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rfc:rfc2745

Network Working Group A. Terzis Request for Comments: 2745 UCLA Category: Standards Track B. Braden

                                                                   ISI
                                                            S. Vincent
                                                         Cisco Systems
                                                              L. Zhang
                                                                  UCLA
                                                          January 2000
                      RSVP Diagnostic Messages

Status of this Memo

 This document specifies an Internet standards track protocol for the
 Internet community, and requests discussion and suggestions for
 improvements.  Please refer to the current edition of the "Internet
 Official Protocol Standards" (STD 1) for the standardization state
 and status of this protocol.  Distribution of this memo is unlimited.

Copyright Notice

 Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2000).  All Rights Reserved.

Abstract

 This document specifies the RSVP diagnostic facility, which allows a
 user to collect information about the RSVP state along a path.  This
 specification describes the functionality, diagnostic message
 formats, and processing rules.

1. Introduction

 In the basic RSVP protocol [RSVP], error messages are the only means
 for an end host to receive feedback regarding a failure in setting up
 either path state or reservation state.  An error message carries
 back only the information from the failed point, without any
 information about the state at other hops before or after the
 failure.  In the absence of failures, a host receives no feedback
 regarding the details of a reservation that has been put in place,
 such as whether, or where, or how, its own reservation request is
 being merged with that of others.  Such missing information can be
 highly desirable for debugging purposes, or for network resource
 management in general.

Terzis, et al. Standards Track [Page 1] RFC 2745 RSVP Diagnostic Messages January 2000

 This document specifies the RSVP diagnostic facility, which is
 designed to fill this information gap.  The diagnostic facility can
 be used to collect and report RSVP state information along the path
 from a receiver to a specific sender.  It uses Diagnostic messages
 that are independent of other RSVP control messages and produce no
 side-effects; that is, they do not change any RSVP state at either
 nodes or hosts.  Similarly, they provide not an error report but
 rather a collection of requested RSVP state information.
 The RSVP diagnostic facility was designed with the following goals:
  1. To collect RSVP state information from every RSVP-capable hop

along a path defined by path state, either for an existing

    reservation or before a reservation request is made.  More
    specifically, we want to be able to collect information about
    flowspecs, refresh timer values, and reservation merging at each
    hop along the path.
  1. To collect the IP hop count across each non-RSVP cloud.
  1. To avoid diagnostic packet implosion or explosion.
 The following is specifically identified as a non-goal:
  1. Checking the resource availability along a path. Such

functionality may be useful for future reservation requests, but

    it would require modifications to existing admission control
    modules that is beyond the scope of RSVP.

2. Overview

 The diagnostic facility introduces two new RSVP message types:
 Diagnostic Request (DREQ) and Diagnostic Reply (DREP).  A DREQ
 message can be originated by a client in a "requester" host, which
 may or may not be a participant of the RSVP session to be diagnosed.
 A client in the requester host invokes the RSVP diagnostic facility
 by generating a DREQ packet and sending it towards the LAST-HOP node,
 which should be on the RSVP path to be diagnosed. This DREQ packet
 specifies the RSVP session and a sender host for that session.
 Starting from the LAST-HOP, the DREQ packet collects information
 hop-by-hop as it is forwarded towards the sender (see Figure 1),
 until it reaches the ending node.  Specifically, each RSVP-capable
 hop adds to the DREQ message a response (DIAG_RESPONSE) object
 containing local RSVP state for the specified RSVP session.

Terzis, et al. Standards Track [Page 2] RFC 2745 RSVP Diagnostic Messages January 2000

 When the DREQ packet reaches the ending node, the message type is
 changed to Diagnostic Reply (DREP) and the completed response is sent
 to the original requester node.  Partial responses may also be
 returned before the DREQ packet reaches the ending node if an error
 condition along the path, such as "no path state", prevents further
 forwarding of the DREQ packet.  To avoid packet implosion or
 explosion, all diagnostic packets are forwarded via unicast only.
 Thus, there are generally three nodes (hosts and/or routers) involved
 in performing the diagnostic function: the requester node, the
 starting node, and the ending node, as shown in Figure 1.  It is
 possible that the client invoking the diagnosis function may reside
 directly on the starting node, in which case that the first two nodes
 are the same.  The starting node is named "LAST-HOP", meaning the
 last-hop of the path segment to be diagnosed.  The LAST-HOP node can
 be either a receiver node or an intermediate node along the path.
 The ending node is usually the specified sender host.  However, the
 client can limit the length of the path segment to be diagnosed by
 specifying a hop-count limit in the DREQ message.
                LAST-HOP                  Ending
   Receiver        node                     node           Sender
       __           __         __            __              __
      |  |---------|  |------>|  |--> ...-->|  |--> ...---->|  |
      |__|         |__| DREQ  |__|   DREQ   |__|   DREQ     |__|
                    ^                         .              |
                    |                         .              |
                    | DREQ                    . DREP         | DREP
                    |                         .              |
                   _|_               DREP     V              V
      Requester   |   | <------------------------------------
      (client)    |___|
                       Figure 1
 DREP packets can be unicast from the ending node back to the
 requester either directly or hop-by-hop along the reverse of the path
 taken by the DREQ message to the LAST-HOP, and thence to the
 requester.  The direct return is faster and more efficient, but the
 hop-by-hop reverse-path route may be the only choice if the packets
 have to cross firewalls.  Hop-by-hop return is accomplished using an
 optional ROUTE object, which is built incrementally to contain a list
 of node addresses that the DREQ packet has passed through.  The ROUTE
 object is then used in reverse as a source route to forward the DREP
 hop-by-hop back to the LAST-HOP node.

