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rfc:rfc6142

Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) A. Moise Request for Comments: 6142 J. Brodkin Category: Informational Future DOS R&D Inc. ISSN: 2070-1721 March 2011

       ANSI C12.22, IEEE 1703, and MC12.22 Transport Over IP

Abstract

 This RFC provides a framework for transporting ANSI C12.22/IEEE
 1703/MC12.22 Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) Application Layer
 Messages on an IP network.
 This document is not an official submission on behalf of the ANSI
 C12.19 and C12.22 working groups.  It was created by participants in
 those groups, building on knowledge of several proprietary C12.22-
 over-IP implementations.  The content of this document is an
 expression of a consensus aggregation of those implementations.

Status of This Memo

 This document is not an Internet Standards Track specification; it is
 published for informational purposes.
 This document is a product of the Internet Engineering Task Force
 (IETF).  It represents the consensus of the IETF community.  It has
 received public review and has been approved for publication by the
 Internet Engineering Steering Group (IESG).  Not all documents
 approved by the IESG are a candidate for any level of Internet
 Standard; see Section 2 of RFC 5741.
 Information about the current status of this document, any errata,
 and how to provide feedback on it may be obtained at
 http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6142.

Copyright Notice

 Copyright (c) 2011 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
 document authors.  All rights reserved.
 This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
 Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
 (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
 publication of this document.  Please review these documents
 carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
 to this document.  Code Components extracted from this document must
 include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of

Moise & Brodkin Informational [Page 1] RFC 6142 ANSI C12.22/IEEE 1703/MC12.22 Over IP March 2011

 the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
 described in the Simplified BSD License.

Table of Contents

 1. Introduction ....................................................3
 2. Terminology .....................................................3
 3. Definitions .....................................................3
 4. The C12.22 IP Network Segment ...................................6
    4.1. Composition of a C12.22 IP Network Segment .................6
    4.2. Native IP Address ..........................................7
    4.3. Encoding of Native IP Addresses ............................7
    4.4. Standardized Port Numbers ..................................9
    4.5. Use of UDP Source Port 0 ...................................9
    4.6. IP Multicast ..............................................10
    4.7. IP Broadcast ..............................................12
    4.8. Encoding of Multicast and Broadcast Addresses .............12
 5. IP Message Transport ...........................................14
    5.1. C12.22 Connection Types and TCP/UDP Transport Modes .......14
    5.2. IP Message Transport Details ..............................15
         5.2.1. TCP and UDP Port Use ...............................15
         5.2.2. Active-OPEN UDP Mode (CL=1, CL Accept=0) ...........16
         5.2.3. Passive-OPEN UDP Mode (CL=1, CL Accept=1) ..........17
         5.2.4. Active-OPEN TCP Mode (CO=1, CO Accept=0) ...........17
         5.2.5. Passive-OPEN TCP Mode (CO=1, CO Accept=1) ..........18
         5.2.6. TCP and C12.22 Message Directionality ..............18
    5.3. Using IP Broadcast/Multicast ..............................19
    5.4. Transport Protocol Decisions ..............................20
         5.4.1. Unicast Versus Multicast Versus Broadcast ..........20
         5.4.2. Sending Large C12.22 APDUs Using UDP ...............20
         5.4.3. Choice of Protocol for C12.22 Response APDUs .......20
    5.5. Quality of Service ........................................20
    5.6. Congestion Control ........................................21
 6. Security Considerations ........................................21
 7. IANA Considerations ............................................23
 8. Acknowledgments ................................................23
 9. References .....................................................23
    9.1. Normative References ......................................23
    9.2. Informative References ....................................25

Moise & Brodkin Informational [Page 2] RFC 6142 ANSI C12.22/IEEE 1703/MC12.22 Over IP March 2011

1. Introduction

 The ANSI C12.22 standard [1] provides a set of application layer
 messaging services that are applicable for the enterprise and End
 Device components of an Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) for
 the Smart Grid.  The messaging services are tailored for, but not
 limited to, the exchange of the Data Table Elements defined and
 co-published in ANSI C12.19 [2], IEEE P1377 [3], and MC12.19 [23].
 These standards were developed jointly by ANSI (ANSI C12.22 and ANSI
 C12.19), IEEE (IEEE 1377 and IEEE 1703), and Measurement Canada
 (MC12.19 and MC12.22).
 ANSI C12.22, which is an application level messaging protocol, may be
 transported over any underlying transport network.  This RFC defines
 the requirements governing the transmission of ANSI C12.22 Messages
 via the TCP and UDP transports in IP networks (whereby the OSI
 Session, Presentation, and Application Layers of ANSI C12.22 are
 collapsed into a single Application Layer).
 Specifically, this RFC applies to the operational details of
 Section 5, "C12.22 Node to C12.22 Network Segment Details", of ANSI
 C12.22, and covers the mapping, encoding, and interpreting of ANSI
 C12.19 Device Network Table Elements and Native Addresses for use on
 IP networks.

2. Terminology

 The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
 "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
 document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [4].
 Throughout this document, we use terms like "ANSI C12.22" or "ANSI
 C12.19", as in "C12.22 Relay" or "ANSI C12.19 Device".  These terms
 are interchangeable with the terms "IEEE 1703 Relay" and "IEEE 1377
 Device", respectively.  However, the recent versions of the Utility
 End Device communication standards were developed under the auspices
 of ANSI C12 SC17 WG1 and ANSI C12 SC17 WG2.  For that reason, the
 terminology used in this document expands on the ANSI C12.22-2008 [1]
 and ANSI C12.19-2008 [2] definitions as revised by IEEE 1703-2010 [5]
 and IEEE 1377-2010 [3].

3. Definitions

 This specification uses a number of terms to refer to the roles
 played by participants (actors) in, and objects of, the ANSI C12.22
 [1], IEEE 1703 [5], and MC12.22 [24] protocol.  Any terms prefixed by
 "C12.22" or "C12.19" that are not defined in this document can be
 resolved in [1], [5], [24] or in [2], [3], [23].

