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rfc:rfc4687

Network Working Group S. Yasukawa Request for Comments: 4687 NTT Corporation Category: Informational A. Farrel

                                                    Old Dog Consulting
                                                               D. King
                                                    Aria Networks Ltd.
                                                             T. Nadeau
                                                   Cisco Systems, Inc.
                                                        September 2006
           Operations and Management (OAM) Requirements
               for Point-to-Multipoint MPLS Networks

Status of This Memo

 This memo provides information for the Internet community.  It does
 not specify an Internet standard of any kind.  Distribution of this
 memo is unlimited.

Copyright Notice

 Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2006).

Abstract

 Multi-Protocol Label Switching (MPLS) has been extended to encompass
 point-to-multipoint (P2MP) Label Switched Paths (LSPs).  As with
 point-to-point MPLS LSPs, the requirement to detect, handle, and
 diagnose control and data plane defects is critical.
 For operators deploying services based on P2MP MPLS LSPs, the
 detection and specification of how to handle those defects are
 important because such defects not only may affect the fundamentals
 of an MPLS network, but also may impact service level specification
 commitments for customers of their network.
 This document describes requirements for data plane operations and
 management for P2MP MPLS LSPs.  These requirements apply to all forms
 of P2MP MPLS LSPs, and include P2MP Traffic Engineered (TE) LSPs and
 multicast LSPs.

Yasukawa, et al. Informational [Page 1] RFC 4687 OAM Reqs for Point-to-Multipoint MPLS September 2006

Table of Contents

 1. Introduction ....................................................3
 2. Terminology .....................................................3
    2.1. Conventions Used in This Document ..........................3
    2.2. Terminology ................................................3
    2.3. Acronyms ...................................................3
 3. Motivations .....................................................4
 4. General Requirements ............................................4
    4.1. Detection of Label Switch Path Defects .....................5
    4.2. Diagnosis of a Broken Label Switch Path ....................6
    4.3. Path Characterization ......................................6
    4.4. Service Level Agreement Measurement ........................7
    4.5. Frequency of OAM Execution .................................8
    4.6. Alarm Suppression, Aggregation, and Layer Coordination .....8
    4.7. Support for OAM Interworking for Fault Notification ........8
    4.8. Error Detection and Recovery ...............................9
    4.9. Standard Management Interfaces .............................9
    4.10. Detection of Denial of Service Attacks ...................10
    4.11. Per-LSP Accounting Requirements ..........................10
 5. Security Considerations ........................................10
 6. References .....................................................11
    6.1. Normative References ......................................11
    6.2. Informative References ....................................11
 7. Acknowledgements ...............................................12

Yasukawa, et al. Informational [Page 2] RFC 4687 OAM Reqs for Point-to-Multipoint MPLS September 2006

1. Introduction

 This document describes requirements for data plane operations and
 management (OAM) for point-to-multipoint (P2MP) Multi-Protocol Label
 Switching (MPLS).  This document specifies OAM requirements for P2MP
 MPLS, as well as for applications of P2MP MPLS.
 These requirements apply to all forms of P2MP MPLS LSPs, and include
 P2MP Traffic Engineered (TE) LSPs [RFC4461] and [P2MP-RSVP], as well
 as multicast LDP LSPs [MCAST-LDP].
 Note that the requirements for OAM for P2MP MPLS build heavily on the
 requirements for OAM for point-to-point MPLS.  These latter
 requirements are described in [RFC4377] and are not repeated in this
 document.
 For a generic framework for OAM in MPLS networks, refer to [RFC4378].

2. Terminology

2.1. Conventions Used in This Document

 The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
 "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
 document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [RFC2119].
 The requirements in this document apply to OAM mechanism and protocol
 development, as opposed to the usual application of RFC 2119
 requirements to an actual protocol, as this document does not specify
 a protocol.

2.2. Terminology

 Definitions of key terms for MPLS OAM are found in [RFC4377] and the
 reader is assumed to be familiar with those definitions, which are
 not repeated here.
 [RFC4461] includes some important definitions and terms for use
 within the context of P2MP MPLS.  The reader should be familiar with
 at least the terminology section of that document.

