GENWiki

Premier IT Outsourcing and Support Services within the UK

User Tools

Site Tools


rfc:rfc4760

Network Working Group T. Bates Request for Comments: 4760 Cisco Systems Obsoletes: 2858 R. Chandra Category: Standards Track Sonoa Systems

                                                               D. Katz
                                                            Y. Rekhter
                                                      Juniper Networks
                                                          January 2007
                 Multiprotocol Extensions for BGP-4

Status of This Memo

 This document specifies an Internet standards track protocol for the
 Internet community, and requests discussion and suggestions for
 improvements.  Please refer to the current edition of the "Internet
 Official Protocol Standards" (STD 1) for the standardization state
 and status of this protocol.  Distribution of this memo is unlimited.

Copyright Notice

 Copyright (C) The IETF Trust (2007).

Abstract

 This document defines extensions to BGP-4 to enable it to carry
 routing information for multiple Network Layer protocols (e.g., IPv6,
 IPX, L3VPN, etc.).  The extensions are backward compatible - a router
 that supports the extensions can interoperate with a router that
 doesn't support the extensions.

Bates, et al. Standards Track [Page 1] RFC 4760 Multiprotocol Extensions for BGP-4 January 2007

1. Introduction

 The only three pieces of information carried by BGP-4 [BGP-4] that
 are IPv4 specific are (a) the NEXT_HOP attribute (expressed as an
 IPv4 address), (b) AGGREGATOR (contains an IPv4 address), and (c)
 NLRI (expressed as IPv4 address prefixes).  This document assumes
 that any BGP speaker (including the one that supports multiprotocol
 capabilities defined in this document) has to have an IPv4 address
 (which will be used, among other things, in the AGGREGATOR
 attribute).  Therefore, to enable BGP-4 to support routing for
 multiple Network Layer protocols, the only two things that have to be
 added to BGP-4 are (a) the ability to associate a particular Network
 Layer protocol with the next hop information, and (b) the ability to
 associate a particular Network Layer protocol with NLRI.  To identify
 individual Network Layer protocols associated with the next hop
 information and semantics of NLRI, this document uses a combination
 of Address Family, as defined in [IANA-AF], and Subsequent Address
 Family (as described in this document).
 One could further observe that the next hop information (the
 information provided by the NEXT_HOP attribute) is meaningful (and
 necessary) only in conjunction with the advertisements of reachable
 destinations - in conjunction with the advertisements of unreachable
 destinations (withdrawing routes from service), the next hop
 information is meaningless.  This suggests that the advertisement of
 reachable destinations should be grouped with the advertisement of
 the next hop to be used for these destinations, and that the
 advertisement of reachable destinations should be segregated from the
 advertisement of unreachable destinations.
 To provide backward compatibility, as well as to simplify
 introduction of the multiprotocol capabilities into BGP-4, this
 document uses two new attributes, Multiprotocol Reachable NLRI
 (MP_REACH_NLRI) and Multiprotocol Unreachable NLRI (MP_UNREACH_NLRI).
 The first one (MP_REACH_NLRI) is used to carry the set of reachable
 destinations together with the next hop information to be used for
 forwarding to these destinations.  The second one (MP_UNREACH_NLRI)
 is used to carry the set of unreachable destinations.  Both of these
 attributes are optional and non-transitive.  This way, a BGP speaker
 that doesn't support the multiprotocol capabilities will just ignore
 the information carried in these attributes and will not pass it to
 other BGP speakers.

2. Specification of Requirements

 The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
 "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
 document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [RFC2119].

Bates, et al. Standards Track [Page 2] RFC 4760 Multiprotocol Extensions for BGP-4 January 2007