Moise & Brodkin Informational [Page 3] RFC 6142 ANSI C12.22/IEEE 1703/MC12.22 Over IP March 2011

 ACSE
    Association Control Service Element.  In the context of this
    specification and of [1], ACSEs are encoded per ISO/IEC 10035-1
    [6] using the ASN.1 Basic Encoding Rules (BER) [7].
 Active-OPEN UDP
    Active-OPEN UDP is a state used by a local C12.22 IP Node to
    expect and receive incoming C12.22 Messages that it solicited from
    a foreign C12.22 IP Node using UDP.  The local C12.22 IP Node MAY
    exit the Active-OPEN UDP state when it has received all of the
    expected C12.22 Messages or a C12.22 Message timeout has occurred.
    The local C12.22 IP Node receives all C12.22 Response Messages
    solicited from the foreign C12.22 IP Node that arrive at the local
    port number that matches the source port number used to solicit
    the C12.22 Messages from the foreign C12.22 IP Node.
 Active-OPEN TCP
    Active-OPEN TCP is a state used by a local C12.22 IP Node to
    establish a TCP connection with a fully specified foreign C12.22
    IP Node using TCP and the foreign C12.22 IP Node's registered
    Native IP Address.  The Active-OPEN TCP state is identical to a
    local "Active-OPEN" as defined in [9].
 APDU
    Application Protocol Data Unit.  In the context of the ANSI C12.22
    Application, it is an ACSE C12.22 Message.
 ACSE APDU
    ACSE Application Protocol Data Unit; same as APDU.
 ApTitle
    An ANSI C12.22 Application-process Title.  An ApTitle is a name
    for a system-independent application activity that exposes
    application services to the application agent, e.g., a set of
    application service elements that together perform all or part of
    the communication aspects of an application process.  An ApTitle
    is encoded as a unique registered (as per [1]) object identifier.
 C12.22 IP Node
    A C12.22 Node that is located on a C12.22 IP Network Segment and
    communicates using the Internet Protocol.

Moise & Brodkin Informational [Page 4] RFC 6142 ANSI C12.22/IEEE 1703/MC12.22 Over IP March 2011

 C12.22 IP Network Segment
    A collection of all C12.22 IP Nodes that implement the IP-based
    protocols, as defined in this specification, and can communicate
    with each other using IP routers, switches, and bridges and
    without the use of a C12.22 Relay.
 C12.22 IP Relay
    A C12.22 IP Node that performs the functions of a C12.22 Relay.
    A C12.22 IP Relay acts as a bridge between a C12.22 IP Network
    Segment and an adjacent, C12.22 Network Segment.
 C12.22 Message
    An ACSE APDU that is fully assembled, or a segment of a C12.22
    Request Message, or a segment of a C12.22 Response Message.  The
    C12.22 Message described in this specification MUST be encoded
    using [7].
 C12.22 Request Message
    A fully assembled C12.22 APDU that contains an ACSE user-
    information element, which includes one or more EPSEM Service
    Requests.
 C12.22 Response Message
    A fully assembled C12.22 APDU that contains an ACSE user-
    information element, which includes one or more EPSEM service
    responses.
 Connection
    A logical and physical binding between two or more users of a
    service [1].
 EPSEM
    Extended Protocol Specification for Electronic Metering.  EPSEM
    defines structures and services used to encode multiple requests
    and responses for use by devices such as gas, water, electricity,
    and related electronic modules or appliances.
 Initiating C12.22 IP Node
    A role of a C12.22 IP Node in which it initiates the transmission
    of a C12.22 Request Message.

Moise & Brodkin Informational [Page 5] RFC 6142 ANSI C12.22/IEEE 1703/MC12.22 Over IP March 2011

 Native Address
    The term "Native Address" refers to the transport address that may
    be used to reach a C12.22 Node on its C12.22 Network Segment [1].
    In this specification, the Native Address refers to the Native IP
    Address.
 Passive-OPEN UDP
    Passive-OPEN UDP is a state used by a local C12.22 IP Node to
    expect and receive incoming C12.22 Messages from any foreign
    C12.22 IP Node using UDP.  When the Passive-OPEN UDP state is
    active, the local C12.22 IP Node accepts all C12.22 Messages that
    arrive at the local port number that was registered by the local
    C12.22 IP Node.
 Passive-OPEN TCP
    Passive-OPEN TCP is a state used by a local C12.22 IP Node that
    wants to establish a TCP connection with an unspecified foreign
    C12.22 IP Node using TCP.  In this case, any foreign C12.22 IP
    Node MAY connect to the local C12.22 IP Node as long as the local
    port matches the port used by the foreign C12.22 IP Node.  The
    Passive-OPEN TCP state is identical to "local passive OPEN"
    defined in [9].
 Responding C12.22 IP Node
    A role of a C12.22 IP Node in which it responds to the reception
    of a C12.22 Request Message.
 Target C12.22 IP Node
    The C12.22 IP Node that is the destination for a C12.22 Message.

4. The C12.22 IP Network Segment

 This section defines the characteristics of the C12.22 IP Network
 Segment.

4.1. Composition of a C12.22 IP Network Segment

 A C12.22 Network Segment is a collection of C12.22 Nodes that can
 communicate with each other directly -- without having to forward
 C12.22 Messages through a C12.22 Relay.
 A C12.22 IP Network Segment comprises C12.22 IP Nodes and the network
 infrastructure that enables any one node to reach all other nodes on

Moise & Brodkin Informational [Page 6] RFC 6142 ANSI C12.22/IEEE 1703/MC12.22 Over IP March 2011

 the same segment.  All C12.22 IP Nodes on the C12.22 IP Network
 Segment employ the same IP address encoding scheme (per Figures 1
 and 2) and the same network and transport protocols in accordance
 with this specification.
 There is no restriction on the size of a C12.22 IP Network Segment.
 It MAY be as small as a single LAN or subnet, or it MAY include
 numerous, heterogeneous LANs and WANs connected by routers, bridges,
 and switches.  The C12.22 IP Network Segment MAY be completely
 private, or include communication across the global Internet.

4.2. Native IP Address

 The term "Native IP Address" denotes a Native Address that MAY be
 used to reach a C12.22 Node on its C12.22 IP Network Segment.  The
 Native IP Address includes the binary IP address, and an OPTIONAL
 port number that MAY be followed by an OPTIONAL protocol identifier.
 The Native IP Address SHALL be encoded as described below in
 Section 4.3, "Encoding of Native IP Addresses".
 The IP address of the C12.22 IP Node MUST be configured before the
 C12.22 IP Node attempts to send or receive any C12.22 Message on its
 C12.22 IP Network Segment.  If the port number is not explicitly
 configured by the controlling application, it SHALL be set to the
 default port number, 1153 (see Section 4.4, "Standardized Port
 Numbers", below).
 It is beyond the scope of this specification to define the method of
 configuration, the configuration parameters, or any administrative
 controls that the system administrator may wish to implement to
 assign an IP address.

