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rfc:rfc3314

Network Working Group M. Wasserman, Ed. Request for Comments: 3314 Wind River Category: Informational September 2002

                    Recommendations for IPv6 in
       Third Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) Standards

Status of this Memo

 This memo provides information for the Internet community.  It does
 not specify an Internet standard of any kind.  Distribution of this
 memo is unlimited.

Copyright Notice

 Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2002).  All Rights Reserved.

Abstract

 This document contains recommendations from the Internet Engineering
 Task Force (IETF) IPv6 Working Group to the Third Generation
 Partnership Project (3GPP) community regarding the use of IPv6 in the
 3GPP standards.  Specifically, this document recommends that the 3GPP
 specify that multiple prefixes may be assigned to each primary PDP
 context, require that a given prefix must not be assigned to more
 than one primary PDP context, and allow 3GPP nodes to use multiple
 identifiers within those prefixes, including randomly generated
 identifiers.
 The IPv6 Working Group supports the use of IPv6 within 3GPP and
 offers these recommendations in a spirit of open cooperation between
 the IPv6 Working Group and the 3GPP community.  Since the original
 publication of this document as an Internet-Draft, the 3GPP has
 adopted the primary recommendations of this document.

Conventions Used In This Document

 The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
 "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
 document are to be interpreted as described in BCP 14, RFC 2119
 [KEYWORD].

Wasserman Informational [Page 1] RFC 3314 Recommendations for IPv6 in 3GPP Standards September 2002

Table of Contents

 1       Introduction.............................................  2
 1.1     What is the 3GPP?........................................  3
 1.2     What is the IETF?........................................  4
 1.3     Terminology..............................................  4
 1.3.1   3GPP Terminology.........................................  4
 1.3.2   IETF Terminology.........................................  5
 1.4     Overview of the IPv6 Addressing Architecture.............  6
 1.5     An IP-Centric View of the 3GPP System....................  7
 1.5.1   Overview of the UMTS Architecture........................  7
 1.5.2   The PDP Context.......................................... 10
 1.5.3   IPv6 Address Autoconfiguration in GPRS................... 11
 2       Recommendations to the 3GPP.............................. 13
 2.1     Limitations of 3GPP Address Assignment................... 13
 2.2     Advertising Multiple Prefixes............................ 14
 2.3     Assigning a Prefix to Only One Primary PDP Context....... 14
 2.3.1   Is a /64 per PDP Context Too Much?....................... 15
 2.3.2   Prefix Information in the SGSN........................... 16
 2.4     Multiple Identifiers per PDP Context..................... 16
 3       Additional IPv6 Work Items............................... 16
 4       Security Considerations.................................. 17
 Appendix A:  Analysis of Findings................................ 18
 Address Assignment Solutions..................................... 18
 References....................................................... 19
 Authors and Acknowledgements..................................... 22
 Editor's Address................................................. 22
 Full Copyright Statement......................................... 23

1. Introduction

 In May 2001, the IPv6 Working Group (WG) held an interim meeting in
 Redmond, WA to discuss the use of IPv6 within the 3GPP standards.
 The first day of the meeting was a joint discussion with 3GPP, during
 which an architectural overview of 3GPP's usage of IPv6 was
 presented, and there was much discussion regarding particular aspects
 of IPv6 usage within 3GPP.  At that meeting, a decision was made to
 form a design team to write a document offering advice from the IPv6
 WG to the 3GPP community, regarding their use of IPv6.  This document
 is the result of that effort.
 This document offers recommendations to the 3GPP community from the
 IETF IPv6 Working Group.  It is organized into three main sections:
    1. An introduction (this section) that provides background
       information regarding the IETF IPv6 WG and the 3GPP and
       includes a high-level overview of the technologies discussed in
       this document.

Wasserman Informational [Page 2] RFC 3314 Recommendations for IPv6 in 3GPP Standards September 2002

    2. Recommendations from the IPv6 WG to the 3GPP community.  These
       can be found in section 2.
    3. Further work items that should be considered by the IPv6 WG.
       These items are discussed in section 3.
 It is the purpose of this document to provide advice from the IPv6
 Working Group to the 3GPP community.  We have limited the contents of
 this document to items that are directly related to the use of IPv6
 within 3GPP.  This document defines no standards, and it is not a
 definitive source of information regarding IPv6 or 3GPP.  We have not
 chosen to explore 3GPP-related issues with other IETF protocols
 (i.e., SIP, IPv4, etc.), as they are outside the scope of the IPv6
 Working Group.
 The IPv6 Working Group fully supports the use of IPv6 within 3GPP,
 and we encourage 3GPP implementers and operators to participate in
 the IETF process.  We are offering these suggestions in a spirit of
 open cooperation between the IPv6 Working Group and the 3GPP
 community, and we hope that our ongoing cooperation will help to
 strengthen both sets of standards.
 The 3GPP address allocation information in this document is based on
 the 3GPP document TS 23.060 version 4.1.0 [OLD-TS23060].  At the 3GPP
 plenary meeting TSG #15 in March 2002, the 3GPP adopted the two
 primary recommendations contained in this document, allocating a
 unique prefix to each primary PDP context when IPv6 stateless address
 autoconfiguration is used, and allowing the terminals to use multiple
 interface identifiers.  These changes were retroactively applied from
 3GPP release 99 onwards, in TS23.060 versions 3.11.0, 4.4.0 and 5.1.0
 [NEW-TS23060].

