:
 o  AES symmetric key as the Content Encryption Key (CEK); this
    example uses the key from Figure 109.
 o  Initialization Vector; this example uses the Initialization Vector
    from Figure 110.
 Nou2ueKlP70ZXDbq9UrRwg
         Figure 109: Content Encryption Key, base64url-encoded
 mH-G2zVqgztUtnW_
         Figure 110: Initialization Vector, base64url-encoded

5.4.3. Encrypting the Key

 To encrypt the Content Encryption Key, the following is generated:
 o  Ephemeral EC private key on the same curve as the EC public key;
    this example uses the private key from Figure 111.

Miller Informational [Page 60] RFC 7520 JOSE Cookbook May 2015

 {
   "kty": "EC",
   "crv": "P-384",
   "x": "uBo4kHPw6kbjx5l0xowrd_oYzBmaz-GKFZu4xAFFkbYiWgutEK6iuE
       DsQ6wNdNg3",
   "y": "sp3p5SGhZVC2faXumI-e9JU2Mo8KpoYrFDr5yPNVtW4PgEwZOyQTA-
       JdaY8tb7E0",
   "d": "D5H4Y_5PSKZvhfVFbcCYJOtcGZygRgfZkpsBr59Icmmhe9sW6nkZ8W
       fwhinUfWJg"
 }
     Figure 111: Ephemeral Elliptic Curve P-384 Key, in JWK Format
 Performing the key encryption operation over the CEK (Figure 109)
 with the following:
 o  The static Elliptic Curve public key (Figure 108); and
 o  The ephemeral Elliptic Curve private key (Figure 111)
 produces the following JWE Encrypted Key:
 0DJjBXri_kBcC46IkU5_Jk9BqaQeHdv2
             Figure 112: Encrypted Key, base64url-encoded

5.4.4. Encrypting the Content

 The following is generated before encrypting the content:
 o  JWE Protected Header; this example uses the header from
    Figure 113, encoded to base64url [RFC4648] as Figure 114.
 {
   "alg": "ECDH-ES+A128KW",
   "kid": "peregrin.took@tuckborough.example",
   "epk": {
     "kty": "EC",
     "crv": "P-384",
     "x": "uBo4kHPw6kbjx5l0xowrd_oYzBmaz-GKFZu4xAFFkbYiWgutEK6i
         uEDsQ6wNdNg3",
     "y": "sp3p5SGhZVC2faXumI-e9JU2Mo8KpoYrFDr5yPNVtW4PgEwZOyQT
         A-JdaY8tb7E0"
   },
   "enc": "A128GCM"
 }
                 Figure 113: JWE Protected Header JSON

Miller Informational [Page 61] RFC 7520 JOSE Cookbook May 2015

 eyJhbGciOiJFQ0RILUVTK0ExMjhLVyIsImtpZCI6InBlcmVncmluLnRvb2tAdH
 Vja2Jvcm91Z2guZXhhbXBsZSIsImVwayI6eyJrdHkiOiJFQyIsImNydiI6IlAt
 Mzg0IiwieCI6InVCbzRrSFB3Nmtiang1bDB4b3dyZF9vWXpCbWF6LUdLRlp1NH
 hBRkZrYllpV2d1dEVLNml1RURzUTZ3TmROZzMiLCJ5Ijoic3AzcDVTR2haVkMy
 ZmFYdW1JLWU5SlUyTW84S3BvWXJGRHI1eVBOVnRXNFBnRXdaT3lRVEEtSmRhWT
 h0YjdFMCJ9LCJlbmMiOiJBMTI4R0NNIn0
          Figure 114: JWE Protected Header, base64url-encoded
 Performing the content encryption operation on the Plaintext
 (Figure 72) using the following:
 o  CEK (Figure 109);
 o  Initialization Vector (Figure 110); and
 o  JWE Protected Header (Figure 114) as authenticated data
 produces the following:
 o  Ciphertext from Figure 115.
 o  Authentication Tag from Figure 116.
 tkZuOO9h95OgHJmkkrfLBisku8rGf6nzVxhRM3sVOhXgz5NJ76oID7lpnAi_cP
 WJRCjSpAaUZ5dOR3Spy7QuEkmKx8-3RCMhSYMzsXaEwDdXta9Mn5B7cCBoJKB0
 IgEnj_qfo1hIi-uEkUpOZ8aLTZGHfpl05jMwbKkTe2yK3mjF6SBAsgicQDVCkc
 Y9BLluzx1RmC3ORXaM0JaHPB93YcdSDGgpgBWMVrNU1ErkjcMqMoT_wtCex3w0
 3XdLkjXIuEr2hWgeP-nkUZTPU9EoGSPj6fAS-bSz87RCPrxZdj_iVyC6QWcqAu
 07WNhjzJEPc4jVntRJ6K53NgPQ5p99l3Z408OUqj4ioYezbS6vTPlQ
               Figure 115: Ciphertext, base64url-encoded
 WuGzxmcreYjpHGJoa17EBg
           Figure 116: Authentication Tag, base64url-encoded

Miller Informational [Page 62] RFC 7520 JOSE Cookbook May 2015

5.4.5. Output Results

 The following compose the resulting JWE object:
 o  JWE Protected Header (Figure 114)
 o  Encrypted Key (Figure 112)
 o  Initialization Vector (Figure 110)
 o  Ciphertext (Figure 115)
 o  Authentication Tag (Figure 116)
 The resulting JWE object using the JWE Compact Serialization:
 eyJhbGciOiJFQ0RILUVTK0ExMjhLVyIsImtpZCI6InBlcmVncmluLnRvb2tAdH
 Vja2Jvcm91Z2guZXhhbXBsZSIsImVwayI6eyJrdHkiOiJFQyIsImNydiI6IlAt
 Mzg0IiwieCI6InVCbzRrSFB3Nmtiang1bDB4b3dyZF9vWXpCbWF6LUdLRlp1NH
 hBRkZrYllpV2d1dEVLNml1RURzUTZ3TmROZzMiLCJ5Ijoic3AzcDVTR2haVkMy
 ZmFYdW1JLWU5SlUyTW84S3BvWXJGRHI1eVBOVnRXNFBnRXdaT3lRVEEtSmRhWT
 h0YjdFMCJ9LCJlbmMiOiJBMTI4R0NNIn0
 .
 0DJjBXri_kBcC46IkU5_Jk9BqaQeHdv2
 .
 mH-G2zVqgztUtnW_
 .
 tkZuOO9h95OgHJmkkrfLBisku8rGf6nzVxhRM3sVOhXgz5NJ76oID7lpnAi_cP
 WJRCjSpAaUZ5dOR3Spy7QuEkmKx8-3RCMhSYMzsXaEwDdXta9Mn5B7cCBoJKB0
 IgEnj_qfo1hIi-uEkUpOZ8aLTZGHfpl05jMwbKkTe2yK3mjF6SBAsgicQDVCkc
 Y9BLluzx1RmC3ORXaM0JaHPB93YcdSDGgpgBWMVrNU1ErkjcMqMoT_wtCex3w0
 3XdLkjXIuEr2hWgeP-nkUZTPU9EoGSPj6fAS-bSz87RCPrxZdj_iVyC6QWcqAu
 07WNhjzJEPc4jVntRJ6K53NgPQ5p99l3Z408OUqj4ioYezbS6vTPlQ
 .
 WuGzxmcreYjpHGJoa17EBg
                 Figure 117: JWE Compact Serialization

Miller Informational [Page 63] RFC 7520 JOSE Cookbook May 2015

 The resulting JWE object using the general JWE JSON Serialization:
 {
   "recipients": [
     {
       "encrypted_key": "0DJjBXri_kBcC46IkU5_Jk9BqaQeHdv2"
     }
   ],
   "protected": "eyJhbGciOiJFQ0RILUVTK0ExMjhLVyIsImtpZCI6InBlcm
       VncmluLnRvb2tAdHVja2Jvcm91Z2guZXhhbXBsZSIsImVwayI6eyJrdH
       kiOiJFQyIsImNydiI6IlAtMzg0IiwieCI6InVCbzRrSFB3Nmtiang1bD
       B4b3dyZF9vWXpCbWF6LUdLRlp1NHhBRkZrYllpV2d1dEVLNml1RURzUT
       Z3TmROZzMiLCJ5Ijoic3AzcDVTR2haVkMyZmFYdW1JLWU5SlUyTW84S3
       BvWXJGRHI1eVBOVnRXNFBnRXdaT3lRVEEtSmRhWTh0YjdFMCJ9LCJlbm
       MiOiJBMTI4R0NNIn0",
   "iv": "mH-G2zVqgztUtnW_",
   "ciphertext": "tkZuOO9h95OgHJmkkrfLBisku8rGf6nzVxhRM3sVOhXgz
       5NJ76oID7lpnAi_cPWJRCjSpAaUZ5dOR3Spy7QuEkmKx8-3RCMhSYMzs
       XaEwDdXta9Mn5B7cCBoJKB0IgEnj_qfo1hIi-uEkUpOZ8aLTZGHfpl05
       jMwbKkTe2yK3mjF6SBAsgicQDVCkcY9BLluzx1RmC3ORXaM0JaHPB93Y
       cdSDGgpgBWMVrNU1ErkjcMqMoT_wtCex3w03XdLkjXIuEr2hWgeP-nkU
       ZTPU9EoGSPj6fAS-bSz87RCPrxZdj_iVyC6QWcqAu07WNhjzJEPc4jVn
       tRJ6K53NgPQ5p99l3Z408OUqj4ioYezbS6vTPlQ",
   "tag": "WuGzxmcreYjpHGJoa17EBg"
 }
              Figure 118: General JWE JSON Serialization

Miller Informational [Page 64] RFC 7520 JOSE Cookbook May 2015

 The resulting JWE object using the flattened JWE JSON Serialization:
 {
   "protected": "eyJhbGciOiJFQ0RILUVTK0ExMjhLVyIsImtpZCI6InBlcm
       VncmluLnRvb2tAdHVja2Jvcm91Z2guZXhhbXBsZSIsImVwayI6eyJrdH
       kiOiJFQyIsImNydiI6IlAtMzg0IiwieCI6InVCbzRrSFB3Nmtiang1bD
       B4b3dyZF9vWXpCbWF6LUdLRlp1NHhBRkZrYllpV2d1dEVLNml1RURzUT
       Z3TmROZzMiLCJ5Ijoic3AzcDVTR2haVkMyZmFYdW1JLWU5SlUyTW84S3
       BvWXJGRHI1eVBOVnRXNFBnRXdaT3lRVEEtSmRhWTh0YjdFMCJ9LCJlbm
       MiOiJBMTI4R0NNIn0",
   "encrypted_key": "0DJjBXri_kBcC46IkU5_Jk9BqaQeHdv2",
   "iv": "mH-G2zVqgztUtnW_",
   "ciphertext": "tkZuOO9h95OgHJmkkrfLBisku8rGf6nzVxhRM3sVOhXgz
       5NJ76oID7lpnAi_cPWJRCjSpAaUZ5dOR3Spy7QuEkmKx8-3RCMhSYMzs
       XaEwDdXta9Mn5B7cCBoJKB0IgEnj_qfo1hIi-uEkUpOZ8aLTZGHfpl05
       jMwbKkTe2yK3mjF6SBAsgicQDVCkcY9BLluzx1RmC3ORXaM0JaHPB93Y
       cdSDGgpgBWMVrNU1ErkjcMqMoT_wtCex3w03XdLkjXIuEr2hWgeP-nkU
       ZTPU9EoGSPj6fAS-bSz87RCPrxZdj_iVyC6QWcqAu07WNhjzJEPc4jVn
       tRJ6K53NgPQ5p99l3Z408OUqj4ioYezbS6vTPlQ",
   "tag": "WuGzxmcreYjpHGJoa17EBg"
 }
             Figure 119: Flattened JWE JSON Serialization

5.5. Key Agreement Using ECDH-ES with AES-CBC-HMAC-SHA2

 This example illustrates encrypting content using the "ECDH-ES"
 (Elliptic Curve Diffie-Hellman Ephemeral-Static) key agreement
 algorithm and the "A128CBC-HS256" (AES-128-CBC-HMAC-SHA-256) content
 encryption algorithm.
 Note that only the EC public key is necessary to perform the key
 agreement.  However, the example includes the EC private key to allow
 readers to validate the output.
 Note that whitespace is added for readability as described in
 Section 1.1.

Miller Informational [Page 65] RFC 7520 JOSE Cookbook May 2015

5.5.1. Input Factors

 The following are supplied before beginning the encryption process:
 o  Plaintext content; this example uses the content from Figure 72.
 o  EC public key; this example uses the public key from Figure 120.
 o  "alg" parameter of "ECDH-ES".
 o  "enc" parameter of "A128CBC-HS256".
 {
   "kty": "EC",
   "kid": "meriadoc.brandybuck@buckland.example",
   "use": "enc",
   "crv": "P-256",
   "x": "Ze2loSV3wrroKUN_4zhwGhCqo3Xhu1td4QjeQ5wIVR0",
   "y": "HlLtdXARY_f55A3fnzQbPcm6hgr34Mp8p-nuzQCE0Zw",
   "d": "r_kHyZ-a06rmxM3yESK84r1otSg-aQcVStkRhA-iCM8"
 }
                 Figure 120: Elliptic Curve P-256 Key
 (NOTE: While the key includes the private parameters, only the public
 parameters "crv", "x", and "y" are necessary for the encryption
 operation.)

5.5.2. Generated Factors

 The following is generated before encrypting:
 o  Initialization Vector; this example uses the Initialization Vector
    from Figure 121.
 yc9N8v5sYyv3iGQT926IUg
         Figure 121: Initialization Vector, base64url-encoded
 NOTE: The Content Encryption Key (CEK) is not randomly generated;
 instead, it is determined using ECDH-ES key agreement.