4.3. Encoding of Native IP Addresses

 ANSI C12.22 defines binary fields for encoding a C12.22 Native
 Address for transport within C12.22 Messages and for storage in
 C12.19 Device Tables.  In this RFC, the fields SHALL contain an IPv4
 or an IPv6 binary native IP address that is followed by an OPTIONAL
 two-byte TCP or UDP port number.  The TCP or UDP port number, when
 present, MAY be followed by an OPTIONAL one-byte transport protocol
 identifier ("Protocol" for IPv4 or "Next Header" for IPv6).  The
 transport protocol identifier SHALL be set to 17 (0x11) for UDP
 transport, or to 6 (0x06) for TCP transport, or not set (absent) for
 both UDP and TCP transports.  The transport protocol values SHALL be
 consistent with the C12.22 Node's registered attributes (see
 Connectionless (CL) and Connection-Oriented (CO) flags in
 Section 5.1, "C12.22 Connection Types and TCP/UDP Transport Modes",
 below).

Moise & Brodkin Informational [Page 7] RFC 6142 ANSI C12.22/IEEE 1703/MC12.22 Over IP March 2011

 ANSI C12.22 allows the Native Address fields to be conveyed in select
 ANSI C12.22 EPSEM service elements (e.g., ANSI C12.22 Registration
 Service <native-address>, ANSI C12.22 Resolve Service response
 <local-address>, and ANSI C12.19 INTERFACE_CTRL_TBL Element
 NATIVE_ADDRESS).  The length of the C12.22 Native Address is
 qualified by an ANSI C12.22 address length field (e.g., ANSI C12.22
 Registration Service <address-length>, ANSI C12.22 Resolve Service
 response <local-address-length>, and ANSI C12.19 ACT_NETWORK_TBL
 Element NATIVE_ADDRESS_LEN).
 The ANSI C12.22 Registration Service permits only one Native Address
 to be recorded with each registered ApTitle.  For this reason, a
 C12.22 IP Node that wishes to register different port numbers for UDP
 and TCP MUST register twice using different ApTitles.
 The binary Native IP Address fields SHALL be encoded in network byte
 order, as shown in Figure 1.
                           IP Address (ADDR), Port (P), Transport (T)
                Address
                 Length                        Octet
                             0                   1
                             0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
                            +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     IPv4          4        | ADDR4 |
                            +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
                            +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     IPv4+Port     6        | ADDR4 | P |
                            +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
                            +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     IPv4+Port     7        | ADDR4 | P |T|
     +Transport             +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
                            +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     IPv6         16        |             ADDR6             |
                            +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
                            +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     IPv6+Port    18        |             ADDR6             | P |
                            +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
                            +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     IPv6+Port    19        |             ADDR6             | P |T|
     +Transport             +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     Figure 1: Encoding of the Native IP Addresses for ANSI C12.22

Moise & Brodkin Informational [Page 8] RFC 6142 ANSI C12.22/IEEE 1703/MC12.22 Over IP March 2011

 When an ANSI C12.22 Native Address is encoded in the ANSI C12.19
 Tables' BINARY data Elements, the size of the Native Address Element
 is defined by ACT_NETWORK_TBL.NATIVE_ADDRESS_LEN (see Table 121 of
 [1], and [2]).  This is the actual number of octets that are placed
 inside the C12.19 BINARY Element.  This value is common to all of the
 C12.22 Node's interfaces, including those that are not IP based (thus
 not conforming to this specification).  For this reason, the
 ACT_NETWORK_TBL.NATIVE_ADDRESS_LEN MAY be greater than, and SHALL NOT
 be smaller than, the actual length needed to encode a Native IP
 Address per Figure 1.  When this is the case, the C12.22 Native IP
 Address SHALL be padded with zero (0) to fill the Table's BINARY data
 Element.
 In instances where the Native IP Address length does not exactly
 match any of the Address Lengths listed in Figure 1, the actual
 Address Length SHALL be determined by stripping all trailing binary
 zeros (0x00) and then adjusting the Address Length upwards to the
 next largest value shown in Figure 1.

4.4. Standardized Port Numbers

 IANA (Internet Assigned Numbers Authority) has assigned port 1153 for
 UDP [8] and TCP [9] C12.22 IP Messages.
 By default, C12.22 IP Nodes SHALL send all C12.22 Application
 association initiation message requests with 1153 set as the
 destination port number.
 To ensure interoperability among C12.22 IP Nodes, all C12.22 IP
 Relays and Master Relays SHALL monitor and accept UDP and TCP
 messages destined to port 1153.
 Any IP firewalls or Access Control Lists (ACLs) shielding C12.22
 Nodes and the IP network MUST be configured to forward UDP and TCP
 traffic destined to port 1153 and other ports that are assigned and
 registered by the network administrator, in order to maintain the
 continuity of the C12.22 IP Network Segment.

4.5. Use of UDP Source Port 0

 Although RFC 768 [8] allows for a source port number of zero (0),
 C12.22 IP Nodes SHALL NOT send datagrams on UDP with the source port
 set to zero.  A C12.22 IP Node SHALL ignore and SHALL NOT respond to
 any C12.22 Message that it receives from source port 0.
 Further details of the C12.22 IP Node's use of UDP, and of TCP, are
 given in Section 5, "IP Message Transport", below.

Moise & Brodkin Informational [Page 9] RFC 6142 ANSI C12.22/IEEE 1703/MC12.22 Over IP March 2011

4.6. IP Multicast

 In addition to unicast, the ANSI C12.22 protocol requires the support
 of a multicast message delivery service from the network.  In cases
 where C12.22 IP Nodes MUST perform Native IP Address discovery (e.g.,
 the discovery of the Native IP Address of C12.22 IP Relays that
 provide a route out of the C12.22 IP Network Segment, or the
 discovery of the Native IP Address of a C12.22 IP Master Relay on the
 C12.22 IP Network), the C12.22 IP Nodes use IP multicast to send a
 C12.22 Message that contains an EPSEM Resolve Service Request on the
 IP LAN.
 IP multicast is also desirable, for example, when a C12.22 Host needs
 to read a multitude of C12.22 Nodes (e.g., meters) that are
 configured with a common C12.22 multicast group ApTitle.  Using IP
 multicast, the C12.22 Host MAY send a C12.22 Message containing an
 EPSEM Read Service Request that reaches all C12.22 Nodes on the
 C12.22 IP Network Segment.
 For these reasons, all C12.22 IP Relays and Master Relays SHALL
 support IP multicast, and it is RECOMMENDED that all C12.22 Nodes
 support IP multicast.  Any IPv4 C12.22 IP Node that supports IP
 multicast SHALL use the Internet Group Management Protocol version 1
 (IGMPv1) [10] as a minimum, to report (i.e., request) membership in
 the C12.22 multicast group to its local router(s).  It is RECOMMENDED
 that C12.22 IP Nodes implement IGMPv3 [11].
 Any IPv6 C12.22 IP Node that supports IP multicast SHALL use
 Multicast Listener Discovery version 2 (MLDv2) (RFC 3810 [12]),
 possibly within ICMPv6 (RFC 4443 [13]), to report membership.
 Routers that interconnect C12.22 IP Nodes on the C12.22 IP Network
 Segment MUST support Protocol Independent Multicast - Sparse Mode
 (PIM-SM) (RFC 4601 [14]) along with IGMPv1 (RFC 1112 [10]) as a
 minimum for IPv4, or MLDv2 for IPv6 (RFC 3810 [12]).  It is
 RECOMMENDED that they implement IGMPv3 [11].  It is beyond the scope
 of this specification to define the mechanism for selecting an
 initial Rendezvous Point (RP) for the C12.22 multicast group, the use
 of shared versus source trees, or the mechanism for inter-domain
 multicast routing.
 IANA has registered the "All C1222 Nodes" multicast group, and has
 assigned the IPv4 multicast address of 224.0.2.4 and the IPv6
 multicast address of FF0X::204, where X represents the Scope field as
 defined in RFC 4291, "IP Version 6 Addressing Architecture" [15].