Terzis, et al. Standards Track [Page 3] RFC 2745 RSVP Diagnostic Messages January 2000

 A DREQ message always consists of a single unfragmented IP datagram.
 On the other hand, one DREQ message can generate multiple DREP
 packets, each containing a fragment of the total DREQ message.  When
 the path consists of many hops, the total length of a DREP message
 will exceed the MTU size before reaching the ending node; thus, the
 message has to be fragmented.  Relying on IP fragmentation and
 reassembly, however, can be problematic, especially when DREP
 messages are returned to the requester hop-by-hop, in which case
 fragmentation/reassembly would have to be performed at every hop.  To
 avoid such excessive overhead, we let the requester define a default
 path MTU size that is carried in every DREQ packet.  If an
 intermediate node finds that the default MTU size is bigger than the
 MTU of the incoming interface, it reduces the default MTU size to the
 MTU size of the incoming interface. If an intermediate node detects
 that a DREQ packet size is larger than the default MTU size, it
 returns to the requester (in either manner described above) a DREP
 fragment containing accumulated responses.  It then removes these
 responses from the DREQ and continues to forward it.  The requester
 node can reassemble the resulting DREP fragments into a complete DREP
 message.
 When discussing diagnostic packet handling, this document uses
 direction terminology that is consistent with the RSVP functional
 specification [RSVP], relative to the direction of data packet flow.
 Thus, a DREQ packet enters a node through an "outgoing interface" and
 is forwarded towards the sender through an "incoming interface",
 because DREQ packets travel in the reverse direction to the data
 flow.
 Notice that DREQ packets can be forwarded only after the RSVP path
 state has been set up.  If no path state exists, one may resort to
 the traceroute or mtrace facility to examine whether the
 unicast/multicast routing is working correctly.

3. Diagnostic Packet Format

 Like other RSVP messages, DREQ and DREP messages consist of an RSVP
 Common Header followed by a variable set of typed RSVP data objects.
 The following sequence must be used:

Terzis, et al. Standards Track [Page 4] RFC 2745 RSVP Diagnostic Messages January 2000

         +-----------------------------------+
         |        RSVP Common Header         |
         +-----------------------------------+
         |         Session object            |
         +-----------------------------------+
         |      Next-Hop RSVP_HOP object     |
         +-----------------------------------+
         |       DIAGNOSTIC object           |
         +-----------------------------------+
         |    (optional) DIAG_SELECT object  |
         +-----------------------------------+
         |    (optional) ROUTE object        |
         +-----------------------------------+
         | zero or more DIAG_RESPONSE objects|
         +-----------------------------------+
 The session object identifies the RSVP session for which the state
 information is being collected.  We describe each of the other parts.

3.1. RSVP Message Common Header

 The RSVP message common header is defined in [RSVP].  The following
 specific exceptions and extensions are needed for DREP and DREQ.
 Type field: define:
        Type = 8: DREQ     Diagnostic Request
        Type = 9: DREP     Diagnostic Reply
 RSVP length:
    If this is a DREP message and the MF flag in the DIAGNOSTIC object
    (see below) is set, this field indicates the length of this single
    DREP fragment rather than the total length of the complete DREP
    reply message (which cannot generally be known in advance).

3.2. Next-Hop RSVP_HOP Object

 This RSVP_HOP object carries the LIH of the interface through which
 the DREQ should be received at the upstream node. This object is
 updated hop-by hop. It is used for the same reasons that a RESV
 message contains an RSVP_HOP object: to distinguish logical
 interfaces and avoid problems caused by routing asymmetries and non-
 RSVP clouds.

Terzis, et al. Standards Track [Page 5] RFC 2745 RSVP Diagnostic Messages January 2000

 While the IP address is not really used during DREQ processing, for
 consistency with the use of the RSVP_HOP object in other RSVP
 messages, the IP address in the RSVP_HOP object to contain the
 address of the interface through which the DREQ was sent.

3.3. DIAGNOSTIC Object

 A DIAGNOSTIC object contains the common diagnostic control
 information in both DREQ and DREP messages.
 o IPv4 DIAGNOSTIC object: Class = 30, C-Type = 1
  +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
  | Max-RSVP-hops | RSVP-hop-count|         Reserved            |MF|
  +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
  |                          Request ID                           |
  +---------------+---------------+---------------+---------------+
  |           Path MTU            |     Fragment Offset           |
  +---------------+---------------+---------------+---------------+
  |                         LAST-HOP Address                      |
  +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
  |                                                               |
  |                     SENDER_TEMPLATE object                    |
  |                                                               |
  +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
  |                                                               |
  |                 Requester FILTER_SPEC object                  |
  |                                                               |
  +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
 Here all IP addresses use the 4 byte IPv4 format, both explicitly in
 the LAST-HOP Address and by using the IPv4 forms of the embedded
 FILTER_SPEC and RSVP_HOP objects.
 o IPv6 DIAGNOSTIC object: Class = 30, C-Type = 2
 The format is the same, except all explicit and embedded IP addresses
 are 16 byte IPv6 addresses.
 The fields are as follows:
 Max-RSVP-hops
    An octet specifying the maximum number of RSVP hops over which
    information will be collected.  If an error condition in the
    middle of the path prevents the DREQ packet from reaching the
    specified ending node, the Max-RSVP-hops field may be used to
    perform an expanding-length search to reach the point just before

