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rfc:rfc4604

Network Working Group H. Holbrook Request for Comments: 4604 Arastra, Inc. Updates: 3376, 3810 B. Cain Category: Standards Track Acopia Networks

                                                           B. Haberman
                                                               JHU APL
                                                           August 2006
    Using Internet Group Management Protocol Version 3 (IGMPv3)
    and Multicast Listener Discovery Protocol Version 2 (MLDv2)
                   for Source-Specific Multicast

Status of This Memo

 This document specifies an Internet standards track protocol for the
 Internet community, and requests discussion and suggestions for
 improvements.  Please refer to the current edition of the "Internet
 Official Protocol Standards" (STD 1) for the standardization state
 and status of this protocol.  Distribution of this memo is unlimited.

Copyright Notice

 Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2006).

Abstract

 The Internet Group Management Protocol Version 3 (IGMPv3) and the
 Multicast Listener Discovery Protocol Version 2 (MLDv2) are protocols
 that allow a host to inform its neighboring routers of its desire to
 receive IPv4 and IPv6 multicast transmissions, respectively.
 Source-specific multicast (SSM) is a form of multicast in which a
 receiver is required to specify both the network-layer address of the
 source and the multicast destination address in order to receive the
 multicast transmission.  This document defines the notion of an
 "SSM-aware" router and host, and clarifies and (in some cases)
 modifies the behavior of IGMPv3 and MLDv2 on SSM-aware routers and
 hosts to accommodate source-specific multicast.  This document
 updates the IGMPv3 and MLDv2 specifications.

Holbrook, et al. Standards Track [Page 1] RFC 4604 IGMPv3/MLDv2 for SSM August 2006

1. Introduction

 The Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP) [RFC1112, IGMPv2,
 IGMPv3] allows an IPv4 host to communicate IP multicast group
 membership information to its neighboring routers.  IGMP version 3
 (IGMPv3) [IGMPv3] provides the ability for a host to selectively
 request or filter traffic from individual sources within a multicast
 group.
 The Multicast Listener Discovery Protocol (MLD) [RFC2710, MLDv2]
 offers similar functionality for IPv6 hosts.  MLD version 2 (MLDv2)
 provides the analogous "source filtering" functionality of IGMPv3 for
 IPv6.
 Due to the commonality of function, the term "Group Management
 Protocol", or "GMP", will be used to refer to both IGMP and MLD.  The
 term "Source Filtering GMP", or "SFGMP", will be used to refer
 jointly to the IGMPv3 and MLDv2 group management protocols.
 The use of source-specific multicast is facilitated by small changes
 to the SFGMP protocols on both hosts and routers.  [SSM] defines
 general requirements that must be followed by systems that implement
 the SSM service model; this document defines the concrete application
 of those requirements to systems that implement IGMPv3 and MLDv2.  In
 doing so, this document defines modifications to the host and router
 portions of IGMPv3 and MLDv2 for use with SSM, and presents a number
 of clarifications to their behavior when used with SSM addresses.
 This document updates the IGMPv3 and MLDv2 specifications.

1.1. Terminology

 The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
 "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
 document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [RFC2119].
 In order to emphasize the parts of this document that modify the
 existing protocol specifications ([RFC2710, MLDv2, IGMPv3]), as
 opposed to merely clarify them, any protocol modifications are marked
 with the tag "MODIFICATION".

2. Host Requirements for Source-Specific Multicast

 This section defines the notion of an "SSM-aware" host and then goes
 on to describe the API requirements and the SFGMP protocol
 requirements of an SSM-aware host.  It is important to note that SSM
 can be used by any host that supports source filtering APIs and whose
 operating system supports the appropriate SFGMP.  The SFGMP