Moise & Brodkin Informational [Page 10] RFC 6142 ANSI C12.22/IEEE 1703/MC12.22 Over IP March 2011

 For IPv6, all C12.22 IP Relays, C12.22 IP Master Relays, and all
 C12.22 IP Nodes configured to support broadcast and multicast (see
 Section 5.3, "Using IP Broadcast/Multicast", below) SHALL join the
 global-scope multicast address, FF0E::204, as well as all of the
 assigned, reduced-scope, multicast addresses:
                  link-local         -- FF02::204;
                  admin-local        -- FF04::204;
                  site-local         -- FF05::204; and
                  organization-local -- FF08::204.
 IPv6 C12.22 IP Nodes SHOULD use the minimum scope needed, when
 initiating IP multicast messages to reach another C12.22 IP Node on
 the C12.22 Network.  This practice allows the sender to limit
 unnecessary propagation of C12.22 IP Multicast Messages.
 To determine the minimum scope required to reach the closest C12.22
 IP Relay on the C12.22 Node's IP Network Segment, this specification
 RECOMMENDS the following simple steps:
 1.  Starting with the smallest (local-most) scope (i.e., link-local
     scope or another pre-configured scope), send the C12.22 EPSEM
     Resolve Service Request for the purpose of C12.22 IP Relay
     discovery.
 2.  Listen for a response from a C12.22 IP Relay; then:
     A.  If no response is received, assign the next wider scope
         level, then repeat steps (1) and (2) at the newly assigned
         scope.
     B.  If a response is received, then record the scope level as the
         minimum scope to use on the node's C12.22 IP Network Segment.
 A C12.22 IPv6 Node that initiates any EPSEM Service Request SHOULD
 use the minimum scope necessary to reach its Target C12.22 IP Nodes.
 A C12.22 IPv6 Relay SHALL use the global scope for any C12.22 Message
 destined for the global Internet.
 This specification does not preclude the use of the unassigned scope
 values defined in [15]; those scope values MAY be used on a private
 basis, or through mutual operating agreements.
 For IPv4, all C12.22 IP Relays, C12.22 IP Master Relays, and all
 C12.22 IP Nodes configured to support broadcast/multicast SHALL join
 the assigned multicast address of 224.0.2.4.  This global address
 does not provide for the type of scoping discussed above for IPv6,
 nor is it compatible with the administratively scoped IP multicast

Moise & Brodkin Informational [Page 11] RFC 6142 ANSI C12.22/IEEE 1703/MC12.22 Over IP March 2011

 specification in RFC 2365 [16].  Therefore, a different technique to
 limit the propagation of C12.22 IP Multicast Messages is needed.  One
 available technique to control IPv4 multicast scope is through the
 use of the Time-to-Live (TTL) attribute in the IP packet header.
 This attribute is not managed by the C12.22 protocol.
 In the implementation of this technique, an administrative domain
 MUST include at least one C12.22 IP Relay, and all C12.22 IP Nodes in
 the administrative domain SHOULD be configured with a TTL
 sufficiently large to reach that C12.22 IP Relay.
 A C12.22 IPv4 Node that initiates any C12.22 Request Message SHOULD
 use the minimum TTL needed to reach its Target C12.22 IP Nodes.

4.7. IP Broadcast

 IP broadcast is not generally suitable as a replacement for, or an
 alternative to, multicast in a C12.22 IP Network Segment.  IP
 broadcast is not supported in IPv6, and it suffers from limited scope
 in IPv4.  This specification, however, does not preclude the use of
 IP network directed or limited/local scope (address 255.255.255.255)
 broadcast within a controlled management domain (as per RFC 2644
 [17]).

4.8. Encoding of Multicast and Broadcast Addresses

 ANSI C12.22 Tables provide BINARY Elements for encoding a broadcast
 or multicast Native IP Address for transport within a C12.22 Message.
 The encoding of these Table Elements is identical to that defined in
 Section 4.3, "Encoding of Native IP Addresses".  These fields SHALL
 be used as shown in Figure 2.

Moise & Brodkin Informational [Page 12] RFC 6142 ANSI C12.22/IEEE 1703/MC12.22 Over IP March 2011

                           IP Address (ADDR), Port (P), Transport (T)
                 Address
                  Length                       Octet
                             0                   1
                             0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
     IPv4                   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     Broadcast      4       |BADDR4 |
                            +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     IPv4                   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     Broadcast      6       |BADDR4 | P |
     +Port                  +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     IPv4                   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     Broadcast      7       |BADDR4 | P |T|
     +Port+Transport        +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     IPv4                   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     Multicast      4       |MADDR4 |
                            +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     IPv4                   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     Multicast      6       |MADDR4 | P |
     +Port                  +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     IPv4                   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     Multicast      7       |MADDR4 | P |T|
     +Port+Transport        +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     IPv6                   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     Multicast     16       |            MADDR6             |
                            +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     IPv6                   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     Multicast     18       |            MADDR6             | P |
     +Port                  +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     IPv6                   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     Multicast     19       |            MADDR6             | P |T|
     +Port+Transport        +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     Figure 2: Encoding of Broadcast/Multicast Native IP Addresses
 The IPv4 and IPv6 multicast addresses -- MADDR4 and MADDR6,
 respectively -- are those assigned by IANA for use by ANSI C12.22.