1.1 What is the 3GPP?

 The Third Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) is a global
 standardization partnership founded in late 1998.  Its Organizational
 Partners have agreed to co-operate in the production of technical
 specifications for a Third Generation Mobile System, based on the
 evolved GSM core networks.
 The 3GPP Organizational Partners consist of several different
 standardization organizations: ETSI from Europe, Standards Committee
 T1 Telecommunications (T1) in the USA, China Wireless
 Telecommunication Standard Group (CWTS), Korean Telecommunications
 Technology Association (TTA), the Association of Radio Industries and
 Businesses (ARIB), and the Telecommunication Technology
 Committee(TTC) in Japan.

Wasserman Informational [Page 3] RFC 3314 Recommendations for IPv6 in 3GPP Standards September 2002

 The work is coordinated by a Project Co-ordination Group (PCG), and
 structured into Technical Specification Groups (TSGs).  There are
 five TSGs: Core Network (TSG CN), Radio Access Networks (TSG RAN),
 Services and System Aspects (TSG SA), GSM/EDGE Radio Access Network
 (GERAN), and the Terminals (TSG T).  The TSGs are further divided
 into Working Groups (WGs).  The technical work is done in the working
 groups, and later approved in the TSGs.
 3GPP working methods are different from IETF working methods.  The
 major difference is where the majority of the work is done.  In 3GPP,
 the work is done in face-to-face meetings, and the mailing list is
 used mainly for distributing contributions, and for handling
 documents that were not handled in the meeting, due to lack of time.
 Decisions are usually made by consensus, though voting does exist.
 However, it is rather rare to vote.  3GPP documents are public and
 can be accessed via the 3GPP web site [3GPP-URL].

1.2 What is the IETF?

 The Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) is a large, open,
 international community of network designers, operators, vendors, and
 researchers, concerned with the evolution of the Internet
 architecture and the smooth operation of the Internet.  The IETF is
 also the primary standards body developing Internet protocols and
 standards.  It is open to any interested individual.  More
 information about the IETF can be found at the IETF web site [IETF-
 URL].
 The actual technical work of the IETF is done in working groups,
 organized by topic into several areas (e.g., routing, transport,
 security, etc.).  The IPv6 Working Group is chartered within the
 Internet area of the IETF.  Much of the work is handled via mailing
 lists, and the IETF holds meetings three times per year.

1.3 Terminology

 This section defines the 3GPP and IETF terminology used in this
 document.  The 3GPP terms and their meanings have been taken from
 [TR21905].

1.3.1 3GPP Terminology

 APN          Access Point Name.  The APN is a logical name referring
              to a GGSN and an external network.
 CS           Circuit Switched
 GERAN        GSM/EDGE Radio Access Network

Wasserman Informational [Page 4] RFC 3314 Recommendations for IPv6 in 3GPP Standards September 2002

 GGSN         Gateway GPRS Support Node.  A router between the GPRS
              network and an external network (i.e., the Internet).
 GPRS         General Packet Radio Services
 GTP-U        General Tunneling Protocol - User Plane
 MT           Mobile Termination.  For example, a mobile phone
              handset.
 PDP          Packet Data Protocol
 PDP Context  A PDP connection between the UE and the GGSN.
 PS           Packet Switched
 SGSN         Serving GPRS Support Node
 TE           Terminal Equipment.  For example, a laptop attached
              through a 3GPP handset.
 UE           User Equipment (TE + MT + USIM).  An example would be
              a mobile handset with a USIM card inserted and a
              laptop attached.
 UMTS         Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
 USIM         Universal Subscriber Identity Module.  Typically, a
              card that is inserted into a mobile phone handset.
 UTRAN        Universal Terrestrial Radio Access Network

1.3.2 IETF Terminology

 IPv6         Internet Protocol version 6 [RFC 2460]
 NAS          Network Access Server
 NAT          Network Address Translator
 NAT-PT       Network Address Translation with Protocol Translation.
              An IPv6 transition mechanism. [NAT-PT]
 PPP          Point-to-Point Protocol [PPP]
 SIIT         Stateless IP/ICMP Transition Mechanism [SIIT]

Wasserman Informational [Page 5] RFC 3314 Recommendations for IPv6 in 3GPP Standards September 2002

