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rfc:rfc6009

Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) N. Freed Request for Comments: 6009 Oracle Category: Standards Track October 2010 ISSN: 2070-1721

                       Sieve Email Filtering:
      Delivery Status Notifications and Deliver-By Extensions

Abstract

 This document describes the "envelope-dsn", "redirect-dsn",
 "envelope-deliverby", and "redirect-deliverby" extensions to the
 Sieve email filtering language.  The "envelope-dsn" and "envelope-
 deliverby" extensions provide access to additional envelope
 information provided by the delivery status notification (DSN) and
 Deliver-By SMTP extensions, respectively.  The "redirect-dsn" and
 "redirect-deliverby" extensions extend Sieve's redirect action to
 provide control over delivery status notification and Deliver-By
 parameters, respectively.

Status of This Memo

 This is an Internet Standards Track document.
 This document is a product of the Internet Engineering Task Force
 (IETF).  It represents the consensus of the IETF community.  It has
 received public review and has been approved for publication by the
 Internet Engineering Steering Group (IESG).  Further information on
 Internet Standards is available in Section 2 of RFC 5741.
 Information about the current status of this document, any errata,
 and how to provide feedback on it may be obtained at
 http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6009.

Freed Standards Track [Page 1] RFC 6009 Sieve DSNs and Deliver-By Extensions October 2010

Copyright Notice

 Copyright (c) 2010 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
 document authors.  All rights reserved.
 This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
 Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
 (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
 publication of this document.  Please review these documents
 carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
 to this document.  Code Components extracted from this document must
 include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
 the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
 described in the Simplified BSD License.

Table of Contents

 1.  Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
 2.  Conventions Used in This Document  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
 3.  Capability Identifiers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
 4.  Envelope-dsn Extension . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
   4.1.  Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
 5.  Envelope-deliverby Extension . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
   5.1.  Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
 6.  redirect-dsn Extension . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
   6.1.  MAIL FROM Address Selection  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
   6.2.  Example  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
 7.  redirect-deliverby Extension . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
   7.1.  MAIL FROM Address Selection  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
   7.2.  Example  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
 8.  Security Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
 9.  IANA Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
 10. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
   10.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
   10.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
 Appendix A.  Acknowledgements  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15

Freed Standards Track [Page 2] RFC 6009 Sieve DSNs and Deliver-By Extensions October 2010

1. Introduction

 Sieve [RFC5228] is a language for filtering email messages at or
 around the time of final delivery.  It is designed to be
 implementable on either a mail client or mail server.  It is suitable
 for running on a mail server where users may not be allowed to
 execute arbitrary programs, such as on black box Internet Message
 Access Protocol [RFC3501] servers, as it has no user-controlled loops
 or the ability to run external programs.
 The base Sieve specification defines the envelope extension and test
 to access information in the message envelope.  Only information
 available in regular SMTP [RFC5321] is provided; additional
 information added to the SMTP envelope by SMTP extensions cannot be
 accessed.
 The "envelope-dsn" extension extends the envelope test to allow
 access to the additional envelope fields defined by the SMTP
 extension for delivery status notifications (DSNs) specified in
 RFC 3461 [RFC3461].  The "envelope-deliverby" extension extends the
 envelope test to allow access to the additional envelope fields
 defined by the Deliver-By SMTP extension defined in [RFC2852].
 The base Sieve specification also defines the redirect action, which
 sends the message to a different address.  Redirect only allows
 specification of the new recipient address.  The "redirect-dsn"
 extension extends redirect to allow specification of some fields
 defined by the delivery status notification SMTP extension.
 "redirect-deliverby" in turn provides the ability to set a time limit
 for delivery as specified in RFC 2852 [RFC2852].

2. Conventions Used in This Document

 The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
 "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
 document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119].
 The terms used to describe the various components of the Sieve
 language are taken from Section 1.1 of [RFC5228].  The nature and
 handling of Sieve errors are described in Section 2.10.6 of
 [RFC5228].
 This document uses the ABNF notation specified in [RFC5234], and
 refers to the notify-esmtp-value ABNF production defined in
 Section 4.1 of [RFC3461].