2.3. Acronyms

 The following acronyms are used in this document.
 CE:   Customer Edge
 DoS:  Denial of service
 ECMP: Equal Cost Multipath

Yasukawa, et al. Informational [Page 3] RFC 4687 OAM Reqs for Point-to-Multipoint MPLS September 2006

 LDP:  Label Distribution Protocol
 LSP:  Label Switched Path
 LSR:  Label Switching Router
 OAM:  Operations and Management
 RSVP: Resource reSerVation Protocol
 P2MP: Point-to-Multipoint
 SP:   Service Provider
 TE:   Traffic Engineering

3. Motivations

 OAM for MPLS networks has been established as a fundamental
 requirement both through operational experience and through its
 documentation in numerous Internet Drafts.  Many such documents (for
 example, [RFC4379], [RFC3812], [RFC3813], [RFC3814], and [RFC3815])
 developed specific solutions to individual issues or problems.
 Coordination of the full OAM requirements for MPLS was achieved by
 [RFC4377] in recognition of the fact that the previous piecemeal
 approach could lead to inconsistent and inefficient applicability of
 OAM techniques across the MPLS architecture, and might require
 significant modifications to operational procedures and systems in
 order to provide consistent and useful OAM functionality.
 This document builds on these realizations and extends the statements
 of MPLS OAM requirements to cover the new area of P2MP MPLS.  That
 is, this document captures the requirements for P2MP MPLS OAM in
 advance of the development of specific solutions.
 Nevertheless, at the time of writing, some effort had already been
 expended to extend existing MPLS OAM solutions to cover P2MP MPLS
 (for example, [P2MP-LSP-PING]).  While this approach of extending
 existing solutions may be reasonable, in order to ensure a consistent
 OAM framework it is necessary to articulate the full set of
 requirements in a single document.  This will facilitate a uniform
 set of MPLS OAM solutions spanning multiple MPLS deployments and
 concurrent applications.

4. General Requirements

 The general requirements described in this section are similar to
 those described for point-to-point MPLS in [RFC4377].  The
 subsections below do not repeat material from [RFC4377], but simply
 give references to that document.
 However, where the requirements for P2MP MPLS OAM differ from or are
 more extensive than those expressed in [RFC4377], additional text is
 supplied.

Yasukawa, et al. Informational [Page 4] RFC 4687 OAM Reqs for Point-to-Multipoint MPLS September 2006

 In general, it should be noted that P2MP LSPs introduce a scalability
 issue with respect to OAM that is not present in point-to-point MPLS.
 That is, an individual P2MP LSP will have more than one egress and
 the path to those egresses will very probably not be linear (for
 example, it may have a tree structure).  Since the number of egresses
 for a single P2MP LSP is unknown and not bounded by any small number,
 it follows that all mechanisms defined for OAM support MUST scale
 well with the number of egresses and the complexity of the path of
 the LSP.  Mechanisms that are able to deal with individual egresses
 will scale no worse than similar mechanisms for point-to-point LSPs,
 but it is desirable to develop mechanisms that are able to leverage
 the fact that multiple egresses are associated with a single LSP, and
 so achieve better scaling.

