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rfc:rfc6105

Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) E. Levy-Abegnoli Request for Comments: 6105 G. Van de Velde Category: Informational Cisco Systems ISSN: 2070-1721 C. Popoviciu

                                                            Technodyne
                                                            J. Mohacsi
                                                        NIIF/Hungarnet
                                                         February 2011
                  IPv6 Router Advertisement Guard

Abstract

 Routed protocols are often susceptible to spoof attacks.  The
 canonical solution for IPv6 is Secure Neighbor Discovery (SEND), a
 solution that is non-trivial to deploy.  This document proposes a
 light-weight alternative and complement to SEND based on filtering in
 the layer-2 network fabric, using a variety of filtering criteria,
 including, for example, SEND status.

Status of This Memo

 This document is not an Internet Standards Track specification; it is
 published for informational purposes.
 This document is a product of the Internet Engineering Task Force
 (IETF).  It represents the consensus of the IETF community.  It has
 received public review and has been approved for publication by the
 Internet Engineering Steering Group (IESG).  Not all documents
 approved by the IESG are a candidate for any level of Internet
 Standard; see Section 2 of RFC 5741.
 Information about the current status of this document, any errata,
 and how to provide feedback on it may be obtained at
 http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6105.

Levy-Abegnoli, et al. Informational [Page 1] RFC 6105 IPv6 RA-Guard February 2011

Copyright Notice

 Copyright (c) 2011 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
 document authors.  All rights reserved.
 This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
 Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
 (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
 publication of this document.  Please review these documents
 carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
 to this document.  Code Components extracted from this document must
 include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
 the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
 described in the Simplified BSD License.
 This document may contain material from IETF Documents or IETF
 Contributions published or made publicly available before November
 10, 2008.  The person(s) controlling the copyright in some of this
 material may not have granted the IETF Trust the right to allow
 modifications of such material outside the IETF Standards Process.
 Without obtaining an adequate license from the person(s) controlling
 the copyright in such materials, this document may not be modified
 outside the IETF Standards Process, and derivative works of it may
 not be created outside the IETF Standards Process, except to format
 it for publication as an RFC or to translate it into languages other
 than English.

Table of Contents

 1. Introduction ....................................................3
 2. Model and Applicability .........................................3
 3. Stateless RA-Guard ..............................................5
 4. Stateful RA-Guard ...............................................6
    4.1. State Machine ..............................................6
    4.2. SEND-Based RA-Guard ........................................8
 5. RA-Guard Use Considerations .....................................8
 6. Security Considerations .........................................9
 7. Acknowledgements ................................................9
 8. References ......................................................9
    8.1. Normative References .......................................9
    8.2. Informative References .....................................9

Levy-Abegnoli, et al. Informational [Page 2] RFC 6105 IPv6 RA-Guard February 2011

1. Introduction

 When operating IPv6 in a shared layer-2 (L2) network segment without
 complete SEcure Neighbor Discovery (SEND) support by all devices
 connected or without the availability of the infrastructure necessary
 to support SEND [RFC3971], there is always the risk of facing
 operational problems due to rogue Router Advertisements (RAs)
 generated maliciously or unintentionally by unauthorized or
 improperly configured routers connecting to the segment.
 There are several examples of work done on this topic that resulted
 in related studies and code, including [NDPMON] [KAME]
 [IPv6-SAMURAIS].  This document describes a solution framework for
 the rogue-RA problem [RFC6104] where network segments are designed
 around a single L2-switching device or a set of L2-switching devices
 capable of identifying invalid RAs and blocking them.  The solutions
 developed within this framework can span the spectrum from basic
 (where the port of the L2 device is statically instructed to forward
 or not to forward RAs received from the connected device) to advanced
 (where a criterion is used by the L2 device to dynamically validate
 or invalidate a received RA, this criterion can even be based on SEND
 mechanisms).

2. Model and Applicability

 RA-Guard applies to an environment where all messages between IPv6
 end-devices traverse the controlled L2 networking devices.  It does
 not apply to shared media, when devices can communicate directly
 without going through an RA-Guard-capable L2 networking device.
 Figure 1 illustrates a deployment scenario for RA-Guard.

