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rfc:rfc3577

Network Working Group S. Waldbusser Request for Comments: 3577 R. Cole Category: Informational AT&T

                                                        C. Kalbfleisch
                                                           Verio, Inc.
                                                          D. Romascanu
                                                                 Avaya
                                                           August 2003
 Introduction to the Remote Monitoring (RMON) Family of MIB Modules

Status of this Memo

 This memo provides information for the Internet community.  It does
 not specify an Internet standard of any kind.  Distribution of this
 memo is unlimited.

Copyright Notice

 Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2003).  All Rights Reserved.

Abstract

 The Remote Monitoring (RMON) Framework consists of a number of
 interrelated documents.  This memo describes these documents and how
 they relate to one another.

Table of Contents

 1.  The Internet-Standard Management Framework . . . . . . . . . .  2
 2.  Definition of RMON . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  2
 3.  Goals of RMON. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
 4.  RMON Documents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
     4.1.  RMON-1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
     4.2.  Token Ring Extensions to RMON MIB. . . . . . . . . . . .  7
     4.3.  The RMON-2 MIB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
     4.4.  RMON MIB Protocol Identifiers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
     4.5.  Remote Network Monitoring MIB Extensions for Switched
           Networks (SMON MIB). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
     4.6.  RMON MIB Extensions for Interface Parameters Monitoring
           (IFTOPN) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
     4.7.  RMON Extensions for Differentiated Services (DSMON MIB). 12
     4.8.  RMON for High Capacity Networks (HCRMON MIB) . . . . . . 13
     4.9.  Application Performance Measurement MIB (APM MIB). . . . 14
     4.10. RMON MIB Protocol Identifier Reference Extensions. . . . 15
     4.11. Transport Performance Metrics MIB (TPM MIB). . . . . . . 16

Waldbusser, et al. Informational [Page 1] RFC 3577 Introduction to RMON August 2003

     4.12. Synthetic Sources for Performance Monitoring MIB
           (SSPM MIB) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
     4.13. RMON MIB Extensions for High Capacity Alarms . . . . . . 17
     4.14. Real-Time  Application Quality of Service Monitoring
           (RAQMON) MIB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
 5.  RMON Framework Components. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
     5.1.  MediaIndependent Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
     5.2.  Protocol Directory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
     5.3.  Application Directory and appLocalIndex. . . . . . . . . 21
     5.4.  Data Source. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
     5.5.  Capabilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
     5.6.  Control Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
 6.  Relationship of the SSPM MIB with the APM and TPM MIBs . . . . 24
 7.  Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
 8.  References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
     8.1.  Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
     8.2.  Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
 9.  Security Considerations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
 10. Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
 11. Full Copyright Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31

1. The Internet-Standard Management Framework

 For a detailed overview of the documents that describe the current
 Internet-Standard Management Framework, please refer to section 7 of
 RFC 3410 [RFC3410].
 Managed objects are accessed via a virtual information store, termed
 the Management Information Base or MIB.  MIB objects are generally
 accessed through the Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP).
 Objects in the MIB are defined using the mechanisms defined in the
 Structure of Management Information (SMI).  This memo specifies a MIB
 module that is compliant to the SMIv2, which is described in STD 58,
 RFC 2578 [RFC2578], STD 58, RFC 2579 [RFC2579] and STD 58, RFC 2580
 [RFC2580].

2. Definition of RMON

 Remote network monitoring devices, often called monitors or probes,
 are instruments that exist for the purpose of managing and/or
 monitoring a network.  Often these remote probes are stand-alone
 devices and devote significant internal resources for the sole
 purpose of managing a network.  An organization may employ many of
 these devices, up to one per network segment, to manage its internet.
 In addition, these devices may be used to manage a geographically
 remote network such as for a network management support center of a
 service provider to manage a client network, or for the central
 support organization of an enterprise to manage a remote site.

Waldbusser, et al. Informational [Page 2] RFC 3577 Introduction to RMON August 2003

 When the work on the RMON documents was started, this device-oriented
 definition of RMON was taken quite literally, as RMON devices were
 purpose-built probes and dedicated to implementing the RMON MIB
 modules.  Soon, cards were introduced that added RMON capability into
 a network hub, switch or router.  RMON also began to appear as a
 software capability that was added to the software of certain network
 equipment, as well as software applications that could run on servers
 or clients.  Despite the variety of these approaches, the RMON
 capability in each serves as a dedicated network management resource
 available for activities ranging from long-term data collection and
 analysis or for ad-hoc firefighting.
 In the beginning, most, but not all, of RMON's capabilities were
 based on the promiscuous capture of packets on a network segment or
 segments.  Over time, that mixture included more and more
 capabilities that did not depend on promiscuous packet capture.
 Today, some of the newest documents added to the RMON framework allow
 multiple techniques of data gathering, where promiscuous packet
 capture is just one of several implementation options.

3. Goals of RMON

    o  Offline Operation
       There are sometimes conditions when a management station will
       not be in constant contact with its remote monitoring devices.
       This is sometimes by design in an attempt to lower
       communications costs (especially when communicating over a WAN
       or dialup link), or by accident as network failures affect the
       communications between the management station and the probe.
       For this reason, RMON allows a probe to be configured to
       perform diagnostics and to collect statistics continuously,
       even when communication with the management station may not be
       possible or efficient.  The probe may then attempt to notify
       the management station when an exceptional condition occurs.
       Thus, even in circumstances where communication between
       management station and probe is not continuous, fault,
       performance, and configuration information may be continuously
       accumulated and communicated to the management station
       conveniently and efficiently.
    o  Proactive Monitoring
       Given the resources available on the monitor, it is potentially
       helpful for it to continuously run diagnostics and to log
       network performance.  The monitor is always available at the
       onset of any failure.  It can notify the management station of

Waldbusser, et al. Informational [Page 3] RFC 3577 Introduction to RMON August 2003

       the failure and can store historical statistical information
       about the failure.  This historical information can be played
       back by the management station in an attempt to perform further
       diagnosis into the cause of the problem.
    o  Problem Detection and Reporting
       The monitor can be configured to recognize conditions, most
       notably error conditions, and to continuously check for them.
       When one of these conditions occurs, the event may be logged,
       and management stations may be notified in a number of ways.
    o  Value Added Data
       Because a remote monitoring device represents a network
       resource dedicated exclusively to network management functions,
       and because it is located directly on the monitored portion of
       the network, the remote network monitoring device has the
       opportunity to add significant value to the data it collects.
       For instance, by highlighting those hosts on the network that
       generate the most traffic or errors, the probe can give the
       management station precisely the information it needs to solve
       a class of problems.
    o  Multiple Managers
       An organization may have multiple management stations for
       different units of the organization, for different functions
       (e.g., engineering and operations), and in an attempt to
       provide disaster recovery.  Because environments with multiple
       management stations are common, the remote network monitoring
       device has to deal with more than one management station,
       potentially using its resources concurrently.