Terzis, et al. Standards Track [Page 6] RFC 2745 RSVP Diagnostic Messages January 2000

    the problem.  If this value is 1, the starting node and the ending
    node of the query will be the same.  If it is zero, there is no
    hop limit.
 RSVP-hop-count
    Records the number of RSVP hops that have been traversed so far.
    If the starting and ending nodes are the same, this value will be
    1 in the resulting DREP message.
 Fragment Offset
    Indicates where this DREP fragment belongs in the complete DREP
    message, measured in octets.  The first fragment has offset zero.
    Fragment Offset is used also to determine if a DREQ message
    containing zero DIAG_RESPONSE objects should be processed at an
    RSVP capable node.
 MF flag
    Flag means "more fragments".  It must be set to zero (0) in all
    DREQ messages.  It must be set to one (1) in all DREP packets that
    carry partial results and are returned by intermediate nodes due
    to the MTU limit.  When the DREQ message is converted to a DREP
    message in the ending node, the MF flag must remain zero.
 Request ID
    Identifies an individual DREQ message and the corresponding DREP
    message (or all the fragments of the reply message).
    One possible way to define the Request ID would use 16 bits to
    specify the ID of the process making the query and 16 bits to
    distinguish different queries from this process.
 Path MTU
    Specifies a default MTU size in octets for DREP and DREQ messages.
    This value should not be smaller than the size of the "base" DREQ
    packet. A "base" DREQ packet is one that contains a Common Header,
    a Session object, a Next-Hop RSVP_HOP object, a DIAGNOSTIC object,
    an empty ROUTE object and a single default DIAG_RESPONSE (see
    below).  The assumption made here is that a diagnostic packet of
    this size can always be forwarded without IP fragmentation.

Terzis, et al. Standards Track [Page 7] RFC 2745 RSVP Diagnostic Messages January 2000

 LAST-HOP Address
    The IP address of the LAST-HOP node.  The DREQ message starts
    collecting information at this node and proceeds toward the
    sender.
 SENDER_TEMPLATE object
    This IPv4/IPv6 SENDER_TEMPLATE object contains the IP address and
    the port of a sender for the session being diagnosed.  The DREQ
    packet is forwarded hop-by-hop towards this address.
 Requester FILTER_SPEC Object
    This IPv4/IPv6 FILTER_SPEC object contains the IP address and the
    port from which the request originated and to which the DREP
    message(s) should be sent.

3.4. DIAG_SELECT Object

 o DIAG_SELECT Class = 33, C-Type = 1.
 A Diagnostic message may optionally contain a DIAG_SELECT object to
 specify which specific RSVP objects should be reported in a
 DIAG_RESPONSE object.  In the absence of a DIAG_SELECT object, the
 DIAG_RESPONSE object added by the node will contain a default set of
 object types (see DIAG_RESPONSE object below).
 The DIAG_SELECT object contains a list of [Class, C-type] pairs, in
 the following format:
  +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
  |    class      |     C-Type    |    class      |     C-Type    |
  +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
  //                                                             //
  +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
  |    class      |     C-Type    |    class      |     C-Type    |
  +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
 When a DIAG_SELECT object is included in a DREQ message, each RSVP
 node along the path will add a DIAG_RESPONSE object containing
 response objects (see below) whose classes and C-Types match entries
 in the DIAG_SELECT list (and are from matching path and reservation
 state). A C-type octet of zero is a 'wildcard', matching any C-Type
 associated with the associated class.

Terzis, et al. Standards Track [Page 8] RFC 2745 RSVP Diagnostic Messages January 2000

 Depending on the type of objects requested, a node can find the
 associated information in the path or reservation state stored for
 the session described in the SESSION object. Specifically,
 information for the RSVP_HOP,SENDER_TEMPLATE, SENDER_TSPEC, ADSPEC
 objects can be extracted from the node's path state, while
 information for the FLOWSPEC, FILTER_SPEC, CONFIRM, STYLE and SCOPE
 objects can be found in the node's reservation state (if existent).
 If the number of [Class, C-Type] pairs is odd, the last two octets of
 the DIAG_SELECT object must be  zero. A maximum DIAG_SELECT object is
 one that contains the [Class, C-type] pairs for all the RSVP objects
 that can be requested in a Diagnostic query.

3.5. ROUTE Object

 A diagnostic message may contain a ROUTE object, which is used to
 record the route of the DREQ message and as a source route for
 returning the DREP message(s) hop-by-hop.
 o IPv4 ROUTE object: Class = 31, C-Type = 1.
  +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
  |             reserved                          |    R-pointer  |
  +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
  |                                                               |
  +                     RSVP Node List                            |
  |                                                               |
  +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
 This message signifies how the reply should be returned.  If it does
 not exist in the DREQ packet then DREP packets should be sent to the
 requester directly. If it does exist, DREP packets must be returned
 hop-by-hop along the reverse path to the LAST-HOP node and thence to
 the requester node.
 An empty ROUTE object is one that has an empty RSVP Node list and R-
 pointer is equal to zero.
 RSVP Node List
    A list of RSVP node IPv4 addresses.  The number of addresses in
    this list can be computed from the object size.
 R-pointer
    Used in DREP messages only (see Section 4.2 for details), but it
    is incremented as each hop adds its incoming interface address in
    the ROUTE object.