Miller Informational [Page 66] RFC 7520 JOSE Cookbook May 2015

5.5.3. Key Agreement

 The following is generated to agree on a CEK:
 o  Ephemeral private key; this example uses the private key from
    Figure 122.
 {
   "kty": "EC",
   "crv": "P-256",
   "x": "mPUKT_bAWGHIhg0TpjjqVsP1rXWQu_vwVOHHtNkdYoA",
   "y": "8BQAsImGeAS46fyWw5MhYfGTT0IjBpFw2SS34Dv4Irs",
   "d": "AtH35vJsQ9SGjYfOsjUxYXQKrPH3FjZHmEtSKoSN8cM"
 }
           Figure 122: Ephemeral Private Key, in JWK Format
 Performing the ECDH operation using the static EC public key
 (Figure 120) over the ephemeral private key (Figure 122) produces the
 following CEK:
 hzHdlfQIAEehb8Hrd_mFRhKsKLEzPfshfXs9l6areCc
    Figure 123: Agreed-to Content Encryption Key, base64url-encoded

5.5.4. Encrypting the Content

 The following is generated before encrypting the content:
 o  JWE Protected Header; this example uses the header from
    Figure 124, encoded to base64url [RFC4648] as Figure 125.
 {
   "alg": "ECDH-ES",
   "kid": "meriadoc.brandybuck@buckland.example",
   "epk": {
     "kty": "EC",
     "crv": "P-256",
     "x": "mPUKT_bAWGHIhg0TpjjqVsP1rXWQu_vwVOHHtNkdYoA",
     "y": "8BQAsImGeAS46fyWw5MhYfGTT0IjBpFw2SS34Dv4Irs"
   },
   "enc": "A128CBC-HS256"
 }
                 Figure 124: JWE Protected Header JSON

Miller Informational [Page 67] RFC 7520 JOSE Cookbook May 2015

 eyJhbGciOiJFQ0RILUVTIiwia2lkIjoibWVyaWFkb2MuYnJhbmR5YnVja0BidW
 NrbGFuZC5leGFtcGxlIiwiZXBrIjp7Imt0eSI6IkVDIiwiY3J2IjoiUC0yNTYi
 LCJ4IjoibVBVS1RfYkFXR0hJaGcwVHBqanFWc1AxclhXUXVfdndWT0hIdE5rZF
 lvQSIsInkiOiI4QlFBc0ltR2VBUzQ2ZnlXdzVNaFlmR1RUMElqQnBGdzJTUzM0
 RHY0SXJzIn0sImVuYyI6IkExMjhDQkMtSFMyNTYifQ
          Figure 125: JWE Protected Header, base64url-encoded
 Performing the content encryption operation on the Plaintext
 (Figure 72) using the following:
 o  CEK (Figure 123);
 o  Initialization Vector (Figure 121); and
 o  JWE Protected Header (Figure 125) as authenticated data
 produces the following:
 o  Ciphertext from Figure 126.
 o  Authentication Tag from Figure 127.
 BoDlwPnTypYq-ivjmQvAYJLb5Q6l-F3LIgQomlz87yW4OPKbWE1zSTEFjDfhU9
 IPIOSA9Bml4m7iDFwA-1ZXvHteLDtw4R1XRGMEsDIqAYtskTTmzmzNa-_q4F_e
 vAPUmwlO-ZG45Mnq4uhM1fm_D9rBtWolqZSF3xGNNkpOMQKF1Cl8i8wjzRli7-
 IXgyirlKQsbhhqRzkv8IcY6aHl24j03C-AR2le1r7URUhArM79BY8soZU0lzwI
 -sD5PZ3l4NDCCei9XkoIAfsXJWmySPoeRb2Ni5UZL4mYpvKDiwmyzGd65KqVw7
 MsFfI_K767G9C9Azp73gKZD0DyUn1mn0WW5LmyX_yJ-3AROq8p1WZBfG-ZyJ61
 95_JGG2m9Csg
               Figure 126: Ciphertext, base64url-encoded
 WCCkNa-x4BeB9hIDIfFuhg
           Figure 127: Authentication Tag, base64url-encoded

5.5.5. Output Results

 The following compose the resulting JWE object:
 o  JWE Protected Header (Figure 114)
 o  Initialization Vector (Figure 110)
 o  Ciphertext (Figure 115)
 o  Authentication Tag (Figure 116)

Miller Informational [Page 68] RFC 7520 JOSE Cookbook May 2015

 Only the general JWE JSON Serialization is presented because the
 flattened JWE JSON Serialization is identical.
 The resulting JWE object using the JWE Compact Serialization:
 eyJhbGciOiJFQ0RILUVTIiwia2lkIjoibWVyaWFkb2MuYnJhbmR5YnVja0BidW
 NrbGFuZC5leGFtcGxlIiwiZXBrIjp7Imt0eSI6IkVDIiwiY3J2IjoiUC0yNTYi
 LCJ4IjoibVBVS1RfYkFXR0hJaGcwVHBqanFWc1AxclhXUXVfdndWT0hIdE5rZF
 lvQSIsInkiOiI4QlFBc0ltR2VBUzQ2ZnlXdzVNaFlmR1RUMElqQnBGdzJTUzM0
 RHY0SXJzIn0sImVuYyI6IkExMjhDQkMtSFMyNTYifQ
 .
 .
 yc9N8v5sYyv3iGQT926IUg
 .
 BoDlwPnTypYq-ivjmQvAYJLb5Q6l-F3LIgQomlz87yW4OPKbWE1zSTEFjDfhU9
 IPIOSA9Bml4m7iDFwA-1ZXvHteLDtw4R1XRGMEsDIqAYtskTTmzmzNa-_q4F_e
 vAPUmwlO-ZG45Mnq4uhM1fm_D9rBtWolqZSF3xGNNkpOMQKF1Cl8i8wjzRli7-
 IXgyirlKQsbhhqRzkv8IcY6aHl24j03C-AR2le1r7URUhArM79BY8soZU0lzwI
 -sD5PZ3l4NDCCei9XkoIAfsXJWmySPoeRb2Ni5UZL4mYpvKDiwmyzGd65KqVw7
 MsFfI_K767G9C9Azp73gKZD0DyUn1mn0WW5LmyX_yJ-3AROq8p1WZBfG-ZyJ61
 95_JGG2m9Csg
 .
 WCCkNa-x4BeB9hIDIfFuhg
                 Figure 128: JWE Compact Serialization
 The resulting JWE object using the general JWE JSON Serialization:
 {
   "protected": "eyJhbGciOiJFQ0RILUVTIiwia2lkIjoibWVyaWFkb2MuYn
       JhbmR5YnVja0BidWNrbGFuZC5leGFtcGxlIiwiZXBrIjp7Imt0eSI6Ik
       VDIiwiY3J2IjoiUC0yNTYiLCJ4IjoibVBVS1RfYkFXR0hJaGcwVHBqan
       FWc1AxclhXUXVfdndWT0hIdE5rZFlvQSIsInkiOiI4QlFBc0ltR2VBUz
       Q2ZnlXdzVNaFlmR1RUMElqQnBGdzJTUzM0RHY0SXJzIn0sImVuYyI6Ik
       ExMjhDQkMtSFMyNTYifQ",
   "iv": "yc9N8v5sYyv3iGQT926IUg",
   "ciphertext": "BoDlwPnTypYq-ivjmQvAYJLb5Q6l-F3LIgQomlz87yW4O
       PKbWE1zSTEFjDfhU9IPIOSA9Bml4m7iDFwA-1ZXvHteLDtw4R1XRGMEs
       DIqAYtskTTmzmzNa-_q4F_evAPUmwlO-ZG45Mnq4uhM1fm_D9rBtWolq
       ZSF3xGNNkpOMQKF1Cl8i8wjzRli7-IXgyirlKQsbhhqRzkv8IcY6aHl2
       4j03C-AR2le1r7URUhArM79BY8soZU0lzwI-sD5PZ3l4NDCCei9XkoIA
       fsXJWmySPoeRb2Ni5UZL4mYpvKDiwmyzGd65KqVw7MsFfI_K767G9C9A
       zp73gKZD0DyUn1mn0WW5LmyX_yJ-3AROq8p1WZBfG-ZyJ6195_JGG2m9
       Csg",
   "tag": "WCCkNa-x4BeB9hIDIfFuhg"
 }
              Figure 129: General JWE JSON Serialization

Miller Informational [Page 69] RFC 7520 JOSE Cookbook May 2015

5.6. Direct Encryption Using AES-GCM

 This example illustrates encrypting content using a previously
 exchanged key directly and the "A128GCM" (AES-GCM) content encryption
 algorithm.
 Note that whitespace is added for readability as described in
 Section 1.1.

5.6.1. Input Factors

 The following are supplied before beginning the encryption process:
 o  Plaintext content; this example uses the content from Figure 72.
 o  AES symmetric key as the Content Encryption Key (CEK); this
    example uses the key from Figure 130.
 o  "alg" parameter of "dir".
 o  "enc" parameter of "A128GCM".
 {
   "kty": "oct",
   "kid": "77c7e2b8-6e13-45cf-8672-617b5b45243a",
   "use": "enc",
   "alg": "A128GCM",
   "k": "XctOhJAkA-pD9Lh7ZgW_2A"
 }
              Figure 130: AES 128-Bit Key, in JWK Format

5.6.2. Generated Factors

 The following is generated before encrypting:
 o  Initialization Vector; this example uses the Initialization Vector
    from Figure 131.
 refa467QzzKx6QAB
         Figure 131: Initialization Vector, base64url-encoded

Miller Informational [Page 70] RFC 7520 JOSE Cookbook May 2015

5.6.3. Encrypting the Content

 The following is generated before encrypting the content:
 o  JWE Protected Header; this example uses the header from
    Figure 132, encoded as base64url [RFC4648] to produce Figure 133.
 {
   "alg": "dir",
   "kid": "77c7e2b8-6e13-45cf-8672-617b5b45243a",
   "enc": "A128GCM"
 }
                 Figure 132: JWE Protected Header JSON
 eyJhbGciOiJkaXIiLCJraWQiOiI3N2M3ZTJiOC02ZTEzLTQ1Y2YtODY3Mi02MT
 diNWI0NTI0M2EiLCJlbmMiOiJBMTI4R0NNIn0
          Figure 133: JWE Protected Header, base64url-encoded
 Performing the encryption operation on the Plaintext (Figure 72)
 using the following:
 o  CEK (Figure 130);
 o  Initialization Vector (Figure 131); and
 o  JWE Protected Header (Figure 133) as authenticated data
 produces the following:
 o  Ciphertext from Figure 134.
 o  Authentication Tag from Figure 135.
 JW_i_f52hww_ELQPGaYyeAB6HYGcR559l9TYnSovc23XJoBcW29rHP8yZOZG7Y
 hLpT1bjFuvZPjQS-m0IFtVcXkZXdH_lr_FrdYt9HRUYkshtrMmIUAyGmUnd9zM
 DB2n0cRDIHAzFVeJUDxkUwVAE7_YGRPdcqMyiBoCO-FBdE-Nceb4h3-FtBP-c_
 BIwCPTjb9o0SbdcdREEMJMyZBH8ySWMVi1gPD9yxi-aQpGbSv_F9N4IZAxscj5
 g-NJsUPbjk29-s7LJAGb15wEBtXphVCgyy53CoIKLHHeJHXex45Uz9aKZSRSIn
 ZI-wjsY0yu3cT4_aQ3i1o-tiE-F8Ios61EKgyIQ4CWao8PFMj8TTnp
               Figure 134: Ciphertext, base64url-encoded
 vbb32Xvllea2OtmHAdccRQ
           Figure 135: Authentication Tag, base64url-encoded

Miller Informational [Page 71] RFC 7520 JOSE Cookbook May 2015

5.6.4. Output Results

 The following compose the resulting JWE object:
 o  JWE Protected Header (Figure 133)
 o  Initialization Vector (Figure 131)
 o  Ciphertext (Figure 134)
 o  Authentication Tag (Figure 135)
 Only the general JWE JSON Serialization is presented because the
 flattened JWE JSON Serialization is identical.
 The resulting JWE object using the JWE Compact Serialization:
 eyJhbGciOiJkaXIiLCJraWQiOiI3N2M3ZTJiOC02ZTEzLTQ1Y2YtODY3Mi02MT
 diNWI0NTI0M2EiLCJlbmMiOiJBMTI4R0NNIn0
 .
 .
 refa467QzzKx6QAB
 .
 JW_i_f52hww_ELQPGaYyeAB6HYGcR559l9TYnSovc23XJoBcW29rHP8yZOZG7Y
 hLpT1bjFuvZPjQS-m0IFtVcXkZXdH_lr_FrdYt9HRUYkshtrMmIUAyGmUnd9zM
 DB2n0cRDIHAzFVeJUDxkUwVAE7_YGRPdcqMyiBoCO-FBdE-Nceb4h3-FtBP-c_
 BIwCPTjb9o0SbdcdREEMJMyZBH8ySWMVi1gPD9yxi-aQpGbSv_F9N4IZAxscj5
 g-NJsUPbjk29-s7LJAGb15wEBtXphVCgyy53CoIKLHHeJHXex45Uz9aKZSRSIn
 ZI-wjsY0yu3cT4_aQ3i1o-tiE-F8Ios61EKgyIQ4CWao8PFMj8TTnp
 .
 vbb32Xvllea2OtmHAdccRQ
                 Figure 136: JWE Compact Serialization

Miller Informational [Page 72] RFC 7520 JOSE Cookbook May 2015

 The resulting JWE object using the general JWE JSON Serialization:
 {
   "protected": "eyJhbGciOiJkaXIiLCJraWQiOiI3N2M3ZTJiOC02ZTEzLT
       Q1Y2YtODY3Mi02MTdiNWI0NTI0M2EiLCJlbmMiOiJBMTI4R0NNIn0",
   "iv": "refa467QzzKx6QAB",
   "ciphertext": "JW_i_f52hww_ELQPGaYyeAB6HYGcR559l9TYnSovc23XJ
       oBcW29rHP8yZOZG7YhLpT1bjFuvZPjQS-m0IFtVcXkZXdH_lr_FrdYt9
       HRUYkshtrMmIUAyGmUnd9zMDB2n0cRDIHAzFVeJUDxkUwVAE7_YGRPdc
       qMyiBoCO-FBdE-Nceb4h3-FtBP-c_BIwCPTjb9o0SbdcdREEMJMyZBH8
       ySWMVi1gPD9yxi-aQpGbSv_F9N4IZAxscj5g-NJsUPbjk29-s7LJAGb1
       5wEBtXphVCgyy53CoIKLHHeJHXex45Uz9aKZSRSInZI-wjsY0yu3cT4_
       aQ3i1o-tiE-F8Ios61EKgyIQ4CWao8PFMj8TTnp",
   "tag": "vbb32Xvllea2OtmHAdccRQ"
 }
              Figure 137: General JWE JSON Serialization

5.7. Key Wrap Using AES-GCM KeyWrap with AES-CBC-HMAC-SHA2

 This example illustrates encrypting content using the "A256GCMKW"
 (AES-256-GCM-KeyWrap) key encryption algorithm with the "A128CBC-
 HS256" (AES-128-CBC-HMAC-SHA-256) content encryption algorithm.
 Note that whitespace is added for readability as described in
 Section 1.1.

5.7.1. Input Factors

 The following are supplied before beginning the encryption process:
 o  Plaintext content; this example uses the content from Figure 72.
 o  AES symmetric key; this example uses the key from Figure 138.
 o  "alg" parameter of "A256GCMKW".
 o  "enc" parameter of "A128CBC-HS256".