4. RMON Documents

 The RMON Framework includes a number of documents.  Each document
 that makes up the RMON framework defines some new useful behavior
 (i.e., an application) and managed objects that configure, control
 and monitor that behavior.  This section lists those documents and
 describes the role of each.
 One of the key ways to differentiate the various RMON MIB modules is
 by noting at which layer they operate.  Because the RMON MIB modules
 take measurements and present aggregates of those measurements, there
 are 2 criteria to quantify for each MIB:

Waldbusser, et al. Informational [Page 4] RFC 3577 Introduction to RMON August 2003

    1. At which layers does the MIB take measurements?
       For example, the RMON MIB measures data-link layer attributes
       (e.g., packets, bytes, errors), while the APM MIB measures
       application layer attributes (e.g., response time).  Supporting
       measurement at higher layers requires analysis deeper into the
       packet and many application layer measurements require stateful
       flow analysis.
    2. At which layers does the MIB aggregate measurements?
       This criteria notes the granularity of aggregation.  For
       example, the RMON MIB aggregates its measurements to the link,
       hardware address, or hardware address pair - all data-link
       concepts.  In contrast, the RMON-2 MIB takes the same data-link
       metrics (packets, bytes, errors) and aggregates them based on
       network address, transport protocol, or application protocol.
 Note that a MIB may take measurements at one level while aggregating
 at different levels.  Also note that a MIB may function at multiple
 levels.  Figure 1 and Figure 2 show the measurement layers and
 aggregation layers for each MIB.
 Measurement Layers
             Data Link       Network     Transport   Application
                 Layer         Layer         Layer         Layer
 RMON-1              X
 TR-RMON             X
 RMON-2              X
 SMON                X
 IFTopN              X
 HCRMON              X
 APM                                                           X
 TPM                                             X
                                Figure 1

Waldbusser, et al. Informational [Page 5] RFC 3577 Introduction to RMON August 2003

 Aggregation Layers
             Data Link       Network     Transport   Application
                 Layer         Layer         Layer         Layer
 RMON-1              X
 TR-RMON             X
 RMON-2                            X             X             X
 SMON                X
 IFTopN              X
 HCRMON              X
 APM                               X             X             X
 TPM                               X             X             X
                                Figure 2

4.1. RMON-1

 The RMON-1 standard [RFC2819] is focused at layer 2 and provides
 link-layer statistics aggregated in a variety of ways.  In addition,
 it provides the generation of alarms when thresholds are crossed, as
 well as the ability to filter and capture packet contents.  The
 components of RMON-1 are:
    The Ethernet Statistics Group
       The ethernet statistics group contains statistics measured by
       the probe for each monitored Ethernet interface on this device.
    The History Control Group
       The history control group controls the periodic statistical
       sampling of data from various types of network media.
    The Ethernet History Group
       The ethernet history group records periodic statistical samples
       from an ethernet network and stores them for later retrieval.
    The Alarm Group
       The alarm group periodically takes statistical samples from
       variables in the probe and compares them to previously
       configured thresholds.  If the monitored variable crosses a
       threshold, an event is generated.  A hysteresis mechanism is
       implemented to limit the generation of alarms.

Waldbusser, et al. Informational [Page 6] RFC 3577 Introduction to RMON August 2003

    The Host Group
       The host group contains statistics associated with each host
       discovered on the network.  This group discovers hosts on the
       network by keeping a list of source and destination MAC
       Addresses seen in good packets promiscuously received from the
       network.
    The HostTopN Group
       The hostTopN group is used to prepare reports that describe the
       hosts that top a list ordered by one of their statistics.  The
       available statistics are samples of one of their base
       statistics over an interval specified by the management
       station.  Thus, these statistics are rate based.  The
       management station also selects how many such hosts are
       reported.
    The Matrix Group
       The matrix group stores statistics for conversations between
       sets of two MAC addresses.  As the device detects a new
       conversation, it creates a new entry in its tables.
    The Filter Group
       The filter group allows packets to be matched by a filter
       equation.  These matched packets form a data stream that may be
       captured or may generate events.
    The Packet Capture Group
       The Packet Capture group allows packets to be captured after
       they flow through a channel.
    The Event Group
       The event group controls the generation and notification of
       events from this device.

4.2. Token Ring Extensions to RMON MIB

 Some of the functions defined in the RMON-1 MIB were defined specific
 to Ethernet media.  In order to operate the functions on Token Ring
 Media, new objects needed to be defined in the Token Ring Extensions
 to RMON MIB [RFC1513].  In addition, this MIB defines additional
 objects that provide monitoring functions unique to Token Ring.

Waldbusser, et al. Informational [Page 7] RFC 3577 Introduction to RMON August 2003

 The components of the Token Ring Extensions to RMON MIB are:
    The Token Ring Statistics Groups
       The Token Ring statistics groups contain current utilization
       and error statistics.  The statistics are broken down into two
       groups, the Token Ring Mac-Layer Statistics Group and the Token
       Ring Promiscuous Statistics Group.  The Token Ring Mac-Layer
       Statistics Group collects information from the Mac Layer,
       including error reports for the ring and ring utilization of
       the Mac Layer.  The Token Ring Promiscuous Statistics Group
       collects utilization statistics from data packets collected
       promiscuously.
    The Token Ring History Groups
       The Token Ring History Groups contain historical utilization
       and error statistics.  The statistics are broken down into two
       groups, the Token Ring Mac-Layer History Group and the Token
       Ring Promiscuous History Group.  The Token Ring Mac-Layer
       History Group collects information from the Mac Layer,
       including error reports for the ring and ring utilization of
       the Mac Layer.  The Token Ring Promiscuous History Group
       collects utilization statistics from data packets collected
       promiscuously.
    The Token Ring Ring Station Group
       The Token Ring Ring Station Group contains statistics and
       status information associated with each Token Ring station on
       the local ring.  In addition, this group provides status
       information for each ring being monitored.
    The Token Ring Ring Station Order Group
       The Token Ring Ring Station Order Group provides the order of
       the stations on monitored rings.
    The Token Ring Ring Station Config Group
       The Token Ring Ring Station Config Group manages token ring
       stations through active means.  Any station on a monitored ring
       may be removed or have configuration information downloaded
       from it.

Waldbusser, et al. Informational [Page 8] RFC 3577 Introduction to RMON August 2003

    The Token Ring Source Routing Group
       The Token Ring Source Routing Group contains utilization
       statistics derived from source routing information optionally
       present in token ring packets.