3. Multiprotocol Reachable NLRI - MP_REACH_NLRI (Type Code 14):

 This is an optional non-transitive attribute that can be used for the
 following purposes:
 (a) to advertise a feasible route to a peer
 (b) to permit a router to advertise the Network Layer address of the
     router that should be used as the next hop to the destinations
     listed in the Network Layer Reachability Information field of the
     MP_NLRI attribute.
 The attribute is encoded as shown below:
      +---------------------------------------------------------+
      | Address Family Identifier (2 octets)                    |
      +---------------------------------------------------------+
      | Subsequent Address Family Identifier (1 octet)          |
      +---------------------------------------------------------+
      | Length of Next Hop Network Address (1 octet)            |
      +---------------------------------------------------------+
      | Network Address of Next Hop (variable)                  |
      +---------------------------------------------------------+
      | Reserved (1 octet)                                      |
      +---------------------------------------------------------+
      | Network Layer Reachability Information (variable)       |
      +---------------------------------------------------------+
 The use and meaning of these fields are as follows:
    Address Family Identifier (AFI):
       This field in combination with the Subsequent Address Family
       Identifier field identifies the set of Network Layer protocols
       to which the address carried in the Next Hop field must belong,
       the way in which the address of the next hop is encoded, and
       the semantics of the Network Layer Reachability Information
       that follows.  If the Next Hop is allowed to be from more than
       one Network Layer protocol, the encoding of the Next Hop MUST
       provide a way to determine its Network Layer protocol.
       Presently defined values for the Address Family Identifier
       field are specified in the IANA's Address Family Numbers
       registry [IANA-AF].

Bates, et al. Standards Track [Page 3] RFC 4760 Multiprotocol Extensions for BGP-4 January 2007

    Subsequent Address Family Identifier (SAFI):
       This field in combination with the Address Family Identifier
       field identifies the set of Network Layer protocols to which
       the address carried in the Next Hop must belong, the way in
       which the address of the next hop is encoded, and the semantics
       of the Network Layer Reachability Information that follows.  If
       the Next Hop is allowed to be from more than one Network Layer
       protocol, the encoding of the Next Hop MUST provide a way to
       determine its Network Layer protocol.
    Length of Next Hop Network Address:
       A 1-octet field whose value expresses the length of the
       "Network Address of Next Hop" field, measured in octets.
    Network Address of Next Hop:
       A variable-length field that contains the Network Address of
       the next router on the path to the destination system.  The
       Network Layer protocol associated with the Network Address of
       the Next Hop is identified by a combination of <AFI, SAFI>
       carried in the attribute.
    Reserved:
       A 1 octet field that MUST be set to 0, and SHOULD be ignored
       upon receipt.
    Network Layer Reachability Information (NLRI):
       A variable length field that lists NLRI for the feasible routes
       that are being advertised in this attribute.  The semantics of
       NLRI is identified by a combination of <AFI, SAFI> carried in
       the attribute.
       When the Subsequent Address Family Identifier field is set to
       one of the values defined in this document, each NLRI is
       encoded as specified in the "NLRI encoding" section of this
       document.
 The next hop information carried in the MP_REACH_NLRI path attribute
 defines the Network Layer address of the router that SHOULD be used
 as the next hop to the destinations listed in the MP_NLRI attribute
 in the UPDATE message.

Bates, et al. Standards Track [Page 4] RFC 4760 Multiprotocol Extensions for BGP-4 January 2007

 The rules for the next hop information are the same as the rules for
 the information carried in the NEXT_HOP BGP attribute (see Section
 5.1.3 of [BGP-4]).
 An UPDATE message that carries the MP_REACH_NLRI MUST also carry the
 ORIGIN and the AS_PATH attributes (both in EBGP and in IBGP
 exchanges).  Moreover, in IBGP exchanges such a message MUST also
 carry the LOCAL_PREF attribute.
 An UPDATE message that carries no NLRI, other than the one encoded in
 the MP_REACH_NLRI attribute, SHOULD NOT carry the NEXT_HOP attribute.
 If such a message contains the NEXT_HOP attribute, the BGP speaker
 that receives the message SHOULD ignore this attribute.
 An UPDATE message SHOULD NOT include the same address prefix (of the
 same <AFI, SAFI>) in more than one of the following fields: WITHDRAWN
 ROUTES field, Network Reachability Information fields, MP_REACH_NLRI
 field, and MP_UNREACH_NLRI field.  The processing of an UPDATE
 message in this form is undefined.