4.1. Detection of Label Switch Path Defects

 The ability to detect defects in a P2MP LSP SHOULD not require
 manual, hop-by-hop troubleshooting of each LSR used to switch traffic
 for that LSP, and SHOULD rely on proactive OAM procedures (such as
 continuous path connectivity and Service Level Agreement (SLA)
 measurement mechanisms).  Any solutions SHOULD either extend or work
 in close conjunction with existing solutions developed for point-to-
 point MPLS, such as those specified in [RFC4379] where this
 requirement is not contradicted by the other requirements in this
 section.  This will leverage existing software and hardware
 deployments.
 Note that P2MP LSPs may introduce additional scaling concerns for LSP
 probing by tools such as [RFC4379].  As the number of leaves of a
 P2MP LSP increases it potentially becomes more expensive to inspect
 the LSP to detect defects.  Any tool developed for this purpose MUST
 be cognitive of this issue and MUST include techniques to reduce the
 scaling impact of an increase in the number of leaves.  Nevertheless,
 it should also be noted that the introduction of additional leaves
 may mean that the use of techniques such as [RFC4379] are less
 appropriate for defect detection with P2MP LSPs, while the technique
 may still remain useful for defect diagnosis as described in the next
 section.
 Due to the above scaling concerns, LSRs or other network resources
 MUST NOT be overwhelmed by the operation of normal proactive OAM
 procedures, and measures taken to protect LSRs and network resources
 against being overwhelmed MUST NOT degrade the operational value or
 responsiveness of proactive OAM procedures.  Note that reactive OAM
 may violate these limits (i.e., cause visible traffic degradation) if
 it is necessary or useful to try to fix whatever has gone wrong.

Yasukawa, et al. Informational [Page 5] RFC 4687 OAM Reqs for Point-to-Multipoint MPLS September 2006

 By "overwhelmed" we mean that it MUST NOT be possible for an LSR to
 be so busy handling proactive OAM that it is unable to continue to
 process control or data plane traffic at its advertised rate.
 Similarly, a network resource (such as a data link) MUST NOT be
 carrying so much proactive OAM traffic that it is unable to carry the
 advertised data rate.  At the same time, it is important to configure
 proactive OAM, if it is in use, not to raise alarms caused by the
 failure to receive an OAM message if the component responsible for
 processing the messages is unable to process because other components
 are consuming too many system resources -- such alarms might turn out
 to be false.
 In practice, of course, the requirements in the previous paragraph
 may be met by careful specification of the anticipated data
 throughput of LSRs or data links.  However, it should be recalled
 that proactive OAM procedures may be scaled linearly with the number
 of LSPs, and the number of LSPs is not necessarily a function of the
 available bandwidth in an LSR or on a data link.

4.2. Diagnosis of a Broken Label Switch Path

 The ability to diagnose a broken P2MP LSP and to isolate the failed
 component (i.e., link or node) in the path is REQUIRED.  These
 functions include a path connectivity test that can test all branches
 and leaves of a P2MP LSP for reachability, as well as a path tracing
 function.  Note that this requirement is distinct from the
 requirement to detect errors or failures described in the previous
 section.  In practice, Detection and Diagnosis/Isolation MAY be
 performed by separate or the same mechanisms according to the way in
 which the other requirements are met.
 It MUST be possible for the operator (or an automated process) to
 stipulate a timeout after which the failure to see a response shall
 be flagged as an error.
 Any mechanism developed to perform these functions is subject to the
 scalability concerns expressed in section 4.

4.3. Path Characterization

 The path characterization function [RFC4377] is the ability to reveal
 details of LSR forwarding operations for P2MP LSPs.  These details
 can then be compared later during subsequent testing relevant to OAM
 functionality.  Therefore, LSRs supporting P2MP LSPs MUST provide
 mechanisms that allow operators to interrogate and characterize P2MP
 paths.

Yasukawa, et al. Informational [Page 6] RFC 4687 OAM Reqs for Point-to-Multipoint MPLS September 2006

 Since P2MP paths are more complex than the paths of point-to-point
 LSPs, the scaling concerns expressed in section 4 apply.
 Note that path characterization SHOULD lead to the operator being
 able to determine the full tree for a P2MP LSP.  That is, it is not
 sufficient to know the list of LSRs in the tree, but it is important
 to know their relative order and where the LSP branches.
 Since, in some cases, the control plane state and data paths may
 branch at different points from the control plane and data plane
 topologies (for example, Figure 1), it is not sufficient to present
 the order of LSRs, but it is important that the branching points on
 that tree are clearly identified.
                                     E
                                    /
                       A---B---C===D
                                    \
                                     F
    Figure 1.  An example P2MP tree where the data path and control
    plane state branch at C, but the topology branches at D.
 A diagnostic tool that meets the path characterization requirements
 SHOULD collect information that is easy to process to determine the
 P2MP tree for a P2MP LSP, rather than provide information that must
 be post-processed with some complexity.