4.3. The RMON-2 MIB

 The RMON-2 MIB [RFC2021] extends the architecture defined in RMON-1,
 primarily by extending RMON analysis up to the application layer.
 The components of the RMON-2 MIB are:
    The Protocol Directory Group
       Every RMON-2 implementation will have the capability to parse
       certain types of packets and identify their protocol type at
       multiple levels.  The protocol directory presents an inventory
       of those protocol types the probe is capable of monitoring, and
       allows the addition, deletion, and configuration of protocol
       types in this list.
    Protocol Distribution Group
       This function controls the collection of packet and octet
       counts for any or all protocols detected on a given interface.
       An NMS can use this table to quickly determine bandwidth
       allocation utilized by different protocols.
    Address Mapping Group
       This function lists MAC address to network address bindings
       discovered by the probe and on which interface they were last
       seen.
    Network Layer Host Group
       This function counts the amount of traffic sent from and to
       each network address discovered by the probe.
    Network Layer Matrix Group
       This function counts the amount of traffic sent between each
       pair of network addresses discovered by the probe.

Waldbusser, et al. Informational [Page 9] RFC 3577 Introduction to RMON August 2003

    Application Layer Host Group
       This function counts the amount of traffic, by protocol, sent
       from and to each network address discovered by the probe.
    Application Layer Matrix
       This function counts the amount of traffic, by protocol, sent
       between each pair of network addresses discovered by the probe.
    User History
       This function allows an NMS to request that certain variables
       on the probe be periodically polled and for a time-series to be
       stored of the polled values.  This builds a user-configurable
       set of variables to be monitored (not to be confused with data
       about users).
    Probe Configuration
       This group contains configuration objects that configure many
       aspects of the probe, including the software downloaded to the
       probe, the out of band serial connection, and the network
       connection.

4.4. RMON MIB Protocol Identifiers

 The RMON-2 MIB identifies protocols at any layer of the 7 layer
 hierarchy with an identifier called a Protocol Identifier, or
 ProtocolID for short.  ProtocolIDs also identify the particular
 configuration of layering in use, including any arbitrary
 encapsulations.  The RMON MIB Protocol Identifiers document [RFC2896]
 is a companion document to the RMON-2 MIB that defines a number of
 well-known protocols.  Another document, the RMON MIB Protocol
 Identifiers Macros [RFC2895], defines a macro format for the
 description of these well-known protocols and others that may be
 described in the future.
 As the RMON Framework has grown, other documents have been added to
 the framework that utilize ProtocolIDs.

4.5. Remote Network Monitoring MIB Extensions for Switched Networks

    (SMON MIB)
 Switches have become pervasive in today's networks as a form of
 broadcast media.  SMON [RFC2613] provides RMON-like functions for the
 monitoring of switched networks.

Waldbusser, et al. Informational [Page 10] RFC 3577 Introduction to RMON August 2003

 Switches today differ from standard shared media protocols because:
    1) Data is not, in general, broadcast.  This MAY be caused by the
       switch architecture or by the connection-oriented nature of the
       data.  This means, therefore, that monitoring non-broadcast
       traffic needs to be considered.
    2) Monitoring the multiple entry and exit points from a Switching
       device requires a vast amount of resources - memory and CPU,
       and aggregation of the data in logical packets of information,
       determined by the application needs.
    3) Switching incorporates logical segmentation such as Virtual
       LANs (VLANs).
    4) Switching incorporates packet prioritization.
    5) Data across the switch fabric can be in the form of cells.
       Like RMON, SMON is only concerned with the monitoring of
       packets.
 Differences such as these make monitoring difficult.  The SMON MIB
 provides the following functions that help to manage switched
 networks:
    smonVlanStats
       This function provides traffic statistics per Virtual LAN for
       802.1q VLANs.
    smonPrioStats
       This function provides traffic statistics per priority level
       for 802.1q VLANS.
    dataSourceCaps
       This function identifies all supported data sources on a SMON
       device.  An NMS MAY use this table to discover the RMON and
       Copy Port attributes of each data source.
    portCopyConfig
       Many network switches provide the capability to make a copy of
       traffic seen on one port and sending it out to another port for
       management purposes.  This occurs in addition to any copying
       performed during the normal forwarding behavior of the switch.

Waldbusser, et al. Informational [Page 11] RFC 3577 Introduction to RMON August 2003

       The portCopyConfig function provides control of the port copy
       functionality in a device.

4.6. RMON MIB Extensions for Interface Parameters Monitoring (IFTOPN)

 Many network switches contain hundreds of ports, many with only one
 attached device.  A common operation when managing such a switch is
 to sort the interfaces by one of the parameters (e.g., to find the
 most highly utilized interface).  If the switch contains many
 interfaces it can be expensive and time consuming to download
 information for all interfaces to sort it on the NMS.  Instead, the
 ifTopN MIB [RFC3144] allows the sorting to occur on the switch and
 for only the top interfaces to be downloaded.

4.7. RMON Extensions for Differentiated Services (DSMON MIB)

 This MIB [RFC3287] defines extensions of RMON for monitoring the
 traffic usage of Differentiated Services [RFC2474] codepoint values.
 The 6-bit DiffServ codepoint portion (DSCP) of the Type of Service
 (TOS) octet in the IP header provides for 64 different packet
 treatments for the implementation of differentiated network devices.
 DSMON-capable RMON probes collect and aggregate statistics based on
 the inspection of the DSCP value in monitored packets.
 The DSMON MIB defines a DSCP counter aggregation mechanism to reduce
 the total number of counters by configuring the agent to internally
 aggregate counters based on the DSCP value.  This mechanism is
 designed to overcome the agent data collection limitation, perform
 data reduction at the agent and applications level, and optimize the
 application for cases in which some codepoint values are not used, or
 lead to similar packet treatment in the monitored network domain.
 The components of the DSMON MIB are:
    The Aggregate Control Group
       The Aggregate Control Group enables the configuration of the
       counter aggregation groups.
    The DSMON Statistics Group
       The DSMON Statistics Group contains per counter aggregation
       group distribution statistics for a particular RMON data
       source.

Waldbusser, et al. Informational [Page 12] RFC 3577 Introduction to RMON August 2003

    The DSMON Protocol Distribution Group
       The DSMON Protocol Distribution Group reports per counter
       aggregation distribution statistics for each application
       protocol detected on a particular RMON data source.
    The DSMON Host Group
       The DSMON Host Group contains host address distribution
       statistics for each counter aggregation group, detected on a
       particular RMON data source.
    The DSMON Capabilities Group
       The DSMON Capabilities Group reports the DSMON MIB functional
       capabilities of the agent implementation.
    The DSMON Matrix Group
       The DSMON Matrix Group contains host address pair distribution
       statistics for each counter aggregation group, detected on a
       particular RMON data source.