Miller Informational [Page 73] RFC 7520 JOSE Cookbook May 2015

 {
   "kty": "oct",
   "kid": "18ec08e1-bfa9-4d95-b205-2b4dd1d4321d",
   "use": "enc",
   "alg": "A256GCMKW",
   "k": "qC57l_uxcm7Nm3K-ct4GFjx8tM1U8CZ0NLBvdQstiS8"
 }
                      Figure 138: AES 256-Bit Key

5.7.2. Generated Factors

 The following are generated before encrypting:
 o  AES symmetric key as the Content Encryption Key (CEK); this
    example uses the key from Figure 139.
 o  Initialization Vector for content encryption; this example uses
    the Initialization Vector from Figure 140.
 UWxARpat23nL9ReIj4WG3D1ee9I4r-Mv5QLuFXdy_rE
         Figure 139: Content Encryption Key, base64url-encoded
 gz6NjyEFNm_vm8Gj6FwoFQ
         Figure 140: Initialization Vector, base64url-encoded

5.7.3. Encrypting the Key

 The following is generated before encrypting the CEK:
 o  Initialization Vector for key wrapping; this example uses the
    Initialization Vector from Figure 141.
 KkYT0GX_2jHlfqN_
 Figure 141: Initialization Vector for Key Wrapping, base64url-encoded

Miller Informational [Page 74] RFC 7520 JOSE Cookbook May 2015

 Performing the key encryption operation over the CEK (Figure 139)
 with the following:
 o  AES symmetric key (Figure 138);
 o  Initialization Vector (Figure 141); and
 o  The empty string as authenticated data
 produces the following:
 o  Encrypted Key from Figure 142.
 o  Authentication Tag from Figure 143.
 lJf3HbOApxMEBkCMOoTnnABxs_CvTWUmZQ2ElLvYNok
             Figure 142: Encrypted Key, base64url-encoded
 kfPduVQ3T3H6vnewt--ksw
  Figure 143: Authentication Tag from Key Wrapping, base64url-encoded

5.7.4. Encrypting the Content

 The following is generated before encrypting the content:
 o  JWE Protected Header; this example uses the header from
    Figure 144, encoded to base64url [RFC4648] as Figure 145.
 {
   "alg": "A256GCMKW",
   "kid": "18ec08e1-bfa9-4d95-b205-2b4dd1d4321d",
   "tag": "kfPduVQ3T3H6vnewt--ksw",
   "iv": "KkYT0GX_2jHlfqN_",
   "enc": "A128CBC-HS256"
 }
                 Figure 144: JWE Protected Header JSON

Miller Informational [Page 75] RFC 7520 JOSE Cookbook May 2015

 eyJhbGciOiJBMjU2R0NNS1ciLCJraWQiOiIxOGVjMDhlMS1iZmE5LTRkOTUtYj
 IwNS0yYjRkZDFkNDMyMWQiLCJ0YWciOiJrZlBkdVZRM1QzSDZ2bmV3dC0ta3N3
 IiwiaXYiOiJLa1lUMEdYXzJqSGxmcU5fIiwiZW5jIjoiQTEyOENCQy1IUzI1Ni
 J9
          Figure 145: JWE Protected Header, base64url-encoded
 Performing the content encryption operation over the Plaintext
 (Figure 72) with the following:
 o  CEK (Figure 139);
 o  Initialization Vector (Figure 140); and
 o  JWE Protected Header (Figure 145) as authenticated data
 produces the following:
 o  Ciphertext from Figure 146.
 o  Authentication Tag from Figure 147.
 Jf5p9-ZhJlJy_IQ_byKFmI0Ro7w7G1QiaZpI8OaiVgD8EqoDZHyFKFBupS8iaE
 eVIgMqWmsuJKuoVgzR3YfzoMd3GxEm3VxNhzWyWtZKX0gxKdy6HgLvqoGNbZCz
 LjqcpDiF8q2_62EVAbr2uSc2oaxFmFuIQHLcqAHxy51449xkjZ7ewzZaGV3eFq
 hpco8o4DijXaG5_7kp3h2cajRfDgymuxUbWgLqaeNQaJtvJmSMFuEOSAzw9Hde
 b6yhdTynCRmu-kqtO5Dec4lT2OMZKpnxc_F1_4yDJFcqb5CiDSmA-psB2k0Jtj
 xAj4UPI61oONK7zzFIu4gBfjJCndsZfdvG7h8wGjV98QhrKEnR7xKZ3KCr0_qR
 1B-gxpNk3xWU
               Figure 146: Ciphertext, base64url-encoded
 DKW7jrb4WaRSNfbXVPlT5g
           Figure 147: Authentication Tag, base64url-encoded

Miller Informational [Page 76] RFC 7520 JOSE Cookbook May 2015

5.7.5. Output Results

 The following compose the resulting JWE object:
 o  JWE Protected Header (Figure 145)
 o  Encrypted Key (Figure 142)
 o  Initialization Vector (Figure 140)
 o  Ciphertext (Figure 146)
 o  Authentication Tag (Figure 147)
 The resulting JWE object using the JWE Compact Serialization:
 eyJhbGciOiJBMjU2R0NNS1ciLCJraWQiOiIxOGVjMDhlMS1iZmE5LTRkOTUtYj
 IwNS0yYjRkZDFkNDMyMWQiLCJ0YWciOiJrZlBkdVZRM1QzSDZ2bmV3dC0ta3N3
 IiwiaXYiOiJLa1lUMEdYXzJqSGxmcU5fIiwiZW5jIjoiQTEyOENCQy1IUzI1Ni
 J9
 .
 lJf3HbOApxMEBkCMOoTnnABxs_CvTWUmZQ2ElLvYNok
 .
 gz6NjyEFNm_vm8Gj6FwoFQ
 .
 Jf5p9-ZhJlJy_IQ_byKFmI0Ro7w7G1QiaZpI8OaiVgD8EqoDZHyFKFBupS8iaE
 eVIgMqWmsuJKuoVgzR3YfzoMd3GxEm3VxNhzWyWtZKX0gxKdy6HgLvqoGNbZCz
 LjqcpDiF8q2_62EVAbr2uSc2oaxFmFuIQHLcqAHxy51449xkjZ7ewzZaGV3eFq
 hpco8o4DijXaG5_7kp3h2cajRfDgymuxUbWgLqaeNQaJtvJmSMFuEOSAzw9Hde
 b6yhdTynCRmu-kqtO5Dec4lT2OMZKpnxc_F1_4yDJFcqb5CiDSmA-psB2k0Jtj
 xAj4UPI61oONK7zzFIu4gBfjJCndsZfdvG7h8wGjV98QhrKEnR7xKZ3KCr0_qR
 1B-gxpNk3xWU
 .
 DKW7jrb4WaRSNfbXVPlT5g
                 Figure 148: JWE Compact Serialization

Miller Informational [Page 77] RFC 7520 JOSE Cookbook May 2015

 The resulting JWE object using the general JWE JSON Serialization:
 {
   "recipients": [
     {
       "encrypted_key": "lJf3HbOApxMEBkCMOoTnnABxs_CvTWUmZQ2ElL
           vYNok"
     }
   ],
   "protected": "eyJhbGciOiJBMjU2R0NNS1ciLCJraWQiOiIxOGVjMDhlMS
       1iZmE5LTRkOTUtYjIwNS0yYjRkZDFkNDMyMWQiLCJ0YWciOiJrZlBkdV
       ZRM1QzSDZ2bmV3dC0ta3N3IiwiaXYiOiJLa1lUMEdYXzJqSGxmcU5fIi
       wiZW5jIjoiQTEyOENCQy1IUzI1NiJ9",
   "iv": "gz6NjyEFNm_vm8Gj6FwoFQ",
   "ciphertext": "Jf5p9-ZhJlJy_IQ_byKFmI0Ro7w7G1QiaZpI8OaiVgD8E
       qoDZHyFKFBupS8iaEeVIgMqWmsuJKuoVgzR3YfzoMd3GxEm3VxNhzWyW
       tZKX0gxKdy6HgLvqoGNbZCzLjqcpDiF8q2_62EVAbr2uSc2oaxFmFuIQ
       HLcqAHxy51449xkjZ7ewzZaGV3eFqhpco8o4DijXaG5_7kp3h2cajRfD
       gymuxUbWgLqaeNQaJtvJmSMFuEOSAzw9Hdeb6yhdTynCRmu-kqtO5Dec
       4lT2OMZKpnxc_F1_4yDJFcqb5CiDSmA-psB2k0JtjxAj4UPI61oONK7z
       zFIu4gBfjJCndsZfdvG7h8wGjV98QhrKEnR7xKZ3KCr0_qR1B-gxpNk3
       xWU",
   "tag": "DKW7jrb4WaRSNfbXVPlT5g"
 }
              Figure 149: General JWE JSON Serialization

Miller Informational [Page 78] RFC 7520 JOSE Cookbook May 2015

 The resulting JWE object using the flattened JWE JSON Serialization:
 {
   "protected": "eyJhbGciOiJBMjU2R0NNS1ciLCJpdiI6IktrWVQwR1hfMm
       pIbGZxTl8iLCJraWQiOiIxOGVjMDhlMS1iZmE5LTRkOTUtYjIwNS0yYj
       RkZDFkNDMyMWQiLCJ0YWciOiJrZlBkdVZRM1QzSDZ2bmV3dC0ta3N3Ii
       wiZW5jIjoiQTEyOENCQy1IUzI1NiJ9",
   "encrypted_key": "lJf3HbOApxMEBkCMOoTnnABxs_CvTWUmZQ2ElLvYNo
       k",
   "iv": "gz6NjyEFNm_vm8Gj6FwoFQ",
   "ciphertext": "Jf5p9-ZhJlJy_IQ_byKFmI0Ro7w7G1QiaZpI8OaiVgD8E
       qoDZHyFKFBupS8iaEeVIgMqWmsuJKuoVgzR3YfzoMd3GxEm3VxNhzWyW
       tZKX0gxKdy6HgLvqoGNbZCzLjqcpDiF8q2_62EVAbr2uSc2oaxFmFuIQ
       HLcqAHxy51449xkjZ7ewzZaGV3eFqhpco8o4DijXaG5_7kp3h2cajRfD
       gymuxUbWgLqaeNQaJtvJmSMFuEOSAzw9Hdeb6yhdTynCRmu-kqtO5Dec
       4lT2OMZKpnxc_F1_4yDJFcqb5CiDSmA-psB2k0JtjxAj4UPI61oONK7z
       zFIu4gBfjJCndsZfdvG7h8wGjV98QhrKEnR7xKZ3KCr0_qR1B-gxpNk3
       xWU",
   "tag": "NvBveHr_vonkvflfnUrmBQ"
 }
             Figure 150: Flattened JWE JSON Serialization

5.8. Key Wrap Using AES-KeyWrap with AES-GCM

 The following example illustrates content encryption using the
 "A128KW" (AES-128-KeyWrap) key encryption algorithm and the "A128GCM"
 (AES-128-GCM) content encryption algorithm.
 Note that whitespace is added for readability as described in
 Section 1.1.

5.8.1. Input Factors

 The following are supplied before beginning the encryption process:
 o  Plaintext content; this example uses the content from Figure 72.
 o  AES symmetric key; this example uses the key from Figure 151.
 o  "alg" parameter of "A128KW".
 o  "enc" parameter of "A128GCM".

Miller Informational [Page 79] RFC 7520 JOSE Cookbook May 2015

 {
   "kty": "oct",
   "kid": "81b20965-8332-43d9-a468-82160ad91ac8",
   "use": "enc",
   "alg": "A128KW",
   "k": "GZy6sIZ6wl9NJOKB-jnmVQ"
 }
                      Figure 151: AES 128-Bit Key

5.8.2. Generated Factors

 The following are generated before encrypting:
 o  AES symmetric key as the Content Encryption Key; this example uses
    the key from Figure 152.
 o  Initialization Vector; this example uses the Initialization Vector
    from Figure 153.
 aY5_Ghmk9KxWPBLu_glx1w
         Figure 152: Content Encryption Key, base64url-encoded
 Qx0pmsDa8KnJc9Jo
         Figure 153: Initialization Vector, base64url-encoded

5.8.3. Encrypting the Key

 Performing the key encryption operation over the CEK (Figure 152)
 with the AES symmetric key (Figure 151) produces the following
 Encrypted Key:
 CBI6oDw8MydIx1IBntf_lQcw2MmJKIQx
             Figure 154: Encrypted Key, base64url-encoded

5.8.4. Encrypting the Content

 The following is generated before encrypting the content:
 o  JWE Protected Header; this example uses the header from
    Figure 155, encoded to base64url [RFC4648] as Figure 156.

Miller Informational [Page 80] RFC 7520 JOSE Cookbook May 2015

 {
   "alg": "A128KW",
   "kid": "81b20965-8332-43d9-a468-82160ad91ac8",
   "enc": "A128GCM"
 }
                 Figure 155: JWE Protected Header JSON
 eyJhbGciOiJBMTI4S1ciLCJraWQiOiI4MWIyMDk2NS04MzMyLTQzZDktYTQ2OC
 04MjE2MGFkOTFhYzgiLCJlbmMiOiJBMTI4R0NNIn0
          Figure 156: JWE Protected Header, base64url-encoded
 Performing the content encryption over the Plaintext (Figure 72) with
 the following:
 o  CEK (Figure 152);
 o  Initialization Vector (Figure 153); and
 o  JWE Protected Header (Figure 156) as authenticated data
 produces the following:
 o  Ciphertext from Figure 157.
 o  Authentication Tag from Figure 158.
 AwliP-KmWgsZ37BvzCefNen6VTbRK3QMA4TkvRkH0tP1bTdhtFJgJxeVmJkLD6
 1A1hnWGetdg11c9ADsnWgL56NyxwSYjU1ZEHcGkd3EkU0vjHi9gTlb90qSYFfe
 F0LwkcTtjbYKCsiNJQkcIp1yeM03OmuiYSoYJVSpf7ej6zaYcMv3WwdxDFl8RE
 wOhNImk2Xld2JXq6BR53TSFkyT7PwVLuq-1GwtGHlQeg7gDT6xW0JqHDPn_H-p
 uQsmthc9Zg0ojmJfqqFvETUxLAF-KjcBTS5dNy6egwkYtOt8EIHK-oEsKYtZRa
 a8Z7MOZ7UGxGIMvEmxrGCPeJa14slv2-gaqK0kEThkaSqdYw0FkQZF
               Figure 157: Ciphertext, base64url-encoded
 ER7MWJZ1FBI_NKvn7Zb1Lw
           Figure 158: Authentication Tag, base64url-encoded

Miller Informational [Page 81] RFC 7520 JOSE Cookbook May 2015

5.8.5. Output Results

 The following compose the resulting JWE object:
 o  JWE Protected Header (Figure 156)
 o  Encrypted Key (Figure 154)
 o  Initialization Vector (Figure 153)
 o  Ciphertext (Figure 157)
 o  Authentication Tag (Figure 158)
 The resulting JWE object using the JWE Compact Serialization:
 eyJhbGciOiJBMTI4S1ciLCJraWQiOiI4MWIyMDk2NS04MzMyLTQzZDktYTQ2OC
 04MjE2MGFkOTFhYzgiLCJlbmMiOiJBMTI4R0NNIn0
 .
 CBI6oDw8MydIx1IBntf_lQcw2MmJKIQx
 .
 Qx0pmsDa8KnJc9Jo
 .
 AwliP-KmWgsZ37BvzCefNen6VTbRK3QMA4TkvRkH0tP1bTdhtFJgJxeVmJkLD6
 1A1hnWGetdg11c9ADsnWgL56NyxwSYjU1ZEHcGkd3EkU0vjHi9gTlb90qSYFfe
 F0LwkcTtjbYKCsiNJQkcIp1yeM03OmuiYSoYJVSpf7ej6zaYcMv3WwdxDFl8RE
 wOhNImk2Xld2JXq6BR53TSFkyT7PwVLuq-1GwtGHlQeg7gDT6xW0JqHDPn_H-p
 uQsmthc9Zg0ojmJfqqFvETUxLAF-KjcBTS5dNy6egwkYtOt8EIHK-oEsKYtZRa
 a8Z7MOZ7UGxGIMvEmxrGCPeJa14slv2-gaqK0kEThkaSqdYw0FkQZF
 .
 ER7MWJZ1FBI_NKvn7Zb1Lw
                 Figure 159: JWE Compact Serialization

Miller Informational [Page 82] RFC 7520 JOSE Cookbook May 2015

 The resulting JWE object using the general JWE JSON Serialization:
 {
   "recipients": [
     {
       "encrypted_key": "CBI6oDw8MydIx1IBntf_lQcw2MmJKIQx"
     }
   ],
   "protected": "eyJhbGciOiJBMTI4S1ciLCJraWQiOiI4MWIyMDk2NS04Mz
       MyLTQzZDktYTQ2OC04MjE2MGFkOTFhYzgiLCJlbmMiOiJBMTI4R0NNIn
       0",
   "iv": "Qx0pmsDa8KnJc9Jo",
   "ciphertext": "AwliP-KmWgsZ37BvzCefNen6VTbRK3QMA4TkvRkH0tP1b
       TdhtFJgJxeVmJkLD61A1hnWGetdg11c9ADsnWgL56NyxwSYjU1ZEHcGk
       d3EkU0vjHi9gTlb90qSYFfeF0LwkcTtjbYKCsiNJQkcIp1yeM03OmuiY
       SoYJVSpf7ej6zaYcMv3WwdxDFl8REwOhNImk2Xld2JXq6BR53TSFkyT7
       PwVLuq-1GwtGHlQeg7gDT6xW0JqHDPn_H-puQsmthc9Zg0ojmJfqqFvE
       TUxLAF-KjcBTS5dNy6egwkYtOt8EIHK-oEsKYtZRaa8Z7MOZ7UGxGIMv
       EmxrGCPeJa14slv2-gaqK0kEThkaSqdYw0FkQZF",
   "tag": "ER7MWJZ1FBI_NKvn7Zb1Lw"
 }
              Figure 160: General JWE JSON Serialization
 The resulting JWE object using the flattened JWE JSON Serialization:
 {
   "protected": "eyJhbGciOiJBMTI4S1ciLCJraWQiOiI4MWIyMDk2NS04Mz
       MyLTQzZDktYTQ2OC04MjE2MGFkOTFhYzgiLCJlbmMiOiJBMTI4R0NNIn
       0",
   "encrypted_key": "CBI6oDw8MydIx1IBntf_lQcw2MmJKIQx",
   "iv": "Qx0pmsDa8KnJc9Jo",
   "ciphertext": "AwliP-KmWgsZ37BvzCefNen6VTbRK3QMA4TkvRkH0tP1b
       TdhtFJgJxeVmJkLD61A1hnWGetdg11c9ADsnWgL56NyxwSYjU1ZEHcGk
       d3EkU0vjHi9gTlb90qSYFfeF0LwkcTtjbYKCsiNJQkcIp1yeM03OmuiY
       SoYJVSpf7ej6zaYcMv3WwdxDFl8REwOhNImk2Xld2JXq6BR53TSFkyT7
       PwVLuq-1GwtGHlQeg7gDT6xW0JqHDPn_H-puQsmthc9Zg0ojmJfqqFvE
       TUxLAF-KjcBTS5dNy6egwkYtOt8EIHK-oEsKYtZRaa8Z7MOZ7UGxGIMv
       EmxrGCPeJa14slv2-gaqK0kEThkaSqdYw0FkQZF",
   "tag": "ER7MWJZ1FBI_NKvn7Zb1Lw"
 }
             Figure 161: Flattened JWE JSON Serialization

Miller Informational [Page 83] RFC 7520 JOSE Cookbook May 2015

5.9. Compressed Content

 This example illustrates encrypting content that is first compressed.
 It reuses the AES symmetric key, key encryption algorithm, and
 content encryption algorithm from Section 5.8.
 Note that whitespace is added for readability as described in
 Section 1.1.