Levy-Abegnoli, et al. Informational [Page 3] RFC 6105 IPv6 RA-Guard February 2011

                    Block                Allow
     +------+       incoming +---------+ incoming     +--------+
     |Host  |       RA       |    L2   | RA           | Router |
     |      |----------------|  device |--------------|        |
     +------+                +----+----+              +--------+
                                  |
                                  |Block
                                  |incoming
                                  |RA
                                  |
                                  |
                                  |
                              +---+---+
                              |  Host |
                              |       |
                              +-------+
                              Figure 1
 RA-Guard does not intend to provide a substitute for SEND-based
 solutions.  It actually intends to provide complementary solutions in
 those environments where SEND might not be suitable or fully
 supported by all devices involved.  It may take time until SEND is
 ubiquitous in IPv6 networks and some of its large-scale deployment
 aspects are sorted out, such as provisioning hosts with trust
 anchors.  It is also reasonable to expect that some devices, such as
 IPv6-enabled sensors, might not consider implementing SEND at all.
 An RA-Guard implementation that SEND-validates RAs on behalf of hosts
 would potentially simplify some of these challenges.
 RA-Guard can be seen as a superset of SEND with regard to router
 authorization.  Its purpose is to filter Router Advertisements based
 on a set of criteria, from a simplistic "RA disallowed on a given
 interface" to "RA allowed from pre-defined sources" and up to a full-
 fledged SEND "RA allowed from authorized sources only".
 In addition to this granularity on the criteria for filtering out
 Router Advertisements, RA-Guard introduces the concept of router
 authorization proxy.  Instead of each node on the link analyzing RAs
 and making an individual decision, a legitimate "node-in-the-middle"
 performs the analysis on behalf of all other nodes on the link.  The
 analysis itself is not different from what each node would do: if
 SEND is enabled, the RA is checked against X.509 certificates

Levy-Abegnoli, et al. Informational [Page 4] RFC 6105 IPv6 RA-Guard February 2011

 [RFC4861].  If any other criterion is in use, such as known L3
 (addresses) or L2 (link-layer address, port number) legitimate
 sources of RAs, the node-in-the middle can use this criterion and
 filter out any RA that does not comply.  If this node-in-the-middle
 is an L2 device, it will not change the content of the validated RA
 and will avoid any of the ND-proxy pitfalls.
 RA-Guard intends to provide simple solutions to the rogue-RA problem
 in contexts where simplicity is required while leveraging SEND in a
 context environment consisting of a mix of SEND-capable devices (L2
 switches and routers) and devices that do not consistently use SEND.
 Furthermore, RA-Guard is useful to simplify SEND deployments, as only
 the L2 switch and the routers are required to carry certificates
 (their own and the trust anchor certificates).

3. Stateless RA-Guard

 Stateless RA-Guard examines incoming RAs and decides whether to
 forward or block them based solely on information found in the
 message or in the L2-device configuration.  Typical information
 available in the frames received, useful for RA validation, is as
 follows:
 o  Link-layer address of the sender
 o  Port on which the frame was received
 o  IP source address
 o  Prefix list
 The following configuration information created on the L2 device can
 be made available to RA-Guard, to validate against the information
 found in the received RA frame:
 o  Allowed/Disallowed link-layer address of the RA sender
 o  Allowed/Disallowed ports for receiving RAs
 o  Allowed/Disallowed IP source addresses of the RA sender
 o  Allowed Prefix list and Prefix ranges
 o  Router Priority
 Once the L2 device has validated the content of the RA frame against
 the configuration, it forwards the RA to its destination, whether
 unicast or multicast.  Otherwise, the RA is dropped.

Levy-Abegnoli, et al. Informational [Page 5] RFC 6105 IPv6 RA-Guard February 2011

 An example of a very simple stateless RA-Guard implementation could
 be a small L2 switch for which there is one interface "statically
 configured" as the interface connecting to a router, while all other
 interfaces are for non-router devices.  With this small static setup,
 the only interface forwarding RAs will be the pre-assigned router
 interface, while the non-router interfaces block all RAs.