4.8. RMON for High Capacity Networks (HCRMON MIB)

 This MIB [RFC3272] defines extensions to RMON for use on high
 capacity networks.  Except for the mediaIndependentTable, each of the
 tables in this MIB adds high capacity capability to an associated
 table in the RMON-1 MIB or RMON-2 MIB.
 The mediaIndependentTable provides media independent utilization and
 error statistics for full-duplex and half-duplex media.  Prior to the
 existence of the HCRMON MIB, a new table needed to be created for
 RMON monitoring of each data-link layer media.  These tables included
 many statistical attributes of the media, including packet and octet
 counters that are independent of the media type.  This was not
 optimal because there was no way to monitor media types for which a
 media-specific table had not been defined.  Further, there were no
 common objects to monitor media-independent attributes between media
 types.
 In the future, for media other than ethernet and token ring, the
 mediaIndependentTable will be the source for media-independent
 statistics.  Additional media-specific tables may be created to
 provide attributes unique to particular media, such as error
 counters.

Waldbusser, et al. Informational [Page 13] RFC 3577 Introduction to RMON August 2003

4.9. Application Performance Measurement MIB (APM MIB)

 The APM MIB [APM] provides analysis of application performance as
 experienced by end-users.
 Application performance measurement measures the quality of service
 delivered to end-users by applications.  With this perspective, a
 true end-to-end view of the IT infrastructure results, combining the
 performance of the application, desktop, network, and server, as well
 as any positive or negative interactions between these components.
 Despite all the technically sophisticated ways in which networking
 and system resources can be measured, human end-users perceive only
 two things about an application: availability and responsiveness.
    Availability - The percentage of the time that the application is
    ready to give a user service.
    Responsiveness - The speed at which the application delivers the
    requested service.
 The APM MIB includes the following functions:
    The APM Application Directory Group
       The APM Application Directory group contains configuration
       objects for every application or application verb monitored on
       this system.
    The APM User Defined Applications Group
       The APM User Defined Applications Group contains objects that
       allow for the tracking of applications or application verbs
       that are not registered in the protocolDirectoryTable.
    The APM Report Group
       The APM Report Group is used to prepare regular reports that
       aggregate application performance by flow, by client, by
       server, or by application.
    The APM Transaction Group
       The APM Transaction Group is used to show transactions that are
       currently in progress and ones that have ended recently, along
       with their responsiveness metric.

Waldbusser, et al. Informational [Page 14] RFC 3577 Introduction to RMON August 2003

       One important benefit of this table is that it allows a
       management station to check on the status of long-lived
       transactions.  Because the apmReport and apmException
       mechanisms act only on transactions that have finished, a
       network manager may not have visibility for some time into the
       performance of long-lived transactions, such as streaming
       applications, large data transfers, or (very) poorly performing
       transactions.  In fact, by their very definition, the apmReport
       and apmException mechanisms only provide visibility into a
       problem after nothing can be done about it.
    The APM Exception Group
       The APM Exception Group is used to generate immediate
       notifications of transactions that cross certain thresholds.
       The apmExceptionTable is used to configure which thresholds are
       to be checked for which types of transactions.  The
       apmTransactionResponsivenessAlarm notification is sent when a
       transaction occurs with a responsiveness that crosses a
       threshold.
       The apmTransactionUnsuccessfulAlarm notification is sent when a
       transaction, for which exception checking was configured,
       fails.
    The APM Notification Group
       The APM Notification Group contains 2 notifications that are
       sent when thresholds in the APM Exception Table are exceeded.

4.10. RMON MIB Protocol Identifier Reference Extensions

 The protocol identifier defined in RMON-2 [RFC2021] can identify any
 protocol at any layer and its encapsulation.  The protocol identifier
 macro document [RFC2896] defines a convenient human readable and
 machine parseable format for documenting well-known protocols.
 For the most part, the protocol identifiers used by RMON-2
 implementations have described protocols at any layer, including the
 application layer, but have not gone any deeper into the application.
 In order to differentiate an application's behavior while performing
 different tasks (logging in vs. downloading, for example), it is
 important to have a separate protocol identifier for each application
 "verb".  The macro defined in [RFC2896] is inconvenient for defining
 application verbs because it assumes that most protocols are
 identified by an integer type field and many or most applications use
 other means for identifying verbs, including character strings.

Waldbusser, et al. Informational [Page 15] RFC 3577 Introduction to RMON August 2003

 These extensions define another macro for defining application verbs
 that are children of an application.  The parent application can be
 defined with the original protocol identifier macro and the
 application verbs are defined with the new macro.

4.11. Transport Performance Metrics MIB (TPM MIB)

 The TPM MIB [TPM] monitors selected performance metrics and
 statistics derived from the monitoring of network packets and sub-
 application level transactions.  The MIB is defined to compliment the
 APM reports by providing a 'drill-down' capability to better
 understand selected applications' performance.  The metrics are
 defined through reference to existing IETF, ITU and other standards
 organizations' documents.  The monitoring covers both passive and
 active traffic generation sources.
 The TPM MIB includes the following functions:
    The tpmCapabilities Group
       The tpmCapabilitiesGroup contains objects and tables that show
       the measurement protocol and metric capabilities of the agent.
    The tpmAggregateReports Group
       The tpmAggregateReportsGroup is used to provide the collection
       of aggregated statistical measurements for the configured
       report intervals.
    The tpmCurrentReports Group
       The tpmCurrentReportsGroup is used to provide the collection of
       uncompleted measurements for the current configured report for
       those transactions caught in progress.  A history of these
       transactions is also maintained once the current transaction
       has completed.
    The tpmExceptionReports Group
       The tpmExceptionReportsGroup is used to link immediate
       notifications of transactions that exceed certain thresholds
       defined in the apmExceptionGroup [APM].  This group reports the
       aggregated sub-application measurements for those applications
       exceeding thresholds.

Waldbusser, et al. Informational [Page 16] RFC 3577 Introduction to RMON August 2003

4.12. Synthetic Sources for Performance Monitoring MIB (SSPM MIB)

 The Synthetic Sources for Performance Monitoring MIB [SSPM] covers
 the artificial generation of a) application-level, b) transport-
 level, and c) link-level traffic for the purpose of monitoring system
 performance.  There are situations where it is useful to be able to
 control the generation of synthetic traffic when evaluating system
 performance.  There are other situations where system performance
 evaluation can rely upon naturally generated application-level
 traffic, in which case one needs only monitor existing traffic and
 not instrument synthetic traffic.  The SSPM MIB provides the ability
 to configure and control the generation of this synthetic traffic.