Terzis, et al. Standards Track [Page 9] RFC 2745 RSVP Diagnostic Messages January 2000

 o IPv6 ROUTE object: Class = 31, C-Type = 2
 The same, except RSVP Node List contains IPv6 addresses.
 In a DREQ message, RSVP Node List specifies all RSVP hops between the
 LAST-HOP address specified in the DIAGNOSTIC object, and the last
 RSVP node the DREQ message has visited.  In a DREP message, RSVP Node
 List specifies all RSVP hops between the LAST-HOP and the node that
 returns this DREP message.

3.6. DIAG_RESPONSE Object

 Each RSVP node attaches a DIAG_RESPONSE object to each DREQ message
 it receives, before forwarding the message.  The DIAG_RESPONSE object
 contains the state to be reported for this node.  It has a fixed-
 format header and then a variable list of RSVP state objects, or
 "response objects".
 o IPv4 DIAG_RESPONSE object: Class = 32, C-Type = 1.
  +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
  |                       DREQ Arrival Time                       |
  +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
  |                  Incoming Interface Address                   |
  +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
  |                  Outgoing Interface Address                   |
  +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
  |                 Previous-RSVP-Hop Router Address              |
  +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
  |   D-TTL       |M|R-err|  K    |      Timer value              |
  +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
  |                                                               |
  |                  (optional) TUNNEL object                     |
  |                                                               |
  +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
  |                                                               |
  //                       Response objects                      //
  |                                                               |
  +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
 o IPv6 DIAG_RESPONSE object: Class = 32, C-Type = 2.
 This object has the same format, except that all explicit and
 embedded IP addresses are IPv6 addresses.
 The fields are as follows:

Terzis, et al. Standards Track [Page 10] RFC 2745 RSVP Diagnostic Messages January 2000

 DREQ Arrival Time
    A 32-bit NTP timestamp specifying the time the DREQ message
    arrived at this node.  The 32-bit form of an NTP timestamp
    consists of the middle 32 bits of the full 64-bit form, that is,
    the low 16 bits of the integer part and the high 16 bits of the
    fractional part.
 Incoming Interface Address
    Specifies the IP address of the interface on which messages from
    the sender are expected to arrive, or 0 if unknown.
 Outgoing Interface Address
    Specifies the IP address of the interface through which the DREQ
    message arrived and to which messages from the given sender and
    for the specified session address flow, or 0 if unknown.
 Previous-RSVP-Hop Router Address
    Specifies the IP address from which this node receives RSVP PATH
    messages for this source, or 0 if unknown.  This is also the
    interface to which the DREQ will be forwarded.
 D-TTL
    The number of IP hops this DREQ message traveled from the down-
    stream RSVP node to the current node.
 M flag
    A single-bit flag which indicates whether the reservation
    described by the response objects is merged with reservations from
    other down-stream interfaces when being forwarded upstream.
 R-error
    A 3-bit field that indicates error conditions at a node. Currently
    defined values are:
         0x00: no error
         0x01: No PATH state
         0x02: packet too big
         0x04: ROUTE object too big

Terzis, et al. Standards Track [Page 11] RFC 2745 RSVP Diagnostic Messages January 2000

 K
    The refresh timer multiple (defined in [RSVP]).
 Timer value
    The local refresh timer value in seconds.
 The set of response objects to be included at the end of the
 DIAG_RESPONSE object is determined by a DIAG_SELECT object, if one is
 present.  If no DIAG_SELECT object is present, the response objects
 belong to the default list of classes:
    SENDER_TSPEC object      FILTER_SPEC object      FLOWSPEC object
    STYLE object
 Any C-Type present in the local RSVP state will be used.  These
 response objects may be in any order but they must all be at the end
 of the DIAG_RESPONSE object.
 A default DIAG_RESPONSE object is one containing the default list of
 classes described above.

3.7. TUNNEL Object

 The optional TUNNEL object should be inserted when a DREQ message
 arrives at an RSVP node that acts as a tunnel exit point.
 The TUNNEL object provides the mapping between the end-to-end RSVP
 session that is being diagnosed and the RSVP session over the tunnel.
 This mapping information allows the diagnosis client to conduct
 diagnosis over the involved tunnel session, by invoking a separate
 Diagnostic query for the corresponding Tunnel Session and Tunnel
 Sender.  Keep in mind, however, that multiple end-to-end sessions may
 all map to one pre-configured tunnel session that may have totally
 different parameter settings.
 The tunnel object is defined in the RSVP Tunnel Specification
 [RSVPTUN].