1.4 Overview of the IPv6 Addressing Architecture

 The recommendations in this document are primarily related to IPv6
 address assignment.  To fully understand the recommended changes, it
 is necessary to understand the IPv6 addressing architecture, and
 current IPv6 address assignment mechanisms.
 The IPv6 addressing architecture represents a significant evolution
 from IPv4 addressing [ADDRARCH].  It is required that all IPv6 nodes
 be able to assemble their own addresses from interface identifiers
 and prefix information.  This mechanism is called IPv6 Host
 Autoconfiguration [AUTOCONF], and it allows IPv6 nodes to configure
 themselves without the need for stateful configuration servers (i.e.,
 DHCPv6) or statically configured addresses.
 Interface identifiers can be globally unique, such as modified EUI-64
 addresses [ADDRARCH], or non-unique, such as randomly generated
 identifiers.  Hosts that have a globally unique identifier available
 may also choose to use randomly generated addresses for privacy
 [PRIVADDR] or for other reasons.  IPv6 hosts are free to generate new
 identifiers at any time, and Duplicate Address Detection (DAD) is
 used to protect against the use of duplicate identifiers on a single
 link [IPV6ND].
 A constant link-local prefix can be combined with any interface
 identifier to build an address for communication on a locally
 attached link.  IPv6 routers may advertise additional prefixes
 (site-local and/or global prefixes)[IPV6ND].  Hosts can combine
 advertised prefixes with their own interface identifiers to create
 addresses for site-local and global communication.
 IPv6 introduces architectural support for scoped unicast addressing
 [SCOPARCH].  A single interface will typically have multiple
 addresses for communication within different scopes: link-local,
 site-local and/or global [ADDRARCH].  Link-local addresses allow for
 local communication, even when an IPv6 router is not present.  Some
 IPv6 protocols (i.e., routing protocols) require the use of link-
 local addresses.  Site-local addressing allows communication to be
 administratively contained within a single site.  Link-local or
 site-local connections may also survive changes to global prefix
 information (e.g., site renumbering).
 IPv6 explicitly associates each address with an interface.
 Multiple-interface hosts may have interfaces on more than one link or
 in more than one site.  Links and sites are internally identified
 using zone identifiers.  Proper routing of non-global traffic and
 proper address selection are ensured by the IPv6 scoped addressing
 architecture [SCOPARCH].

Wasserman Informational [Page 6] RFC 3314 Recommendations for IPv6 in 3GPP Standards September 2002

 IPv6 introduces the concept of privacy addresses [PRIVADDR].  These
 addresses are generated from an advertised global prefix and a
 randomly generated identifier, and are used for anonymous access to
 Internet services.  Applications control the generation of privacy
 addresses, and new addresses can be generated at any time.
 The IPv6 site renumbering specification [SITEREN] relies upon the
 fact that IPv6 nodes will generate new addresses when new prefixes
 are advertised on the link, and that they will deprecate addresses
 that use deprecated prefixes.
 In the future, additional IPv6 specifications may rely upon the
 ability of IPv6 nodes to use multiple prefixes and/or multiple
 identifiers to dynamically create new addresses.

1.5 An IP-Centric View of the 3GPP System

 The 3GPP specifications define a Third Generation Mobile System.  An
 overview of the packet switched (PS) domain of the 3GPP Release 99
 system is described in the following sections.  The authors hope that
 this description is sufficient for the reader who is unfamiliar with
 the UMTS packet switched service, to understand how the UMTS system
 works, and how IPv6 is currently defined to be used within it.

1.5.1 Overview of the UMTS Architecture

 The UMTS architecture can be divided into two main domains -- the
 packet switched (PS) domain, and the circuit switched (CS) domain.
 In this document, we will concentrate on the PS domain, or General
 Packet Radio Services (GPRS).
  1. —–

| TE |

  1. —–

|

  +R
  |
------   Uu  -----------   Iu  -----------   Gn  -----------   Gi

| MT |–+–| UTRAN |–+–| SGSN |–+–| GGSN |–+–

  1. —– ———– ———– ———–

(UE)

                 Figure 1:  Simplified GPRS Architecture

Wasserman Informational [Page 7] RFC 3314 Recommendations for IPv6 in 3GPP Standards September 2002

  1. —–

| | | App |- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -(to app peer) | | |——| ————- | IP |- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -| IP |→ | v4/6 | | v4/6 | |——| ————- ————- |—— | | | | \ Relay / | | \ Relay / | | | | | | | \ / | | \ / | | | | | | | \ / | | \ / | | | | | PDCP |- - -| PDCP\ /GTP_U|- - -|GTP_U\ /GTP_U|- - -|GTP_U | | | | | | | | | | | | | |——| |——|——| |——|——| |——| | | | | | UDP |- - -| UDP | UDP |- - -| UDP | | | | | |——| |——|——| |——| | | RLC |- - -| RLC | IP |- - -| IP | IP |- - -| IP | | | | | | v4/6 | | v4/6 | v4/6 | |v4/6 | | |——| |——|——| |——|——| |——|——| | MAC | | MAC | AAL5 |- - -| AAL5 | L2 |- - -| L2 | L2 | |——| |——|——| |——|——| |——|——| | L1 |- - -| L1 | ATM |- - -| ATM | L1 |- - -| L1 | L1 |