4. Stateful RA-Guard

4.1. State Machine

 Stateful RA-Guard learns dynamically about legitimate RA senders and
 stores this information for allowing subsequent RAs.  A simple
 stateful scheme would be for the L2 device to listen to RAs during a
 certain manually configured period of time, where the start of the
 listening period and the duration of the listening period for a
 single instance are controlled by the manual intervention.  As a
 result, the L2 device can then allow subsequent RAs only on those
 ports on which valid RAs were received during this period.  Often,
 the "LEARNING" state will only be activated by manual configuration
 when a new IPv6 router is provisioned on the L2 network.
 A more sophisticated stateful scheme is based on SEND and is
 described in Section 4.2.
 The state machine for stateful RA-Guard can be global, per-interface,
 or per-peer, depending on the scheme used for authorizing RAs.
 When RA-Guard is SEND-based, the state machine is per-peer and
 defined in [RFC3971].
 When RA-Guard is using a discovery method, the state machine of the
 RA-Guard capability consists of four different states:
 o  State 1: OFF
    A device or interface in the RA-Guard "OFF" state operates as if
    the RA-Guard capability is not available.
 o  State 2: LEARNING
    A device or interface in the RA-Guard "LEARNING" state is actively
    acquiring information about the IPv6 routing devices connected to
    its interfaces.  The learning process takes place over a
    pre-defined unique period of time, as set by manual configuration;

Levy-Abegnoli, et al. Informational [Page 6] RFC 6105 IPv6 RA-Guard February 2011

    or it can be event-triggered.  The information gathered is
    compared against pre-defined criteria (criteria similar to the
    stateless RA-Guard rules) to qualify the validity of the RAs.
    In this state, the RA-Guard-enabled device or interface is either
    blocking "all" RAs until their validity is verified or,
    alternatively, it can temporarily forward "all" of the RAs until
    their validity is verified.
    When the L2 device reaches the end of the LEARNING state, it has a
    record of which interfaces are attached to links with valid IPv6
    routers.  The L2 device transitions each interface from the
    LEARNING state into either the BLOCKING state if there was no
    valid IPv6 router discovered at the interface, or into the
    FORWARDING state if there was a valid IPv6 router discovered.
 o  State 3: BLOCKING
    A device or interface running RA-Guard and in the BLOCKING state
    will block ingress RA messages.
    An interface can transition from the BLOCKING state into the
    FORWARDING state directly if explicitly instructed by the
    L2-device operator.
    An interface can transition from the BLOCKING state into the
    LEARNING state if either explicitly instructed by the L2-device
    operator or prompted by a triggered event.
 o  State 4: FORWARDING
    A device or interface running RA-Guard and in the FORWARDING state
    will accept valid ingress RAs and forward them to their
    destination.
    An interface can transition from the FORWARDING state into the
    BLOCKING state directly if explicitly instructed by the L2-device
    operator.
    An interface can transition from the FORWARDING state into the
    LEARNING state if either explicitly instructed by the L2-device
    operator or prompted by a triggered event.
 The transition between these states can be triggered by manual
 configuration or by meeting a pre-defined criterion.

Levy-Abegnoli, et al. Informational [Page 7] RFC 6105 IPv6 RA-Guard February 2011

4.2. SEND-Based RA-Guard

 In this scenario, the L2 device is blocking or forwarding RAs based
 on SEND considerations.  Upon capturing an RA on the interface, the
 L2 device will first verify the Cryptographically Generated Address
 (CGA) [RFC3971] and the RSA (Rivest, Shamir, and Adleman algorithm
 for public-key cryptography) signature, as specified in Section 5 of
 [RFC3971].  The RA should be dropped in case of failure of this
 verification.  It will then apply host behavior as described in
 Section 6.4.6 of [RFC3971].  In particular, the L2 device will
 attempt to retrieve a valid certificate from its cache for the public
 key referred to in the RA.  If such a certificate is found, the L2
 device will forward the RA to its destination.  If not, the L2 device
 will generate a Certification Path Solicitation (CPS) [RFC3971] with
 an unspecified source address, to query the router certificate(s).
 It will then capture the Certification Path Advertisement (CPA)
 [RFC3971] and attempt to validate the certificate chain.  Failure to
 validate the chain will result in dropping the RA.  Upon validation
 success, the L2 device will forward the RA to its destination and
 store the router certificate in its cache.
 In order to operate in this scenario, the L2 device should be
 provisioned with a trust anchor certificate, as specified in
 Section 6 of [RFC3971].  It may also establish layer-3 connectivity
 with a Certificate Revocation List (CRL) Certification Path
 Advertisement server and/or with an NTP server.  A bootstrapping
 issue in this case can be resolved by using the configuration method
 to specify a trusted port to a first router, and the SEND-based
 RA-Guard method on all other ports.  The first router can then be
 used for Network Time Protocol (NTP) [RFC5905] and CRL connectivity.