Moise & Brodkin Informational [Page 13] RFC 6142 ANSI C12.22/IEEE 1703/MC12.22 Over IP March 2011

 When a broadcast/multicast Native IP Address is encoded in the ANSI
 C12.19 Tables' BINARY data Elements, the size of the Native Address
 Element transmitted is defined by ACT_NETWORK_TBL.NATIVE_ADDRESS_LEN
 (see Table 121 of [1], and [2]).  This is the actual number of octets
 that are placed inside the C12.19 BINARY Element.  This value is
 common to all of the C12.22 Node's interfaces, including those that
 are not IP based (thus not conforming to this specification).  For
 this reason, the ACT_NETWORK_TBL.NATIVE_ADDRESS_LEN MAY be greater
 than, and SHALL NOT be smaller than, the actual length needed to
 encode a broadcast/multicast Native IP Address per Figure 2.  When
 this is the case, the C12.22 Native IP Address SHALL be padded with
 zero (0) to fill the Table's BINARY data Element.
 The IPv4 network directed broadcast address can be computed by
 performing a bitwise OR between the bit complement of the subnet mask
 of the target IP subnet and the IP address of any host on that IP
 subnet.

5. IP Message Transport

 This section defines a C12.22 Node's usage of the Connection-Oriented
 (CO) and Connectionless (CL) transport layer protocols -- TCP and
 UDP, respectively.

5.1. C12.22 Connection Types and TCP/UDP Transport Modes

 A C12.22 IP Node's use of TCP and UDP is based on its registered
 capabilities as defined in its configuration parameters (flags) and
 as expressed in the Node's accepted registration attributes [1]:
       CL Flag = <connection-type>.CONNECTIONLESS_MODE_SUPPORTED;
       CL Accept Flag = <connection-type>.ACCEPT_CONNECTIONLESS;
       CO Flag = <connection-type>.CONNECTION_MODE_SUPPORTED; and
       CO Accept Flag = <connection-type>.ACCEPT_CONNECTIONS.
 The mapping of the connection-type parameters to the IP-based
 transport variants that a C12.22 Node MAY support is defined in
 Table 1.

Moise & Brodkin Informational [Page 14] RFC 6142 ANSI C12.22/IEEE 1703/MC12.22 Over IP March 2011

 +------+------+----------+----------+-------------------------------+
 |  CL  |  CO  |    CL    |    CO    | IP Transport Mode Supported   |
 | Flag | Flag |  Accept  |  Accept  |                               |
 |      |      |   Flag   |   Flag   |                               |
 +------+------+----------+----------+-------------------------------+
 |   0  |   0  |     x    |     x    | Invalid                       |
 |   0  |   1  |     0    |     0    | TCP, Active-OPEN              |
 |   0  |   1  |     0    |     1    | TCP, Passive- and Active-OPEN |
 |   0  |   1  |     1    |     0    | Invalid                       |
 |   0  |   1  |     1    |     1    | Invalid                       |
 |   1  |   0  |     0    |     0    | UDP, Active-OPEN              |
 |   1  |   0  |     0    |     1    | Invalid                       |
 |   1  |   0  |     1    |     0    | UDP, Passive- and Active-OPEN |
 |   1  |   0  |     1    |     1    | Invalid                       |
 |   1  |   1  |     0    |     0    | UDP, Active-OPEN; TCP         |
 |      |      |          |          | Active-OPEN                   |
 |   1  |   1  |     0    |     1    | UDP, Active-OPEN; TCP,        |
 |      |      |          |          | Passive- and Active-OPEN      |
 |   1  |   1  |     1    |     0    | UDP, Passive- and             |
 |      |      |          |          | Active-OPEN; TCP, Active-OPEN |
 |   1  |   1  |     1    |     1    | UDP, Passive- and             |
 |      |      |          |          | Active-OPEN; TCP, Passive-    |
 |      |      |          |          | and Active-OPEN               |
 +------+------+----------+----------+-------------------------------+
        Table 1: C12.22 Node Parameters to IP Transport Mapping
 Every C12.22 IP Node MUST support at least one of the unicast CO or
 CL operating capabilities (as advertised in Decade 12, "Node Network
 Control Tables" [1], where available, and as registered using the
 C12.22 Registration Service [1]).

5.2. IP Message Transport Details

5.2.1. TCP and UDP Port Use

 General rules:
 1.  A C12.22 IP Node that implements [CL Accept=1] SHALL receive
     incoming UDP C12.22 Messages on its registered Native IP Address
     (IP address and port number).
 2.  A C12.22 IP Node that implements [CO Accept=1] SHALL receive
     incoming TCP connections on its registered Native IP Address (IP
     address and port number).

Moise & Brodkin Informational [Page 15] RFC 6142 ANSI C12.22/IEEE 1703/MC12.22 Over IP March 2011

 3.  A C12.22 IP Relay that forwards a UDP C12.22 Message to a C12.22
     IP Node on the C12.22 IP Network Segment SHALL send the C12.22
     Message to the C12.22 IP Node's registered Native IP Address (IP
     address and port number).
 4.  A C12.22 IP Relay that forwards a TCP C12.22 Message to a C12.22
     IP Node on the C12.22 IP Network Segment MAY use an established
     TCP connection to that C12.22 IP Node, or it SHALL establish a
     new TCP connection to the C12.22 IP Node's registered Native IP
     Address (IP address and port number).
 5.  A C12.22 IP Node that implements [CL=1] SHOULD set the source
     port number in outbound UDP C12.22 Messages to its registered
     port number.  When the target UDP C12.22 IP Node is reachable
     using direct messaging (as defined in [1]), the C12.22 IP Node
     MAY set the source port number to a UDP port number that is
     different than its registered port number.
 6.  When the registered Native IP Address of a C12.22 IP Node does
     not include the OPTIONAL port number, then port 1153 SHALL be
     assumed and used as the registered port number.
 7.  All C12.22 IP Nodes SHOULD use port 1153 in their Native IP
     Address when registering.

5.2.2. Active-OPEN UDP Mode (CL=1, CL Accept=0)

 A C12.22 IP Node that supports this mode SHALL NOT monitor for
 unsolicited incoming C12.22 Messages via UDP.  As a result, the
 C12.22 IP Node is incapable of receiving unsolicited C12.22 Messages
 using UDP.
 The C12.22 IP Node MAY enter the Active-OPEN UDP state by initiating
 an unsolicited UDP transmission to a Target C12.22 IP Node, which is
 expected to implement the Passive-OPEN UDP mode.
 C12.22 IP Nodes SHOULD use their registered UDP port number, or if
 not yet registered, then they SHOULD use port 1153 as the source port
 number for all UDP C12.22 IP Messages.