Freed Standards Track [Page 3] RFC 6009 Sieve DSNs and Deliver-By Extensions October 2010

3. Capability Identifiers

 The capability strings associated with the extensions defined in this
 document are "envelope-dsn", "redirect-dsn", "envelope-deliverby",
 and "redirect-deliverby".

4. Envelope-dsn Extension

 The "envelope-dsn" extension does not define any new tests or
 actions; rather, it adds four values to the list of possible (case-
 insensitive) envelope-part strings defined in Section 5.4 of
 [RFC5228]:
 notify -  Match the list of notification conditions, or NOTIFY
    values, associated with the TO address used in the SMTP RCPT TO
    command that resulted in this message getting delivered to this
    user.  More than one notification condition can be in effect at
    once; each condition that is in effect is tested separately, and
    any match causes the test to succeed.  The syntax and semantics of
    the NOTIFY parameter are defined in Section 4.1 of RFC 3461
    [RFC3461] .  Currently, the possible notification condition values
    are "NEVER", "SUCCESS", "FAILURE", and "DELAY".  Note that the
    value "NEVER" is never combined with any other value.
 orcpt -  Match the original recipient, or ORCPT, value associated
    with the TO address used in the SMTP RCPT TO command that resulted
    in this message getting delivered to this user, with xtext
    encoding removed.  The syntax and semantics of the ORCPT parameter
    are defined in Section 4.2 of RFC 3461 [RFC3461].
 ret -  Match the return of content, or RET, value given in the SMTP
    MAIL FROM command.  The syntax and semantics of the RET parameter
    are defined in Section 4.3 of RFC 3461 [RFC3461].  The possible
    return of content values are "FULL" and "HDRS".
 envid -  Match the envelope identifier, or ENVID, value in decoded
    form given in the SMTP MAIL FROM command.  The syntax and
    semantics of the ENVID parameter are defined in Section 4.4 of
    RFC 3461 [RFC3461].
 The envelope test fails unconditionally for each of these envelope-
 part strings if the specified envelope parameter does not exist for
 the current message or recipient.

Freed Standards Track [Page 4] RFC 6009 Sieve DSNs and Deliver-By Extensions October 2010

 The envelope test's ADDRESS-PART argument assumes the string being
 tested has the syntax of an email address.  None of the new envelope
 parts defined here have address syntax; accordingly, it is an error
 to specify an ADDRESS-PART argument in conjunction with these new
 envelope parts.
 The "relational" extension [RFC5231] adds a match type called
 ":count".  The count of an envelope test with an envelope-part of
 "orcpt", "ret", and "envid" is 1 if the corresponding SMTP parameter
 is present and 0 otherwise.  The count of an envelope test with an
 envelope-part of "notify" is equal to the number of notification
 conditions specified and 0 if the NOTIFY parameter is not present.

4.1. Examples

 The fact that the NOTIFY envelope parameter is multivalued and the
 notify envelope-part turns this into a list of values makes it easy
 to check to see if a given value is present without having to worry
 about other values:
 require ["envelope", "envelope-dsn"];
 # Check whether SUCCESS notifications were requested,
 # irrespective of any other requests that were made
 if envelope "notify" "SUCCESS"
 {
     # do whatever
 }
 Checking to see if a given request is the only one present is a
 little trickier, however:
 require ["envelope", "envelope-dsn", "relational",
          "comparator-i;ascii-numeric"];
 # Check whether only FAILURE notifications were requested
 if allof ( envelope "notify" "FAILURE",
            envelope :comparator "i;ascii-numeric"
                     :count "eq" "notify" "1"
          )
 {
     # do whatever
 }
 The orcpt envelope-part always contains an address type indicator
 prefix in addition to an address, which must be taken into account in
 any tests:

Freed Standards Track [Page 5] RFC 6009 Sieve DSNs and Deliver-By Extensions October 2010

 require ["envelope", "envelope-dsn"];
 # See if the orcpt is an RFC822 address in the example.com
 # domain
 if envelope :matches "orcpt" "rfc822;*@example.com"
 {
     # do whatever
 }