5. RA-Guard Use Considerations

 The RA-Guard mechanism is effective only when all messages between
 IPv6 devices in the target environment traverse controlled L2
 networking devices.  In the case of environments such as Ethernet
 hubs, devices can communicate directly without going through an
 RA-Guard-capable L2 networking device, and the RA-Guard feature
 cannot protect against rogue RAs.
 RA-Guard mechanisms do not offer protection in environments where
 IPv6 traffic is tunneled.

Levy-Abegnoli, et al. Informational [Page 8] RFC 6105 IPv6 RA-Guard February 2011

6. Security Considerations

 Once RA-Guard has set up the proper criteria (for example, it
 specified that a port is allowed to receive RAs, or it identified
 legitimate sources of RAs or certificate bases [RFC4861]), then there
 are no possible instances of accidentally filtered legitimate Router
 Advertisements, assuming the RA-Guard filter enforcement strictly
 follows the RA-Guard set criteria.
 In Section 4.1, a simple mechanism to dynamically learn the valid
 IPv6 routers connected to an L2 device is explained.  It is important
 that this LEARNING state is only entered intentionally by manual
 configuration.  The list of learned IPv6 routers should be verified
 by the network manager to make sure that it corresponds with the
 expected valid RA list.  This procedure will make sure that either
 accidentally or intentionally generated rogue RAs are blocked by
 RA-Guard.

7. Acknowledgements

 The authors dedicate this document to the memory of Jun-ichiro Hagino
 (itojun) for his contributions to the development and deployment of
 IPv6.

8. References

8.1. Normative References

 [RFC3971]   Arkko, J., Ed., Kempf, J., Zill, B., and P. Nikander,
             "SEcure Neighbor Discovery (SEND)", RFC 3971, March 2005.
 [RFC4861]   Narten, T., Nordmark, E., Simpson, W., and H.  Soliman,
             "Neighbor Discovery for IP version 6 (IPv6)", RFC 4861,
             September 2007.
 [RFC5905]   Mills, D., Martin, J., Ed., Burbank, J., and W. Kasch,
             "Network Time Protocol Version 4: Protocol and Algorithms
             Specification", RFC 5905, June 2010.

8.2. Informative References

 [NDPMON]    LORIA/INRIA, "NDPMon - IPv6 Neighbor Discovery Protocol
             Monitor", November 2007,
             <http://ndpmon.sourceforge.net/>.
 [KAME]      KAME Project, "rafixd - developed at KAME - An active
             rogue RA nullifier", November 2007,
             <http://www.kame.net/>.

Levy-Abegnoli, et al. Informational [Page 9] RFC 6105 IPv6 RA-Guard February 2011

 [IPv6-SAMURAIS]
             Hagino (itojun), J., "IPv6 demystified: I have a problem
             with rogue RAs in my IPv6 network", 2007,
             <http://ipv6samurais.com/>.
 [RFC6104]   Chown, T. and S. Venaas, "Rogue IPv6 Router Advertisement
             Problem Statement", RFC 6104, February 2011.

Authors' Addresses

 Eric Levy-Abegnoli
 Cisco Systems
 Village d'Entreprises Green Side - 400, Avenue Roumanille
 Biot - Sophia Antipolis, PROVENCE-ALPES-COTE D'AZUR  06410
 France
 Phone: +33 49 723 2620
 EMail: elevyabe@cisco.com
 Gunter Van de Velde
 Cisco Systems
 De Kleetlaan 6a
 Diegem  1831
 Belgium
 Phone: +32 2704 5473
 EMail: gunter@cisco.com
 Ciprian Popoviciu
 Technodyne
 111 Wood Ave. S.
 Iselin, NJ  08830
 USA
 Phone: +1 1 919 599-5666
 EMail: chip@technodyne.com
 Janos Mohacsi
 NIIF/Hungarnet
 18-22 Victor Hugo
 Budapest  H-1132
 Hungary
 EMail: mohacsi@niif.hu

Levy-Abegnoli, et al. Informational [Page 10]

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