  1. —– ————- ————- ————-
  UE             UTRAN                SGSN                GGSN

(handset)

                     Figure 2:  GPRS Protocol Stacks

Wasserman Informational [Page 8] RFC 3314 Recommendations for IPv6 in 3GPP Standards September 2002

  1. —–

| |

  | App. |- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - (to app peer)
  |      |
  |------|
  |      |
  |  IP  |- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - (to GGSN)
  | v4/6 |
  |      |     |             |
  |------|     |-------------|
  |      |     |  \ Relay /  |
  |      |     |   \     /   |
  |      |     |    \   /    |
  |      |     |     \ / PDCP|- - - (to UTRAN)
  |      |     |      |      |
  |  PPP |- - -|  PPP |------|
  |      |     |      |  RLC |- - - (to UTRAN)
  |      |     |      |------|
  |      |     |      |  MAC |
  |------|     |------|------|
  |  L1a |- - -|  L1a |  L1b |- - - (to UTRAN)
   ------       -------------
     TE              MT
  (laptop)        (handset)
               Figure 3:  Laptop Attached to 3GPP Handset
 The GPRS core network elements, shown in Figures 1 and 2, are the
 User Equipment (UE), Serving GPRS Support Node (SGSN), and Gateway
 GPRS Support Node (GGSN).  The UTRAN comprises Radio Access Network
 Controllers (RNC) and the UTRAN base stations.
 GGSN:  A specialized router that functions as the gateway between the
        GPRS network and the external networks, e.g., Internet.  It
        also gathers charging information about the connections.  In
        many ways, the GGSN is similar to a Network Access Server
        (NAS).
 SGSN:  The SGSN's main functions include authentication,
        authorization, mobility management, and collection of billing
        information.  The SGSN is connected to the SS7 network and
        through that, to the Home Location Register (HLR), so that it
        can perform user profile handling, authentication, and
        authorization.

Wasserman Informational [Page 9] RFC 3314 Recommendations for IPv6 in 3GPP Standards September 2002

 GTP-U: A simple tunnelling protocol running over UDP/IP and used to
        route packets between RNC, SGSN and GGSN within the same, or
        between different, UMTS backbone(s).  A GTP-U tunnel is
        identified at each end by a Tunnel Endpoint Identifier (TEID).
 Only the most significant elements of the GPRS system are discussed
 in this document.  More information about the GPRS system can be
 found in [OLD-TS23060].

1.5.2 The PDP Context

 The most important 3GPP concept in this context is a PDP Context.  A
 PDP Context is a connection between the UE and the GGSN, over which
 the packets are transferred.  There are two kinds of PDP Contexts --
 primary, and secondary.
 The primary PDP Context initially defines the link to the GGSN.  For
 instance, an IP address is assigned to each primary PDP Context.  In
 addition, one or more secondary PDP Contexts can be added to a
 primary PDP Context, sharing the same IP address.  These secondary
 PDP Contexts can have different Quality of Service characteristics
 than the primary PDP Context.
 Together, a primary PDP Context and zero or more secondary PDP
 Contexts define, in IETF terms, a link.  GPRS links are point-to-
 point.  Once activated, all PDP contexts have equal status, meaning
 that a primary PDP context can be deleted while keeping the link
 between the UE and the GGSN, as long as there are other (secondary)
 PDP contexts active for the same IP address.
 There are currently three PDP Types supported in GPRS -- IPv4, IPv6,
 and PPP.  This document will only discuss the IPv6 PDP Type.
 There are three basic actions that can be performed on a PDP Context:
 PDP Context Activation, Modification, and Deactivation.  These
 actions are described in the following.
 Activate PDP Context
       Opens a new PDP Context to a GGSN.  If a new primary PDP
       Context is activated, there is a new link created between a UE
       and a GGSN.  A UE can open multiple primary PDP Contexts to one
       or more GGSNs.
 Modify PDP Context
       Changes the characteristics of a PDP Context, for example QoS
       attributes.

Wasserman Informational [Page 10] RFC 3314 Recommendations for IPv6 in 3GPP Standards September 2002

 Deactivate PDP Context
       Deactivates a PDP Context.  If a primary PDP Context and all
       secondary PDP contexts associated with it are deactivated, a
       link between the UE and the GGSN is removed.
 The APN is a name which is logically linked to a GGSN.  The APN may
 identify a service or an external network.  The syntax of the APN
 corresponds to a fully qualified domain name.  At PDP context
 activation, the SGSN performs a DNS query to find out the GGSN(s)
 serving the APN requested by the terminal.  The DNS response contains
 a list of GGSN addresses from which the SGSN selects one (in a
 round-robin fashion).
  1. ——– ——–

| | | GGSN |

              |         |           LINK 1        |        |
              |      -======== PDP Context A ========-   - - -> ISP X
              |         |                         |        |
              |         |                         |        |
              |         |                         |        |
              |       /======= PDP Context B =======\      |
              |      -  |           LINK 2        |  -   - - -> ISP Y
              |       \======= PDP Context C =======/      |
              |         |                         |        |
              |   MT    |                          --------
              |(handset)|
              |         |                          --------
--------      |         |                         |  GGSN  |

| | | | LINK 3 | | | | | -======== PDP Context D ========- | | TE | | | | | |(laptop)| | | | - - → ISP Z | | | | LINK 4 | | | -====PPP====—–======== PDP Context E ========- | | | | | | | | | | | | |