4.4. Service Level Agreement Measurement

 Mechanisms are required to measure the diverse aspects of Service
 Level Agreements for services that utilize P2MP LSPs.  The aspects
 are listed in [RFC4377].
 Service Level Agreements are often measured in terms of the quality
 and rate of data delivery.  In the context of P2MP MPLS, data is
 delivered to multiple egress nodes.  The mechanisms MUST, therefore,
 be capable of measuring the aspects of Service Level Agreements as
 they apply to each of the egress points to a P2MP LSP.  At the same
 time, in order to diagnose issues with meeting Service Level
 Agreements, mechanisms SHOULD be provided to measure the aspects of
 the agreements at key points within the network such as at branch
 nodes on the P2MP tree.

Yasukawa, et al. Informational [Page 7] RFC 4687 OAM Reqs for Point-to-Multipoint MPLS September 2006

4.5. Frequency of OAM Execution

 As stipulated in [RFC4377], the operator MUST have the flexibility to
 configure OAM parameters to meet their specific operational
 requirements.  This requirement is potentially more important in P2MP
 deployments where the effects of the execution of OAM functions can
 be potentially much greater than in a non-P2MP configuration.  For
 example, a mechanism that causes each egress of a P2MP LSP to respond
 could result in a large burst of responses to a single OAM request.
 Therefore, solutions produced SHOULD NOT impose any fixed limitations
 on the frequency of the execution of any OAM functions.

4.6. Alarm Suppression, Aggregation, and Layer Coordination

 As described in [RFC4377], network elements MUST provide alarm
 suppression and aggregation mechanisms to prevent the generation of
 superfluous alarms within or across network layers.  The same time
 constraint issues identified in [RFC4377] also apply to P2MP LSPs.
 A P2MP LSP also brings the possibility of a single fault causing a
 larger number of alarms than for a point-to-point LSP.  This can
 happen because there are a larger number of downstream LSRs (for
 example, a larger number of egresses).  The resultant multiplier in
 the number of alarms could cause swamping of the alarm management
 systems to which the alarms are reported, and serves as a multiplier
 to the number of potentially duplicate alarms raised by the network.
 Alarm aggregation or limitation techniques MUST be applied within any
 solution, or be available within an implementation, so that this
 scaling issue can be reduced.  Note that this requirement introduces
 a second dimension to the concept of alarm aggregation.  Where
 previously it applied to the correlation and suppression of alarms
 generated by different network layers, it now also applies to similar
 techniques applied to alarms generated by multiple downstream LSRs.

4.7. Support for OAM Interworking for Fault Notification

 [RFC4377] specifies that an LSR supporting the interworking of one or
 more networking technologies over MPLS MUST be able to translate an
 MPLS defect into the native technology's error condition.  This also
 applies to any LSR supporting P2MP LSPs.  However, careful attention
 to the requirements for alarm suppression stipulated therein and in
 section 4.6 SHOULD be observed.
 Note that the time constraints for fault notification and alarm
 propagation affect the solutions that might be applied to the
 scalability problem inherent in certain OAM techniques applied to

Yasukawa, et al. Informational [Page 8] RFC 4687 OAM Reqs for Point-to-Multipoint MPLS September 2006

 P2MP LSPs.  For example, a solution to the issue of a large number of
 egresses all responding to some form of probe request at the same
 time might be to make the probes less frequent -- but this might
 affect the ability to detect and/or report faults.
 Where fault notification to the egress is required, there is the
 possibility that a single fault will give rise to multiple
 notifications, one to each egress node of the P2MP that is downstream
 of the fault.  Any mechanisms MUST manage this scaling issue while
 still continuing to deliver fault notifications in a timely manner.
 Where fault notification to the ingress is required, the mechanisms
 MUST ensure that the notification identifies the egress nodes of the
 P2MP LSP that are impacted (that is, those downstream of the fault)
 and does not falsely imply that all egress nodes are impacted.