4. Multiprotocol Unreachable NLRI - MP_UNREACH_NLRI (Type Code 15):

 This is an optional non-transitive attribute that can be used for the
 purpose of withdrawing multiple unfeasible routes from service.
 The attribute is encoded as shown below:
      +---------------------------------------------------------+
      | Address Family Identifier (2 octets)                    |
      +---------------------------------------------------------+
      | Subsequent Address Family Identifier (1 octet)          |
      +---------------------------------------------------------+
      | Withdrawn Routes (variable)                             |
      +---------------------------------------------------------+
 The use and the meaning of these fields are as follows:
    Address Family Identifier (AFI):
       This field in combination with the Subsequent Address Family
       Identifier field identifies the set of Network Layer protocols
       to which the address carried in the Next Hop field must belong,
       the way in which the address of the next hop is encoded, and
       the semantics of the Network Layer Reachability Information
       that follows.  If the Next Hop is allowed to be from more than
       one Network Layer protocol, the encoding of the Next Hop MUST
       provide a way to determine its Network Layer protocol.

Bates, et al. Standards Track [Page 5] RFC 4760 Multiprotocol Extensions for BGP-4 January 2007

       Presently defined values for the Address Family Identifier
       field are specified in the IANA's Address Family Numbers
       registry [IANA-AF].
    Subsequent Address Family Identifier (SAFI):
       This field in combination with the Address Family Identifier
       field identifies the set of Network Layer protocols to which
       the address carried in the Next Hop must belong, the way in
       which the address of the next hop is encoded, and the semantics
       of the Network Layer Reachability Information that follows.  If
       the Next Hop is allowed to be from more than one Network Layer
       protocol, the encoding of the Next Hop MUST provide a way to
       determine its Network Layer protocol.
    Withdrawn Routes Network Layer Reachability Information:
       A variable-length field that lists NLRI for the routes that are
       being withdrawn from service.  The semantics of NLRI is
       identified by a combination of <AFI, SAFI> carried in the
       attribute.
       When the Subsequent Address Family Identifier field is set to
       one of the values defined in this document, each NLRI is
       encoded as specified in the "NLRI encoding" section of this
       document.
 An UPDATE message that contains the MP_UNREACH_NLRI is not required
 to carry any other path attributes.

Bates, et al. Standards Track [Page 6] RFC 4760 Multiprotocol Extensions for BGP-4 January 2007

5. NLRI Encoding

 The Network Layer Reachability information is encoded as one or more
 2-tuples of the form <length, prefix>, whose fields are described
 below:
                     +---------------------------+
                     |   Length (1 octet)        |
                     +---------------------------+
                     |   Prefix (variable)       |
                     +---------------------------+
 The use and the meaning of these fields are as follows:
 a) Length:
    The Length field indicates the length, in bits, of the address
    prefix.  A length of zero indicates a prefix that matches all (as
    specified by the address family) addresses (with prefix, itself,
    of zero octets).
 b) Prefix:
    The Prefix field contains an address prefix followed by enough
    trailing bits to make the end of the field fall on an octet
    boundary.  Note that the value of trailing bits is irrelevant.

6. Subsequent Address Family Identifier

 This document defines the following values for the Subsequent Address
 Family Identifier field carried in the MP_REACH_NLRI and
 MP_UNREACH_NLRI attributes:
    1 - Network Layer Reachability Information used for unicast
        forwarding
    2 - Network Layer Reachability Information used for multicast
        forwarding
 An implementation MAY support all, some, or none of the Subsequent
 Address Family Identifier values defined in this document.

Bates, et al. Standards Track [Page 7] RFC 4760 Multiprotocol Extensions for BGP-4 January 2007

7. Error Handling

 If a BGP speaker receives from a neighbor an UPDATE message that
 contains the MP_REACH_NLRI or MP_UNREACH_NLRI attribute, and if the
 speaker determines that the attribute is incorrect, the speaker MUST
 delete all the BGP routes received from that neighbor whose AFI/SAFI
 is the same as the one carried in the incorrect MP_REACH_NLRI or
 MP_UNREACH_NLRI attribute.  For the duration of the BGP session over
 which the UPDATE message was received, the speaker then SHOULD ignore
 all the subsequent routes with that AFI/SAFI received over that
 session.
 In addition, the speaker MAY terminate the BGP session over which the
 UPDATE message was received.  The session SHOULD be terminated with
 the Notification message code/subcode indicating "UPDATE Message
 Error"/"Optional Attribute Error".