  1. ——- ——— ——–
         Figure 3:  Correspondence of PDP Contexts to IPv6 Links

1.5.3 IPv6 Address Autoconfiguration in GPRS

 GPRS supports static and dynamic address allocation.  Two types of
 dynamic address allocation are supported -- stateless, and stateful.
 Stateful address configuration uses an external protocol to connect
 to a server that gives the IP address, e.g., DHCP.

Wasserman Informational [Page 11] RFC 3314 Recommendations for IPv6 in 3GPP Standards September 2002

 The stateless IPv6 autoconfiguration works differently in GPRS than
 in Ethernet networks.  GPRS nodes have no unique identifier, whereas
 Ethernet nodes can create an identifier from their EUI-48 address.
 Because GPRS networks are similar to dialup networks, the stateless
 address autoconfiguration in GPRS was based on PPPv6 [PPPV6].
 3GPP address autoconfiguration has the following steps:
    1. The Activate PDP Context message is sent to the SGSN (PDP
       Type=IPv6, PDP Address = 0, etc.).
    2. The SGSN sends a Create PDP Context message to the GGSN with
       the above parameters.
    3. GGSN chooses an interface identifier for the PDP Context and
       creates the link-local address.  It answers the SGSN with a
       Create PDP Context response (PDP Address = link-local address).
    4. The SGSN sends an Activate PDP Context accept message to the UE
       (PDP Address = link-local address).
    5. The UE keeps the link-local address, and extracts the interface
       identifier for later use.  The UE may send a Router
       Solicitation message to the GGSN (first hop router).
    6. After the PDP Context Activation, the GGSN sends a Router
       Advertisement to the UE.
    7. The UE should be configured not to send a Neighbor Solicitation
       message.  However, if one is sent, the GGSN will silently
       discard it.
    8. The GGSN updates the SGSN with the whole IPv6 address.
 Each connected handset or laptop will create a primary PDP context
 for communication on the Internet.  A handset may create many primary
 and/or secondary PDP contexts throughout the life of its connection
 with a GGSN.
 Within 3GPP, the GGSN assigns a single 64-bit identifier to each
 primary PDP context.  The GGSN also advertises a single /64 prefix to
 the handset, and these two items are assembled into a single IPv6
 address.  Later, the GGSN modifies the PDP context entry in the SGSN
 to include the whole IPv6 address, so that the SGSN can know the
 single address of each 3GPP node (e.g., for billing purposes).  This
 address is also used in the GGSN to identify the PDP context
 associated with each packet.  It is assumed that 3GPP nodes will not

Wasserman Informational [Page 12] RFC 3314 Recommendations for IPv6 in 3GPP Standards September 2002

 generate any addresses, except for the single identifier/prefix
 combination assigned by the GGSN.  DAD is not performed, as the GGSN
 will not assign the same address to multiple nodes.

2 Recommendations to the 3GPP

 In the spirit of productive cooperation, the IPv6 Working Group
 recommends that the 3GPP consider three changes regarding the use of
 IPv6 within GPRS.  Specifically, we recommend that the 3GPP:
    1. Specify that multiple prefixes may be assigned to each primary
       PDP context,
    2. Require that a given prefix must not be assigned to more than
       one primary PDP context, and
    3. Allow 3GPP nodes to use multiple identifiers within those
       prefixes, including randomly generated identifiers.
 Making these changes would provide several advantages for 3GPP
 implementers and users:
    Laptops that connect to 3GPP handsets will work without any
    software changes.  Their implementation of the standard IPv6 over
    PPP, address assignment, and autoconfiguration mechanisms will
    work without any modification.  This will eliminate the need for
    vendors and operators to build and test special 3GPP drivers and
    related software.  As currently specified, the 3GPP standards will
    be incompatible with laptop implementations that generate their
    own identifiers for privacy or other purposes.
    IPv6 software implementations could be used in 3GPP handsets
    without any modifications to the IPv6 protocol mechanisms.  This
    will make it easier to build and test 3GPP handsets.
    Applications in 3GPP handsets will be able to take advantage of
    different types of IPv6 addresses (e.g., static addresses,
    temporary addresses for privacy, site-scoped addresses for site
    only communication, etc.)
    The GPRS system will be better positioned to take advantage of new
    IPv6 features that are built around the current addressing
    architecture.

