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rfc:rfc2608

Network Working Group E. Guttman Request for Comments: 2608 C. Perkins Updates: 2165 Sun Microsystems Category: Standards Track J. Veizades

                                                        @Home Network
                                                               M. Day
                                                    Vinca Corporation
                                                            June 1999
                Service Location Protocol, Version 2

Status of This Memo

 This document specifies an Internet standards track protocol for the
 Internet community, and requests discussion and suggestions for
 improvements.  Please refer to the current edition of the "Internet
 Official Protocol Standards" (STD 1) for the standardization state
 and status of this protocol.  Distribution of this memo is unlimited.

Copyright Notice

 Copyright (C) The Internet Society (1999).  All Rights Reserved.

Abstract

 The Service Location Protocol provides a scalable framework for the
 discovery and selection of network services.  Using this protocol,
 computers using the Internet need little or no static configuration
 of network services for network based applications.  This is
 especially important as computers become more portable, and users
 less tolerant or able to fulfill the demands of network system
 administration.

Table of Contents

  1. Introduction                                                    3
      1.1. Applicability Statement  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    3
  2. Terminology                                                     4
      2.1. Notation Conventions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    4
  3. Protocol Overview                                               5
  4. URLs used with Service Location                                 8
      4.1. Service: URLs  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    9
      4.2. Naming Authorities   . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   10
      4.3. URL Entries  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   10
  5. Service Attributes                                             10
  6. Required Features                                              12
      6.1. Use of Ports, UDP, and Multicast   . . . . . . . . . .   13

Guttman, et al. Standards Track [Page 1] RFC 2608 Service Location Protocol, Version 2 June 1999

      6.2. Use of TCP   . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   14
      6.3. Retransmission of SLP messages   . . . . . . . . . . .   15
      6.4. Strings in SLP messages  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   16
            6.4.1. Scope Lists in SLP . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   16
  7. Errors                                                         17
  8. Required SLP Messages                                          17
      8.1. Service Request  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   19
      8.2. Service Reply  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   21
      8.3. Service Registration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   22
      8.4. Service Acknowledgment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   23
      8.5. Directory Agent Advertisement. . . . . . . . . . . . .   24
      8.6. Service Agent Advertisement. . . . . . . . . . . . . .   25
  9. Optional Features                                              26
      9.1. Service Location Protocol Extensions . . . . . . . . .   27
      9.2. Authentication Blocks  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   28
            9.2.1. SLP Message Authentication Rules . . . . . . .   29
            9.2.2. DSA with SHA-1 in Authentication Blocks  . . .   30
      9.3. Incremental Service Registration   . . . . . . . . . .   30
      9.4. Tag Lists  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   31
 10. Optional SLP Messages                                          32
     10.1. Service Type Request   . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   32
     10.2. Service Type Reply   . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   32
     10.3. Attribute Request  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   33
     10.4. Attribute Reply  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   34
     10.5. Attribute Request/Reply Examples . . . . . . . . . . .   34
     10.6. Service Deregistration   . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   36
 11. Scopes                                                         37
     11.1. Scope Rules  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   37
     11.2. Administrative and User Selectable Scopes. . . . . . .   38
 12. Directory Agents                                               38
     12.1. Directory Agent Rules  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   39
     12.2. Directory Agent Discovery  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   39
           12.2.1. Active DA Discovery  . . . . . . . . . . . . .   40
           12.2.2. Passive DA Advertising . . . . . . . . . . . .   40
     12.3. Reliable Unicast to DAs and SAs. . . . . . . . . . . .   41
     12.4. DA Scope Configuration   . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   41
     12.5. DAs and Authentication Blocks. . . . . . . . . . . . .   41
 13. Protocol Timing Defaults                                       42
 14. Optional Configuration                                         43
 15. IANA Considerations                                            44
 16. Internationalization Considerations                            45
 17. Security Considerations                                        46
  A. Appendix:  Changes to the Service Location Protocol from
                v1 to v2                                            48
  B. Appendix:  Service Discovery by Type:  Minimal SLPv2 Features  48
  C. Appendix:  DAAdverts with arbitrary URLs                       49
  D. Appendix:  SLP Protocol Extensions                             50
      D.1. Required Attribute Missing Option  . . . . . . . . . .   50