8. Use of BGP Capability Advertisement

 A BGP speaker that uses Multiprotocol Extensions SHOULD use the
 Capability Advertisement procedures [BGP-CAP] to determine whether
 the speaker could use Multiprotocol Extensions with a particular
 peer.
 The fields in the Capabilities Optional Parameter are set as follows.
 The Capability Code field is set to 1 (which indicates Multiprotocol
 Extensions capabilities).  The Capability Length field is set to 4.
 The Capability Value field is defined as:
                   0       7      15      23      31
                   +-------+-------+-------+-------+
                   |      AFI      | Res.  | SAFI  |
                   +-------+-------+-------+-------+
 The use and meaning of this field is as follow:
    AFI  - Address Family Identifier (16 bit), encoded the same way as
        in the Multiprotocol Extensions
    Res. - Reserved (8 bit) field.  SHOULD be set to 0 by the sender
        and ignored by the receiver.
        Note that not setting the field value to 0 may create issues
        for a receiver not ignoring the field.  In addition, this
        definition is problematic if it is ever attempted to redefine
        the field.

Bates, et al. Standards Track [Page 8] RFC 4760 Multiprotocol Extensions for BGP-4 January 2007

    SAFI - Subsequent Address Family Identifier (8 bit), encoded the
        same way as in the Multiprotocol Extensions.
 A speaker that supports multiple <AFI, SAFI> tuples includes them as
 multiple Capabilities in the Capabilities Optional Parameter.
 To have a bi-directional exchange of routing information for a
 particular <AFI, SAFI> between a pair of BGP speakers, each such
 speaker MUST advertise to the other (via the Capability Advertisement
 mechanism) the capability to support that particular <AFI, SAFI>
 route.

9. IANA Considerations

 As specified in this document, the MP_REACH_NLRI and MP_UNREACH_NLRI
 attributes contain the Subsequence Address Family Identifier (SAFI)
 field.  The SAFI name space is defined in this document.  The IANA
 registered and maintains values for the SAFI namespace as follows:
  1. SAFI values 1 and 2 are assigned in this document.
  1. SAFI value 3 is reserved. It was assigned by RFC 2858 for a use

that was never fully implemented, so it is deprecated by this

      document.
  1. SAFI values 5 through 63 are to be assigned by IANA using either

the Standards Action process, defined in [RFC2434], or the Early

      IANA Allocation process, defined in [RFC4020].
  1. SAFI values 67 through 127 are to be assigned by IANA, using the

"First Come First Served" policy, defined in RFC 2434.

  1. SAFI values 0 and 255 are reserved.
  1. SAFI values 128 through 240 are part of the previous "private

use" range. At the time of approval of this document, the

      unused values were provided to IANA by the Routing Area
      Director.  These unused values, namely, 130, 131, 135 through
      139, and 141 through 240, are considered reserved in order to
      avoid conflicts.
  1. SAFI values 241 through 254 are for "private use", and values in

this range are not to be assigned by IANA.

Bates, et al. Standards Track [Page 9] RFC 4760 Multiprotocol Extensions for BGP-4 January 2007

10. Comparison with RFC 2858

 This document makes the use of the next hop information consistent
 with the information carried in the NEXT_HOP BGP path attribute.
 This document removes the definition of SAFI 3 and deprecates SAFI 3.
 This document changes partitioning of the SAFI space.  Specifically,
 in RFC 2858 SAFI values 128 through 240 were part of the "private
 use" range.  This document specifies that of this range, allocations
 that are currently in use are to be recognized by IANA, and that
 unused values, namely 130, 131, 135 through 139, and 141 through 240,
 should be considered reserved.
 This document renames the Number of SNPAs field to Reserved and
 removes the rest of the SNPA-related information from the
 MP_REACH_NLRI attribute.