Holbrook, et al. Standards Track [Page 2] RFC 4604 IGMPv3/MLDv2 for SSM August 2006

 modifications described in this section make SSM work better on an
 SSM-aware host, but they are not strict prerequisites for the use of
 SSM.
 The 232/8 IPv4 address range is currently allocated for SSM by IANA
 [IANA-ALLOCATION].  In IPv6, the FF3x::/32 range (where 'x' is a
 valid IPv6 multicast scope value) is reserved for SSM semantics
 [RFC3306], although today SSM allocations are restricted to
 FF3x::/96.  ([SSM] has a more thorough discussion of this topic.)  A
 host that knows the SSM address range and is capable of applying SSM
 semantics to it is described as an "SSM-aware" host.
 A host or router may be configured to apply SSM semantics to
 addresses other than those in the IANA-allocated range.  The GMP
 module on a host or router SHOULD have a configuration option to set
 the SSM address range(s).  If this configuration option exists, it
 MUST default to the IANA-allocated SSM range.  The mechanism for
 setting this configuration option MUST at least allow for manual
 configuration.  Protocol mechanisms to set this option may be defined
 in the future.

2.1. API Requirements

 If the host IP module of an SSM-aware host receives a non-source-
 specific request to receive multicast traffic sent to an SSM
 destination address, it SHOULD return an error to the application, as
 specified in [MSFAPI] (MODIFICATION).  On a non-SSM-aware host, an
 application that uses the wrong API (e.g., "join(G)",
 "IPMulticastListen(G,EXCLUDE(S1))" for IGMPv3, or
 "IPv6MulticastListen(G,EXCLUDE(S2))" for MLDv2) to request delivery
 of packets sent to an SSM address will not receive the requested
 service, because an SSM-aware router (following the rules of this
 document) will refuse to process the request, and the application
 will receive no indication other than a failure to receive the
 requested traffic.

2.2. GMP Requirements

 This section defines the behavior of the SFGMP protocol module on an
 SSM-aware host, including two modifications to the protocols as
 described in [IGMPv3, MLDv2].  It also includes a number of
 clarifications of protocol operations.  In doing so, it documents the
 behavior of an SSM-aware host with respect to sending and receiving
 the following GMP message types:
  1. IGMPv1/v2 and MLDv1 Reports (2.2.1)
  2. IGMPv3 and MLDv2 Reports (2.2.2)
  3. IGMPv1 Queries, IGMPv2 and MLDv1 General Queries (2.2.3)

Holbrook, et al. Standards Track [Page 3] RFC 4604 IGMPv3/MLDv2 for SSM August 2006

  1. IGMPv2 Leave and MLDv1 Done (2.2.4)
  2. IGMPv2 and MLDv1 Group Specific Query (2.2.5)
  3. IGMPv3 and MLDv2 Group Specific Query (2.2.6)
  4. IGMPv3 and MLDv2 Group-and-Source Specific Query (2.2.7)

2.2.1. IGMPv1/v2 and MLDv1 Reports

 An SSM-aware host operating according to [IGMPv3, MLDv2] could send
 an IGMPv1, IGMPv2, or MLDv1 report for an SSM address when it is
 operating in "older-version compatibility mode."  This is an
 exceptional (error) condition, indicating that the router(s) cannot
 provide the SFGMP support needed for SSM, and an error is logged when
 the host enters compatibility mode for an SSM address, as described
 below.  In this situation, it is likely that traffic sent to a
 channel (S,G) will not be delivered to a receiving host that has
 requested to receive channel (S,G).
 [IGMPv3] and [MLDv2] specify that a host MAY allow an older-version
 report to suppress its own IGMPv3 or MLDv2 Membership Record.  An
 SSM-aware host, however, MUST NOT allow its report to be suppressed
 in this situation (MODIFICATION).  Suppressing reports in this
 scenario would provide an avenue for an attacker to deny SSM service
 to other hosts on the link.