Guttman, et al. Standards Track [Page 2] RFC 2608 Service Location Protocol, Version 2 June 1999

  E. Acknowledgments                                                50
  F. References                                                     51
  G. Authors' Addresses                                             53
  H. Full Copyright Statement                                       54

1. Introduction

 The Service Location Protocol (SLP) provides a flexible and scalable
 framework for providing hosts with access to information about the
 existence, location, and configuration of networked services.
 Traditionally, users have had to find services by knowing the name of
 a network host (a human readable text string) which is an alias for a
 network address.  SLP eliminates the need for a user to know the name
 of a network host supporting a service.  Rather, the user supplies
 the desired type of service and a set of attributes which describe
 the service.  Based on that description, the Service Location
 Protocol resolves the network address of the service for the user.
 SLP provides a dynamic configuration mechanism for applications in
 local area networks.  Applications are modeled as clients that need
 to find servers attached to any of the available networks within an
 enterprise.  For cases where there are many different clients and/or
 services available, the protocol is adapted to make use of nearby
 Directory Agents that offer a centralized repository for advertised
 services.
 This document updates SLPv1 [RFC 2165], correcting protocol errors,
 adding some enhancements and removing some requirements.  This
 specification has two parts.  The first describes the required
 features of the protocol.  The second describes the extended features
 of the protocol which are optional, and allow greater scalability.

1.1. Applicability Statement

 SLP is intended to function within networks under cooperative
 administrative control.  Such networks permit a policy to be
 implemented regarding security, multicast routing and organization of
 services and clients into groups which are not be feasible on the
 scale of the Internet as a whole.
 SLP has been designed to serve enterprise networks with shared
 services, and it may not necessarily scale for wide-area service
 discovery throughout the global Internet, or in networks where there
 are hundreds of thousands of clients or tens of thousands of
 services.

Guttman, et al. Standards Track [Page 3] RFC 2608 Service Location Protocol, Version 2 June 1999

2. Terminology

    User Agent (UA)
              A process working on the user's behalf to establish
              contact with some service.  The UA retrieves service
              information from the Service Agents or Directory Agents.
    Service Agent (SA) A process working on the behalf of one or more
              services to advertise the services.
    Directory Agent (DA) A process which collects service
              advertisements.  There can only be one DA present per
              given host.
    Service Type Each type of service has a unique Service Type
              string.
    Naming Authority The agency or group which catalogues given
              Service Types and Attributes.  The default Naming
              Authority is IANA.
    Scope A set of services, typically making up a logical
              administrative group.
    URL A Universal Resource Locator [8].

2.1. Notation Conventions

 The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
 "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
 document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119  [9].
    Syntax        Syntax for string based protocols follow the
                  conventions defined for ABNF [11].
    Strings       All strings are encoded using the UTF-8 [23]
                  transformation of the Unicode [6] character set and
                  are NOT null terminated when transmitted.  Strings
                  are preceded by a two byte length field.
    <string-list> A comma delimited list of strings with the
                  following syntax:
                     string-list = string / string `,' string-list
 In format diagrams, any field ending with a \ indicates a variable
 length field, given by a prior length field in the protocol.