4.13. RMON MIB Extensions for High Capacity Alarms

 There is a need for a standardized way of providing the same type of
 alarm thresholding capabilities for Counter64 objects, as already
 exists for Counter32 objects.  The RMON-1 alarmTable objects and
 RMON-1 notification types are specific to 32-bit objects, and cannot
 be used to properly monitor Counter64-based objects.  Extensions to
 these existing constructs are needed which explicitly support
 Counter64-based objects.  These extensions are completely independent
 of the existing RMON-1 alarm mechanisms.
 This MIB [RFC3434] contains the following functions:
    The hcAlarmControlObjects group
       Controls the configuration of alarms for high capacity MIB
       object instances.
    The hcAlarmCapabilities group
       Describes the high capacity alarm capabilities provided by the
       agent.
    The hcAlarmNotifications group
       Provides new rising and falling threshold notifications for
       high capacity objects.

4.14. Real-Time Application Quality of Service Monitoring

     (RAQMON) MIB
 There is a need to extend the RMON framework to monitor end devices
 such as IP phones, pagers, Instant Message Clients, mobile phones,
 and PDA devices.  This memo proposes an extension of RMON Framework
 to allow Real-time Application QoS information of these types of end

Waldbusser, et al. Informational [Page 17] RFC 3577 Introduction to RMON August 2003

 devices to be retrieved with SNMP, independent of the technology used
 to perform the measurements.  An end-to-end user experience of the
 quality of service (QoS) and performance for such an application is a
 combination of device performance, transport network performance and
 specific application context.
 RAQMON [RAQMON-FRAMEWORK] defines a common framework to identify a
 set of application QoS parameters and a reporting mechanism using a
 common protocol data unit (PDU) format used between a RAQMON Data
 Source (RDS) and a RAQMON Report Collector (RRC) to report QOS
 statistics using RTCP and SNMP as underlying transport protocol.
 See the RAQMON MIB [RAQMON-MIB] for more information about its
 components.

5. RMON Framework Components

 The collection of documents in the RMON Framework are associated by
 1) A common purpose and similar collection methodologies; and, 2) Use
 of common infrastructure components.
 These common infrastructure components are:
  1. MediaIndependent Table
  2. Protocol Directory
  3. appDirectory
  4. DataSource
  5. Capabilities
  6. Control Tables

5.1. MediaIndependent Table

 While many data-link media types exist and they each have unique
 features, there are many statistics that are common across most
 media.  For example, counts of packets and octets are interesting for
 most media.  The media independent table contains the most common
 such statistics and forms a super class from which specific interface
 types are inherited.  This means that the common statistics can be
 monitored even for media types that are unknown.
 For example, if the mediaindependentTable had existed prior to the
 definition of the etherStatsTable, the etherStatsTable could have
 omitted the etherStatsDropEvents, etherStatsOctets, etherStatsPkts
 objects.
 The Media Independent Table is defined in the High Capacity RMON MIB
 [RFC3434].

Waldbusser, et al. Informational [Page 18] RFC 3577 Introduction to RMON August 2003

5.2. Protocol Directory

 The second of the RMON infrastructure components is the Protocol
 Directory Group defined in the RMON-2 MIB [RFC2021].  The main
 objective of RMON-2 was to extend the remote network monitoring
 agents capabilities beyond the link layer to higher level protocol
 monitoring.  This required a means to globally identify individual
 protocol encapsulations.  This capability is provided by the Protocol
 Directory Group, specifically the protocolDirID found in the
 protocolDirTable in the RMON-2 MIB.
 The Protocol Directory allows the agent to provide an inventory of
 the protocols that the agent can decode, count, categorize and time.
 The directory and its objects are designed to allow for the addition,
 deletion and configuration of the protocol encapsulations in the
 directory list.  Protocol Directory entries are identified primarily
 by an object called the protocolDirID.  The protocolDirID is a
 hierarchically formatted OCTET STRING that globally identifies
 individual protocol encapsulations.  A protocol descriptor macro has
 been defined in RFC 2895 [RFC2895] to describe the various protocol
 layers supported in the protocolDirID protocol hierarchy.  The
 protocolDirID is defined as a tree built up from successive protocol
 encapsulations.  Each layer is identified by a 4-octet identifier
 that identifies the child protocol within the context of the parent
 protocol identified by the preceding identifiers.
 Associated with each protocol layer in the protocolDirID is a 1-octet
 parameter field.  Each parameter identifies potential options
 specific to that protocol, such as the agent's capability to count
 fragmented packets correctly and to track sessions for port mapped
 protocols, e.g., TFTP.  These 1-octet parameter fields are
 concatenated, in order, in the protocolDirParameters object.
 The protocolDirTable index is comprised of the protocolDirID, the
 protocolDirParameters and their associated length fields.  The index
 format is shown in Figure 3.
    +---+--------------------------+---+---------------+
    | c !                          | c !  protocolDir  |
    | n !  protocolDirID           | n !  Parameters   |
    | t !                          | t !               |
    +---+--------------------------+---+---------------+
       Figure 3: the protocolDirTable INDEX format.

Waldbusser, et al. Informational [Page 19] RFC 3577 Introduction to RMON August 2003

 An example protocolDirTable INDEX for SNMP over UDP over IP over
 Ethernet is:
     16.0.0.0.1.0.0.8.0.0.0.0.17.0.0.0.161.4.0.0.0.0
    |  |       |       |        |         | |       |
    +--+-------+-------+--------+---------+-+-------+
     c  ether2    ip      udp      snmp    c  param.
     c = 1-subidentifier count field
    Figure 4: A protocolDirTable INDEX example for
       SNMP over UDP over IP over Ethernet.
 The set of defined protocol layers currently described is found in
 RFC 2896 [RFC2896].  RFC 2895 [RFC2895] defines a process for
 submitting new protocols to add to the currently defined set.
 Periodic updates to RFC 2896 will be published to incorporate new
 protocol definitions that have been submitted.  In fact, RFC 2896 is
 the second version of the defined protocol macros, obsoleting RFC
 2074 [RFC2074].  RFC 2895 also defines how to handle protocols that
 do not map into this well-defined tree hierarchy built up from
 encapsulation protocol identifiers.  An example of such a protocol
 encapsulation is RTP, which is mapped to specific UDP ports through a
 separate signaling mechanism.  These are handled by the ianaAssigned
 protocols, as described in RFC 2895.
 The protocolDirTable is defined (and used) in the RMON-2 MIB
 [RFC2021], and is being used in other RMON WG MIBs, as well as other
 IETF defined MIBs.  Examples include the APM MIB [APM], the TPM MIB
 [TPM] and the SSPM MIB [SSPM].
 As mentioned in previous sections, the protocolDirID is being
 extended in two ways.  First, work is underway on a new set of
 protocol descriptor macros to extend the protocol encapsulation model
 to identify application layer verbs [RFC3395].  This extension was
 motivated by the work on the APM MIB and the TPM MIB.  Second, the
 APM MIB defines the apmAppDirectoryTable that provides a directory of
 applications that the agent can process.  This is discussed further
 in the following section.  Combined, these extensions allow:
    +  The APM MIB to define and monitor the end-user's view of
       application performance.
    +  The TPM MIB to clearly specify the sub-transactions that
       comprise the application it monitors through the
       tpmTransMetricDirTable.