5.9.1. Input Factors

 The following are supplied before beginning the encryption process:
 o  Plaintext content; this example uses the content from Figure 72.
 o  Recipient encryption key; this example uses the key from
    Figure 151.
 o  Key encryption algorithm; this example uses "A128KW".
 o  Content encryption algorithm; this example uses "A128GCM".
 o  "zip" parameter of "DEF".

5.9.2. Generated Factors

 The following are generated before encrypting:
 o  Compressed Plaintext from the original Plaintext content;
    compressing Figure 72 using the DEFLATE [RFC1951] algorithm
    produces the compressed Plaintext from Figure 162.
 o  AES symmetric key as the Content Encryption Key (CEK); this
    example uses the key from Figure 163.
 o  Initialization Vector; this example uses the Initialization Vector
    from Figure 164.
 bY_BDcIwDEVX-QNU3QEOrIA4pqlDokYxchxVvbEDGzIJbioOSJwc-f___HPjBu
 8KVFpVtAplVE1-wZo0YjNZo3C7R5v72pV5f5X382VWjYQpqZKAyjziZOr2B7kQ
 PSy6oZIXUnDYbVKN4jNXi2u0yB7t1qSHTjmMODf9QgvrDzfTIQXnyQRuUya4zI
 WG3vTOdir0v7BRHFYWq3k1k1A_gSDJqtcBF-GZxw8
          Figure 162: Compressed Plaintext, base64url-encoded

Miller Informational [Page 84] RFC 7520 JOSE Cookbook May 2015

 hC-MpLZSuwWv8sexS6ydfw
         Figure 163: Content Encryption Key, base64url-encoded
 p9pUq6XHY0jfEZIl
         Figure 164: Initialization Vector, base64url-encoded

5.9.3. Encrypting the Key

 Performing the key encryption operation over the CEK (Figure 163)
 with the AES symmetric key (Figure 151) produces the following
 Encrypted Key:
 5vUT2WOtQxKWcekM_IzVQwkGgzlFDwPi
             Figure 165: Encrypted Key, base64url-encoded

5.9.4. Encrypting the Content

 The following is generated before encrypting the content:
 o  JWE Protected Header; this example uses the header from
    Figure 166, encoded to base64url [RFC4648] as Figure 167.
 {
   "alg": "A128KW",
   "kid": "81b20965-8332-43d9-a468-82160ad91ac8",
   "enc": "A128GCM",
   "zip": "DEF"
 }
                 Figure 166: JWE Protected Header JSON
 eyJhbGciOiJBMTI4S1ciLCJraWQiOiI4MWIyMDk2NS04MzMyLTQzZDktYTQ2OC
 04MjE2MGFkOTFhYzgiLCJlbmMiOiJBMTI4R0NNIiwiemlwIjoiREVGIn0
          Figure 167: JWE Protected Header, base64url-encoded

Miller Informational [Page 85] RFC 7520 JOSE Cookbook May 2015

 Performing the content encryption operation over the compressed
 Plaintext (Figure 162, encoded as an octet string) with the
 following:
 o  CEK (Figure 163);
 o  Initialization Vector (Figure 164); and
 o  JWE Protected Header (Figure 167) as authenticated data
 produces the following:
 o  Ciphertext from Figure 168.
 o  Authentication Tag from Figure 169.
 HbDtOsdai1oYziSx25KEeTxmwnh8L8jKMFNc1k3zmMI6VB8hry57tDZ61jXyez
 SPt0fdLVfe6Jf5y5-JaCap_JQBcb5opbmT60uWGml8blyiMQmOn9J--XhhlYg0
 m-BHaqfDO5iTOWxPxFMUedx7WCy8mxgDHj0aBMG6152PsM-w5E_o2B3jDbrYBK
 hpYA7qi3AyijnCJ7BP9rr3U8kxExCpG3mK420TjOw
               Figure 168: Ciphertext, base64url-encoded
 VILuUwuIxaLVmh5X-T7kmA
           Figure 169: Authentication Tag, base64url-encoded

5.9.5. Output Results

 The following compose the resulting JWE object:
 o  JWE Protected Header (Figure 167)
 o  Encrypted Key (Figure 165)
 o  Initialization Vector (Figure 164)
 o  Ciphertext (Figure 168)
 o  Authentication Tag (Figure 169)

Miller Informational [Page 86] RFC 7520 JOSE Cookbook May 2015

 The resulting JWE object using the JWE Compact Serialization:
 eyJhbGciOiJBMTI4S1ciLCJraWQiOiI4MWIyMDk2NS04MzMyLTQzZDktYTQ2OC
 04MjE2MGFkOTFhYzgiLCJlbmMiOiJBMTI4R0NNIiwiemlwIjoiREVGIn0
 .
 5vUT2WOtQxKWcekM_IzVQwkGgzlFDwPi
 .
 p9pUq6XHY0jfEZIl
 .
 HbDtOsdai1oYziSx25KEeTxmwnh8L8jKMFNc1k3zmMI6VB8hry57tDZ61jXyez
 SPt0fdLVfe6Jf5y5-JaCap_JQBcb5opbmT60uWGml8blyiMQmOn9J--XhhlYg0
 m-BHaqfDO5iTOWxPxFMUedx7WCy8mxgDHj0aBMG6152PsM-w5E_o2B3jDbrYBK
 hpYA7qi3AyijnCJ7BP9rr3U8kxExCpG3mK420TjOw
 .
 VILuUwuIxaLVmh5X-T7kmA
                 Figure 170: JWE Compact Serialization
 The resulting JWE object using the general JWE JSON Serialization:
 {
   "recipients": [
     {
       "encrypted_key": "5vUT2WOtQxKWcekM_IzVQwkGgzlFDwPi"
     }
   ],
   "protected": "eyJhbGciOiJBMTI4S1ciLCJraWQiOiI4MWIyMDk2NS04Mz
       MyLTQzZDktYTQ2OC04MjE2MGFkOTFhYzgiLCJlbmMiOiJBMTI4R0NNIi
       wiemlwIjoiREVGIn0",
   "iv": "p9pUq6XHY0jfEZIl",
   "ciphertext": "HbDtOsdai1oYziSx25KEeTxmwnh8L8jKMFNc1k3zmMI6V
       B8hry57tDZ61jXyezSPt0fdLVfe6Jf5y5-JaCap_JQBcb5opbmT60uWG
       ml8blyiMQmOn9J--XhhlYg0m-BHaqfDO5iTOWxPxFMUedx7WCy8mxgDH
       j0aBMG6152PsM-w5E_o2B3jDbrYBKhpYA7qi3AyijnCJ7BP9rr3U8kxE
       xCpG3mK420TjOw",
   "tag": "VILuUwuIxaLVmh5X-T7kmA"
 }
              Figure 171: General JWE JSON Serialization

Miller Informational [Page 87] RFC 7520 JOSE Cookbook May 2015

 The resulting JWE object using the flattened JWE JSON Serialization:
 {
   "protected": "eyJhbGciOiJBMTI4S1ciLCJraWQiOiI4MWIyMDk2NS04Mz
       MyLTQzZDktYTQ2OC04MjE2MGFkOTFhYzgiLCJlbmMiOiJBMTI4R0NNIi
       wiemlwIjoiREVGIn0",
   "encrypted_key": "5vUT2WOtQxKWcekM_IzVQwkGgzlFDwPi",
   "iv": "p9pUq6XHY0jfEZIl",
   "ciphertext": "HbDtOsdai1oYziSx25KEeTxmwnh8L8jKMFNc1k3zmMI6V
       B8hry57tDZ61jXyezSPt0fdLVfe6Jf5y5-JaCap_JQBcb5opbmT60uWG
       ml8blyiMQmOn9J--XhhlYg0m-BHaqfDO5iTOWxPxFMUedx7WCy8mxgDH
       j0aBMG6152PsM-w5E_o2B3jDbrYBKhpYA7qi3AyijnCJ7BP9rr3U8kxE
       xCpG3mK420TjOw",
   "tag": "VILuUwuIxaLVmh5X-T7kmA"
 }
             Figure 172: Flattened JWE JSON Serialization

5.10. Including Additional Authenticated Data

 This example illustrates encrypting content that includes additional
 authenticated data.  As this example includes an additional top-level
 property not present in the JWE Compact Serialization, only the
 flattened JWE JSON Serialization and general JWE JSON Serialization
 are possible.
 Note that whitespace is added for readability as described in
 Section 1.1.

5.10.1. Input Factors

 The following are supplied before beginning the encryption process:
 o  Plaintext content; this example uses the content from Figure 72.
 o  Recipient encryption key; this example uses the key from
    Figure 151.
 o  Key encryption algorithm; this example uses "A128KW".
 o  Content encryption algorithm; this example uses "A128GCM".
 o  Additional Authenticated Data; this example uses a vCard [RFC7095]
    from Figure 173, serialized to UTF-8.

Miller Informational [Page 88] RFC 7520 JOSE Cookbook May 2015

 [
   "vcard",
   [
     [ "version", {}, "text", "4.0" ],
     [ "fn", {}, "text", "Meriadoc Brandybuck" ],
     [ "n", {},
       "text", [
         "Brandybuck", "Meriadoc", "Mr.", ""
       ]
     ],
     [ "bday", {}, "text", "TA 2982" ],
     [ "gender", {}, "text", "M" ]
   ]
 ]
       Figure 173: Additional Authenticated Data, in JSON Format
 NOTE: Whitespace between JSON values was added for readability.

5.10.2. Generated Factors

 The following are generated before encrypting:
 o  AES symmetric key as the Content Encryption Key (CEK); this
    example uses the key from Figure 174.
 o  Initialization Vector; this example uses the Initialization Vector
    from Figure 175.
 o  Encoded Additional Authenticated Data (AAD); this example uses the
    Additional Authenticated Data from Figure 173, encoded to
    base64url [RFC4648] as Figure 176.
 75m1ALsYv10pZTKPWrsqdg
         Figure 174: Content Encryption Key, base64url-encoded
 veCx9ece2orS7c_N
         Figure 175: Initialization Vector, base64url-encoded
 WyJ2Y2FyZCIsW1sidmVyc2lvbiIse30sInRleHQiLCI0LjAiXSxbImZuIix7fS
 widGV4dCIsIk1lcmlhZG9jIEJyYW5keWJ1Y2siXSxbIm4iLHt9LCJ0ZXh0Iixb
 IkJyYW5keWJ1Y2siLCJNZXJpYWRvYyIsIk1yLiIsIiJdXSxbImJkYXkiLHt9LC
 J0ZXh0IiwiVEEgMjk4MiJdLFsiZ2VuZGVyIix7fSwidGV4dCIsIk0iXV1d
     Figure 176: Additional Authenticated Data, base64url-encoded

Miller Informational [Page 89] RFC 7520 JOSE Cookbook May 2015

5.10.3. Encrypting the Key

 Performing the key encryption operation over the CEK (Figure 174)
 with the AES symmetric key (Figure 151) produces the following
 Encrypted Key:
 4YiiQ_ZzH76TaIkJmYfRFgOV9MIpnx4X
             Figure 177: Encrypted Key, base64url-encoded

5.10.4. Encrypting the Content

 The following is generated before encrypting the content:
 o  JWE Protected Header; this example uses the header from
    Figure 178, encoded to base64url [RFC4648] as Figure 179.
 {
   "alg": "A128KW",
   "kid": "81b20965-8332-43d9-a468-82160ad91ac8",
   "enc": "A128GCM"
 }
                 Figure 178: JWE Protected Header JSON
 eyJhbGciOiJBMTI4S1ciLCJraWQiOiI4MWIyMDk2NS04MzMyLTQzZDktYTQ2OC
 04MjE2MGFkOTFhYzgiLCJlbmMiOiJBMTI4R0NNIn0
          Figure 179: JWE Protected Header, base64url-encoded
 Performing the content encryption operation over the Plaintext with
 the following:
 o  CEK (Figure 174);
 o  Initialization Vector (Figure 175); and
 o  Concatenation of the JWE Protected Header (Figure 179), ".", and
    the base64url [RFC4648] encoding of Figure 173 as authenticated
    data
 produces the following:
 o  Ciphertext from Figure 180.
 o  Authentication Tag from Figure 181.

Miller Informational [Page 90] RFC 7520 JOSE Cookbook May 2015

 Z_3cbr0k3bVM6N3oSNmHz7Lyf3iPppGf3Pj17wNZqteJ0Ui8p74SchQP8xygM1
 oFRWCNzeIa6s6BcEtp8qEFiqTUEyiNkOWDNoF14T_4NFqF-p2Mx8zkbKxI7oPK
 8KNarFbyxIDvICNqBLba-v3uzXBdB89fzOI-Lv4PjOFAQGHrgv1rjXAmKbgkft
 9cB4WeyZw8MldbBhc-V_KWZslrsLNygon_JJWd_ek6LQn5NRehvApqf9ZrxB4a
 q3FXBxOxCys35PhCdaggy2kfUfl2OkwKnWUbgXVD1C6HxLIlqHhCwXDG59weHr
 RDQeHyMRoBljoV3X_bUTJDnKBFOod7nLz-cj48JMx3SnCZTpbQAkFV
               Figure 180: Ciphertext, base64url-encoded
 vOaH_Rajnpy_3hOtqvZHRA
           Figure 181: Authentication Tag, base64url-encoded

5.10.5. Output Results

 The following compose the resulting JWE object:
 o  JWE Protected Header (Figure 179)
 o  Encrypted Key (Figure 177)
 o  Initialization Vector (Figure 175)
 o  Additional Authenticated Data (Figure 176)
 o  Ciphertext (Figure 180)
 o  Authentication Tag (Figure 181)
 The JWE Compact Serialization is not presented because it does not
 support this use case.