Guttman, et al. Standards Track [Page 4] RFC 2608 Service Location Protocol, Version 2 June 1999

3. Protocol Overview

 The Service Location Protocol supports a framework by which client
 applications are modeled as 'User Agents' and services are advertised
 by 'Service Agents.'  A third entity, called a 'Directory Agent'
 provides scalability to the protocol.
 The User Agent issues a 'Service Request' (SrvRqst) on behalf of the
 client application, specifying the characteristics of the service
 which the client requires.  The User Agent will receive a Service
 Reply (SrvRply) specifying the location of all services in the
 network which satisfy the request.
 The Service Location Protocol framework allows the User Agent to
 directly issue requests to Service Agents.  In this case the request
 is multicast.  Service Agents receiving a request for a service which
 they advertise unicast a reply containing the service's location.
    +------------+ ----Multicast SrvRqst----> +---------------+
    | User Agent |                            | Service Agent |
    +------------+ <----Unicast SrvRply------ +---------------+
 In larger networks, one or more Directory Agents are used.  The
 Directory Agent functions as a cache.  Service Agents send register
 messages (SrvReg) containing all the services they advertise to
 Directory Agents and receive acknowledgements in reply (SrvAck).
 These advertisements must be refreshed with the Directory Agent or
 they expire.  User Agents unicast requests to Directory Agents
 instead of Service Agents if any Directory Agents are known.

+——-+ -Unicast SrvRqst→ +———–+ ←Unicast SrvReg- +——–+ | User | | Directory | |Service | | Agent | | Agent | | Agent | +——-+ ←Unicast SrvRply- +———–+ -Unicast SrvAck→ +——–+

 User and Service Agents discover Directory Agents two ways.  First,
 they issue a multicast Service Request for the 'Directory Agent'
 service when they start up.  Second, the Directory Agent sends an
 unsolicited advertisement infrequently, which the User and Service
 Agents listen for.  In either case the Agents receive a DA
  Advertisement (DAAdvert).
      +---------------+ --Multicast SrvRqst-> +-----------+
      |    User or    | <--Unicast DAAdvert-- | Directory |
      | Service Agent |                       |   Agent   |
      +---------------+ <-Multicast DAAdvert- +-----------+

Guttman, et al. Standards Track [Page 5] RFC 2608 Service Location Protocol, Version 2 June 1999

 Services are grouped together using 'scopes'.  These are strings
 which identify services which are administratively identified.  A
 scope could indicate a location, administrative grouping, proximity
 in a network topology or some other category.  Service Agents and
 Directory Agents are always assigned a scope string.
 A User Agent is normally assigned a scope string (in which case the
 User Agent will only be able to discover that particular grouping of
 services).  This allows a network administrator to 'provision'
 services to users.  Alternatively, the User Agent may be configured
 with no scope at all.  In that case, it will discover all available
 scopes and allow the client application to issue requests for any
 service available on the network.
 +---------+   Multicast  +-----------+   Unicast   +-----------+
 | Service | <--SrvRqst-- |   User    | --SrvRqst-> | Directory |
 |  Agent  |              |   Agent   |             |   Agent   |
 | Scope=X |   Unicast    | Scope=X,Y |   Unicast   |  Scope=Y  |
 +---------+ --SrvRply--> +-----------+ <-SrvRply-- +-----------+
 In the above illustration, the User Agent is configured with scopes X
 and Y. If a service is sought in scope X, the request is multicast.
 If it is sought in scope Y, the request is unicast to the DA.
 Finally, if the request is to be made in both scopes, the request
 must be both unicast and multicast.
 Service Agents and User Agents may verify digital signatures provided
 with DAAdverts.  User Agents and Directory Agents may verify service
 information registered by Service Agents.  The keying material to use
 to verify digital signatures is identified using a SLP Security
 Parameter Index, or SLP SPI.
 Every host configured to generate a digital signature includes the
 SLP SPI used to verify it in the Authentication Block it transmits.
 Every host which can verify a digital signature must be configured
 with keying material and other parameters corresponding with the SLP
 SPI such that it can perform verifying calculations.
 SAs MUST accept multicast service requests and unicast service
 requests.  SAs MAY accept other requests (Attribute and Service Type
 Requests).  SAs MUST listen for multicast DA Advertisements.
 The features described up to this point are required to implement.  A
 minimum implementation consists of a User Agent, Service Agent or
 both.
 There are several optional features in the protocol.  Note that DAs
 MUST support all these message types, but DA support is itself