Moise & Brodkin Informational [Page 16] RFC 6142 ANSI C12.22/IEEE 1703/MC12.22 Over IP March 2011

5.2.3. Passive-OPEN UDP Mode (CL=1, CL Accept=1)

 A C12.22 IP Node that operates in this mode SHALL be capable of
 receiving solicited and unsolicited C12.22 Messages from other C12.22
 IP Nodes.  The C12.22 Node MAY change the port number that it
 monitors by using the <native-address> parameter of the ANSI C12.22
 Registration Service.  The C12.22 IP Node MAY initiate unsolicited
 Active-OPEN UDP transmissions to other C12.22 IP Nodes that implement
 the Passive-OPEN UDP mode.
 When operating in this mode, the C12.22 IP Nodes SHALL use their
 registered UDP port number as the source port number for all UDP
 C12.22 IP Messages.
 All C12.22 IP Relays SHALL support the Passive-OPEN UDP mode.  C12.22
 Authentication Hosts and C12.22 Notification Hosts that implement UDP
 SHALL support the Passive-OPEN UDP mode.  For all other C12.22 IP
 Nodes, the Passive-OPEN UDP mode is the RECOMMENDED mode when
 implementing UDP.

5.2.4. Active-OPEN TCP Mode (CO=1, CO Accept=0)

 A C12.22 IP Node that supports this mode SHALL NOT monitor for
 inbound TCP connections.  As a result, the node is incapable of
 accepting incoming connections via TCP.  The C12.22 IP Node MAY
 initiate TCP connections to Target C12.22 IP Nodes, which are
 expected to implement the Passive-OPEN TCP mode.
 In this mode, C12.22 Messages exchanged by a pair of associated
 C12.22 IP Nodes can only be communicated through any of the TCP
 connections that were initiated by the C12.22 IP Node that implements
 this mode.  The loss or closure of a connection SHALL NOT
 automatically result in the termination of the C12.22 associations
 between the peer nodes.  In order to continue exchanging C12.22
 Messages without loss of association, the initiating C12.22 IP Node
 MAY re-establish new TCP connections with the peer node, or use
 existing connections to the peer node.  The termination of the C12.22
 Application associations is dependent upon C12.22 Application timeout
 attributes and C12.22 link management services (such as Procedure 25,
 "Network Interface Control" [1]).

Moise & Brodkin Informational [Page 17] RFC 6142 ANSI C12.22/IEEE 1703/MC12.22 Over IP March 2011

5.2.5. Passive-OPEN TCP Mode (CO=1, CO Accept=1)

 A C12.22 IP Node that operates in this mode SHALL monitor and accept
 incoming TCP connections.  The C12.22 Node MAY change the port number
 that it monitors by using the <native-address> parameter of the ANSI
 C12.22 Registration Service.  The C12.22 IP Node MAY initiate Active-
 OPEN TCP connections to other C12.22 IP Nodes that implement the
 Passive-OPEN TCP mode.
 In this mode, C12.22 Messages exchanged by a pair of associated
 C12.22 IP Nodes can arrive through any of the TCP connections that
 were established by either node.  The loss or closure of a connection
 SHALL NOT automatically result in the termination of the C12.22
 associations between the peer nodes.  In order to continue exchanging
 C12.22 Messages without loss of association, either C12.22 IP Node
 MAY re-establish new TCP connections with the peer node, or use
 existing connections to the peer node.  The termination of the C12.22
 Application associations is dependent upon C12.22 Application timeout
 attributes and C12.22 link management services (such as Procedure 25,
 "Network Interface Control" [1]).
 All C12.22 IP Relays SHALL support the Passive-OPEN TCP mode.  C12.22
 Authentication Hosts and C12.22 Notification Hosts that implement TCP
 SHALL support Passive-OPEN TCP mode.  For all other C12.22 IP Nodes,
 Passive-OPEN TCP mode is the RECOMMENDED mode when implementing TCP.

5.2.6. TCP and C12.22 Message Directionality

 C12.22 IP Nodes MAY use TCP in one of two ways: bi-directional
 traffic flow or uni-directional traffic flow.
 When TCP connections are used, any new or established TCP connection
 between the two C12.22 IP Nodes MAY be used equivalently by the
 C12.22 IP Nodes to send and to receive C12.22 Messages.  This is the
 RECOMMENDED and default mode of operation because ANSI C12.22
 requires the transport network to be reliable and connectionless (per
 connectionless-mode ACSE).  For this reason, ANSI C12.22 defines
 peer-to-peer application associations and not peer-to-peer
 connections.
 It is known that some C12.22 implementations have been deployed in
 which TCP is used for uni-directional traffic flow.  For these types
 of implementations, an established TCP connection SHALL be used by
 the initiator of that connection to send C12.22 Messages and by the

Moise & Brodkin Informational [Page 18] RFC 6142 ANSI C12.22/IEEE 1703/MC12.22 Over IP March 2011

 target node (that accepted the connection) to receive C12.22
 Messages.  If a C12.22 IP Node wishes to send a C12.22 Message to a
 peer C12.22 IP Node, it MUST establish and use a new TCP connection,
 or use an existing TCP connection that it had previously initiated,
 for its outbound uni-directional traffic flow.
 For increased interoperability, the initiator of the connection
 SHOULD accept incoming C12.22 Messages on that connection in case the
 target node attempts to use the connection for bi-directional traffic
 flow.
 Uni-directional use of TCP is a special mode of operation; it is NOT
 RECOMMENDED because multiple one-way channel communication is not
 described by ANSI C12.22, and it utilizes one-half of the TCP
 connection capability.  As a result, it doubles the number of TCP
 connections used to communicate C12.22 Messages and thus could become
 a burden when a large number of connections are required.

5.3. Using IP Broadcast/Multicast

 A C12.22 IP Node's use of broadcast/multicast is based on its
 capabilities as defined in its configuration parameters (flags) and
 as expressed in the Node's accepted registration attributes [1]
 (<connection-type>.BROADCAST_AND_MULTICAST_SUPPORTED).  The mapping
 of the C12.22 IP Node's Broadcast/Multicast parameter (flag) to IP
 broadcast/multicast usage is defined in Table 2.
  C12.22 Broadcast and  IP Broadcast/Multicast Supported
   Multicast Supported
          Flag
 ---------------------- ----------------------------------------------
            0           The C12.22 IP Node does not accept IP
                        broadcast, and it does not accept IP multicast
                        messages.
            1           The C12.22 IP Node accepts both IP broadcast
                        (IPv4 only) and IP multicast messages (IPv4
                        and IPv6).
           Table 2: C12.22 to IP Broadcast/Multicast Mapping
 If a C12.22 IP Node is configured to accept IP broadcast and
 multicast messages, it SHALL join the "All C1222 Nodes" multicast
 group (see Section 4.6, "IP Multicast", above), and SHALL use the
 default port 1153.  In addition, it SHALL accept IP network directed
 or limited (local scope) broadcast messages sent to port 1153.  Note
 that successful communication using network directed broadcast
 requires configuration of network routers, which by default SHALL NOT
 forward directed broadcasts as per RFC 2644 [17].