5. Envelope-deliverby Extension

 The "envelope-deliverby" extension does not define any new tests or
 actions; rather, it adds four values to the list of possible (case-
 insensitive) envelope-part strings defined in Section 5.4 of
 [RFC5228] and an optional :zone tagged argument.  This updates the
 usage description for envelope to:
 Usage:   envelope [COMPARATOR] [ADDRESS-PART]
                   [MATCH-TYPE] [:zone <time-zone: string>]
                   <envelope-part: string-list>
                   <key-list: string-list>
 These new envelope parts correspond to the new MAIL FROM parameters
 defined in Section 4 of [RFC2852].  They are:
 bytimeabsolute -  Match the current value of the initial integer part
    of the Deliver-By extension's BY parameter on the SMTP MAIL FROM
    command, converted into an absolute time represented in restricted
    ISO 8601 format.  The restricted ISO 8601 format is specified by
    the date-time ABNF production given in [RFC3339], Section 5.6,
    with the added restrictions that the letters "T" and "Z" MUST be
    in upper case, and a time zone offset of zero MUST be represented
    by "Z" and not "+00:00".
 bytimerelative -  Match the current value of the initial integer part
    of the Deliver-By extension's BY parameter specified in the SMTP
    MAIL FROM command.
 bymode -  Match a string computed from the by-mode part of the
    Deliver-By extension's BY parameter.  The possible values are
    "notify" and "return", which correspond to the BY parameter mode
    specifier characters "N" and "R", respectively.
 bytrace -  Match the trace modifier computed from the by-trace
    modifier on the Deliver-By extension's BY parameter.  The possible
    values are "trace" and "" (the empty string).  These values
    correspond to the presence or absence of the by-trace "T"
    modifier, respectively.

Freed Standards Track [Page 6] RFC 6009 Sieve DSNs and Deliver-By Extensions October 2010

 The envelope test fails unconditionally for each of these envelope-
 part strings if the BY SMTP MAIL FROM parameter does not exist for
 the current message or recipient.
 The new :zone argument specifies a time zone offset string that any
 bytimeabsolute value is to be shifted to prior to testing. :zone has
 no effect on envelope-parts other than bytimeabsolute.  The value of
 the time zone offset string MUST be an offset relative to UTC with
 the following syntax:
 time-zone  =  ( "+" / "-" ) 4DIGIT
 The "+" or "-" indicates whether the time-of-day is ahead of (i.e.,
 east of) or behind (i.e., west of) UTC.  The first two digits
 indicate the number of hours difference from Universal Time, and the
 last two digits indicate the number of minutes difference from
 Universal Time.  Note that this agrees with the [RFC5322] format for
 time zone offsets, not the ISO 8601 format.  The local time zone MUST
 be used for bytimeabsolute if the :zone argument is omitted.
 The envelope test's ADDRESS-PART argument assumes the string being
 tested has the syntax of an email address.  None of the new envelope
 parts defined here have address syntax; accordingly, it is an error
 to specify an ADDRESS-PART argument in conjunction with these new
 envelope parts.
 The "relational" extension [RFC5231] adds a match type called
 ":count".  The count of an envelope test with an envelope-part of
 "bytime", "bymode", and "bytrace" is 1 if the BY parameter is present
 and 0 otherwise.
 It is important to note that the Deliver-By by-time is decremented as
 the message passes through the transport infrastructure.
 Accordingly, it is not possible to tell what the message originator
 set the value to; only the amount of time remaining at the moment the
 sieve is run can be determined.  Additionally, note that
 bytimerelative values can be negative, making it necessary to either
 perform additional checks or else use a comparator that, unlike
 i;ascii-numeric, is capable of handling signed integers.