2.2.2. IGMPv3 and MLDv2 Reports

 A host implementation may report more than one SSM channel in a
 single report either by including multiple sources within a group
 record or by including multiple group records.
 A Group Record for a source-specific destination address may (under
 normal operation) be any of the following types:
  1. MODE_IS_INCLUDE as part of a Current-State Record
  1. ALLOW_NEW_SOURCES as part of a State-Change Record
  1. BLOCK_OLD_SOURCES as part of a State-Change Record
 A report may include both SSM destination addresses and non-source-
 specific, i.e., Any-Source Multicast (ASM) destination addresses, in
 the same message.
 Additionally, a CHANGE_TO_INCLUDE_MODE record may be sent by a host
 in some cases, for instance, when the SSM address range is changed
 through configuration.  A router should process such a record
 according to the normal SFGMP rules.

Holbrook, et al. Standards Track [Page 4] RFC 4604 IGMPv3/MLDv2 for SSM August 2006

 An SSM-aware host SHOULD NOT send any of the following record types
 for an SSM address.
  1. MODE_IS_EXCLUDE as part of a Current-State Record
  1. CHANGE_TO_EXCLUDE_MODE as part of a Filter-Mode-Change Record
 This is a MODIFICATION to [IGMPv3, MLDv2], imposing a restriction on
 its use for SSM destination addresses.  The rationale is that EXCLUDE
 mode does not apply to SSM addresses, and an SSM-aware router will
 ignore MODE_IS_EXCLUDE and CHANGE_TO_EXCLUDE_MODE requests in the SSM
 range, as described below.

2.2.3. IGMPv1 Queries, IGMPv2 and MLDv1 General Queries

 If an IGMPv1 Query, or an IGMPv2 or MLDv1 General Query is received,
 the SFGMP protocol specifications require the host to revert to the
 older (IGMPv1, IGMPv2, or MLDv1) mode of operation on that interface.
 If this occurs, the host will stop reporting source-specific
 subscriptions on that interface and will start using IGMPv1, IGMPv2,
 or MLDv1 to report interest in all SSM destination addresses,
 unqualified by a source address.  As a result, SSM semantics will no
 longer be applied to the multicast group address by the router.
 A router compliant with this document would never generate an IGMPv1,
 IGMPv2, or MLDv1 query for an address in the SSM range; thus, this
 situation only occurs either if the router is not SSM-aware, or if
 the host and the router disagree about the SSM address range (for
 instance, if they have inconsistent manual configurations).
 A host SHOULD log an error if it receives an IGMPv1, IGMPv2, or MLDv1
 query for an SSM address (MODIFICATION).
 In order to mitigate this problem, it must be administratively
 assured that all routers on a given shared-medium network are
 compliant with this document and are in agreement about the SSM
 address range.

2.2.4. IGMPv2 Leave and MLDv1 Done

 IGMP Leave and MLD Done messages are not processed by hosts.  IGMPv2
 Leave and MLDv1 Done messages should not be sent for an SSM address,
 unless the sending host has reverted to older-version compatibility
 mode, with all the caveats described above.

Holbrook, et al. Standards Track [Page 5] RFC 4604 IGMPv3/MLDv2 for SSM August 2006

2.2.5. IGMPv2 and MLDv1 Group Specific Query

 If a host receives an IGMPv2 or MLDv1 Group Specific Query for an
 address in any configured source-specific range, it should process
 the query normally, as per [IGMPv3, MLDv2], even if the group queried
 is a source-specific destination address.  The transmission of such a
 query likely indicates either that the sending router is not
 compliant with this document or that it is not configured with the
 same SSM address range(s) as the receiving host.  A host SHOULD log
 an error in this case (MODIFICATION).

2.2.6. IGMPv3 and MLDv2 Group-Specific Query

 If an SSM-aware host receives an SFGMP Group-Specific Query for an
 SSM address, it must respond with a report if the group matches the
 source-specific destination address of any of its subscribed source-
 specific channels, as specified in [IGMPv3, MLDv2].
 The rationale for this is that, although in the current SFGMP
 protocol specifications a router would have no reason to send one,
 the semantics of such a query are well-defined in this range and
 future implementations may have reason to send such a query.  Be
 liberal in what you accept.