Miller Informational [Page 91] RFC 7520 JOSE Cookbook May 2015

 The resulting JWE object using the general JWE JSON Serialization:
 {
   "recipients": [
     {
       "encrypted_key": "4YiiQ_ZzH76TaIkJmYfRFgOV9MIpnx4X"
     }
   ],
   "protected": "eyJhbGciOiJBMTI4S1ciLCJraWQiOiI4MWIyMDk2NS04Mz
       MyLTQzZDktYTQ2OC04MjE2MGFkOTFhYzgiLCJlbmMiOiJBMTI4R0NNIn
       0",
   "iv": "veCx9ece2orS7c_N",
   "aad": "WyJ2Y2FyZCIsW1sidmVyc2lvbiIse30sInRleHQiLCI0LjAiXSxb
       ImZuIix7fSwidGV4dCIsIk1lcmlhZG9jIEJyYW5keWJ1Y2siXSxbIm4i
       LHt9LCJ0ZXh0IixbIkJyYW5keWJ1Y2siLCJNZXJpYWRvYyIsIk1yLiIs
       IiJdXSxbImJkYXkiLHt9LCJ0ZXh0IiwiVEEgMjk4MiJdLFsiZ2VuZGVy
       Iix7fSwidGV4dCIsIk0iXV1d",
   "ciphertext": "Z_3cbr0k3bVM6N3oSNmHz7Lyf3iPppGf3Pj17wNZqteJ0
       Ui8p74SchQP8xygM1oFRWCNzeIa6s6BcEtp8qEFiqTUEyiNkOWDNoF14
       T_4NFqF-p2Mx8zkbKxI7oPK8KNarFbyxIDvICNqBLba-v3uzXBdB89fz
       OI-Lv4PjOFAQGHrgv1rjXAmKbgkft9cB4WeyZw8MldbBhc-V_KWZslrs
       LNygon_JJWd_ek6LQn5NRehvApqf9ZrxB4aq3FXBxOxCys35PhCdaggy
       2kfUfl2OkwKnWUbgXVD1C6HxLIlqHhCwXDG59weHrRDQeHyMRoBljoV3
       X_bUTJDnKBFOod7nLz-cj48JMx3SnCZTpbQAkFV",
   "tag": "vOaH_Rajnpy_3hOtqvZHRA"
 }
              Figure 182: General JWE JSON Serialization

Miller Informational [Page 92] RFC 7520 JOSE Cookbook May 2015

 The resulting JWE object using the flattened JWE JSON Serialization:
 {
   "protected": "eyJhbGciOiJBMTI4S1ciLCJraWQiOiI4MWIyMDk2NS04Mz
       MyLTQzZDktYTQ2OC04MjE2MGFkOTFhYzgiLCJlbmMiOiJBMTI4R0NNIn
       0",
   "encrypted_key": "4YiiQ_ZzH76TaIkJmYfRFgOV9MIpnx4X",
   "aad": "WyJ2Y2FyZCIsW1sidmVyc2lvbiIse30sInRleHQiLCI0LjAiXSxb
       ImZuIix7fSwidGV4dCIsIk1lcmlhZG9jIEJyYW5keWJ1Y2siXSxbIm4i
       LHt9LCJ0ZXh0IixbIkJyYW5keWJ1Y2siLCJNZXJpYWRvYyIsIk1yLiIs
       IiJdXSxbImJkYXkiLHt9LCJ0ZXh0IiwiVEEgMjk4MiJdLFsiZ2VuZGVy
       Iix7fSwidGV4dCIsIk0iXV1d",
   "iv": "veCx9ece2orS7c_N",
   "ciphertext": "Z_3cbr0k3bVM6N3oSNmHz7Lyf3iPppGf3Pj17wNZqteJ0
       Ui8p74SchQP8xygM1oFRWCNzeIa6s6BcEtp8qEFiqTUEyiNkOWDNoF14
       T_4NFqF-p2Mx8zkbKxI7oPK8KNarFbyxIDvICNqBLba-v3uzXBdB89fz
       OI-Lv4PjOFAQGHrgv1rjXAmKbgkft9cB4WeyZw8MldbBhc-V_KWZslrs
       LNygon_JJWd_ek6LQn5NRehvApqf9ZrxB4aq3FXBxOxCys35PhCdaggy
       2kfUfl2OkwKnWUbgXVD1C6HxLIlqHhCwXDG59weHrRDQeHyMRoBljoV3
       X_bUTJDnKBFOod7nLz-cj48JMx3SnCZTpbQAkFV",
   "tag": "vOaH_Rajnpy_3hOtqvZHRA"
 }
             Figure 183: Flattened JWE JSON Serialization

5.11. Protecting Specific Header Fields

 This example illustrates encrypting content where only certain JOSE
 Header Parameters are protected.  As this example includes parameters
 in the JWE Shared Unprotected Header, only the general JWE JSON
 Serialization and flattened JWE JSON Serialization are possible.
 Note that whitespace is added for readability as described in
 Section 1.1.

5.11.1. Input Factors

 The following are supplied before beginning the encryption process:
 o  Plaintext content; this example uses the content from Figure 72.
 o  Recipient encryption key; this example uses the key from
    Figure 151.
 o  Key encryption algorithm; this example uses "A128KW".
 o  Content encryption algorithm; this example uses "A128GCM".

Miller Informational [Page 93] RFC 7520 JOSE Cookbook May 2015

5.11.2. Generated Factors

 The following are generated before encrypting:
 o  AES symmetric key as the Content Encryption Key (CEK); this
    example uses the key from Figure 184.
 o  Initialization Vector; this example uses the Initialization Vector
    from Figure 185.
 WDgEptBmQs9ouUvArz6x6g
         Figure 184: Content Encryption Key, base64url-encoded
 WgEJsDS9bkoXQ3nR
         Figure 185: Initialization Vector, base64url-encoded

5.11.3. Encrypting the Key

 Performing the key encryption operation over the CEK (Figure 184)
 with the AES symmetric key (Figure 151) produces the following
 Encrypted Key:
 jJIcM9J-hbx3wnqhf5FlkEYos0sHsF0H
             Figure 186: Encrypted Key, base64url-encoded

5.11.4. Encrypting the Content

 The following is generated before encrypting the content:
 o  JWE Protected Header; this example uses the header from
    Figure 187, encoded to base64url [RFC4648] as Figure 188.
 {
   "enc": "A128GCM"
 }
                 Figure 187: JWE Protected Header JSON
 eyJlbmMiOiJBMTI4R0NNIn0
          Figure 188: JWE Protected Header, base64url-encoded

Miller Informational [Page 94] RFC 7520 JOSE Cookbook May 2015

 Performing the content encryption operation over the Plaintext with
 the following:
 o  CEK (Figure 184);
 o  Initialization Vector (Figure 185); and
 o  JWE Protected Header (Figure 188) as authenticated data
 produces the following:
 o  Ciphertext from Figure 189.
 o  Authentication Tag from Figure 190.
 lIbCyRmRJxnB2yLQOTqjCDKV3H30ossOw3uD9DPsqLL2DM3swKkjOwQyZtWsFL
 YMj5YeLht_StAn21tHmQJuuNt64T8D4t6C7kC9OCCJ1IHAolUv4MyOt80MoPb8
 fZYbNKqplzYJgIL58g8N2v46OgyG637d6uuKPwhAnTGm_zWhqc_srOvgiLkzyF
 XPq1hBAURbc3-8BqeRb48iR1-_5g5UjWVD3lgiLCN_P7AW8mIiFvUNXBPJK3nO
 WL4teUPS8yHLbWeL83olU4UAgL48x-8dDkH23JykibVSQju-f7e-1xreHWXzWL
 Hs1NqBbre0dEwK3HX_xM0LjUz77Krppgegoutpf5qaKg3l-_xMINmf
               Figure 189: Ciphertext, base64url-encoded
 fNYLqpUe84KD45lvDiaBAQ
           Figure 190: Authentication Tag, base64url-encoded

5.11.5. Output Results

 The following compose the resulting JWE object:
 o  JWE Shared Unprotected Header (Figure 191)
 o  JWE Protected Header (Figure 188)
 o  Encrypted Key (Figure 186)
 o  Initialization Vector (Figure 185)
 o  Ciphertext (Figure 189)
 o  Authentication Tag (Figure 190)
 The JWE Compact Serialization is not presented because it does not
 support this use case.

Miller Informational [Page 95] RFC 7520 JOSE Cookbook May 2015

 The following JWE Shared Unprotected Header is generated before
 assembling the output results:
 {
   "alg": "A128KW",
   "kid": "81b20965-8332-43d9-a468-82160ad91ac8"
 }
            Figure 191: JWE Shared Unprotected Header JSON
 The resulting JWE object using the general JWE JSON Serialization:
 {
   "recipients": [
     {
       "encrypted_key": "jJIcM9J-hbx3wnqhf5FlkEYos0sHsF0H"
     }
   ],
   "unprotected": {
     "alg": "A128KW",
     "kid": "81b20965-8332-43d9-a468-82160ad91ac8"
   },
   "protected": "eyJlbmMiOiJBMTI4R0NNIn0",
   "iv": "WgEJsDS9bkoXQ3nR",
   "ciphertext": "lIbCyRmRJxnB2yLQOTqjCDKV3H30ossOw3uD9DPsqLL2D
       M3swKkjOwQyZtWsFLYMj5YeLht_StAn21tHmQJuuNt64T8D4t6C7kC9O
       CCJ1IHAolUv4MyOt80MoPb8fZYbNKqplzYJgIL58g8N2v46OgyG637d6
       uuKPwhAnTGm_zWhqc_srOvgiLkzyFXPq1hBAURbc3-8BqeRb48iR1-_5
       g5UjWVD3lgiLCN_P7AW8mIiFvUNXBPJK3nOWL4teUPS8yHLbWeL83olU
       4UAgL48x-8dDkH23JykibVSQju-f7e-1xreHWXzWLHs1NqBbre0dEwK3
       HX_xM0LjUz77Krppgegoutpf5qaKg3l-_xMINmf",
   "tag": "fNYLqpUe84KD45lvDiaBAQ"
 }
              Figure 192: General JWE JSON Serialization

Miller Informational [Page 96] RFC 7520 JOSE Cookbook May 2015

 The resulting JWE object using the flattened JWE JSON Serialization:
 {
   "protected": "eyJlbmMiOiJBMTI4R0NNIn0",
   "unprotected": {
     "alg": "A128KW",
     "kid": "81b20965-8332-43d9-a468-82160ad91ac8"
   },
   "encrypted_key": "jJIcM9J-hbx3wnqhf5FlkEYos0sHsF0H",
   "iv": "WgEJsDS9bkoXQ3nR",
   "ciphertext": "lIbCyRmRJxnB2yLQOTqjCDKV3H30ossOw3uD9DPsqLL2D
       M3swKkjOwQyZtWsFLYMj5YeLht_StAn21tHmQJuuNt64T8D4t6C7kC9O
       CCJ1IHAolUv4MyOt80MoPb8fZYbNKqplzYJgIL58g8N2v46OgyG637d6
       uuKPwhAnTGm_zWhqc_srOvgiLkzyFXPq1hBAURbc3-8BqeRb48iR1-_5
       g5UjWVD3lgiLCN_P7AW8mIiFvUNXBPJK3nOWL4teUPS8yHLbWeL83olU
       4UAgL48x-8dDkH23JykibVSQju-f7e-1xreHWXzWLHs1NqBbre0dEwK3
       HX_xM0LjUz77Krppgegoutpf5qaKg3l-_xMINmf",
   "tag": "fNYLqpUe84KD45lvDiaBAQ"
 }
             Figure 193: Flattened JWE JSON Serialization

5.12. Protecting Content Only

 This example illustrates encrypting content where none of the JOSE
 header parameters are protected.  As this example includes parameters
 only in the JWE Shared Unprotected Header, only the flattened JWE
 JSON Serialization and general JWE JSON Serialization are possible.
 Note that whitespace is added for readability as described in
 Section 1.1.

5.12.1. Input Factors

 The following are supplied before beginning the encryption process:
 o  Plaintext content; this example uses the content from Figure 72.
 o  Recipient encryption key; this example uses the key from
    Figure 151.
 o  Key encryption algorithm; this example uses "A128KW".
 o  Content encryption algorithm; this example uses "A128GCM".

Miller Informational [Page 97] RFC 7520 JOSE Cookbook May 2015

5.12.2. Generated Factors

 The following are generated before encrypting:
 o  AES symmetric key as the Content Encryption Key; this example the
    key from Figure 194.
 o  Initialization Vector; this example uses the Initialization Vector
    from Figure 195.
 KBooAFl30QPV3vkcZlXnzQ
         Figure 194: Content Encryption Key, base64url-encoded
 YihBoVOGsR1l7jCD
         Figure 195: Initialization Vector, base64url-encoded

5.12.3. Encrypting the Key

 Performing the key encryption operation over the CEK (Figure 194)
 with the AES symmetric key (Figure 151) produces the following
 Encrypted Key:
 244YHfO_W7RMpQW81UjQrZcq5LSyqiPv
             Figure 196: Encrypted Key, base64url-encoded

5.12.4. Encrypting the Content

 Performing the content encryption operation over the Plaintext
 (Figure 72) using the following:
 o  CEK (Figure 194);
 o  Initialization Vector (Figure 195); and
 o  Empty string as authenticated data
 produces the following:
 o  Ciphertext from Figure 197.
 o  Authentication Tag from Figure 198.