Waldbusser, et al. Informational [Page 20] RFC 3577 Introduction to RMON August 2003

    +  The SSPM MIB to generate synthetic application transactions by
       importing the appLocalIndex from the APM MIB.

5.3. Application Directory and appLocalIndex

 APM, TPM and related applications collect certain types of statistics
 for each application or application verb they are decoding.  Some
 applications and application verbs are defined in the protocol
 directory and thus get their own protocolID and a corresponding
 protocolDirLocalIndex.  Other application verbs are defined more
 dynamically by entries in the apmHttpFilterTable or
 apmUserDefinedAppTable.  These dynamically defined applications do
 not have protocolDirID's assigned to them.
 The APM MIB [APM] defines an important index called the
 appLocalIndex.  For all application monitoring in the APM and TPM
 MIBs, applications are identified by integer values of the
 appLocalIndex.  However, there is no single registry of applications
 (as there is for protocols) because there are a few different
 mechanisms through which an application may be registered.  For each
 value of appLocalIndex, a corresponding entry will exist in one of
 several tables:
    1. The protocolDirTable - Some values of appLocalIndex correspond
       to protocolDirLocalIndex values assigned in the
       protocolDirTable.  Each of these corresponds to a protocol
       defined by a protocolID.
    2. The apmHttpFilterTable - Some values of appLocalIndex
       correspond to apmHttpFilterAppLocalindex values assigned in the
       apmHttpFilterTable.  Each of these corresponds to an
       application verb defined as a set of HTTP transactions that
       match a set of filters.
    3. The apmUserDefinedAppTable - Some values of appLocalIndex
       correspond to index values of the apmUserDefinedAppTable.  Each
       of them corresponds to an application or application verb
       defined in a user-defined way.
 Each value of appLocalIndex will only be registered in one of these
 tables.  In effect, the appLocalIndex number space is the union of
 these number spaces, where these tables must work together to avoid
 assigning overlapping (duplicate) appLocalIndexes.
 Each unique appLocalIndex value is also registered in the
 apmAppDirectoryTable, where a number of attributes of the application
 may be configured.

Waldbusser, et al. Informational [Page 21] RFC 3577 Introduction to RMON August 2003

5.4. Data Source

 Most RMON functions use a DataSource as a pointer to the entity from
 which data is to be collected.  The DataSource is an object
 identifier that identifies one of three types of data sources:
    ifIndex.<I>
       Traditional RMON dataSources.  Called 'port-based' for
       ifType.<I> not equal to 'propVirtual(53)'.  <I> is the ifIndex
       value.
    smonVlanDataSource.<V>
       A dataSource of this form refers to a 'Packet-based VLAN' and
       is called a 'VLAN-based' dataSource.  <V> is the VLAN ID as
       defined by the IEEE 802.1Q standard.  The value is between 1
       and 4094 inclusive, and it represents an 802.1Q VLAN-ID with a
       global scope within a given bridged domain, as defined by
       802.1Q.
    entPhysicalEntry.<N>
       A dataSource of this form refers to a physical entity within
       the agent and is called an 'entity-based' dataSource.  <N> is
       the value of the entPhysicalIndex in the entPhysicalTable.

5.5. Capabilities

 Probe Capabilities objects have been introduced in the RMON MIB
 modules with the goal of helping applications determine the
 capabilities of the different probes in the domain.  These objects
 use a BITS syntax (with the exception of some of the objects in the
 TPM and SSPM MIBs), and list in an explicit manner the MIB groups
 supported by the probe, as well as functional capabilities of the
 specific RMON agents.  By reading the values of these objects, it is
 possible for applications to know which RMON functions are usable
 without going through a trial-and-error process that can result in
 loss of time and bandwidth in the operational flow.  These objects
 have the MAX-ACCESS of read-only, which defines their use as an
 indication of what is supported by a probe, and not a means to
 configure the probe for operational modes.  An RMON agent SHOULD
 initiate the capabilities objects at agent initialization and SHOULD
 NOT modify the objects during operation.
 The probeCapabilities object in the RMON-2 MIB describes the
 capabilities of probes that support RMON, Token-Ring RMON and RMON-2.

Waldbusser, et al. Informational [Page 22] RFC 3577 Introduction to RMON August 2003

 The smonCapabilities object in the SMON MIB describes the SMON-
 specific capabilities of probes that support the SMON MIB.
 The dataSourceCapsTable in the SMON MIB defines the capabilities of
 the SMON data sources on probes that support the RMON MIB.
 The interfaceTopNCaps object in the Interface TopN MIB defines the
 sorting capabilities supported by an agent that supports the
 Interface TopN MIB.
 The dsmonCapabilities object in the DSMON MIB provides an indication
 of the DSMON groups supported by an agent that supports the DSMON
 MIB.
 The tpmCapabilitiesGroup contains objects and tables, which show the
 measurement protocol and metric capabilities of an agent that
 supports the TPM MIB.
 The sspmCapabilitiesTable indicates whether a device supporting the
 SSPM MIB supports SSPM configuration of the corresponding
 AppLocalIndex.
 The hcAlarmCapabilities object provides an indication of the high
 capacity alarm capabilities supported by an agent that supports the
 HC-Alarm MIB.

5.6. Control Tables

 Due to the complex nature of the available functions in the RMON MIB
 modules, these functions often need user configuration.  In many
 cases, the function requires parameters to be set up for a data
 collection operation.  The operation can proceed only after these
 parameters are fully set up.
 Many functional groups in the RMON MIBs have one or more tables in
 which to set up control parameters, and one or more data tables in
 which to place the results of the operation.  The control tables are
 typically read-write in nature, while the data tables are typically
 read-only.  Because the parameters in the control table often
 describe resulting data in the data table, many of the parameters can
 be modified only when the control entry is invalid.  Thus, the method
 for modifying these parameters is to invalidate the control entry,
 causing its deletion and the deletion of any associated data entries,
 and then create a new control entry with the proper parameters.
 Deleting the control entry also gives a convenient method for
 reclaiming the resources used by the associated data.