5.1. Examples

 As noted above, this extension does not provide access to the
 originator's initial by-time setting for the simple reason that this
 information is not part of the envelope.  It can, however, be used to
 check and see if the message was delivered within the allotted time.
 Note the additional check to see if the value is negative:

Freed Standards Track [Page 7] RFC 6009 Sieve DSNs and Deliver-By Extensions October 2010

 require ["envelope", "envelope-deliverby", "relational",
          "comparator-i;ascii-numeric"];
 # Check to see if this message didn't make it in the time allotted by
 # the originator.
 if anyof (envelope :contains "bytimerelative" "-",
           envelope :value "eq" :comparator "i;ascii-numeric"
                    "bytimerelative" "0")
 {
     # do whatever
 }
 This operation can be done more simply if the date [RFC5260] and
 variables [RFC5229] extensions are available:
 require ["envelope", "envelope-deliverby", "relational", "date",
          "variables"];
 # Check to see if this message didn't make it in the time allotted by
 # the originator.
 if currentdate :matches "iso8601" "*" {
     set "cdate" "${0}";
     if envelope :value "ge" "bytimeabsolute" "${cdate}" {
         # do whatever
     }
 }
 Note that there is no need to force the use of a particular time zone
 since both currentdate and the bytimeabsolute value are required to
 default to the local time zone.  A similar check could be written
 using :zone if the action taken depends on having the by-time
 represented in a particular zone:
 require ["envelope", "envelope-deliverby", "relational", "date",
          "variables"];
 # If the message didn't make it in time, file it according to when it
 # should have been received
 if envelope :matches :zone "+0000" "bytimeabsolute" "*T*:*:*" {
     set "bdate" "${0}";
     set "bhour" "${2}";
     if currentdate :zone "+0000" :value "lt" "iso8601" "${bdate}")
         fileinto "missed-${bhour}";
     }
 }

Freed Standards Track [Page 8] RFC 6009 Sieve DSNs and Deliver-By Extensions October 2010

6. redirect-dsn Extension

 The "redirect-dsn" extension does not define any new tests or
 actions; rather, it adds two new arguments, NOTIFY and RET, to the
 redirect action defined in Section 4.2 of [RFC5228].  This updates
 the usage description for redirect to:
 Usage:   redirect [:notify "value"] [:ret "FULL"|"HDRS"]
                   <address: string>
 The syntax for the NOTIFY and RET arguments are:
 NOTIFY = ":notify" notify-value
 notify-value = DQUOTE ("NEVER" / notify-esmtp-list) DQUOTE
 notify-esmtp-list = notify-list-element *("," notify-list-element)
 RET = ":ret" ret-value
 ret-value = DQUOTE ("FULL" / "HDRS") DQUOTE
 The notify-list-element ABNF production is defined in Section 4.1 of
 [RFC3461].
 When these arguments are specified, they set the corresponding NOTIFY
 ESMTP RCPT TO and RET ESMTP MAIL FROM parameters, respectively.
 These arguments are only honored if the delivery status notification
 (DSN) ESMTP extension is available.  When the DSN extension is not
 available, these arguments MUST be ignored and MUST NOT cause an
 error.

6.1. MAIL FROM Address Selection

 RFC 5228 does not require that any particular envelope sender address
 be associated with redirected messages.  However, the redirect-dsn
 extension isn't terribly useful if the place where the delivery
 status notifications are sent isn't known.  Accordingly, when either
 :notify or :ret is specified and the envelope sender address isn't
 empty, implementations MUST set the envelope sender address to the
 address of the sieve owner.

6.2. Example

 One possible use of :notify on redirect is to combine the copy
 extension [RFC3894] with the ability to suppress nondelivery
 notifications to generate a private copy of selected messages with no
 side effects or error notifications:

Freed Standards Track [Page 9] RFC 6009 Sieve DSNs and Deliver-By Extensions October 2010

 require ["copy", "redirect-dsn"];
 # Make a private copy of messages from user@example.com
 if address "from" "user@example.com"
 {
     redirect :copy :notify "NEVER" "elsewhere@example.com";
 }