Miller Informational [Page 98] RFC 7520 JOSE Cookbook May 2015

 qtPIMMaOBRgASL10dNQhOa7Gqrk7Eal1vwht7R4TT1uq-arsVCPaIeFwQfzrSS
 6oEUWbBtxEasE0vC6r7sphyVziMCVJEuRJyoAHFSP3eqQPb4Ic1SDSqyXjw_L3
 svybhHYUGyQuTmUQEDjgjJfBOifwHIsDsRPeBz1NomqeifVPq5GTCWFo5k_MNI
 QURR2Wj0AHC2k7JZfu2iWjUHLF8ExFZLZ4nlmsvJu_mvifMYiikfNfsZAudISO
 a6O73yPZtL04k_1FI7WDfrb2w7OqKLWDXzlpcxohPVOLQwpA3mFNRKdY-bQz4Z
 4KX9lfz1cne31N4-8BKmojpw-OdQjKdLOGkC445Fb_K1tlDQXw2sBF
               Figure 197: Ciphertext, base64url-encoded
 e2m0Vm7JvjK2VpCKXS-kyg
           Figure 198: Authentication Tag, base64url-encoded

5.12.5. Output Results

 The JWE Compact Serialization is not presented because it does not
 support this use case.
 The following JWE Shared Unprotected Header is generated before
 assembling the output results:
 {
   "alg": "A128KW",
   "kid": "81b20965-8332-43d9-a468-82160ad91ac8",
   "enc": "A128GCM"
 }
            Figure 199: JWE Shared Unprotected Header JSON
 The following compose the resulting JWE object:
 o  JWE Shared Unprotected Header (Figure 199)
 o  Encrypted Key (Figure 196)
 o  Initialization Vector (Figure 195)
 o  Ciphertext (Figure 197)
 o  Authentication Tag (Figure 198)

Miller Informational [Page 99] RFC 7520 JOSE Cookbook May 2015

 The resulting JWE object using the general JWE JSON Serialization:
 {
   "recipients": [
     {
       "encrypted_key": "244YHfO_W7RMpQW81UjQrZcq5LSyqiPv"
     }
   ],
   "unprotected": {
     "alg": "A128KW",
     "kid": "81b20965-8332-43d9-a468-82160ad91ac8",
     "enc": "A128GCM"
   },
   "iv": "YihBoVOGsR1l7jCD",
   "ciphertext": "qtPIMMaOBRgASL10dNQhOa7Gqrk7Eal1vwht7R4TT1uq-
       arsVCPaIeFwQfzrSS6oEUWbBtxEasE0vC6r7sphyVziMCVJEuRJyoAHF
       SP3eqQPb4Ic1SDSqyXjw_L3svybhHYUGyQuTmUQEDjgjJfBOifwHIsDs
       RPeBz1NomqeifVPq5GTCWFo5k_MNIQURR2Wj0AHC2k7JZfu2iWjUHLF8
       ExFZLZ4nlmsvJu_mvifMYiikfNfsZAudISOa6O73yPZtL04k_1FI7WDf
       rb2w7OqKLWDXzlpcxohPVOLQwpA3mFNRKdY-bQz4Z4KX9lfz1cne31N4
       -8BKmojpw-OdQjKdLOGkC445Fb_K1tlDQXw2sBF",
   "tag": "e2m0Vm7JvjK2VpCKXS-kyg"
 }
              Figure 200: General JWE JSON Serialization
 The resulting JWE object using the flattened JWE JSON Serialization:
 {
   "unprotected": {
     "alg": "A128KW",
     "kid": "81b20965-8332-43d9-a468-82160ad91ac8",
     "enc": "A128GCM"
   },
   "encrypted_key": "244YHfO_W7RMpQW81UjQrZcq5LSyqiPv",
   "iv": "YihBoVOGsR1l7jCD",
   "ciphertext": "qtPIMMaOBRgASL10dNQhOa7Gqrk7Eal1vwht7R4TT1uq-
       arsVCPaIeFwQfzrSS6oEUWbBtxEasE0vC6r7sphyVziMCVJEuRJyoAHF
       SP3eqQPb4Ic1SDSqyXjw_L3svybhHYUGyQuTmUQEDjgjJfBOifwHIsDs
       RPeBz1NomqeifVPq5GTCWFo5k_MNIQURR2Wj0AHC2k7JZfu2iWjUHLF8
       ExFZLZ4nlmsvJu_mvifMYiikfNfsZAudISOa6O73yPZtL04k_1FI7WDf
       rb2w7OqKLWDXzlpcxohPVOLQwpA3mFNRKdY-bQz4Z4KX9lfz1cne31N4
       -8BKmojpw-OdQjKdLOGkC445Fb_K1tlDQXw2sBF",
   "tag": "e2m0Vm7JvjK2VpCKXS-kyg"
 }
             Figure 201: Flattened JWE JSON Serialization

Miller Informational [Page 100] RFC 7520 JOSE Cookbook May 2015

5.13. Encrypting to Multiple Recipients

 This example illustrates encryption content for multiple recipients.
 As this example has multiple recipients, only the general JWE JSON
 Serialization is possible.
 Note that RSAES-PKCS1-v1_5 uses random data to generate the
 ciphertext; it might not be possible to exactly replicate the results
 in this section.
 Note that whitespace is added for readability as described in
 Section 1.1.

5.13.1. Input Factors

 The following are supplied before beginning the encryption process:
 o  Plaintext content; this example uses the Plaintext from Figure 72.
 o  Recipient keys; this example uses the following:
  • The RSA public key from Figure 73 for the first recipient.
  • The EC public key from Figure 108 for the second recipient.
  • The AES symmetric key from Figure 138 for the third recipient.
 o  Key encryption algorithms; this example uses the following:
  • "RSA1_5" for the first recipient.
  • "ECDH-ES+A256KW" for the second recipient.
  • "A256GCMKW" for the third recipient.
 o  Content encryption algorithm; this example uses "A128CBC-HS256".

5.13.2. Generated Factors

 The following are generated before encrypting:
 o  AES symmetric key as the Content Encryption Key (CEK); this
    example uses the key from Figure 202.
 o  Initialization Vector; this example uses the Initialization Vector
    from Figure 203.

Miller Informational [Page 101] RFC 7520 JOSE Cookbook May 2015

 zXayeJ4gvm8NJr3IUInyokTUO-LbQNKEhe_zWlYbdpQ
         Figure 202: Content Encryption Key, base64url-encoded
 VgEIHY20EnzUtZFl2RpB1g
         Figure 203: Initialization Vector, base64url-encoded

5.13.3. Encrypting the Key to the First Recipient

 Performing the "RSA1_5" key encryption operation over the CEK
 (Figure 202) with the first recipient's RSA key (Figure 73) produces
 the following Encrypted Key:
 dYOD28kab0Vvf4ODgxVAJXgHcSZICSOp8M51zjwj4w6Y5G4XJQsNNIBiqyvUUA
 OcpL7S7-cFe7Pio7gV_Q06WmCSa-vhW6me4bWrBf7cHwEQJdXihidAYWVajJIa
 KMXMvFRMV6iDlRr076DFthg2_AV0_tSiV6xSEIFqt1xnYPpmP91tc5WJDOGb-w
 qjw0-b-S1laS11QVbuP78dQ7Fa0zAVzzjHX-xvyM2wxj_otxr9clN1LnZMbeYS
 rRicJK5xodvWgkpIdkMHo4LvdhRRvzoKzlic89jFWPlnBq_V4n5trGuExtp_-d
 bHcGlihqc_wGgho9fLMK8JOArYLcMDNQ
       Figure 204: Recipient #1 Encrypted Key, base64url-encoded
 The following is generated after encrypting the CEK for the first
 recipient:
 o  Recipient JWE Unprotected Header from Figure 205.
 {
   "alg": "RSA1_5",
   "kid": "frodo.baggins@hobbiton.example"
 }
  Figure 205: Recipient #1 JWE Per-Recipient Unprotected Header JSON

Miller Informational [Page 102] RFC 7520 JOSE Cookbook May 2015

 The following is the assembled first recipient JSON:
 {
   "encrypted_key": "dYOD28kab0Vvf4ODgxVAJXgHcSZICSOp8M51zjwj4w
       6Y5G4XJQsNNIBiqyvUUAOcpL7S7-cFe7Pio7gV_Q06WmCSa-vhW6me4b
       WrBf7cHwEQJdXihidAYWVajJIaKMXMvFRMV6iDlRr076DFthg2_AV0_t
       SiV6xSEIFqt1xnYPpmP91tc5WJDOGb-wqjw0-b-S1laS11QVbuP78dQ7
       Fa0zAVzzjHX-xvyM2wxj_otxr9clN1LnZMbeYSrRicJK5xodvWgkpIdk
       MHo4LvdhRRvzoKzlic89jFWPlnBq_V4n5trGuExtp_-dbHcGlihqc_wG
       gho9fLMK8JOArYLcMDNQ",
   "header": {
     "alg": "RSA1_5",
     "kid": "frodo.baggins@hobbiton.example"
   }
 }
                     Figure 206: Recipient #1 JSON

5.13.4. Encrypting the Key to the Second Recipient

 The following is generated before encrypting the CEK for the second
 recipient:
 o  Ephemeral EC private key on the same curve as the EC public key;
    this example uses the private key from Figure 207.
 {
   "kty": "EC",
   "crv": "P-384",
   "x": "Uzdvk3pi5wKCRc1izp5_r0OjeqT-I68i8g2b8mva8diRhsE2xAn2Dt
       MRb25Ma2CX",
   "y": "VDrRyFJh-Kwd1EjAgmj5Eo-CTHAZ53MC7PjjpLioy3ylEjI1pOMbw9
       1fzZ84pbfm",
   "d": "1DKHfTv-PiifVw2VBHM_ZiVcwOMxkOyANS_lQHJcrDxVY3jhVCvZPw
       MxJKIE793C"
 }
   Figure 207: Ephemeral Private Key for Recipient #2, in JWK Format

Miller Informational [Page 103] RFC 7520 JOSE Cookbook May 2015

 Performing the "ECDH-ES+A256KW" key encryption operation over the CEK
 (Figure 202) with the following:
 o  Static Elliptic Curve public key (Figure 108).
 o  Ephemeral Elliptic Curve private key (Figure 207).
 produces the following Encrypted Key:
 ExInT0io9BqBMYF6-maw5tZlgoZXThD1zWKsHixJuw_elY4gSSId_w
       Figure 208: Recipient #2 Encrypted Key, base64url-encoded
 The following is generated after encrypting the CEK for the second
 recipient:
 o  Recipient JWE Unprotected Header from Figure 209.
 {
   "alg": "ECDH-ES+A256KW",
   "kid": "peregrin.took@tuckborough.example",
   "epk": {
     "kty": "EC",
     "crv": "P-384",
     "x": "Uzdvk3pi5wKCRc1izp5_r0OjeqT-I68i8g2b8mva8diRhsE2xAn2
         DtMRb25Ma2CX",
     "y": "VDrRyFJh-Kwd1EjAgmj5Eo-CTHAZ53MC7PjjpLioy3ylEjI1pOMb
         w91fzZ84pbfm"
   }
 }
  Figure 209: Recipient #2 JWE Per-Recipient Unprotected Header JSON

Miller Informational [Page 104] RFC 7520 JOSE Cookbook May 2015

 The following is the assembled second recipient JSON:
 {
   "encrypted_key": "ExInT0io9BqBMYF6-maw5tZlgoZXThD1zWKsHixJuw
       _elY4gSSId_w",
   "header": {
     "alg": "ECDH-ES+A256KW",
     "kid": "peregrin.took@tuckborough.example",
     "epk": {
       "kty": "EC",
       "crv": "P-384",
       "x": "Uzdvk3pi5wKCRc1izp5_r0OjeqT-I68i8g2b8mva8diRhsE2xA
           n2DtMRb25Ma2CX",
       "y": "VDrRyFJh-Kwd1EjAgmj5Eo-CTHAZ53MC7PjjpLioy3ylEjI1pO
           Mbw91fzZ84pbfm"
     }
   }
 }
                     Figure 210: Recipient #2 JSON

5.13.5. Encrypting the Key to the Third Recipient

 The following is generated before encrypting the CEK for the third
 recipient:
 o  Initialization Vector for key wrapping; this example uses the
    Initialization Vector from Figure 211.
 AvpeoPZ9Ncn9mkBn
   Figure 211: Recipient #2 Initialization Vector for Key Wrapping,
                           base64url-encoded
 Performing the "A256GCMKW" key encryption operation over the CEK
 (Figure 202) with the following:
 o  AES symmetric key (Figure 138); and
 o  Initialization Vector (Figure 211)
 produces the following:
 o  Encrypted Key from Figure 212.
 o  Authentication Tag from Figure 213.

Miller Informational [Page 105] RFC 7520 JOSE Cookbook May 2015

 a7CclAejo_7JSuPB8zeagxXRam8dwCfmkt9-WyTpS1E
       Figure 212: Recipient #3 Encrypted Key, base64url-encoded
 59Nqh1LlYtVIhfD3pgRGvw
    Figure 213: Recipient #3 Authentication Tag from Key Wrapping,
                           base64url-encoded
 The following is generated after encrypting the CEK for the third
 recipient:
 o  Recipient JWE Unprotected Header; this example uses the header
    from Figure 214.
 {
   "alg": "A256GCMKW",
   "kid": "18ec08e1-bfa9-4d95-b205-2b4dd1d4321d",
   "tag": "59Nqh1LlYtVIhfD3pgRGvw",
   "iv": "AvpeoPZ9Ncn9mkBn"
 }
  Figure 214: Recipient #3 JWE Per-Recipient Unprotected Header JSON
 The following is the assembled third recipient JSON:
 {
   "encrypted_key": "a7CclAejo_7JSuPB8zeagxXRam8dwCfmkt9-WyTpS1
       E",
   "header": {
     "alg": "A256GCMKW",
     "kid": "18ec08e1-bfa9-4d95-b205-2b4dd1d4321d",
     "tag": "59Nqh1LlYtVIhfD3pgRGvw",
     "iv": "AvpeoPZ9Ncn9mkBn"
   }
 }
                     Figure 215: Recipient #3 JSON

5.13.6. Encrypting the Content

 The following is generated before encrypting the content:
 o  JWE Protected Header; this example uses the header from
    Figure 216, encoded to base64url [RFC4648] as Figure 217.

Miller Informational [Page 106] RFC 7520 JOSE Cookbook May 2015

 {
   "enc": "A128CBC-HS256"
 }
                 Figure 216: JWE Protected Header JSON
 eyJlbmMiOiJBMTI4Q0JDLUhTMjU2In0
          Figure 217: JWE Protected Header, base64url-encoded
 Performing the content encryption operation over the Plaintext
 (Figure 72) with the following:
 o  CEK (Figure 202),
 o  Initialization Vector (Figure 203), and
 o  JWE Protected Header (Figure 217) as the authenticated data
 produces the following:
 o  Ciphertext from Figure 218.
 o  Authentication Tag from Figure 219.
 ajm2Q-OpPXCr7-MHXicknb1lsxLdXxK_yLds0KuhJzfWK04SjdxQeSw2L9mu3a
 _k1C55kCQ_3xlkcVKC5yr__Is48VOoK0k63_QRM9tBURMFqLByJ8vOYQX0oJW4
 VUHJLmGhF-tVQWB7Kz8mr8zeE7txF0MSaP6ga7-siYxStR7_G07Thd1jh-zGT0
 wxM5g-VRORtq0K6AXpLlwEqRp7pkt2zRM0ZAXqSpe1O6FJ7FHLDyEFnD-zDIZu
 kLpCbzhzMDLLw2-8I14FQrgi-iEuzHgIJFIJn2wh9Tj0cg_kOZy9BqMRZbmYXM
 Y9YQjorZ_P_JYG3ARAIF3OjDNqpdYe-K_5Q5crGJSDNyij_ygEiItR5jssQVH2
 ofDQdLChtazE
               Figure 218: Ciphertext, base64url-encoded
 BESYyFN7T09KY7i8zKs5_g
           Figure 219: Authentication Tag, base64url-encoded

Miller Informational [Page 107] RFC 7520 JOSE Cookbook May 2015

 The following is generated after encrypting the Plaintext:
 o  JWE Shared Unprotected Header parameters; this example uses the
    header from Figure 220.
 {
   "cty": "text/plain"
 }
            Figure 220: JWE Shared Unprotected Header JSON

5.13.7. Output Results

 The following compose the resulting JWE object:
 o  Recipient #1 JSON (Figure 206)
 o  Recipient #2 JSON (Figure 210)
 o  Recipient #3 JSON (Figure 215)
 o  Initialization Vector (Figure 203)
 o  Ciphertext (Figure 218)
 o  Authentication Tag (Figure 219)
 The JWE Compact Serialization is not presented because it does not
 support this use case; the flattened JWE JSON Serialization is not
 presented because there is more than one recipient.