4. Diagnostic Packet Forwarding Rules

4.1. DREQ Packet Forwarding

 DREQ messages are forwarded  hop-by-hop via unicast from the LAST-HOP
 address to the Sender address, as specified in the DIAGNOSTIC object.
 If an RSVP capable node, other than the LAST-HOP node, receives a
 DREQ message  that contains no DIAG_RESPONSE objects and has a zero

Terzis, et al. Standards Track [Page 12] RFC 2745 RSVP Diagnostic Messages January 2000

 Fragment Offset, the node should forward the DREQ packet towards the
 LAST-HOP without doing any of the processing mentioned below. The
 reason is that such conditions apply only for nodes downstream of the
 LAST-HOP where no information should be collected.
 Processing begins when a DREQ message, DREQ_in, arrives at a node.
     1. Create a new DIAG_RESPONSE object. Compute the IP hop count
        from the previous RSVP hop. This is done by subtracting the
        value of the TTL value in the IP header from Send_TTL in the
        RSVP common header.  Save the result in the D-TTL field of the
        DIAG_RESPONSE object.
     2. Set the DREQ Arrival Time and the Outgoing Interface Address
        in the DIAG_RESPONSE object.  If this node is the LAST-HOP,
        then the Out- going Interface Address field in the
        DIAG_RESPONSE object contains the following value depending on
        the session being diagnosed.
  • If the session in question is a unicast session, then the

Out-going Interface Address field contains the address of

          the interface LAST-HOP uses to send PATH messages and data
          to the receiver specified by the session address.
  • Otherwise, if it is a multicast session and there is at

least one receiver for this session, LAST_HOP should use the

          address of one of local interfaces used to reach one of the
          receivers.
  • Otherwise Outgoing Interface Address should be zero.
     3. Increment the RSVP-hop-count field in the DIAGNOSTIC message
        object by one.
     4. If no PATH state exists for the specified session, set R-error
        = 0x01 (No PATH state) and goto step 7.
     5. Set the rest of the fields in the DIAG_RESPONSE object. If
        DREQ_in contains a DIAG_SELECT object, the response object
        classes are those specified in the DIAG_SELECT; otherwise,
        they are SENDER_TSPEC, STYLE, and FLOWSPEC objects. If no
        reservation state exists for the specified RSVP session, the
        DIAG_RESPONSE object will contain no FLOWSPEC, FILTER_SPEC or
        STYLE object. If neither PATH nor reservation state exists for
        the specified RSVP session, then no response objects will be
        appended to the DIAG_RESPONSE object.

Terzis, et al. Standards Track [Page 13] RFC 2745 RSVP Diagnostic Messages January 2000

     6. If RSVP-hop-count is less than Max-RSVP-hops and this node is
        not the sender, then the DREQ is eligible for forwarding; set
        the Path MTU to the min of the Path MTU and the MTU size of
        the incoming interface for the sender being diagnosed.
     7. If the size of DREQ_in plus the size of the new DIAG_RESPONSE
        object plus the size of an IP address (if a ROUTE object
        exists and R-error= 0) is larger than Path MTU, then the new
        diagnostic message will be too large to be forwarded or
        returned without fragmentation; set the "packet too big"
        (0x02) error bit in DIAG_RESPONSE and goto Step SD1 in
        Send_DREP (below).
     8. If the "No PATH state" (0x01) error bit is set or if RSVP-
        hop-count is equal to Max-RSVP-hops or if this node is the
        sender, then the DREQ cannot be forwarded further; goto Step
        10.
     9. Forward the DREQ towards the sender, as follows.  If a ROUTE
        object exists, append the "Incoming Interface Address" to the
        end of the ROUTE object and increment R-Pointer by one.
        Update the Next-Hop RSVP_HOP object, append the new
        DIAG_RESPONSE object to the list of DIAG_RESPONSE object, and
        update the message length field in the RSVP common header
        accordingly. Finally, recompute the checksum, forward DREQ_in
        to the next hop towards the sender, and return.
    10. Turn the DREQ into a DREP and return to the requester, as
        follows.  Append the DIAG_RESPONSE object to the end of
        DREQ_in and update the packet length.  If a ROUTE object is
        present in the message, decrement the R-pointer and set target
        address to the last address in the ROUTE object, otherwise set
        target address to the requester address. Change the Type Field
        in the Common header from DREQ to DREP.  Finally, recompute
        the checksum, send the DREP to the target address, and return.
        Note that the MF bit must be off in this case.
 Send_DREP:
 This sequence is entered if the DREQ message augmented with the new
 DIAG_RESPONSE object is too large to be forwarded towards the sender
 or, if it is not eligible for forwarding, too large to be returned as
 a DREP.
 SD1. Make a copy of DREQ_in and change the message type field from
      DREQ to DREP.  Trim all DIAG_RESPONSE objects from DREQ_in and
      adjust the Fragment Offset.  The DREP message contains the
      DIAG_RESPONSE objects accumulated by prior nodes.

Terzis, et al. Standards Track [Page 14] RFC 2745 RSVP Diagnostic Messages January 2000

 SD2. Send the DREP message towards the requester, as follows.  If a
      ROUTE object is present in the DREP message, decrement the R-
      pointer and set target address to the last address in the ROUTE
      object, otherwise set target address to the requester address.
      Set the MF bit, recompute the checksum and send the DREP message
      back to the target address.
 SD3. If the reduced size of DREQ_in plus the size of DIAG_RESPONSE
      plus the size of an IP address (if a ROUTE object exists) is
      smaller than or equal to Path MTU, then return to Step 8 of the
      main DREQ processing sequence above.
 SD4. If a ROUTE object exists, replace the ROUTE object in DREQ_in
      with an empty ROUTE object and turn on the "ROUTE object too
      big" (0x04) error bit in the DIAG_RESPONSE.  In either case,
      return to Step 8 of the main DREQ processing sequence above.