2.1 Limitations of 3GPP Address Assignment

 The current 3GPP address assignment mechanism has the following
 limitations:

Wasserman Informational [Page 13] RFC 3314 Recommendations for IPv6 in 3GPP Standards September 2002

    The GGSN only advertises a single /64 prefix, rather than a set of
    prefixes.  This will prevent the participation of 3GPP nodes
    (e.g., handsets or 3GPP-attached laptops) in IPv6 site
    renumbering, or in other mechanisms that expect IPv6 hosts to
    create addresses based on multiple advertised prefixes.
    A 3GPP node is assigned a single identifier and is not allowed to
    generate additional identifiers.  This will prevent the use of
    privacy addresses by 3GPP nodes.  This also makes 3GPP mechanisms
    not fully compliant with the expected behavior of IPv6 nodes,
    which will result in incompatibility with popular laptop IPv6
    stacks.  For example, a laptop that uses privacy addresses for web
    browser connections could not currently establish a web browser
    connection over a 3GPP link.
 These limitations could be avoided by enabling the standard IPv6
 address allocation mechanisms in 3GPP nodes.  The GGSN could
 advertise one or more prefixes for the local link in standard IPv6
 Router Advertisements, and IPv6 addresses could be assembled, as
 needed, by the IPv6 stack on the handset or laptop.  An interface
 identifier could still be assigned by the GGSN, as is currently
 specified in the 3GPP standards.  However, the handset or laptop
 could generate additional identifiers, as needed for privacy or other
 reasons.

2.2 Advertising Multiple Prefixes

 For compliance with current and future IPv6 standards, the IPv6 WG
 recommends that the 3GPP allow multiple prefixes to be advertised for
 each primary PDP context.  This would have several advantages,
 including:
    3GPP nodes could participate in site renumbering and future IPv6
    mechanisms that rely on the use of multiple global prefixes on a
    single link.
    Site-local prefixes could be advertised on 3GPP links, if desired,
    allowing for site-constrained communication that could survive
    changes to global prefix information (e.g., site renumbering).

2.3 Assigning a Prefix to Only One Primary PDP Context

 The IPv6 WG recommends that the 3GPP treat a primary PDP context,
 along with its secondary PDP contexts, as a single IPv6 link, and
 that the GGSN view each primary PDP context as a single subnet.
 Accordingly, a given global (or site-local) prefix should not be
 assigned to more than one PDP context.

Wasserman Informational [Page 14] RFC 3314 Recommendations for IPv6 in 3GPP Standards September 2002

 Because multiple IPv6 hosts may attach through a 3GPP handset, the
 IPv6 WG recommends that one or more /64 prefixes should be assigned
 to each primary PDP context.  This will allow sufficient address
 space for a 3GPP-attached node to allocate privacy addresses and/or
 route to a multi-link subnet [MULTLINK], and will discourage the use
 of NAT within 3GPP-attached devices.

2.3.1 Is a /64 per PDP Context Too Much?

 If an operator assigns a /64 per PDP context, can we be assured that
 there is enough address space for millions of mobile devices?  This
 question can be answered in the positive using the Host Density (HD)
 Ratio for address assignment efficiency [HD].  This is a measure of
 the number of addresses that can practically and easily be assigned
 to hosts, taking into consideration the inefficiencies in usage
 resulting from the various address assignment processes.  The HD
 ratio was empirically derived from actual telephone number and data
 network address assignment cases.
 We can calculate the number of easily assignable /64's making the
 following assumptions:
    An HD ratio of 0.8 (representing the efficiency that can be
    achieved with no particular difficulty).
    Only addresses with the 3-bit prefix 001 (the Aggregatable Global
    Unicast Addresses defined by RFC 2373) are used, resulting in 61
    bits of assignable address space.
 Using these assumptions, a total of 490 trillion (490x10^12) /64
 prefixes can be assigned.  This translates into around 80,000 PDP
 Contexts per person on the earth today.  Even assuming that a
 majority of these IPv6 /64 prefixes will be used by non-3GPP
 networks, there is still clearly a sufficient number of /64 prefixes.
 Given this, it can be safely concluded that the IPv6 address space
 will not be exhausted if /64 prefixes are allocated to primary PDP
 contexts.
 For more information regarding policies for IPv6 address assignment,
 refer to the IAB/IESG recommendations regarding address assignment
 [IABAA], and the APNIC, ARIN and RIPE address allocation policy
 [AAPOL].

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2.3.2 Prefix Information in the SGSN

 Currently, the 3GPP standards allow only one prefix and one
 identifier for each PDP context.  So, the GGSN can send a single IPv6
 address to the SGSN, to be used for billing purposes, etc.
 Instead of using the full IPv6 address to identify a PDP context, the
 IPv6 WG recommends that the SGSN be informed of each prefix that is
 currently assigned to a PDP context.  By assigning a prefix to only
 one primary PDP context, the SGSN can associate a prefix list with
 each PDP context.