Miller Informational [Page 108] RFC 7520 JOSE Cookbook May 2015

 The resulting JWE object using the general JWE JSON Serialization:
 {
   "recipients": [
     {
       "encrypted_key": "dYOD28kab0Vvf4ODgxVAJXgHcSZICSOp8M51zj
           wj4w6Y5G4XJQsNNIBiqyvUUAOcpL7S7-cFe7Pio7gV_Q06WmCSa-
           vhW6me4bWrBf7cHwEQJdXihidAYWVajJIaKMXMvFRMV6iDlRr076
           DFthg2_AV0_tSiV6xSEIFqt1xnYPpmP91tc5WJDOGb-wqjw0-b-S
           1laS11QVbuP78dQ7Fa0zAVzzjHX-xvyM2wxj_otxr9clN1LnZMbe
           YSrRicJK5xodvWgkpIdkMHo4LvdhRRvzoKzlic89jFWPlnBq_V4n
           5trGuExtp_-dbHcGlihqc_wGgho9fLMK8JOArYLcMDNQ",
       "header": {
         "alg": "RSA1_5",
         "kid": "frodo.baggins@hobbiton.example"
       }
     },
     {
       "encrypted_key": "ExInT0io9BqBMYF6-maw5tZlgoZXThD1zWKsHi
           xJuw_elY4gSSId_w",
       "header": {
         "alg": "ECDH-ES+A256KW",
         "kid": "peregrin.took@tuckborough.example",
         "epk": {
           "kty": "EC",
           "crv": "P-384",
           "x": "Uzdvk3pi5wKCRc1izp5_r0OjeqT-I68i8g2b8mva8diRhs
               E2xAn2DtMRb25Ma2CX",
           "y": "VDrRyFJh-Kwd1EjAgmj5Eo-CTHAZ53MC7PjjpLioy3ylEj
               I1pOMbw91fzZ84pbfm"
         }
       }
     },
     {
       "encrypted_key": "a7CclAejo_7JSuPB8zeagxXRam8dwCfmkt9-Wy
           TpS1E",
       "header": {
         "alg": "A256GCMKW",
         "kid": "18ec08e1-bfa9-4d95-b205-2b4dd1d4321d",
         "tag": "59Nqh1LlYtVIhfD3pgRGvw",
         "iv": "AvpeoPZ9Ncn9mkBn"
       }
     }
   ],
   "unprotected": {
     "cty": "text/plain"
   },
   "protected": "eyJlbmMiOiJBMTI4Q0JDLUhTMjU2In0",

Miller Informational [Page 109] RFC 7520 JOSE Cookbook May 2015

   "iv": "VgEIHY20EnzUtZFl2RpB1g",
   "ciphertext": "ajm2Q-OpPXCr7-MHXicknb1lsxLdXxK_yLds0KuhJzfWK
       04SjdxQeSw2L9mu3a_k1C55kCQ_3xlkcVKC5yr__Is48VOoK0k63_QRM
       9tBURMFqLByJ8vOYQX0oJW4VUHJLmGhF-tVQWB7Kz8mr8zeE7txF0MSa
       P6ga7-siYxStR7_G07Thd1jh-zGT0wxM5g-VRORtq0K6AXpLlwEqRp7p
       kt2zRM0ZAXqSpe1O6FJ7FHLDyEFnD-zDIZukLpCbzhzMDLLw2-8I14FQ
       rgi-iEuzHgIJFIJn2wh9Tj0cg_kOZy9BqMRZbmYXMY9YQjorZ_P_JYG3
       ARAIF3OjDNqpdYe-K_5Q5crGJSDNyij_ygEiItR5jssQVH2ofDQdLCht
       azE",
   "tag": "BESYyFN7T09KY7i8zKs5_g"
 }
              Figure 221: General JWE JSON Serialization

6. Nesting Signatures and Encryption

 This example illustrates nesting a JSON Web Signature (JWS) structure
 within a JSON Web Encryption (JWE) structure.  The signature uses the
 "PS256" (RSASSA-PSS) algorithm; the encryption uses the "RSA-OAEP"
 (RSAES-OAEP) key encryption algorithm and the "A128GCM" (AES-GCM)
 content encryption algorithm.
 Note that RSASSA-PSS uses random data to generate the signature, and
 RSAES-OAEP uses random data to generate the ciphertext; it might not
 be possible to exactly replicate the results in this section.
 Note that whitespace is added for readability as described in
 Section 1.1.

6.1. Signing Input Factors

 The following are supplied before beginning the signing operation:
 o  Payload content; this example uses the JSON Web Token [JWT]
    content from Figure 222, encoded as base64url [RFC4648] to produce
    Figure 223.
 o  RSA private key; this example uses the key from Figure 224.
 o  "alg" parameter of "PS256".
 {
   "iss": "hobbiton.example",
   "exp": 1300819380,
   "http://example.com/is_root": true
 }
              Figure 222: Payload Content, in JSON Format

Miller Informational [Page 110] RFC 7520 JOSE Cookbook May 2015

 eyJpc3MiOiJob2JiaXRvbi5leGFtcGxlIiwiZXhwIjoxMzAwODE5MzgwLCJodH
 RwOi8vZXhhbXBsZS5jb20vaXNfcm9vdCI6dHJ1ZX0
            Figure 223: Payload Content, base64url-encoded
 {
   "kty": "RSA",
   "kid": "hobbiton.example",
   "use": "sig",
   "n": "kNrPIBDXMU6fcyv5i-QHQAQ-K8gsC3HJb7FYhYaw8hXbNJa-t8q0lD
       KwLZgQXYV-ffWxXJv5GGrlZE4GU52lfMEegTDzYTrRQ3tepgKFjMGg6I
       y6fkl1ZNsx2gEonsnlShfzA9GJwRTmtKPbk1s-hwx1IU5AT-AIelNqBg
       cF2vE5W25_SGGBoaROVdUYxqETDggM1z5cKV4ZjDZ8-lh4oVB07bkac6
       LQdHpJUUySH_Er20DXx30Kyi97PciXKTS-QKXnmm8ivyRCmux22ZoPUi
       nd2BKC5OiG4MwALhaL2Z2k8CsRdfy-7dg7z41Rp6D0ZeEvtaUp4bX4aK
       raL4rTfw",
   "e": "AQAB",
   "d": "ZLe_TIxpE9-W_n2VBa-HWvuYPtjvxwVXClJFOpJsdea8g9RMx34qEO
       EtnoYc2un3CZ3LtJi-mju5RAT8YSc76YJds3ZVw0UiO8mMBeG6-iOnvg
       obobNx7K57-xjTJZU72EjOr9kB7z6ZKwDDq7HFyCDhUEcYcHFVc7iL_6
       TibVhAhOFONWlqlJgEgwVYd0rybNGKifdnpEbwyHoMwY6HM1qvnEFgP7
       iZ0YzHUT535x6jj4VKcdA7ZduFkhUauysySEW7mxZM6fj1vdjJIy9LD1
       fIz30Xv4ckoqhKF5GONU6tNmMmNgAD6gIViyEle1PrIxl1tBhCI14bRW
       -zrpHgAQ",
   "p": "yKWYoNIAqwMRQlgIBOdT1NIcbDNUUs2Rh-pBaxD_mIkweMt4Mg-0-B
       2iSYvMrs8horhonV7vxCQagcBAATGW-hAafUehWjxWSH-3KccRM8toL4
       e0q7M-idRDOBXSoe7Z2-CV2x_ZCY3RP8qp642R13WgXqGDIM4MbUkZSj
       cY9-c",
   "q": "uND4o15V30KDzf8vFJw589p1vlQVQ3NEilrinRUPHkkxaAzDzccGgr
       WMWpGxGFFnNL3w5CqPLeU76-5IVYQq0HwYVl0hVXQHr7sgaGu-483Ad3
       ENcL23FrOnF45m7_2ooAstJDe49MeLTTQKrSIBl_SKvqpYvfSPTczPcZ
       kh9Kk",
   "dp": "jmTnEoq2qqa8ouaymjhJSCnsveUXnMQC2gAneQJRQkFqQu-zV2PKP
       KNbPvKVyiF5b2-L3tM3OW2d2iNDyRUWXlT7V5l0KwPTABSTOnTqAmYCh
       Gi8kXXdlhcrtSvXldBakC6saxwI_TzGGY2MVXzc2ZnCvCXHV4qjSxOrf
       P3pHFU",
   "dq": "R9FUvU88OVzEkTkXl3-5-WusE4DjHmndeZIlu3rifBdfLpq_P-iWP
       BbGaq9wzQ1c-J7SzCdJqkEJDv5yd2C7rnZ6kpzwBh_nmL8zscAk1qsun
       nt9CJGAYz7-sGWy1JGShFazfP52ThB4rlCJ0YuEaQMrIzpY77_oLAhpm
       DA0hLk",
   "qi": "S8tC7ZknW6hPITkjcwttQOPLVmRfwirRlFAViuDb8NW9CrV_7F2Oq
       UZCqmzHTYAumwGFHI1WVRep7anleWaJjxC_1b3fq_al4qH3Pe-EKiHg6
       IMazuRtZLUROcThrExDbF5dYbsciDnfRUWLErZ4N1Be0bnxYuPqxwKd9
       QZwMo0"
 }
          Figure 224: RSA 2048-Bit Private Key, in JWK Format

Miller Informational [Page 111] RFC 7520 JOSE Cookbook May 2015

6.2. Signing Operation

 The following is generated to complete the signing operation:
 o  JWS Protected Header; this example uses the header from
    Figure 225, encoded using base64url [RFC4648] to produce
    Figure 226.
 {
   "alg": "PS256",
   "typ": "JWT"
 }
                 Figure 225: JWS Protected Header JSON
 eyJhbGciOiJQUzI1NiIsInR5cCI6IkpXVCJ9
          Figure 226: JWS Protected Header, base64url-encoded
 Performing the signature operation over the combined JWS Protected
 Header (Figure 226) and payload content (Figure 222) produces the
 following signature:
 dPpMqwRZxFYi1UfcDAaf8M99o7kwUWtiXZ-ByvVuJih4MhJ_aZqciprz0OWaIA
 kIvn1qskChirjKvY9ESZNUCP4JjvfyPS-nqjJxYoA5ztWOyFk2cZNIPXjcJXSQ
 wXPO9tEe-v4VSqgD0aKHqPxYog4N6Cz1lKph1U1sYDSI67_bLL7elg_vkjfMp5
 _W5l5LuUYGMeh6hxQIaIUXf9EwV2JmvTMuZ-vBOWy0Sniy1EFo72CRTvmtrIf5
 AROo5MNliY3KtUxeP-SOmD-LEYwW9SlkohYzMVAZDDOrVbv7KVRHpeYNaK75KE
 QqdCEEkS_rskZS-Qtt_nlegTWh1mEYaA
             Figure 227: JWS Signature, base64url-encoded

6.3. Signing Output

 The following compose the resulting JWS object:
 o  JWS Protected Header (Figure 226)
 o  Payload content (Figure 223)
 o  Signature (Figure 227)

Miller Informational [Page 112] RFC 7520 JOSE Cookbook May 2015

 The resulting JWS object using the JWS Compact Serialization (which
 is the plaintext input to the following encryption operation):
 eyJhbGciOiJQUzI1NiIsInR5cCI6IkpXVCJ9
 .
 eyJpc3MiOiJob2JiaXRvbi5leGFtcGxlIiwiZXhwIjoxMzAwODE5MzgwLCJodH
 RwOi8vZXhhbXBsZS5jb20vaXNfcm9vdCI6dHJ1ZX0
 .
 dPpMqwRZxFYi1UfcDAaf8M99o7kwUWtiXZ-ByvVuJih4MhJ_aZqciprz0OWaIA
 kIvn1qskChirjKvY9ESZNUCP4JjvfyPS-nqjJxYoA5ztWOyFk2cZNIPXjcJXSQ
 wXPO9tEe-v4VSqgD0aKHqPxYog4N6Cz1lKph1U1sYDSI67_bLL7elg_vkjfMp5
 _W5l5LuUYGMeh6hxQIaIUXf9EwV2JmvTMuZ-vBOWy0Sniy1EFo72CRTvmtrIf5
 AROo5MNliY3KtUxeP-SOmD-LEYwW9SlkohYzMVAZDDOrVbv7KVRHpeYNaK75KE
 QqdCEEkS_rskZS-Qtt_nlegTWh1mEYaA
                 Figure 228: JWS Compact Serialization

6.4. Encryption Input Factors

 The following are supplied before beginning the encryption process:
 o  Plaintext content; this example uses the content from Figure 228.
 o  RSA public key; this example uses the key from Figure 84.
 o  "alg" parameter of "RSA-OAEP".
 o  "enc" parameter of "A128GCM".

6.5. Encryption Generated Factors

 The following are generated before encrypting:
 o  AES symmetric key as the Content Encryption Key (CEK); this
    example uses the key from Figure 229.
 o  Initialization Vector; this example uses the Initialization Vector
    from Figure 230.
 0RHSNYwN-6-2QBGsYTZLSQ
         Figure 229: Content Encryption Key, base64url-encoded
 GbX1i9kXz0sxXPmA
         Figure 230: Initialization Vector, base64url-encoded

Miller Informational [Page 113] RFC 7520 JOSE Cookbook May 2015

6.6. Encrypting the Key

 Performing the key encryption operation over the CEK (Figure 229)
 with the RSA key (Figure 84) produces the following Encrypted Key:
 a0JHRoITfpX4qRewImjlStn8m3CPxBV1ueYlVhjurCyrBg3I7YhCRYjphDOOS4
 E7rXbr2Fn6NyQq-A-gqT0FXqNjVOGrG-bi13mwy7RoYhjTkBEC6P7sMYMXXx4g
 zMedpiJHQVeyI-zkZV7A9matpgevAJWrXzOUysYGTtwoSN6gtUVtlLaivjvb21
 O0ul4YxSHV-ByK1kyeetRp_fuYJxHoKLQL9P424sKx2WGYb4zsBIPF4ssl_e5I
 R7nany-25_UmC2urosNkoFz9cQ82MypZP8gqbQJyPN-Fpp4Z-5o6yV64x6yzDU
 F_5JCIdl-Qv6H5dMVIY7q1eKpXcV1lWO_2FefEBqXxXvIjLeZivjNkzogCq3-I
 apSjVFnMjBxjpYLT8muaawo1yy1XXMuinIpNcOY3n4KKrXLrCcteX85m4IIHMZ
 a38s1Hpr56fPPseMA-Jltmt-a9iEDtOzhtxz8AXy9tsCAZV2XBWNG8c3kJusAa
 mBKOYwfk7JhLRDgOnJjlJLhn7TI4UxDp9dCmUXEN6z0v23W15qJIEXNJtqnblp
 ymooeWAHCT4e_Owbim1g0AEpTHUdA2iiLNs9WTX_H_TXuPC8yDDhi1smxS_X_x
 pkIHkiIHWDOLx03BpqDTivpKkBYwqP2UZkcxqX2Fo_GnVrNwlK7Lgxw6FSQvDO
 0
             Figure 231: Encrypted Key, base64url-encoded

6.7. Encrypting the Content

 The following is generated before encrypting the Plaintext:
 o  JWE Protected Header; this example uses the header from
    Figure 232, encoded using base64url [RFC4648] to produce
    Figure 233.
 {
   "alg": "RSA-OAEP",
   "cty": "JWT",
   "enc": "A128GCM"
 }
                 Figure 232: JWE Protected Header JSON
 eyJhbGciOiJSU0EtT0FFUCIsImN0eSI6IkpXVCIsImVuYyI6IkExMjhHQ00ifQ
          Figure 233: JWE Protected Header, base64url-encoded