4.2. DREP Forwarding

 When a ROUTE object is present, DREP messages are forwarded hop-by-
 hop towards the requester, by reversing the route as listed in the
 ROUTE object. Otherwise, DREP messages are sent directly to the
 original requester.
 When a node receives a DREP message, it simply decreases R-pointer by
 one (address length), recomputes the checksum and forwards the
 message to the address pointed to by R-pointer in the route list. If
 a node, other than the LAST-HOP, receives a DREP packet where R-
 pointer is equal to zero, it must send it directly to the requester.
 When the LAST-HOP node receives a DREP message, it sends the message
 to the requester.

4.3. MTU Selection and Adjustment

 Because the DREQ message carries the allowed MTU size of previous
 hops that the DREP messages will later traverse, this unique feature
 allows easy semantic fragmentation as described above.  Whenever the
 DREQ message approaches the size of Path MTU, it can be trimmed
 before being forwarded again.
 When a requester sends a DREQ message, the Path MTU field in the
 DIAGNOSTIC object can be set to a configured default value. It is
 possible that the original Path MTU value is chosen larger than the
 actual MTU value along some portion of the path being traced.
 Therefore each intermediate RSVP node must check the MTU value when
 processing a DREQ message.  If the specified MTU value is larger than

Terzis, et al. Standards Track [Page 15] RFC 2745 RSVP Diagnostic Messages January 2000

 the MTU of the incoming interface (that the DREQ message will be
 forwarded to), the node changes the MTU value in the header to the
 smaller value.
 Whenever a DREQ message size becomes larger than the Path MTU value,
 an intermediate RSVP node makes a copy of the message, converts it to
 a DREP message to send back, and then trims off the partial results
 from the DREQ message. If in this case also the DREQ cannot be
 forwarded upstream due to a large ROUTE object, the "ROUTE object too
 big" is set and the ROUTE object is trimmed. As a result of the ROUTE
 object trimming, DREP(s) will come hop-by-hop up to this node and
 will then immediately be forwarded to the requester address.
 Even if the steps shown above are followed there are a few cases
 where fragmentation at the IP layer will happen. For example, non-
 RSVP hops with smaller MTUs may exist before LAST-HOP is reached, or
 if the response is sent directly back to requester (as opposed to hop
 by hop) the DREP may take a different route to the requester than the
 DREQ took from the requester. Another case is when there exists a
 link with MTU smaller than the minimum Path MTU value defined in
 Section 3.3.

4.4. Errors

 If an error condition prevents a DREP message from being forwarded
 further, the message is simply dropped.
 If an error condition, such as lack of PATH state, prevents a DREQ
 message from being forwarded further, the node must change the
 current message to DREP type and return it to the response address.

5. Problem Diagnosis by Using RSVP Diagnostic Facility

5.1. Across Firewalls

 Firewalls may cause problems in diagnostic message forwarding.  Let
 us look at two different cases.
 First, let us assume that the querier resides on a receiving host of
 the session to be examined.  In this case, firewalls should not
 prevent the forwarding of the diagnostic messages in a hop-by-hop
 manner, assuming that proper holes have been punched on the firewall
 to allow hop-by-hop forwarding of other RSVP messages.  The querier
 may start by not including a ROUTE object, which can give a faster
 response delivery and reduced overhead at intermediate nodes.
 However if no response is received, the querier may resend the DREQ
 message with a ROUTE object, specifying that a hop-by-hop reply
 should be sent.

Terzis, et al. Standards Track [Page 16] RFC 2745 RSVP Diagnostic Messages January 2000

 If the requester is a third party host and is separated from the
 LAST-HOP address by a firewall (either the requester is behind a
 firewall, or the LAST-HOP is a node behind a firewall, or both), at
 this time we do not know any other solution but to change the LAST-
 HOP to a node that is on the same side of the firewall as the
 requester.

5.2. Examination of RSVP Timers

 One can easily collect information about the current timer value at
 each RSVP hop along the way.  This will be very helpful in situations
 when the reservation state goes up and down frequently, to find out
 whether the state changes are due to improper setting of timer
 values, or K values (when across lossy links), or frequent routing
 changes.

5.3. Discovering Non-RSVP Clouds

 The D-TTL field in each DIAG_RESPONSE object shows the number of
 routing hops between adjacent RSVP nodes.  Therefore any value
 greater than one indicates a non-RSVP cloud in between.  Together
 with the arrival timestamps (assuming NTP works), this value can also
 give some vague, though not necessarily accurate, indication of how
 big that cloud might be.  One might also find out all the
 intermediate non-RSVP nodes by running either unicast or multicast
 trace route.