7. redirect-deliverby Extension

 The "redirect-deliverby" extension does not define any new tests or
 actions; rather, it adds three new arguments, BYTIME, BYMODE, and
 BYTRACE, to the redirect action defined in Section 4.2 of [RFC5228].
 This updates the usage description for redirect to:
 Usage:   redirect [:bytimerelative <rlimit: number> /
                    :bytimeabsolute <alimit:string>
                    [:bymode "notify"|"return"] [:bytrace]]
                   <address: string>
 :bytimerelative specifies the number of seconds within which the
 message should be delivered.  This parameter does not allow
 specification of negative values; it should not be necessary to
 specify such values in this context. :bytimeabsolute specifies an
 absolute time limit on delivery.  The limit in this case is specified
 in the restricted ISO 8601 format specified by the date-time ABNF
 production given in [RFC3339].
 :bymode specifies whether a notification should be sent or the
 message simply returned if the time limit is exceeded.  The default
 is "return" if :bymode is not specified. :bytrace, if specified,
 activates message tracing.
 The semantics of delivery time limits and these parameters are
 specified and discussed at length in [RFC2852].
 It is an error to specify either :bymode or :bytrace without either
 :bytimeabsolute or :bytimerelative.
 When these arguments are specified, they are used to construct the
 corresponding BY ESMTP MAIL FROM parameter.  The :bytimeabsolute or
 :bytimerelative value becomes the by-time, the :bymode becomes the
 by-mode value, and :bytrace sets the by-trace modifier.  If the
 Deliver-By extension is unavailable, the handling of the redirected
 message MUST conform to the semantics specified in [RFC2852],
 Section 4.1.4 for relaying to a server that does not support the
 Deliver-By SMTP extension.

Freed Standards Track [Page 10] RFC 6009 Sieve DSNs and Deliver-By Extensions October 2010

7.1. MAIL FROM Address Selection

 RFC 5228 does not require that any particular envelope sender address
 be associated with redirected messages.  However, the redirect-
 deliverby extension, like the redirect-dsn extension, isn't terribly
 useful if the place where any delivery status notifications are sent
 isn't known.  Accordingly, when either :bytimeabsolute or
 :bytimerelative is specified and the envelope sender address isn't
 empty, implementations MUST set the envelope sender address to the
 address of the sieve owner.

7.2. Example

 The obvious use of "redirect-deliverby" is to specify a limit on
 delivery attempts for a redirected message:
 require ["copy", "redirect-deliverby"];
 # Send a copy to my cell phone, time out after 10 minutes
 if address "from" "user@example.com"
 {
     redirect :copy :bytimerelative 600 "cellphone@example.com";
 }
 Limits on delivery after a particular time of day may also be
 constructed:
 require ["copy", "redirect-deliverby", "date", "variables",
          "relational", "comparator-i;ascii-numeric"];
 # Send a copy to my cell phone to be delivered before 10PM
 if currentdate :value "lt"
                :comparator "i;ascii-numeric" "hour" "22"
 {
     if currentdate :matches "date" "*" {set "date" "${0}";}
     if currentdate :matches "zone" "*" {set "zone" "${0}";}
     redirect :copy :bytimeabsolute "${date}T20:00:00${zone}"
              :bymode "return" "cellphone@example.com";
 }

8. Security Considerations

 The envelope-dsn and envelope-deliverby extensions provide access to
 additional message envelope information.  This is not believed to
 raise any additional security issues beyond those for the Sieve
 "envelope" test.

Freed Standards Track [Page 11] RFC 6009 Sieve DSNs and Deliver-By Extensions October 2010

 The redirect-dsn extension allows specification of the delivery
 status notification's NOTIFY parameter, which can cause the
 generation of notification messages that might otherwise not be
 generated, especially if notification in the event of successful
 delivery is required.  Sites that limit the ability to request
 success notifications will also need to restrict the ability to
 request them using the redirect-dsn extension.
 Similarly, the redirect-deliverby extension is used to control how
 long the transport infrastructure will continue to attempt to deliver
 a message before giving up, which could result in the generation of
 additional notification messages.  While the underlying Deliver-By
 extension does have a minimum by-time limit, sites may wish to impose
 additional limits on the minimum by-time allowed in a redirect
 action.
 All of the security considerations given in the base Sieve
 specification also apply to this extension.