Waldbusser, et al. Informational [Page 23] RFC 3577 Introduction to RMON August 2003

 To facilitate control by multiple managers, resources have to be
 shared among the managers.  These resources are typically the memory
 and computation resources that a function requires.
 Two facilities are used to ease cooperation between multiple managers
 as they create and use control tables.  The first is the use of
 EntryStatus or RowStatus objects that guarantee that two managers can
 avoid creating the same control entry.  The second is the use of
 OwnerString objects in control tables that provides the following
 benefits:
    1. Provides information to facilitate sharing of already existing
       control entries instead of creating a new but identical entry.
    2. Provides information to allow the ultimate human owners of
       control entries to identify each other so they can cooperate in
       cases of conflict over resources.
    3. Provides information to allow software to identify control
       entries that it owns but has forgotten about (e.g., due to a
       crash or other error) so that it can re-use or free them.
    4. Provides information to allow an administrator to make an
       informed decision to override someone else's control entry when
       circumstances make it necessary.
    5. Provides information to identify control entries that are set
       up automatically when the device starts up.
 See the RMON MIB [RFC2819] for further information on the use of
 control tables, EntryStatus/RowStatus, and OwnerStrings.

6. Relationship of the SSPM MIB with the APM and TPM MIBs

 While APM and TPM may monitor actual traffic generated by end-users
 on the network, they may also monitor synthetically generated
 traffic.  The SSPM MIB provides a mechanism for the generation of
 synthetic traffic but no mechanism for monitoring - the task of
 monitoring the generated traffic is deferred to the APM and TPM MIBs.
 Figure 5 shows an overview of the components of the SSPM MIB
 architecture, including the roles played by the APM and TPM MIBs.
 The RMON documents address the "Control-Level" in this diagram and
 some aspects of the "Synchronization Control-Level".  The underlying
 "Instrumentation-Level" is implementation dependent and outside the
 domain of the RMON specifications.

Waldbusser, et al. Informational [Page 24] RFC 3577 Introduction to RMON August 2003

                          +----------------+
            +-------------|   Application  |-------------+
            |             +----------------+             |
            |                      |                     |
       +--------------------------------+                |
       |    Synchronization Control     |                |
       +--------------------------------+                |
            |                      |                     |
            V                      V                     V
 +------------------+    +------------------+      +--------------+
 |Traffic Generation|    |Monitoring Metrics|      |Data Reduction|
 |   Control        |    |   Control        |      |  Control     |
 +------------------+    +------------------+      +--------------+
            | ^                    | ^                   | ^
            | |                    | |                   | |
            V |                    V |                   V |
 +------------------+    +------------------+      +---------------+
 |Traffic Generation|    |Monitoring Metrics|      |Data Reduction |
 |   Instrumentation|    |   Instrumentation|  +-->|Instrumentation|
 +------------------+    +------------------+  |   +---------------+
                                               |           |
                                               |           |
                                Various levels |           |
                                  and span     +-----------|
                                                           |
                                                           |
                                                           V
                                                        Reports
         Figure 5: An SSPM Performance Monitoring System
 It is the responsibility of the network management application to
 coordinate the individual aspects of the performance management
 system.
 Within the APM, TPM, and SSPM set of RMON MIB modules:
    +  APM MIB [APM] is responsible for the aspects of the "Monitoring
       Metrics Control" directly related to the end-user's perceived
       application-level performance.  The APM MIB also handles
       aspects of "Data Reduction Control" and "Reports".  Finally,
       when TPM MIB relies upon the control tables in the APM MIB for
       its own control, then APM MIB is providing some aspects of
       "Synchronization Control" of the reports from these two MIBs.

Waldbusser, et al. Informational [Page 25] RFC 3577 Introduction to RMON August 2003

    +  TPM MIB [TPM] is responsible for the aspects of the "Monitoring
       Metrics Control".  TPM MIB also handles aspects of "Data
       Reduction Control" and "Reports" related to sub-application-
       level transactions.  Synchronization control with APM MIB is
       provided by opting to rely on the APM MIB control tables within
       the TPM MIB.
    +  SSPM MIB [SSPM] is responsible for the "Traffic Generation
       Control" in the event that synthetic traffic is to be
       monitored.  The other, most common, option is to monitor
       natural, user-generated traffic.
 The "Monitor Metrics Control" is essentially hard-coded in the APM
 MIB.  Within the TPM MIB, a metrics table is used to identify the
 metrics monitored within a specific implementation of the TPM MIB.
 The "Data Reduction Control" is essentially hard-coded within the MIB
 structure of the APM MIB and the TPM MIB.  These MIBs strictly
 specify the statistics to be reported within a set of report tables.
 Both the TPM MIB and the SSPM MIB rely upon the APM MIB's
 appLocalIndex to specify the application being monitored or
 generated.  The APM MIB provides the end-user view of the application
 performance, e.g., the Whois transaction time.  The TPM MIB, through
 its tpmTransMetricDirTable, identifies a set of sub-application level
 transactions and their metrics, which are associated with the
 application.  E.g., an implementation of the TPM MIB could report the
 DNS lookup time, the TCP connect time (to the Whois Server), the
 Whois Req/Resp download time.  The SSPM MIB could be configured to
 generate synthetically, these Whois transactions.
 The testing model then is to first configure the traffic generation
 instrumentation through the SSPM MIB control function.  This defines
 aspects of the synthetic traffic such as application type, targets,
 etc.  Once the traffic generation is configured, the network
 management application can setup the monitoring instrumentation
 through the APM MIB and TPM MIB.  These control the reporting
 periods, the type of data aggregation, etc.  Once the tests are
 complete, the network management application retrieves the reports
 from the monitoring metrics control MIBs, e.g., APM MIB and TPM MIB.

7. Acknowledgements

 This memo is a product of the RMON MIB working group.  In addition,
 the authors gratefully acknowledge the contributions by Lester
 D'Souza of NetScout Systems, Inc.

Waldbusser, et al. Informational [Page 26] RFC 3577 Introduction to RMON August 2003

8. References

8.1. Normative References

 [RFC2819]          Waldbusser, S., "Remote Network Monitoring
                    Management Information Base", STD 59, RFC 2819,
                    May 2000.