5.4. Discovering Reservation Merges

 The flowspec value in a DIAG_RESPONSE object specifies the amount of
 resources being reserved for the data stream defined by the filter
 spec in the same data block.  When this value of adjacent
 DIAG_RESPONSE objects differs, that is, a downstream node Rd has a
 smaller value than its immediate upstream node Ru, it indicates a
 merge of reservation with RSVP request(s) from other down stream
 interface(s) at Rd.  Further, in case of SE style reservation, one
 can examine how the different SE scopes get merged at each hop.
 In particular, if a receiver sends a DREQ message before sending its
 own reservation, it can discover (1) how many RSVP hops there are
 along the path between the specified sender and itself, (2) how many
 of the hops already have some reservation by other receivers, and (3)
 possibly a rough prediction of how its reservation request might get
 merged with other existing ones.

Terzis, et al. Standards Track [Page 17] RFC 2745 RSVP Diagnostic Messages January 2000

5.5. Error Diagnosis

 In addition to examining the state of a working reservation, RSVP
 diagnostic messages are more likely to be invoked when things are not
 working correctly.  For example, a receiver has reserved an adequate
 pipe for a specified incoming data stream, yet the observed delay or
 loss ratio is much higher than expected.  In this case the receiver
 can use the diagnostic facility to examine the reservation state at
 each RSVP hop along the way to find out whether the RSVP state is set
 up correctly, whether there is any black-hole along the way that
 caused RSVP message losses, or whether there are non-RSVP clouds, and
 where they are, that may have caused the performance problem.

5.6. Crossing "Legacy" RSVP Routers

 Since this diagnosis facility was developed and added to RSVP after a
 number of RSVP implementations were in place, it is possible, or even
 likely, that when performing RSVP diagnosis, one may encounter one or
 more RSVP-capable nodes that do not understand diagnostic messages
 and drop them.  When this happens, the invoking client will get no
 response from its requests.
 One way to by-pass such "legacy" RSVP nodes is to perform RSVP
 diagnosis repeatedly, guided by information from traceroute, or
 mtrace in case of multicast.  When an RSVP diagnostic query times out
 (see next section), one may first use traceroute to get the list of
 nodes along the path, and then gradually increase the value of Max-
 RSVP-hops field in the DREQ message, starting from a low value until
 one no longer receives a response.  One can then try RSVP diagnosis
 again by starting with the first node (which is further upstream
 towards the sender) after the unresponding one.
 There are two problem with the method mentioned above in the case of
 unicast sessions. Both problems are related to the fact that
 traceroute information provides the path from the requester to the
 sender. The first problem is that the LAST-HOP may not be on the path
 from the requester to the sender. In this case we can get information
 only from the portion of the path from the LAST-HOP to the sender
 which intersects with the path from the requester to the sender. If
 routers that are not on the intersection of the two paths don't have
 PATH state for the session being diagnosed then they will reply with
 R-error=0x01. The requester can overcome this problem by sending a
 DREQ to every router on the path (from itself to the sender) until it
 reaches the first router that belongs to the path from the sender to
 the LAST-HOP.

Terzis, et al. Standards Track [Page 18] RFC 2745 RSVP Diagnostic Messages January 2000

 The second problem is that traceroute provides the path from the
 requester to the sender which, due to routing asymmetries, may be
 different than the path traffic from the sender to the LAST-HOP uses.
 There is (at least) one case where this asymmetry will cause the
 diagnosis to fail. We present this case below.
                              Downstream Path                Sender
                              __         __            __       __
 Receiver             +------|  |<------|  |<-- ...---|  |-----|  |
    __          __   /       |__|       |__|          |__|     |__|
   |  |--....--|X |_/                    ^
   |__|        |__| \     Router B       |
              Black  \        __         |
              Hole    +----->|  |---->---+
                             |__| Upstream Path
                           Router A
                           Figure 2
 Here the first hop upstream of the black hole is different on the
 upstream path and the downstream path. Traceroute will indicate
 router A as the previous hop (instead of router B which is the right
 one). Sending a DREQ to router A will result in A responding with R-
 error 0x01 (No PATH State). If the two paths converge again then the
 requester can use the solution proposed above to get any (partial)
 information from the rest of the path.
 We don't have, for the moment, any complete solutions for the
 problematic scenarios described here.

6. Comments on Diagnostic Client Implementation.

 Following the design principle that nodes in the network should not
 hold more than necessary state,  RSVP nodes are responsible only for
 forwarding Diagnostic messages and filling DIAG_RESPONSE objects.
 Additional diagnostic functionality should be carried out by the
 diagnostic clients.  Furthermore, if the diagnostic function is
 invoked from a third-party host, we should not require that host be
 running an RSVP daemon to perform the function.  Below we sketch out
 the basic functions that a diagnostic client daemon should carry out.
    1. Take input from the user about the session to be diagnosed, the
       last-hop and the sender address, the Max-RSVP-hops, and
       possibly the DIAG_SELECT list, create a DREQ message and send
       to the LAST-HOP RSVP node using raw IP message with protocol
       number 46 (RSVP).  If the user specified that the response
       should be sent hop-by-hop include an empty ROUTE object to the

Terzis, et al. Standards Track [Page 19] RFC 2745 RSVP Diagnostic Messages January 2000