11. Comparison with RFC 2283

 This document restricts the MP_REACH_NLRI attribute to carry only a
 single instance of <AFI, SAFI, Next Hop Information, ...>.
 This document restricts the MP_UNREACH_NLRI attribute to carry only a
 single instance of <AFI, SAFI, ...>.
 This document clarifies handling of an UPDATE message that carries no
 NLRI, other than the one encoded in the MP_REACH_NLRI attribute.
 This document clarifies error handling in the presence of
 MP_REACH_NLRI or MP_UNREACH_NLRI attributes.
 This document specifies the use of BGP Capabilities Advertisements in
 conjunction with multi-protocol extensions.
 Finally, this document includes the "IANA Consideration" section.

12. Security Considerations

 This extension to BGP does not change the underlying security issues
 inherent in the existing BGP.

13. Acknowledgements

 The authors would like to thank members of the IDR Working Group for
 their review and comments.

Bates, et al. Standards Track [Page 10] RFC 4760 Multiprotocol Extensions for BGP-4 January 2007

14. Normative References

 [BGP-CAP]  Chandra, R. and J. Scudder, "Capabilities Advertisement
            with BGP-4", RFC 3392, November 2002.
 [BGP-4]    Rekhter, Y., Li, T., and S. Hares, "A Border Gateway
            Protocol 4 (BGP-4)", RFC 4271, January 2006.
 [IANA-AF]  "Address Family Numbers", Reachable from
            http://www.iana.org/numbers.html
 [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
            Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.
 [RFC2434]  Narten, T. and H. Alvestrand, "Guidelines for Writing an
            IANA Considerations Section in RFCs", BCP 26, RFC 2434,
            October 1998.
 [RFC4020]  Kompella, K. and A. Zinin, "Early IANA Allocation of
            Standards Track Code Points", BCP 100, RFC 4020, February
            2005.

Authors' Addresses

 Tony Bates
 Cisco Systems, Inc.
 EMail: tbates@cisco.com
 Ravi Chandra
 Sonoa Systems
 EMail: rchandra@sonoasystems.com
 Dave Katz
 Juniper Networks, Inc.
 EMail: dkatz@juniper.net
 Yakov Rekhter
 Juniper Networks, Inc.
 EMail: yakov@juniper.net

Bates, et al. Standards Track [Page 11] RFC 4760 Multiprotocol Extensions for BGP-4 January 2007

Full Copyright Statement

 Copyright (C) The IETF Trust (2007).
 This document is subject to the rights, licenses and restrictions
 contained in BCP 78, and except as set forth therein, the authors
 retain all their rights.
 This document and the information contained herein are provided on an
 "AS IS" basis and THE CONTRIBUTOR, THE ORGANIZATION HE/SHE REPRESENTS
 OR IS SPONSORED BY (IF ANY), THE INTERNET SOCIETY, THE IETF TRUST AND
 THE INTERNET ENGINEERING TASK FORCE DISCLAIM ALL WARRANTIES, EXPRESS
 OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO ANY WARRANTY THAT THE USE OF
 THE INFORMATION HEREIN WILL NOT INFRINGE ANY RIGHTS OR ANY IMPLIED
 WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.

Intellectual Property

 The IETF takes no position regarding the validity or scope of any
 Intellectual Property Rights or other rights that might be claimed to
 pertain to the implementation or use of the technology described in
 this document or the extent to which any license under such rights
 might or might not be available; nor does it represent that it has
 made any independent effort to identify any such rights.  Information
 on the procedures with respect to rights in RFC documents can be
 found in BCP 78 and BCP 79.
 Copies of IPR disclosures made to the IETF Secretariat and any
 assurances of licenses to be made available, or the result of an
 attempt made to obtain a general license or permission for the use of
 such proprietary rights by implementers or users of this
 specification can be obtained from the IETF on-line IPR repository at
 http://www.ietf.org/ipr.
 The IETF invites any interested party to bring to its attention any
 copyrights, patents or patent applications, or other proprietary
 rights that may cover technology that may be required to implement
 this standard.  Please address the information to the IETF at
 ietf-ipr@ietf.org.

Acknowledgement

 Funding for the RFC Editor function is currently provided by the
 Internet Society.

Bates, et al. Standards Track [Page 12]

/data/webs/external/dokuwiki/data/pages/rfc/rfc4760.txt · Last modified: 2007/01/10 23:21 (external edit)