8.2. Informative References

 [RFC2026]          Bradner, S., "The Internet Standards Process --
                    Revision 3", BCP 9, RFC 2026, October 1996.
 [RFC2578]          McCloghrie, K., Perkins, D. and J. Schoenwaelder,
                    Eds., "Structure of Management Information Version
                    2 (SMIv2)", STD 58, RFC 2578, April 1999.
 [RFC2579]          McCloghrie, K., Perkins, D. and J. Schoenwaelder,
                    J., Eds., "Textual Conventions for SMIv2", STD 58,
                    RFC 2579, April 1999.
 [RFC2580]          McCloghrie, K., Perkins, D. and J. Schoenwaelder,
                    J., Eds., "Conformance Statements for SMIv2", STD
                    58, RFC 2580, April 1999.
 [RFC3410]          Case, J., Mundy, R., Partain, D. and B. Stewart,
                    "Introduction and Applicability Statements for
                    Internet-Standard Management Framework", RFC 3410,
                    December 2002.
 [RFC1513]          Waldbusser, S., "Token Ring Extensions to the
                    Remote Network Monitoring MIB", RFC 1513,
                    September 1993.
 [RFC2021]          Waldbusser, S., "Remote Network Monitoring
                    Management Information Base Version 2 using
                    SMIv2", RFC 2021, January 1997.
 [RFC2895]          Bierman, A., Bucci, C. and R. Iddon, "Remote
                    Network Monitoring Management Information Base
                    Protocol Identification Reference", RFC 2895,
                    August 2000.
 [RFC2896]          Bierman, A., Bucci, C. and R. Iddon, "Remote
                    Network Monitoring MIB Protocol Identifier
                    Macros", RFC 2896, August 2000.

Waldbusser, et al. Informational [Page 27] RFC 3577 Introduction to RMON August 2003

 [RFC2613]          Waterman, R., Lahaye, B., Romascanu, D. and S.
                    Waldbusser, "Remote Network Monitoring MIB
                    Extensions for Switched Networks Version 1.0", RFC
                    2613, June 1999.
 [RFC3144]          Waldbusser, S., "Remote Monitoring MIB Extensions
                    for Interface Parameters Monitoring", RFC 3144,
                    August 2001.
 [RFC3287]          Bierman, A., "Remote Monitoring MIB Extensions for
                    Differentiated Services", RFC 3287, July 2002.
 [RFC3273]          Waldbusser, S., "Remote Network Monitoring
                    Management Information Base for High Capacity
                    Networks", RFC 3273, July 2002.
 [APM]              Waldbusser, S., "Application performance
                    measurement MIB", Work in Progress.
 [RFC3395]          Bierman, A., Bucci, C., Dietz, R. and A. Warth,
                    "Remote Network Monitoring MIB Protocol Identifier
                    Reference Extensions", RFC 3395, September 2002.
 [TPM]              Dietz, R. and R.G.Cole, "Application Performance
                    Measurement Framework Transport Performance
                    Metrics MIB", Work in Progress.
 [SSPM]             Kalbfleisch, K., Cole, R.G. and D. Romascanu,
                    "Definition of Managed Objects for Synthetic
                    Sources for Performance Monitoring Algorithms",
                    Work in Progress.
 [RFC3434]          Bierman, A. and K. McCloghrie, "Remote Monitoring
                    MIB Extensions for High Capacity Alarms", RFC
                    3434, December 2002.
 [RFC2233]          McCloghrie, K. and F. Kastenholz, "The Interfaces
                    Group MIB Using SMIv2", RFC 2233, November 1997.
 [RFC2863]          McCloghrie, K. and F. Kastenholz, "The Interfaces
                    Group MIB", RFC 2863, June 2000.
 [RFC2330]          Paxson, V., Almes, G., Mahdavi, J. and M. Mathis,
                    "Framework for IP Performance Metrics", RFC 2330,
                    May 1998.

Waldbusser, et al. Informational [Page 28] RFC 3577 Introduction to RMON August 2003

 [OWDP]             Shalunov, S., Teitelbaum, B. and M. Zekauskas, "A
                    One-way Active Measurement Protocol", Work in
                    Progress.
 [RAQMON-FRAMEWORK] Siddiqui, A., Romascanu, D. and E. Golovinsky,
                    "Real-time Application Quality of Service
                    Monitoring (RAQMON) Framework", Work in Progress.
 [RAQMON-MIB]       Siddiqui, A., Romascanu, D., Golovinsky, E. and R.
                    Smith, "Real-Time Application Quality of Service
                    Monitoring (RAQMON) MIB", Work in Progress.

9. Security Considerations

 This document is a description of existing documents and as such it
 does not have any security impact.  In order to understand the
 security-related issues of the different RMON documents, the reader
 is directed to the Security Considerations sections of the respective
 documents.

Waldbusser, et al. Informational [Page 29] RFC 3577 Introduction to RMON August 2003

10. Authors' Addresses

 Steve Waldbusser
 Phone: +1 650-948-6500
 Fax:   +1 650-745-0671
 EMail: waldbusser@nextbeacon.com
 Carl W. Kalbfleisch
 NTT/VERIO
 8700 Stemmons Freeway, Suite 211
 Dallas, TX 75247
 United States
 Phone: +1 972-906-2034
 EMail: cwk@verio.net
 Robert G. Cole
 AT&T Labs
 Network Design and Performance Analysis Department
 330 Saint John Street, 2nd Floor
 Havre de Grace, MD  21078
 United States
 Phone: +1 410-939-8732
 Fax: +1 410-939-8732
 EMail: rgcole@att.com
 Dan Romascanu
 Avaya
 Atidim Technology Park, Bldg. #3
 Tel Aviv, 61131
 Israel
 Phone: +972-3-645-8414
 EMail: dromasca@avaya.com

Waldbusser, et al. Informational [Page 30] RFC 3577 Introduction to RMON August 2003

11. Full Copyright Statement

 Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2003).  All Rights Reserved.
 This document and translations of it may be copied and furnished to
 others, and derivative works that comment on or otherwise explain it
 or assist in its implementation may be prepared, copied, published
 and distributed, in whole or in part, without restriction of any
 kind, provided that the above copyright notice and this paragraph are
 included on all such copies and derivative works.  However, this
 document itself may not be modified in any way, such as by removing
 the copyright notice or references to the Internet Society or other
 Internet organizations, except as needed for the purpose of
 developing Internet standards in which case the procedures for
 copyrights defined in the Internet Standards process must be
 followed, or as required to translate it into languages other than
 English.
 The limited permissions granted above are perpetual and will not be
 revoked by the Internet Society or its successors or assignees.
 This document and the information contained herein is provided on an
 "AS IS" basis and THE INTERNET SOCIETY AND THE INTERNET ENGINEERING
 TASK FORCE DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING
 BUT NOT LIMITED TO ANY WARRANTY THAT THE USE OF THE INFORMATION
 HEREIN WILL NOT INFRINGE ANY RIGHTS OR ANY IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF
 MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.

Acknowledgement

 Funding for the RFC Editor function is currently provided by the
 Internet Society.

Waldbusser, et al. Informational [Page 31]

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