       DREQ message sent. Set the Path_MTU to the smaller of the user
       request and the MTU of the link through which the DREQ will be
       sent.
       The port of the UDP socket on which the Diagnostic Client is
       listening for replies should be included in the Requester
       FILTER_SPEC object.
    2. Set a retransmission timer, waiting for the reply (one or more
       DREP messages).  Listen to the specified UDP port for responses
       from the LAST-HOP RSVP node.
       The LAST-HOP RSVP node, upon receiving DREP messages, sends
       them to the Diagnostic Client as UDP packets, using the port
       supplied in the Requester FILTER_SPEC object.
    3. Upon receiving a DREP message to an outstanding diagnostic
       request, the client should clear the retransmission timer,
       check to see if the reply contains the complete result of the
       requested diagnosis.  If so, it should pass the result up to
       the invoking entity immediately.
    4. Reassemble DREP fragments.  If the first reply to an
       outstanding diagnostic request contains only a fragment of the
       expected result, the client should set up a reassembly timer in
       a way similar to IP packet reassembly timer.  If the timer goes
       off before all fragments arrive, the client should pass the
       partial result to the invoking entity.
    5. Use retransmission and reassembly timers to gracefully handle
       packet losses and reply fragment scenarios.
       In the absence of response to the first diagnostic request, a
       client should retransmit the request a few times.  If all the
       retransmissions also fail, the client should invoke traceroute
       or mtrace to obtain the list of hops along the path segment to
       be diagnosed, and then perform an iteration of diagnosis with
       increasing hop count as suggested in Section 5.6 in order to
       cross RSVP-capable but diagnosis-incapable nodes.
    6. If all the above efforts fail, the client must notify the
       invoking entity.

Terzis, et al. Standards Track [Page 20] RFC 2745 RSVP Diagnostic Messages January 2000

7. Security Considerations

 RSVP Diagnostics, as any other diagnostic tool, can be a security
 threat since it can reveal possibly sensitive RSVP state information
 to unwanted third parties.
 We feel that the threat is minimal, since as explained in the
 Introduction Diagnostics messages produce no side-effects and
 therefore they cannot change RSVP state in the nodes. In this respect
 RSVP Diagnostics is less a security threat than other diagnostic
 tools and protocols such as SNMP.
 Furthermore, processing of Diagnostic messages can be disabled if it
 is felt that is a security threat.

8. Acknowledgments

 The idea of developing a diagnostic facility for RSVP was first
 suggested by Mark Handley of ACIRI.  Many thanks to Lee Breslau of
 AT&T Labs and John Krawczyk of Nortel Networks for their valuable
 comments on the first draft of this memo.  Lee Breslau, Bob Braden,
 and John Krawczyk contributed further comments after March 1996 IETF.
 Steven Berson provided valuable comments on various drafts of the
 memo. Tim Gleeson contributed an extensive list of editorial
 comments. We would also like to acknowledge Intel for providing a
 research grant as a partial support for this work. Subramaniam
 Vincent did most of this work while a graduate research assistant at
 the USC Information Sciences Institute (ISI).

9. References

 [RSVP]    Braden, R., Zhang, L., Berson, S., Herzog, S. and S. Jamin,
           "Resource ReserVation Protocol -- Version 1 Functional
           Specification", RFC 2205, September 1997.
 [RSVPTUN] Terzis, A., Krawczyk, J., Wroclawski, J. and L. Zhang,
           "RSVP Operation Over IP Tunnels", RFC 2746, January 2000.

Terzis, et al. Standards Track [Page 21] RFC 2745 RSVP Diagnostic Messages January 2000

10. Authors' Addresses

 Andreas Terzis
 UCLA
 4677 Boelter Hall
 Los Angeles, CA 90095
 Phone:    310-267-2190
 EMail:    terzis@cs.ucla.edu
 Bob Braden
 USC Information Sciences Institute
 4676 Admiralty Way
 Marina del Rey, CA 90292
 Phone:    310 822-1511
 EMail:    braden@isi.edu
 Subramaniam Vincent
 Cisco Systems
 275, E Tasman Drive, MS SJC04/2/1
 San Jose, CA 95134
 Phone:    408 525 3474
 EMail:    svincent@cisco.com
 Lixia Zhang
 UCLA
 4531G Boelter Hall
 Los Angeles, CA  90095
 Phone:    310-825-2695
 EMail:    lixia@cs.ucla.edu

Terzis, et al. Standards Track [Page 22] RFC 2745 RSVP Diagnostic Messages January 2000

10. Full Copyright Statement

 Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2000).  All Rights Reserved.
 This document and translations of it may be copied and furnished to
 others, and derivative works that comment on or otherwise explain it
 or assist in its implementation may be prepared, copied, published
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 included on all such copies and derivative works.  However, this
 document itself may not be modified in any way, such as by removing
 the copyright notice or references to the Internet Society or other
 Internet organizations, except as needed for the purpose of
 developing Internet standards in which case the procedures for
 copyrights defined in the Internet Standards process must be
 followed, or as required to translate it into languages other than
 English.
 The limited permissions granted above are perpetual and will not be
 revoked by the Internet Society or its successors or assigns.
 This document and the information contained herein is provided on an
 "AS IS" basis and THE INTERNET SOCIETY AND THE INTERNET ENGINEERING
 TASK FORCE DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING
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 HEREIN WILL NOT INFRINGE ANY RIGHTS OR ANY IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF
 MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.

Acknowledgement

 Funding for the RFC Editor function is currently provided by the
 Internet Society.

Terzis, et al. Standards Track [Page 23]

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