2.4 Multiple Identifiers per PDP Context

 The IPv6 WG also recommends that the 3GPP standards be modified to
 allow multiple identifiers, including randomly generated identifiers,
 to be used within each assigned prefix.  This would allow 3GPP nodes
 to generate and use privacy addresses, and would be compatible with
 future IPv6 standards that may depend on the ability of IPv6 nodes to
 generate new interface identifiers for communication.
 This is a vital change, necessary to allow standards-compliant IPv6
 nodes to connect to the Internet through 3GPP handsets, without
 modification.  It is expected that most IPv6 nodes, including the
 most popular laptop stacks, will generate privacy addresses.  The
 current 3GPP specifications will not be compatible with those
 implementations.

3 Additional IPv6 Work Items

 During our work on this document, we have discovered several areas
 that could benefit from further informational or standards-track work
 within the IPv6 Working Group.
 The IPv6 WG should work to define a point-to-point architecture and
 specify how the standard IPv6 address assignment mechanisms are
 applicable to IPv6 over point-to-point links.  We should also review
 and clarify the IPv6 over PPP specification [PPP] to match the
 current IPv6 addressing architecture [ADDRARCH].
 The IPv6 WG should consider publishing an "IPv6 over PDP Contexts"
 (or similar) document.  This document would be useful for developers
 writing drivers for IPv6 stacks to work over 3GPP PDP Contexts.
 The IPv6 working group should undertake an effort to define the
 minimal requirements for all IPv6 nodes.

Wasserman Informational [Page 16] RFC 3314 Recommendations for IPv6 in 3GPP Standards September 2002

4 Security Considerations

 This document contains recommendations on the use of the IPv6
 protocol in 3GPP standards.  It does not specify a protocol, and it
 introduces no new security considerations.

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Appendix A: Analysis of Findings

 This section includes some analysis that may be useful to
 understanding why the IPv6 working group is making the above
 recommendations.  It also includes some other options that were
 explored, and the reasons why those options were less suitable than
 the recommendations outlined above.

A.1 Address Assignment Solutions

 In order to allow for the configuration and use of multiple IPv6
 addresses per primary PDP Context having different interface
 identifiers, some modifications to the current 3GPP specifications
 would be required.
 The solutions to achieve this were evaluated against the following
 factors:
  1. Scarcity and high cost of wireless spectrum
  2. Complexity of implementation and state maintenance
  3. Stability of the relevant IETF standards
  4. Impact on current 3GPP standards
 Two solutions to allow autoconfiguration of multiple addresses on the
 same primary PDP Context were considered:
    1. Assign one or more entire prefixes (/64s) to a PDP Context upon
       PDP Context activation and allow the autoconfiguration of
       multiple addresses.
       a) The assignment may be performed by having the GGSN advertise
          one or more /64 prefixes to the mobile device.
       b) The assignment may be performed by building "prefix
          delegation" functionality into the PDP Context messages or
          by using layer 3 mechanisms such as [PREFDEL].  In this way,
          the prefix is not assigned to the link between the GGSN and
          the mobile device (as in 1a), but it is assigned to the
          mobile device itself.  Note that [PREFDEL] cannot be
          considered stable and has not, at this stage, been adopted
          by the IPv6 WG as a WG document.
    2. Share the same prefix between multiple PDP Contexts connected
       to the same GGSN (and APN).  Given that mobile devices may
       generate multiple addresses using more than one interface
       identifier, this would require DAD for the newly generated
       addresses over the air interface, and a proxy DAD, function
       which would increase the complexity and the amount of state to

Wasserman Informational [Page 18] RFC 3314 Recommendations for IPv6 in 3GPP Standards September 2002

       be kept in the GGSN.  Also, the GGSN would need to determine
       when the temporary addresses are no longer in use, which would
       be difficult.  One possible solution could be using periodic
       unicast neighbor solicitations for the temporary addresses
       [IPV6ND].
 Considering all the factors when evaluating the solutions, the
 recommendation is to use Solution 1a.  This solution requires the
 least modification to the current 3GPP standards and maintains all
 the advantages of the other solutions.
 Effectively, this would mean that each APN in a GGSN would have a
 certain number of /64 prefixes that can be handed out at PDP context
 Activation, through Router Advertisements.  Therefore, instead of
 using the full IPv6 address to identify a primary PDP context, the
 IPv6 WG recommends that the GGSN use the entire prefix (together with
 other 3GPP specific information) and that the SGSN be informed of the
 prefixes that are assigned to a PDP context.  By assigning a given
 prefix to only one primary PDP context, the GGSN and SGSN can
 associate a prefix list with each PDP context, as needed.
 Note that the recommended solution does not imply or assume that the
 mobile device is a router.  The MT is expected to use the /64 for
 itself and may also use this prefix for devices attached to it.
 However, this is not necessary if each device behind the MT is
 connected to a separate primary PDP Context and therefore can use a
 /64, which is not shared with other devices.  The MT is also expected
 to handle DAD locally for devices attached to it (e.g., laptops)
 without forwarding Neighbor Solicitations over the air to the GGSN.