4.8. Error Detection and Recovery

 Recovery from a fault by a network element can be facilitated by MPLS
 OAM procedures.  As described in [RFC4377], these procedures will
 detect a broad range of defects, and SHOULD be operable where MPLS
 P2MP LSPs span multiple routing areas or multiple Service Provider
 domains.
 The same requirements as those expressed in [RFC4377] with respect to
 automatic repair and operator intervention ahead of customer
 detection of faults apply to P2MP LSPs.
 It should be observed that faults in P2MP LSPs MAY be recovered
 through techniques described in [P2MP-RSVP].

4.9. Standard Management Interfaces

 The widespread deployment of MPLS requires common information
 modeling of management and control of OAM functionality.  This is
 reflected in the integration of standard MPLS-related MIBs [RFC3812],
 [RFC3813], [RFC3814], [RFC3815] for fault, statistics, and
 configuration management.  These standard interfaces provide
 operators with common programmatic interface access to operations and
 management functions and their status.
 The standard MPLS-related MIB modules [RFC3812], [RFC3813],
 [RFC3814], and [RFC3815] SHOULD be extended wherever possible, to
 support P2MP LSPs, the associated OAM functions on these LSPs, and
 the applications that utilize P2MP LSPs.  Extending them will
 facilitate the reuse of existing management software both in LSRs and
 in management systems.  In cases where the existing MIB modules
 cannot be extended, then new MIB modules MUST be created.

Yasukawa, et al. Informational [Page 9] RFC 4687 OAM Reqs for Point-to-Multipoint MPLS September 2006

4.10. Detection of Denial of Service Attacks

 The ability to detect denial of service (DoS) attacks against the
 data or control planes that signal P2MP LSPs MUST be part of any
 security management related to MPLS OAM tools or techniques.

4.11. Per-LSP Accounting Requirements

 In an MPLS network where P2MP LSPs are in use, Service Providers can
 measure traffic from an LSR to the egress of the network using some
 MPLS-related MIB modules (see section 4.9), for example.  Other
 interfaces MAY exist as well and enable the creation of traffic
 matrices so that it is possible to know how much traffic is traveling
 from where to where within the network.
 Analysis of traffic flows to produce a traffic matrix is more
 complicated where P2MP LSPs are deployed because there is no simple
 pairing relationship between an ingress and a single egress.
 Fundamental to understanding traffic flows within a network that
 supports P2MP LSPs will be the knowledge of where the traffic is
 branched for each LSP within the network, that is, where within the
 network the branch nodes for the LSPs are located and what their
 relationship is to links and other LSRs.  Traffic flow and accounting
 tools MUST take this fact into account.

5. Security Considerations

 This document introduces no new security issues compared with
 [RFC4377].  It is worth highlighting, however, that any tool designed
 to satisfy the requirements described in this document MUST include
 provisions to prevent its unauthorized use.  Likewise, these tools
 MUST provide a means by which an operator can prevent denial of
 service attacks if those tools are used in such an attack.  LSP mis-
 merging is described in [RFC4377] where it is pointed out that it has
 security implications beyond simply being a network defect.  It needs
 to be stressed that it is in the nature of P2MP traffic flows that
 any erroneous delivery (such as caused by LSP mis-merging) is likely
 to have more far-reaching consequences since the traffic will be
 mis-delivered to multiple receivers.
 As with the OAM functions described in [RFC4377], the performance of
 diagnostic functions and path characterization may involve the
 extraction of a significant amount of information about network
 construction.  The network operator MAY consider this information
 private and wish to take steps to secure it, but further, the volume
 of this information may be considered as a threat to the integrity of

Yasukawa, et al. Informational [Page 10] RFC 4687 OAM Reqs for Point-to-Multipoint MPLS September 2006

 the network if it is extracted in bulk.  This issue may be greater in
 P2MP MPLS because of the potential for a large number of receivers on
 a single LSP and the consequent extensive path of the LSP.

6. References

6.1. Normative References

 [RFC2119]        Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
                  Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.
 [RFC4377]        Nadeau, T., Morrow, M., Swallow, G., Allan, D., and
                  S. Matsushima, "Operations and Management (OAM)
                  Requirements for Multi-Protocol Label Switched
                  (MPLS) Networks", RFC 4377, February 2006.