2.2.7. IGMPv3 and MLDv2 Group-and-Source-Specific Query

 An SFGMP router typically uses a Group-and-Source-Specific Query to
 query an SSM channel that a host has requested to leave via a
 BLOCK_OLD_SOURCES record.  A host must respond to a Group-and-
 Source-Specific Query for which the group and source in the query
 match any channel for which the host has a subscription, as required
 by [IGMPv3, MLDv2].  The use of an SSM address does not change this
 behavior.
 A host must be able to process a query with multiple sources listed
 per group, again as required by [IGMPv3, MLDv2].  The use of an SSM
 address does not modify the behavior of the SFGMPs in this regard.

3. Router Requirements for Source-Specific Multicast

 Routers must be aware of the SSM address range in order to provide
 the SSM service model.  A router that knows the SSM address range and
 is capable of applying SSM semantics to it as described in this
 section is described as an "SSM-aware" router.  An SSM-aware router
 MAY have a configuration option to apply SSM semantics to addresses
 other than the IANA-allocated range, but if such an option exists, it
 MUST default to the IANA-allocated range.

Holbrook, et al. Standards Track [Page 6] RFC 4604 IGMPv3/MLDv2 for SSM August 2006

 This section documents the behavior of routers with respect to the
 following types of SFGMP messages for source-specific destination
 addresses:
  1. IGMPv3 and MLDv2 Reports (3.1)
  2. IGMPv3 and MLDv2 General Query (3.2)
  3. IGMPv3 and MLDv2 Group-Specific Query (3.3)
  4. IGMPv3 and MLDv2 Group-and-Source Specific Query (3.4)
  5. IGMPv1/v2 and MLDv1 Reports (3.5)
  6. IGMPv1/v2 and MLDv1 Queries (3.6)
  7. IGMPv2 Leave and MLDv1 Done (3.7)

3.1. IGMPv3 and MLDv2 Reports

 SFGMP Reports are used to report source-specific subscriptions in the
 SSM address range.  A router SHOULD ignore a group record of either
 of the following types if it refers to an SSM destination address:
  1. MODE_IS_EXCLUDE Current-State Record
  1. CHANGE_TO_EXCLUDE_MODE Filter-Mode-Change Record
 A router MAY choose to log an error in either case.  It MUST process
 any other group records within the same report.  These behaviors are
 MODIFICATIONS to [IGMPv3, MLDv2] to prevent non-source-specific
 semantics from being applied to SSM addresses, and to avoid reverting
 to older-version compatibility mode.
 A CHANGE_TO_INCLUDE_MODE Filter-Mode-Change Record is processed per
 the normal SFGMP rules; Section 2.2.2 describes a legitimate scenario
 when this could occur.

3.2. IGMPv3 and MLDv2 General Queries

 An SSM router sends periodic SFGMP General Queries as per the IGMPv3
 and MLDv2 specifications.  No change in behavior is required for SSM.

3.3. IGMPv3 and MLDv2 Group-Specific Queries

 SFGMP routers that support source-specific multicast may send group-
 specific queries for addresses in the source-specific range.  This
 specification does not explicitly prohibit such a message, although,
 at the time of this writing, a router conformant to [IGMPv3, MLDv2]
 would not send one.

Holbrook, et al. Standards Track [Page 7] RFC 4604 IGMPv3/MLDv2 for SSM August 2006

3.4. IGMPv3 and MLDv2 Group-and-Source-Specific Queries

 SFGMP Group-and-Source-Specific Queries are used when a receiver has
 indicated that it is no longer interested in receiving traffic from a
 particular (S,G) pair to determine if there are any remaining
 directly-attached hosts with interest in that (S,G) pair.  Group-
 and-Source-Specific Queries are used within the source-specific
 address range when a router receives a BLOCK_OLD_SOURCES Record for
 one or more source-specific groups.  These queries are sent normally,
 as per [IGMPv3, MLDv2].