References

 [OLD-TS23060] TS 23.060, "General Packet Radio Service (GPRS);
               Service description; Stage 2", V4.1.0
 [NEW-TS23060] TS 23.060 version 3.11.0 (release 99), 4.4.0 (release
               4) and 5.1.0 (release 5).
 [3GPP-URL]    http://www.3gpp.org
 [IETF-URL]    http://www.ietf.org
 [RFC2026]     Bradner, S., "The Internet Standards Process --
               Revision 3", BCP 9, RFC 2026, October 1996
 [KEYWORD]     Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
               Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1999.

Wasserman Informational [Page 19] RFC 3314 Recommendations for IPv6 in 3GPP Standards September 2002

 [TR21905]     3GPP TR 21.905, "Vocabulary for 3GPP Specifications",
               V5.0.0
 [IPV6]        Deering, S. and R. Hinden, "Internet Protocol, Version
               6 (IPv6) Specification", RFC 2460, December 1998.
 [NAT-PT]      Tsirtsis, G. and P. Shrisuresh, "Network Address
               Translation - Protocol Translation (NAT-PT)", RFC 2766,
               February 2000.
 [PPP]         Simpson, W., "The Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP)", STD
               51, RFC 1661, July 1994.
 [SIIT]        Nordmark, N., "Stateless IP/ICMP Translation
               Algorithm", RFC 2765, February 2000.
 [ADDRARCH]    Hinden, R. and S. Deering, "IP Version 6 Addressing
               Architecture", RFC 2373, July 1998.
 [IPV6ND]      Narten, T., Nordmark, E. and W. Simpson, "Neighbor
               Discovery for IP Version 6 (IPv6)", RFC 2461, December
               1998.
 [AUTOCONF]    Thomson, S. and T. Narten, "IPv6 Stateless Address
               Autoconfiguration", RFC 2462, December 1998
 [PRIVADDR]    Narten, T. and R. Draves, "Privacy Extensions for
               Stateless Address Autoconfiguration in IPv6", RFC 3041,
               January 2001.
 [IPV6ETH]     Crawford, M., "Transmission of IPv6 Packets over
               Ethernet Networks", RFC 2464, December 1998.
 [PPPv6]       Haskin, D. and E. Allen, "IP Version 6 over PPP", RFC
               2472, December 1998.
 [MULTLINK]    C. Huitema, D. Thaler, "Multi-link Subnet Support in
               IPv6", Work in Progress.
 [SITEREN]     C. Huitema, "IPv6 Site Renumbering", Work in Progress.
 [HD]          Durand, A. and C. Huitema, "The Host-Density Ratio for
               Address Assignment Efficiency: An update on the H
               ratio", RFC 3194, November 2001.
 [IABAA]       IAB, IESG, "IAB/IESG Recommendations on IPv6 Address
               Allocations to Sites", RFC 3177, September 2001.

Wasserman Informational [Page 20] RFC 3314 Recommendations for IPv6 in 3GPP Standards September 2002

 [AAPOL]       APNIC, ARIN, RIPE-NCC, "IPv6 Address Allocation and
               Assignment Global Policy", Work in Progress.
 [SCOPARCH]    S. Deering, et. al., "IPv6 Scoped Address
               Architecture", Work in Progress.
 [CELLREQ]     J. Arkko, et. al., "Minimum IPv6 Functionality for a
               Cellular Host", Work in Progress.
 [PREFDEL]     J. Martin, B. Haberman, "Automatic Prefix Delegation
               Protocol for Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6)", Work
               in Progress.

Wasserman Informational [Page 21] RFC 3314 Recommendations for IPv6 in 3GPP Standards September 2002

Authors and Acknowledgements

 This document was written by the IPv6 3GPP design team:
 Steve Deering, Cisco Systems
 EMail: deering@cisco.com
 Karim El-Malki, Ericsson Radio Systems
 EMail: Karim.El-Malki@era.ericsson.se
 Paul Francis, Tahoe Networks
 EMail: francis@tahoenetworks.com
 Bob Hinden, Nokia
 EMail: hinden@iprg.nokia.com
 Christian Huitema, Microsoft
 EMail: huitema@windows.microsoft.com
 Niall Richard Murphy, Hutchison 3G
 EMail: niallm@enigma.ie
 Markku Savela, Technical Research Centre of Finland
 Email: Markku.Savela@vtt.fi
 Jonne Soininen, Nokia
 EMail: Jonne.Soininen@nokia.com
 Margaret Wasserman, Wind River
 EMail: mrw@windriver.com
 Information was incorporated from a presentation co-authored by:
       Juan-Antonio Ibanez, Ericsson Eurolab

Editor's Address

 Comments or questions regarding this document should be sent to:
 Margaret Wasserman
 Wind River
 10 Tara Blvd., Suite 330
 Nashua, NH  03062  USA
 Phone:  (603) 897-2067
 EMail:  mrw@windriver.com

Wasserman Informational [Page 22] RFC 3314 Recommendations for IPv6 in 3GPP Standards September 2002

Full Copyright Statement

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Acknowledgement

 Funding for the RFC Editor function is currently provided by the
 Internet Society.

Wasserman Informational [Page 23]

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