Guttman, et al. Standards Track [Page 6] RFC 2608 Service Location Protocol, Version 2 June 1999

 optional to deploy on networks using SLP. UAs and SAs MAY support
 these message types.  These operations are primarily for interactive
 use (browsing or selectively updating service registrations.)  UAs
 and SAs either support them or not depending on the requirements and
 constraints of the environment where they will be used.
Service Type Request   A request for all types of service on the
                       network.  This allows generic service browsers
                       to be built.
Service Type Reply     A reply to a Service Type Request.
Attribute Request      A request for attributes of a given type of
                       service or attributes of a given service.
Attribute Reply        A reply to an Attribute Request.
Service Deregister     A request to deregister a service or some
                       attributes of a service.
Service Update         A subsequent SrvRqst to an advertisement.
                       This allows individual dynamic attributes to
                       be updated.
SA Advertisement       In the absence of Directory Agents, a User
                       agent may request Service Agents in order
                       to discover their scope configuration.  The
                       User Agent may use these scopes in requests.
 In the absence of Multicast support, Broadcast MAY be used.  The
 location of DAs may be staticly configured, discovered using SLP as
 described above, or configured using DHCP. If a message is too large,
 it may be unicast using TCP.
 A SLPv2 implementation SHOULD support SLPv1 [22].  This support
 includes:
  1. SLPv2 DAs are deployed, phasing out SLPv1 DAs.
  2. Unscoped SLPv1 requests are considered to be of DEFAULT scope.
     SLPv1 UAs MUST be reconfigured to have a scope if possible.
  3. There is no way for an SLPv2 DA to behave as an unscoped SLPv1
     DA. SLPv1 SAs MUST be reconfigured to have a scope if possible.
  4. SLPv2 DAs answer SLPv1 requests with SLPv1 replies and SLPv2
     requests with SLPv2 replies.

Guttman, et al. Standards Track [Page 7] RFC 2608 Service Location Protocol, Version 2 June 1999

  5. SLPv2 DAs use registrations from SLPv1 and SLPv2 in the same
     way.  That is, incoming requests from agents using either version
     of the protocol will be matched against this common set of
     registered services.
  6. SLPv2 registrations which use Language Tags which are greater
     than 2 characters long will be inaccessible to SLPv1 UAs.
  7. SLPv2 DAs MUST return only service type strings in SrvTypeRply
     messages which conform to SLPv1 service type string syntax, ie.
     they MUST NOT return Service Type strings for abstract service
     types.
  8. SLPv1 SrvRqsts and AttrRqsts by Service Type do not match Service
     URLs with abstract service types.  They only match Service URLs
     with concrete service types.
 SLPv1 UAs will not receive replies from SLPv2 SAs and SLPv2 UAs will
 not receive replies from SLPv1 SAs.  In order to interoperate UAs and
 SAs of different versions require a SLPv2 DA to be present on the
 network which supports both protocols.
 The use of abstract service types in SLPv2 presents a backward
 compatibility issue for SLPv1.  It is possible that a SLPv1 UA will
 request a service type which is actually an abstract service type.
 Based on the rules above, the SLPv1 UA will never receive an abstract
 Service URL reply.  For example, the service type 'service:x' in a
 SLPv1 AttrRqst will not return the attributes of 'service:x:y://orb'.
 If the request was made with SLPv2, it would return the attributes of
 this service.

4. URLs used with Service Location

 A Service URL indicates the location of a service.  This URL may be
 of the service: scheme [13] (reviewed in section 4.1), or any other
 URL scheme conforming to the URI standard [8], except that URLs
 without address specifications SHOULD NOT be advertised by SLP. The
 service type for an 'generic' URL is its scheme name.  For example,
 the service type string for "http://www.srvloc.org" would be "http".
 Reserved characters in URLs follow the rules in RFC 2396 [8].