6.2. Informative References

 [MCAST-LDP]      Minei, I., Ed., Kompella, K., Wijnands, I., Ed., and
                  B. Thomas, "Label Distribution Protocol Extensions
                  for Point-to-Multipoint and Multipoint-to-Multipoint
                  Label Switched Paths", Work in Progress, June 2006.
 [P2MP-LSP-PING]  Yasukawa, S., Farrel, A., Ali, Z., and B. Fenner,
                  "Detecting Data Plane Failures in Point-to-
                  Multipoint MPLS Traffic Engineering - Extensions to
                  LSP Ping", Work in Progress, April 2006.
 [P2MP-RSVP]      Aggarwal, R., Papadimitriou, D., and S. Yasukawa,
                  "Extensions to RSVP-TE for Point to Multipoint TE
                  LSPs", Work in Progress, July 2006.
 [RFC3812]        Srinivasan, C., Viswanathan, A. and T.  Nadeau,
                  "MPLS Traffic Engineering Management Information
                  Base Using SMIv2", RFC3812, June 2004.
 [RFC3813]        Srinivasan, C., Viswanathan, A. and T.  Nadeau,
                  "MPLS Label Switch Router Management Information
                  Base Using SMIv2", RFC3813, June 2004.
 [RFC3814]        Nadeau, T., Srinivasan, C., and A.  Viswanathan,
                  "Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) FEC-To-NHLFE
                  (FTN) Management Information Base", RFC3814, June
                  2004.

Yasukawa, et al. Informational [Page 11] RFC 4687 OAM Reqs for Point-to-Multipoint MPLS September 2006

 [RFC3815]        Cucchiara, J., Sjostrand, H., and Luciani, J.,
                  "Definitions of Managed Objects for the
                  Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS), Label
                  Distribution Protocol (LDP)", RFC 3815, June 2004.
 [RFC4378]        Allan, D. and T. Nadeau, "A Framework for Multi-
                  Protocol Label Switching (MPLS) Operations and
                  Management (OAM)", RFC 4378, February 2006.
 [RFC4379]        Kompella, K. and G. Swallow, "Detecting Multi-
                  Protocol Label Switched (MPLS) Data Plane Failures",
                  RFC 4379, February 2006.
 [RFC4461]        Yasukawa, S., Ed., "Signaling Requirements for
                  Point-to-Multipoint Traffic-Engineered MPLS Label
                  Switched Paths (LSPs)", RFC 4461, April 2006.

7. Acknowledgements

 The authors wish to acknowledge and thank the following individuals
 for their valuable comments on this document:  Rahul Aggarwal, Neil
 Harrison, Ben Niven-Jenkins, and Dimitri Papadimitriou.

Yasukawa, et al. Informational [Page 12] RFC 4687 OAM Reqs for Point-to-Multipoint MPLS September 2006

Authors' Addresses

 Seisho Yasukawa
 NTT Corporation
 (R&D Strategy Department)
 3-1, Otemachi 2-Chome Chiyodaku,
 Tokyo 100-8116 Japan
 Phone: +81 3 5205 5341
 EMail: s.yasukawa@hco.ntt.co.jp
 Adrian Farrel
 Old Dog Consulting
 Phone: +44 (0) 1978 860944
 EMail: adrian@olddog.co.uk
 Daniel King
 Aria Networks Ltd.
 Phone: +44 (0)1249 665923
 EMail: daniel.king@aria-networks.com
 Thomas D. Nadeau
 Cisco Systems, Inc.
 1414 Massachusetts Ave.
 Boxborough, MA 01719
 EMail: tnadeau@cisco.com

Yasukawa, et al. Informational [Page 13] RFC 4687 OAM Reqs for Point-to-Multipoint MPLS September 2006

Full Copyright Statement

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 This document is subject to the rights, licenses and restrictions
 contained in BCP 78, and except as set forth therein, the authors
 retain all their rights.
 This document and the information contained herein are provided on an
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Yasukawa, et al. Informational [Page 14]

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