Moise & Brodkin Informational [Page 19] RFC 6142 ANSI C12.22/IEEE 1703/MC12.22 Over IP March 2011

5.4. Transport Protocol Decisions

5.4.1. Unicast Versus Multicast Versus Broadcast

 An initiating C12.22 IP Node MAY send any C12.22 Message using UDP or
 TCP.  However, in accordance with Section 5.3.2.4.12, "Resolve
 Service", of ANSI C12.22, it is RECOMMENDED that the C12.22 Resolve
 Request Message be transported using UDP/IP multicast when the Native
 IP Address of the Target C12.22 Node is not known.  The use of UDP/IP
 multicast is preferred over the use of IP network directed or limited
 broadcast; therefore, when UDP/IP multicast is supported, its use is
 RECOMMENDED over network broadcast.

5.4.2. Sending Large C12.22 APDUs Using UDP

 When sending via UDP a large C12.22 Message that exceeds the path
 MTU, the sender SHALL segment the ACSE APDU in accordance with the
 ANSI C12.22 Datagram Segmentation and Reassembly algorithm, such that
 the size of the resulting IP datagram does not exceed the path MTU
 and thus avoids UDP packet fragmentation.  The fundamental issue with
 fragmentation exists for both IPv4 and IPv6.  Section 3.2 of RFC 5405
 [18] provides additional guidelines for determining the appropriate
 UDP message size.  When the path MTU is not known, the sender SHALL
 follow the guidelines stipulated in Section 3.2 of RFC 5405 [18]: for
 IPv4, use the smaller of 576 bytes and the first-hop MTU [19], and
 for IPv6, use 1280 bytes [20].  Sending large APDUs via UDP may lead
 to network congestion.  For more information on avoiding network
 congestion see Section 5.6, "Congestion Control".

5.4.3. Choice of Protocol for C12.22 Response APDUs

 When a Target C12.22 IP Node receives a C12.22 Request Message from
 an initiating C12.22 IP Node, it SHALL send a C12.22 Response Message
 using the same transport protocol (i.e., TCP to TCP, UDP to UDP).
 In the case of UDP, the target SHALL send the C12.22 Response Message
 to the source IP address and port number.

5.5. Quality of Service

 The ANSI C12.22 standard provides a configuration parameter in the
 APDU's <calling-AE-qualifier>.URGENT attribute to mark a message as
 urgent.  There are numerous IP-based technologies that enable
 enhanced levels of message delivery and quality of service.  This
 specification does not define the technology to be used to send
 urgent messages over IP.

Moise & Brodkin Informational [Page 20] RFC 6142 ANSI C12.22/IEEE 1703/MC12.22 Over IP March 2011

5.6. Congestion Control

 Designers of unicast applications that implement the upper layers of
 C12.22 messaging over UDP SHOULD follow the congestion control
 guidelines in Section 3.1 of RFC 5405 [18].
 For the transmission of C12.22 Messages that are greater than what
 the TCP initial window would be over a given Internet path, TCP
 SHOULD be used rather than UDP as the transport protocol.  TCP's
 initial window depends on the maximum segment size (MSS), which in
 turn depends on the path MTU, and is computed according to formula
 (1) in RFC 3390 [21].  For unknown path MTUs, the smallest allowable
 MSS MUST be used, and the C12.22 Application SHOULD assume the
 maximum C12.22 Message size to be 2048 bytes.  By using TCP, the
 C12.22 Application benefits from the built-in TCP congestion control
 mechanism.
 When UDP is the preferred transport mechanism, or when UDP multicast
 or broadcast are the preferred modes of communication, then the
 C12.22 Application SHOULD use C12.22 acknowledged Messages that are
 smaller than TCP's initial window over the return path, as computed
 by formula (1) in [21] and described above.  The size of the C12.22
 Message MAY be managed through the use of ANSI C12.22 EPSEM Partial
 Table Read/Write Service Requests and Responses.

6. Security Considerations

 The ANSI C12.22 Application Layer Security is defined in
 Section 5.3.4.13, "C12.22 Security Mechanism", of the ANSI C12.22
 standard.  The security mechanisms include provisions for message
 privacy and authentication, playback rejection, and message
 acceptance windows, as well as ANSI C12.19 [2] role-based data access
 and secured register mechanisms.  The ANSI C12.22 Application Layer
 default security mechanism provides three options to choose from when
 sending C12.22 Messages:
 1.  Sending cleartext messages over the C12.22 Network [1], [5],
     which MAY result in altered C12.22 Messages and exposure to
     password sniffing attacks, as described in RFC 3552 [22].
 2.  Sending of authenticated plaintext messages over the C12.22
     Network [1], [5], which MAY result in password sniffing attacks
     as described in RFC 3552 [22].
 3.  Sending of authenticated ciphertext over the C12.22 Network,
     providing for message and peer node authentication and privacy.

Moise & Brodkin Informational [Page 21] RFC 6142 ANSI C12.22/IEEE 1703/MC12.22 Over IP March 2011

 When option 1 is used, then it is RECOMMENDED that the network or
 transport layer provide authentication and confidentiality service.
 When option 2 is used, then it is RECOMMENDED that the network or
 transport layer provide confidentiality services.  When option 3 is
 used, then no additional network or transport layer security services
 are necessary.
 Additional transport or network layer security protocols are not
 required by ANSI C12.22, but they MAY be provided transparently by
 C12.22 IP Network Segment integrators (e.g., in C12.22 IP Relays) in
 order to improve on the security provisions cited above.  However,
 any added transport security (e.g., Transport Layer Security (TLS),
 RFC 5246 [27]) or IP security (e.g., IPsec, RFC 4302 [25], RFC 4303
 [26], RFC 5996 [28]) features SHALL act only to enhance (i.e., not be
 a substitute for, or an alteration of) the interoperable ANSI C12.22
 and ANSI C12.19 security provisions, and SHALL NOT corrupt and SHALL
 NOT alter the C12.22 Message as presented by the C12.22 Application
 Layer.
 The ANSI C12.22 [1] and ANSI C12.19 [2] standards provide for the
 transmission of keys and their storage in C12.19 End Devices (e.g.,
 meters and head-end systems).  The key management protocol (when and
 how keys are exchanged) is not described in the ANSI C12.22 [1] and
 ANSI C12.19 [2] standards, except to state that keys MAY not be
 readable from a C12.19 End Device (in response to a Read Service
 Request).  It is RECOMMENDED that all C12.22 Nodes encrypt user
 information element key fields and passwords.  It is also RECOMMENDED
 that all C12.22 Nodes mask user information element key fields and
 password fields of EPSEM Read Service Responses (e.g., by replacing
 all key and password bytes with zeros (0x00) or spaces (0x20)).
 Legacy deployments exist that are not connected to the Internet, so
 there are some implementations that do not include security.  It is
 likely that multi-homed C12.22 Nodes with interfaces to the Internet
 will exist in future deployments, so security mechanisms MUST be used
 by those C12.22 Nodes to ensure C12.22 Message authentication and
 confidentiality.