9. IANA Considerations

 The following template specifies the IANA registration of the Sieve
 extension specified in this document:
  To: iana@iana.org
  Subject: Registration of new Sieve extensions
  Capability name: envelope-dsn
  Description:     The "envelope-dsn" extension extends the envelope
                   test to allow checking of information associated
                   with the DSN ESMTP extension defined in RFC 3461.
  RFC number:      RFC 6009
  Contact address: Sieve discussion list <sieve@ietf.org>
  Capability name: envelope-deliverby
  Description:     The "envelope-deliverby" extension extends the
                   envelope test to allow checking of information
                   associated with the Deliver-By ESMTP extension
                   defined in RFC 2852.
  RFC number:      RFC 6009
  Contact address: Sieve discussion list <sieve@ietf.org>

Freed Standards Track [Page 12] RFC 6009 Sieve DSNs and Deliver-By Extensions October 2010

  Capability name: redirect-dsn
  Description:     The "redirect-dsn" extension extends the redirect
                   action to allow specification of the NOTIFY and
                   RET ESMTP parameters associated with the DSN SMTP
                   extension defined in RFC 3461.
  RFC number:      RFC 6009
  Contact address: Sieve discussion list <sieve@ietf.org>
  Capability name: redirect-deliverby
  Description:     The "redirect-deliverby" extension extends the
                   redirect action to allow specification of the BY
                   ESMTP parameter associated with the Deliver-By SMTP
                   extension defined in RFC 2852.
  RFC number:      RFC 6009
  Contact address: Sieve discussion list <sieve@ietf.org>
  This information has been added to the list of Sieve extensions
  available from http://www.iana.org.

10. References

10.1. Normative References

 [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
            Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.
 [RFC2852]  Newman, D., "Deliver By SMTP Service Extension", RFC 2852,
            June 2000.
 [RFC3339]  Klyne, G., Ed. and C. Newman, "Date and Time on the
            Internet: Timestamps", RFC 3339, July 2002.
 [RFC3461]  Moore, K., "Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) Service
            Extension for Delivery Status Notifications (DSNs)",
            RFC 3461, January 2003.
 [RFC5228]  Guenther, P. and T. Showalter, "Sieve: An Email Filtering
            Language", RFC 5228, January 2008.
 [RFC5231]  Segmuller, W. and B. Leiba, "Sieve Email Filtering:
            Relational Extension", RFC 5231, January 2008.
 [RFC5234]  Crocker, D. and P. Overell, "Augmented BNF for Syntax
            Specifications: ABNF", STD 68, RFC 5234, January 2008.
 [RFC5321]  Klensin, J., "Simple Mail Transfer Protocol", RFC 5321,
            October 2008.

Freed Standards Track [Page 13] RFC 6009 Sieve DSNs and Deliver-By Extensions October 2010

 [RFC5322]  Resnick, P., Ed., "Internet Message Format", RFC 5322,
            October 2008.

10.2. Informative References

 [RFC3501]  Crispin, M., "INTERNET MESSAGE ACCESS PROTOCOL - VERSION
            4rev1", RFC 3501, March 2003.
 [RFC3894]  Degener, J., "Sieve Extension: Copying Without Side
            Effects", RFC 3894, October 2004.
 [RFC5229]  Homme, K., "Sieve Email Filtering: Variables Extension",
            RFC 5229, January 2008.
 [RFC5260]  Freed, N., "Sieve Email Filtering: Date and Index
            Extensions", RFC 5260, July 2008.

Freed Standards Track [Page 14] RFC 6009 Sieve DSNs and Deliver-By Extensions October 2010

Appendix A. Acknowledgements

 Cyrus Daboo, Derek Diget, Philip Guenther, Arnt Gulbrandsen, Tero
 Kivinen, Barry Leiba, Andrew McKeon, Alexey Melnikov, Chris Newman,
 Aaron Stone, and Alexandros Vellis provided helpful suggestions and
 corrections.

Author's Address

 Ned Freed
 Oracle
 800 Royal Oaks
 Monrovia, CA  91016-6347
 USA
 EMail: ned.freed@mrochek.com

Freed Standards Track [Page 15]

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