3.5. IGMPv1/v2 and MLDv1 Reports

 An IGMPv1/v2 or MLDv1 report for an address in the source-specific
 range could be sent by a non-SSM-aware host.  A router SHOULD ignore
 all such reports and specifically SHOULD NOT use them to establish IP
 forwarding state.  This is a MODIFICATION to [IGMPv3, MLDv2].  A
 router MAY log an error if it receives such a report (also a
 MODIFICATION).

3.6. IGMPv1/v2 and MLDv1 Queries

 An SFGMP router that loses the querier election to a lower version
 router must log an error, as specified by [IGMPv3, MLDv2].

3.7. IGMPv2 Leave and MLDv1 Done

 An IGMPv2 Leave or MLDv1 Done message may be sent by a non-SSM-aware
 host.  A router SHOULD ignore all such messages in the source-
 specific address range and MAY log an error (MODIFICATION).

4. Security Considerations

 The specific protocol modifications described in this document are
 not known to create any security concerns that are not already
 present when IGMPv3 or MLDv2 is used with ASM-style multicast.  The
 reader is referred to [SSM] for an analysis of SSM-specific security
 issues.
 It is important that a router not accept non-source-specific
 reception requests for an SSM destination address.  The rules of
 [IGMPv3] and [MLDv2] require a router, upon receiving such a
 membership report, to revert to earlier version compatibility mode
 for the group in question.  If the router were to revert in this
 situation, it would prevent an IGMPv3-capable host from receiving SSM
 service for that destination address, thus creating a potential for
 an attacker to deny SSM service to other hosts on the same link.

Holbrook, et al. Standards Track [Page 8] RFC 4604 IGMPv3/MLDv2 for SSM August 2006

5. Acknowledgements

 The authors would like to thank Vince Laviano, Nidhi Bhaskar, Steve
 Deering, Toerless Eckert, and Pekka Savola for their input and
 careful review.

6. Normative References

 [IGMPv2]     Fenner, W., "Internet Group Management Protocol, Version
              2", RFC 2236, November 1997.
 [IGMPv3]     Cain, B., Deering, S., Kouvelas, I., Fenner, B., and A.
              Thyagarajan, "Internet Group Management Protocol,
              Version 3", RFC 3376, October 2002.
 [MSFAPI]     Thaler, D., Fenner, B., and B. Quinn, "Socket Interface
              Extensions for Multicast Source Filters", RFC 3678,
              January 2004.
 [RFC1112]    Deering, S., "Host extensions for IP multicasting", STD
              5, RFC 1112, August 1989.
 [RFC2119]    Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.
 [SSM]        Holbrook, H. and B. Cain, "Source-Specific Multicast for
              IP", RFC 4607, August 2006.
 [MLDv2]      Vida, R. and L. Costa, "Multicast Listener Discovery
              Version 2 (MLDv2) for IPv6", RFC 3810, June 2004.
 [RFC2710]    Deering, S., Fenner, W., and B. Haberman, "Multicast
              Listener Discovery (MLD) for IPv6", RFC 2710, October
              1999.

8. Informative References

 [IANA-ALLOC] Internet Assigned Numbers Authority,
              http://www.iana.org/assignments/multicast-addresses.
 [RFC3306]    Haberman, B. and D. Thaler, "Unicast-Prefix-based IPv6
              Multicast Addresses", RFC 3306, August 2002.

Holbrook, et al. Standards Track [Page 9] RFC 4604 IGMPv3/MLDv2 for SSM August 2006

Authors' Addresses

 Hugh Holbrook
 Arastra, Inc.
 P.O. Box 10905
 Palo Alto, CA 94303
 Phone: +1 650 331-1620
 EMail: holbrook@arastra.com
 Brad Cain
 Acopia Networks
 EMail: bcain99@gmail.com
 Brian Haberman
 Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Lab
 11100 Johns Hopkins Road
 Laurel, MD  20723-6099
 EMail: brian@innovationslab.net

Holbrook, et al. Standards Track [Page 10] RFC 4604 IGMPv3/MLDv2 for SSM August 2006

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Holbrook, et al. Standards Track [Page 11]

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