Moise & Brodkin Informational [Page 22] RFC 6142 ANSI C12.22/IEEE 1703/MC12.22 Over IP March 2011

7. IANA Considerations

 UDP and TCP port 1153, which is used for C12.22 communication over
 IP, is registered with IANA.
 Section 4.6, "IP Multicast", defines the use of multicast.  The
 following multicast addresses have been registered by IANA for use by
 the ANSI C12.22 standard:
    IPv4 -- "All C1222 Nodes" address 224.0.2.4
    IPv6 -- "All C1222 Nodes" address FF0X::204

8. Acknowledgments

 The authors wish to recognize Alexander Shulgin for providing
 valuable comments and for conducting feasibility testing in support
 of this work.
 The following people have improved this document through thoughtful
 comments and suggestions: Fred Baker, Ralph Droms, Vijay Gurbani,
 Michael Stuber, Spencer Dawkins, Alfred Hoenes, Russ Housley, Paul
 Hoffman, Lars Eggert, and Sean Turner.

9. References

9.1. Normative References

 [1]   ANSI, "Protocol Specification for Interfacing to Data
       Communication Networks", ANSI C12.22-2008, January 2009.
 [2]   ANSI, "Utility Industry End Device Data Tables", ANSI C12.19-
       2008, February 2009.
 [3]   IEEE, "Draft Standard for Utility Industry Metering
       Communication Protocol Application Layer (End Device Data
       Tables)", IEEE P1377-2010, October 2010.
 [4]   Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement
       Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.
 [5]   IEEE, "Standard for Local Area Network/Wide Area Network (LAN/
       WAN) Node Communication Protocol to Complement the Utility
       Industry End Device Data Tables", IEEE P1703-2010,
       October 2010.

Moise & Brodkin Informational [Page 23] RFC 6142 ANSI C12.22/IEEE 1703/MC12.22 Over IP March 2011

 [6]   ISO/IEC, "Information Technology-Open Systems Interconnection-
       Connectionless Protocol for the Association Control Service
       Element: Protocol Specification", ISO/IEC 10035-1, 1995.
 [7]   ISO/IEC, "Information Technology-ASN.1 Encoding Rules:
       Specification of Basic Encoding Rules (BER), Canonical Encoding
       Rules (CER) and Distinguished Encoding Rules (DER)", ISO/
       IEC 8825-1, 2002.
 [8]   Postel, J., "User Datagram Protocol", STD 6, RFC 768,
       August 1980.
 [9]   Postel, J., "Transmission Control Protocol", STD 7, RFC 793,
       September 1981.
 [10]  Deering, S., "Host extensions for IP multicasting", STD 5,
       RFC 1112, August 1989.
 [11]  Cain, B., Deering, S., Kouvelas, I., Fenner, B., and A.
       Thyagarajan, "Internet Group Management Protocol, Version 3",
       RFC 3376, October 2002.
 [12]  Vida, R., Ed., and L. Costa, Ed., "Multicast Listener Discovery
       Version 2 (MLDv2) for IPv6", RFC 3810, June 2004.
 [13]  Conta, A., Deering, S., and M. Gupta, Ed., "Internet Control
       Message Protocol (ICMPv6) for the Internet Protocol Version 6
       (IPv6) Specification", RFC 4443, March 2006.
 [14]  Fenner, B., Handley, M., Holbrook, H., and I. Kouvelas,
       "Protocol Independent Multicast - Sparse Mode (PIM-SM):
       Protocol Specification (Revised)", RFC 4601, August 2006.
 [15]  Hinden, R. and S. Deering, "IP Version 6 Addressing
       Architecture", RFC 4291, February 2006.
 [16]  Meyer, D., "Administratively Scoped IP Multicast", BCP 23,
       RFC 2365, July 1998.
 [17]  Senie, D., "Changing the Default for Directed Broadcasts in
       Routers", BCP 34, RFC 2644, August 1999.
 [18]  Eggert, L. and G. Fairhurst, "Unicast UDP Usage Guidelines for
       Application Designers", BCP 145, RFC 5405, November 2008.
 [19]  Braden, R., Ed., "Requirements for Internet Hosts -
       Communication Layers", STD 3, RFC 1122, October 1989.

Moise & Brodkin Informational [Page 24] RFC 6142 ANSI C12.22/IEEE 1703/MC12.22 Over IP March 2011

 [20]  Deering, S. and R. Hinden, "Internet Protocol, Version 6 (IPv6)
       Specification", RFC 2460, December 1998.
 [21]  Allman, M., Floyd, S., and C. Partridge, "Increasing TCP's
       Initial Window", RFC 3390, October 2002.
 [22]  Rescorla, E. and B. Korver, "Guidelines for Writing RFC Text on
       Security Considerations", BCP 72, RFC 3552, July 2003.

9.2. Informative References

 [23]  Measurement Canada, "Specification for Utility Industry
       Metering Communication Protocol Application Layer (End Device
       Data Tables)", Draft MC12.19, 2011.
 [24]  Measurement Canada, "Specification for Local Area Network/Wide
       Area Network (LAN/WAN) Node Communication Protocol to
       Complement the Utility Industry End Device Data Tables",
       Draft MC12.22, 2011.
 [25]  Kent, S., "IP Authentication Header", RFC 4302, December 2005.
 [26]  Kent, S., "IP Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP)", RFC 4303,
       December 2005.
 [27]  Dierks, T. and E. Rescorla, "The Transport Layer Security (TLS)
       Protocol Version 1.2", RFC 5246, August 2008.
 [28]  Kaufman, C., Hoffman, P., Nir, Y., and P. Eronen, "Internet Key
       Exchange Protocol Version 2 (IKEv2)", RFC 5996, September 2010.

Moise & Brodkin Informational [Page 25] RFC 6142 ANSI C12.22/IEEE 1703/MC12.22 Over IP March 2011

Authors' Addresses

 Avygdor Moise
 Future DOS R&D Inc.
 #303 - 6707 Elbow Drive SW
 Calgary, Alberta  T2V 0E5
 Canada
 EMail: avy@fdos.ca
 URI:   http://www.fdos.ca
 Jonathan Brodkin
 Future DOS R&D Inc.
 #303 - 6707 Elbow Drive SW
 Calgary, Alberta  T2V 0E5
 Canada
 EMail: jonathan.brodkin@fdos.ca
 URI:   http://www.fdos.ca

Moise & Brodkin Informational [Page 26]

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