Miller Informational [Page 114] RFC 7520 JOSE Cookbook May 2015

 Performing the content encryption operation over the Plaintext
 (Figure 228) with the following:
 o  CEK (Figure 229);
 o  Initialization Vector (Figure 230); and
 o  JWE Protected Header (Figure 233) as authenticated data
 produces the following:
 o  Ciphertext from Figure 234.
 o  Authentication Tag from Figure 235.
 SZI4IvKHmwpazl_pJQXX3mHv1ANnOU4Wf9-utWYUcKrBNgCe2OFMf66cSJ8k2Q
 kxaQD3_R60MGE9ofomwtky3GFxMeGRjtpMt9OAvVLsAXB0_UTCBGyBg3C2bWLX
 qZlfJAAoJRUPRk-BimYZY81zVBuIhc7HsQePCpu33SzMsFHjn4lP_idrJz_glZ
 TNgKDt8zdnUPauKTKDNOH1DD4fuzvDYfDIAfqGPyL5sVRwbiXpXdGokEszM-9C
 hMPqW1QNhzuX_Zul3bvrJwr7nuGZs4cUScY3n8yE3AHCLurgls-A9mz1X38xEa
 ulV18l4Fg9tLejdkAuQZjPbqeHQBJe4IwGD5Ee0dQ-Mtz4NnhkIWx-YKBb_Xo2
 zI3Q_1sYjKUuis7yWW-HTr_vqvFt0bj7WJf2vzB0TZ3dvsoGaTvPH2dyWwumUr
 lx4gmPUzBdwTO6ubfYSDUEEz5py0d_OtWeUSYcCYBKD-aM7tXg26qJo21gYjLf
 hn9zy-W19sOCZGuzgFjPhawXHpvnj_t-0_ES96kogjJLxS1IMU9Y5XmnwZMyNc
 9EIwnogsCg-hVuvzyP0sIruktmI94_SL1xgMl7o03phcTMxtlMizR88NKU1WkB
 siXMCjy1Noue7MD-ShDp5dmM
               Figure 234: Ciphertext, base64url-encoded
 KnIKEhN8U-3C9s4gtSpjSw
           Figure 235: Authentication Tag, base64url-encoded

6.8. Encryption Output

 The following compose the resulting JWE object:
 o  JWE Protected Header (Figure 233)
 o  Encrypted Key (Figure 231)
 o  Initialization Vector (Figure 230)
 o  Ciphertext (Figure 234)
 o  Authentication Tag (Figure 235)

Miller Informational [Page 115] RFC 7520 JOSE Cookbook May 2015

 The resulting JWE object using the JWE Compact Serialization:
 eyJhbGciOiJSU0EtT0FFUCIsImN0eSI6IkpXVCIsImVuYyI6IkExMjhHQ00ifQ
 .
 a0JHRoITfpX4qRewImjlStn8m3CPxBV1ueYlVhjurCyrBg3I7YhCRYjphDOOS4
 E7rXbr2Fn6NyQq-A-gqT0FXqNjVOGrG-bi13mwy7RoYhjTkBEC6P7sMYMXXx4g
 zMedpiJHQVeyI-zkZV7A9matpgevAJWrXzOUysYGTtwoSN6gtUVtlLaivjvb21
 O0ul4YxSHV-ByK1kyeetRp_fuYJxHoKLQL9P424sKx2WGYb4zsBIPF4ssl_e5I
 R7nany-25_UmC2urosNkoFz9cQ82MypZP8gqbQJyPN-Fpp4Z-5o6yV64x6yzDU
 F_5JCIdl-Qv6H5dMVIY7q1eKpXcV1lWO_2FefEBqXxXvIjLeZivjNkzogCq3-I
 apSjVFnMjBxjpYLT8muaawo1yy1XXMuinIpNcOY3n4KKrXLrCcteX85m4IIHMZ
 a38s1Hpr56fPPseMA-Jltmt-a9iEDtOzhtxz8AXy9tsCAZV2XBWNG8c3kJusAa
 mBKOYwfk7JhLRDgOnJjlJLhn7TI4UxDp9dCmUXEN6z0v23W15qJIEXNJtqnblp
 ymooeWAHCT4e_Owbim1g0AEpTHUdA2iiLNs9WTX_H_TXuPC8yDDhi1smxS_X_x
 pkIHkiIHWDOLx03BpqDTivpKkBYwqP2UZkcxqX2Fo_GnVrNwlK7Lgxw6FSQvDO
 0
 .
 GbX1i9kXz0sxXPmA
 .
 SZI4IvKHmwpazl_pJQXX3mHv1ANnOU4Wf9-utWYUcKrBNgCe2OFMf66cSJ8k2Q
 kxaQD3_R60MGE9ofomwtky3GFxMeGRjtpMt9OAvVLsAXB0_UTCBGyBg3C2bWLX
 qZlfJAAoJRUPRk-BimYZY81zVBuIhc7HsQePCpu33SzMsFHjn4lP_idrJz_glZ
 TNgKDt8zdnUPauKTKDNOH1DD4fuzvDYfDIAfqGPyL5sVRwbiXpXdGokEszM-9C
 hMPqW1QNhzuX_Zul3bvrJwr7nuGZs4cUScY3n8yE3AHCLurgls-A9mz1X38xEa
 ulV18l4Fg9tLejdkAuQZjPbqeHQBJe4IwGD5Ee0dQ-Mtz4NnhkIWx-YKBb_Xo2
 zI3Q_1sYjKUuis7yWW-HTr_vqvFt0bj7WJf2vzB0TZ3dvsoGaTvPH2dyWwumUr
 lx4gmPUzBdwTO6ubfYSDUEEz5py0d_OtWeUSYcCYBKD-aM7tXg26qJo21gYjLf
 hn9zy-W19sOCZGuzgFjPhawXHpvnj_t-0_ES96kogjJLxS1IMU9Y5XmnwZMyNc
 9EIwnogsCg-hVuvzyP0sIruktmI94_SL1xgMl7o03phcTMxtlMizR88NKU1WkB
 siXMCjy1Noue7MD-ShDp5dmM
 .
 KnIKEhN8U-3C9s4gtSpjSw
                 Figure 236: JWE Compact Serialization

Miller Informational [Page 116] RFC 7520 JOSE Cookbook May 2015

 The resulting JWE object using the general JWE JSON Serialization:
 {
   "recipients": [
     {
       "encrypted_key": "a0JHRoITfpX4qRewImjlStn8m3CPxBV1ueYlVh
           jurCyrBg3I7YhCRYjphDOOS4E7rXbr2Fn6NyQq-A-gqT0FXqNjVO
           GrG-bi13mwy7RoYhjTkBEC6P7sMYMXXx4gzMedpiJHQVeyI-zkZV
           7A9matpgevAJWrXzOUysYGTtwoSN6gtUVtlLaivjvb21O0ul4YxS
           HV-ByK1kyeetRp_fuYJxHoKLQL9P424sKx2WGYb4zsBIPF4ssl_e
           5IR7nany-25_UmC2urosNkoFz9cQ82MypZP8gqbQJyPN-Fpp4Z-5
           o6yV64x6yzDUF_5JCIdl-Qv6H5dMVIY7q1eKpXcV1lWO_2FefEBq
           XxXvIjLeZivjNkzogCq3-IapSjVFnMjBxjpYLT8muaawo1yy1XXM
           uinIpNcOY3n4KKrXLrCcteX85m4IIHMZa38s1Hpr56fPPseMA-Jl
           tmt-a9iEDtOzhtxz8AXy9tsCAZV2XBWNG8c3kJusAamBKOYwfk7J
           hLRDgOnJjlJLhn7TI4UxDp9dCmUXEN6z0v23W15qJIEXNJtqnblp
           ymooeWAHCT4e_Owbim1g0AEpTHUdA2iiLNs9WTX_H_TXuPC8yDDh
           i1smxS_X_xpkIHkiIHWDOLx03BpqDTivpKkBYwqP2UZkcxqX2Fo_
           GnVrNwlK7Lgxw6FSQvDO0"
     }
   ],
   "protected": "eyJhbGciOiJSU0EtT0FFUCIsImN0eSI6IkpXVCIsImVuYy
       I6IkExMjhHQ00ifQ",
   "iv": "GbX1i9kXz0sxXPmA",
   "ciphertext": "SZI4IvKHmwpazl_pJQXX3mHv1ANnOU4Wf9-utWYUcKrBN
       gCe2OFMf66cSJ8k2QkxaQD3_R60MGE9ofomwtky3GFxMeGRjtpMt9OAv
       VLsAXB0_UTCBGyBg3C2bWLXqZlfJAAoJRUPRk-BimYZY81zVBuIhc7Hs
       QePCpu33SzMsFHjn4lP_idrJz_glZTNgKDt8zdnUPauKTKDNOH1DD4fu
       zvDYfDIAfqGPyL5sVRwbiXpXdGokEszM-9ChMPqW1QNhzuX_Zul3bvrJ
       wr7nuGZs4cUScY3n8yE3AHCLurgls-A9mz1X38xEaulV18l4Fg9tLejd
       kAuQZjPbqeHQBJe4IwGD5Ee0dQ-Mtz4NnhkIWx-YKBb_Xo2zI3Q_1sYj
       KUuis7yWW-HTr_vqvFt0bj7WJf2vzB0TZ3dvsoGaTvPH2dyWwumUrlx4
       gmPUzBdwTO6ubfYSDUEEz5py0d_OtWeUSYcCYBKD-aM7tXg26qJo21gY
       jLfhn9zy-W19sOCZGuzgFjPhawXHpvnj_t-0_ES96kogjJLxS1IMU9Y5
       XmnwZMyNc9EIwnogsCg-hVuvzyP0sIruktmI94_SL1xgMl7o03phcTMx
       tlMizR88NKU1WkBsiXMCjy1Noue7MD-ShDp5dmM",
   "tag": "KnIKEhN8U-3C9s4gtSpjSw"
 }
              Figure 237: General JWE JSON Serialization

Miller Informational [Page 117] RFC 7520 JOSE Cookbook May 2015

 The resulting JWE object using the flattened JWE JSON Serialization:
 {
   "encrypted_key": "a0JHRoITfpX4qRewImjlStn8m3CPxBV1ueYlVhjurC
       yrBg3I7YhCRYjphDOOS4E7rXbr2Fn6NyQq-A-gqT0FXqNjVOGrG-bi13
       mwy7RoYhjTkBEC6P7sMYMXXx4gzMedpiJHQVeyI-zkZV7A9matpgevAJ
       WrXzOUysYGTtwoSN6gtUVtlLaivjvb21O0ul4YxSHV-ByK1kyeetRp_f
       uYJxHoKLQL9P424sKx2WGYb4zsBIPF4ssl_e5IR7nany-25_UmC2uros
       NkoFz9cQ82MypZP8gqbQJyPN-Fpp4Z-5o6yV64x6yzDUF_5JCIdl-Qv6
       H5dMVIY7q1eKpXcV1lWO_2FefEBqXxXvIjLeZivjNkzogCq3-IapSjVF
       nMjBxjpYLT8muaawo1yy1XXMuinIpNcOY3n4KKrXLrCcteX85m4IIHMZ
       a38s1Hpr56fPPseMA-Jltmt-a9iEDtOzhtxz8AXy9tsCAZV2XBWNG8c3
       kJusAamBKOYwfk7JhLRDgOnJjlJLhn7TI4UxDp9dCmUXEN6z0v23W15q
       JIEXNJtqnblpymooeWAHCT4e_Owbim1g0AEpTHUdA2iiLNs9WTX_H_TX
       uPC8yDDhi1smxS_X_xpkIHkiIHWDOLx03BpqDTivpKkBYwqP2UZkcxqX
       2Fo_GnVrNwlK7Lgxw6FSQvDO0",
   "protected": "eyJhbGciOiJSU0EtT0FFUCIsImN0eSI6IkpXVCIsImVuYy
       I6IkExMjhHQ00ifQ",
   "iv": "GbX1i9kXz0sxXPmA",
   "ciphertext": "SZI4IvKHmwpazl_pJQXX3mHv1ANnOU4Wf9-utWYUcKrBN
       gCe2OFMf66cSJ8k2QkxaQD3_R60MGE9ofomwtky3GFxMeGRjtpMt9OAv
       VLsAXB0_UTCBGyBg3C2bWLXqZlfJAAoJRUPRk-BimYZY81zVBuIhc7Hs
       QePCpu33SzMsFHjn4lP_idrJz_glZTNgKDt8zdnUPauKTKDNOH1DD4fu
       zvDYfDIAfqGPyL5sVRwbiXpXdGokEszM-9ChMPqW1QNhzuX_Zul3bvrJ
       wr7nuGZs4cUScY3n8yE3AHCLurgls-A9mz1X38xEaulV18l4Fg9tLejd
       kAuQZjPbqeHQBJe4IwGD5Ee0dQ-Mtz4NnhkIWx-YKBb_Xo2zI3Q_1sYj
       KUuis7yWW-HTr_vqvFt0bj7WJf2vzB0TZ3dvsoGaTvPH2dyWwumUrlx4
       gmPUzBdwTO6ubfYSDUEEz5py0d_OtWeUSYcCYBKD-aM7tXg26qJo21gY
       jLfhn9zy-W19sOCZGuzgFjPhawXHpvnj_t-0_ES96kogjJLxS1IMU9Y5
       XmnwZMyNc9EIwnogsCg-hVuvzyP0sIruktmI94_SL1xgMl7o03phcTMx
       tlMizR88NKU1WkBsiXMCjy1Noue7MD-ShDp5dmM",
   "tag": "KnIKEhN8U-3C9s4gtSpjSw"
 }
             Figure 238: Flattened JWE JSON Serialization

Miller Informational [Page 118] RFC 7520 JOSE Cookbook May 2015

7. Security Considerations

 This document is designed to provide examples for developers to use
 in checking their implementations.  As such, it does not follow some
 of the security considerations and recommendations in the core
 documents (i.e., [JWS], [JWE], [JWK], and [JWA]).  For instance:
 o  it does not always generate a new CEK value for every encrypted
    example;
 o  it does not always generate a new Initialization Vector (IV) value
    for every encrypted example; and
 o  it does not always generate a new ephemeral key for every
    ephemeral key example.
 For each example, data that is expected to be generated for each
 signing or encryption operation is isolated to sections titled
 "Generated Factors".

8. References

8.1. Normative References

 [JWA]      Jones, M., "JSON Web Algorithms (JWA)", RFC 7518,
            DOI 10.17487/RFC7518, May 2015,
            <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7518>.
 [JWE]      Jones, M. and J. Hildebrand, "JSON Web Encryption (JWE)",
            RFC 7516, DOI 10.17487/RFC7516, May 2015,
            <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7516>.
 [JWK]      Jones, M., "JSON Web Key (JWK)", RFC 7517,
            DOI 10.17487/RFC7517, May 2015,
            <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7517>.
 [JWS]      Jones, M., Bradley, J., and N. Sakimura, "JSON Web
            Signature (JWS)", RFC 7515, DOI 10.17487/RFC7515, May
            2015, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7515>.
 [RFC4648]  Josefsson, S., "The Base16, Base32, and Base64 Data
            Encodings", RFC 4648, DOI 10.17487/RFC4648, October 2006,
            <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4648>.

Miller Informational [Page 119] RFC 7520 JOSE Cookbook May 2015

8.2. Informative References

 [JWT]      Jones, M., Bradley, J., and N. Sakimura, "JSON Web Token
            (JWT)", RFC 7519, DOI 10.17487/RFC7519, May 2015,
            <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7519>.
 [LOTR-FELLOWSHIP]
            Tolkien, J., "The Fellowship of the Ring", HarperCollins
            Publishers, ePub Edition, ISBN 9780061952838, March 2009.
 [RFC1951]  Deutsch, P., "DEFLATE Compressed Data Format Specification
            version 1.3", RFC 1951, DOI 10.17487/RFC1951, May 1996,
            <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc1951>.
 [RFC7095]  Kewisch, P., "jCard: The JSON Format for vCard", RFC 7095,
            DOI 10.17487/RFC7095, January 2014,
            <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7095>.

Acknowledgements

 Most of the examples herein use quotes and character names found in
 the novel "The Fellowship of the Ring" [LOTR-FELLOWSHIP], written by
 J. R. R. Tolkien.
 Thanks to Richard Barnes, Brian Campbell, Mike Jones, and Jim Schaad
 for their input and review of the text.  Thanks to Brian Campbell for
 verifying the Compact Serialization examples.

Author's Address

 Matthew Miller
 Cisco Systems, Inc.
 EMail: mamille2@cisco.com

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