Guttman, et al. Standards Track [Page 8] RFC 2608 Service Location Protocol, Version 2 June 1999

4.1. Service: URLs

 Service URL syntax and semantics are defined in  [13].  Any network
 service may be encoded in a Service URL.
 This section provides an introduction to Service URLs and an example
 showing a simple application of them, representing standard network
 services.
 A Service URL may be of the form:
    "service:"<srvtype>"://"<addrspec>
 The Service Type of this service: URL is defined to be the string up
 to (but not including) the final `:'  before <addrspec>, the address
 specification.
 <addrspec> is a hostname (which should be used if possible) or dotted
 decimal notation for a hostname, followed by an optional `:'  and
 port number.
 A service: scheme URL may be formed with any standard protocol name
 by concatenating "service:" and the reserved port [1] name.  For
 example, "service:tftp://myhost" would indicate a tftp service.  A
 tftp service on a nonstandard port could be
 "service:tftp://bad.glad.org:8080".
 Service Types SHOULD be defined by a "Service Template" [13], which
 provides expected attributes, values and protocol behavior.  An
 abstract service type (also described in [13]) has the form
    "service:<abstract-type>:<concrete-type>".
 The service type string "service:<abstract-type>" matches all
 services of that abstract type.  If the concrete type is included
 also, only these services match the request.  For example:  a SrvRqst
 or AttrRqst which specifies "service:printer" as the Service Type
 will match the URL service:printer:lpr://hostname and
 service:printer:http://hostname.  If the requests specified
 "service:printer:http" they would match only the latter URL.
 An optional substring MAY follow the last `.'  character in the
 <srvtype> (or <abstract-type> in the case of an abstract service type
 URL). This substring is the Naming Authority, as described in Section
 9.6.  Service types with different Naming Authorities are quite
 distinct.  In other words, service:x.one and service:x.two are
 different service types, as are service:abstract.one:y and
 service:abstract.two:y.

Guttman, et al. Standards Track [Page 9] RFC 2608 Service Location Protocol, Version 2 June 1999

4.2. Naming Authorities

 A Naming Authority MAY optionally be included as part of the Service
 Type string.  The Naming Authority of a service defines the meaning
 of the Service Types and attributes registered with and provided by
 Service Location.  The Naming Authority itself is typically a string
 which uniquely identifies an organization.  IANA is the implied
 Naming Authority when no string is appended.  "IANA" itself MUST NOT
 be included explicitly.
 Naming Authorities may define Service Types which are experimental,
 proprietary or for private use.  Using a Naming Authority, one may
 either simply ignore attributes upon registration or create a local-
 use only set of attributes for one's site.  The procedure to use is
 to create a 'unique' Naming Authority string and then specify the
 Standard Attribute Definitions as described above.  This Naming
 Authority will accompany registration and queries, as described in
 Sections 8.1 and 8.3.  Service Types SHOULD be registered with IANA
 to allow for Internet-wide interoperability.

4.3. URL Entries

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |   Reserved    |          Lifetime             |   URL Length  |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |URL len, contd.|            URL (variable length)              \
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |# of URL auths |            Auth. blocks (if any)              \
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
 SLP stores URLs in protocol elements called URL Entries, which
 associate a length, a lifetime, and possibly authentication
 information along with the URL. URL Entries, defined as shown above,
 are used in Service Replies and Service Registrations.

5. Service Attributes

 A service advertisement is often accompanied by Service Attributes.
 These attributes are used by UAs in Service Requests to select
 appropriate services.
 The allowable attributes which may be used are typically specified by
 a Service Template  [13] for a particular service type.  Services
 which are advertised according to a standard template MUST register
 all service attributes which the standard template requires.  URLs
 with schemes other than "service:" MAY be registered with attributes.

Guttman, et al. Standards Track [Page 10] RFC 2608 Service Location Protocol, Version 2 June 1999

 Non-standard attribute names SHOULD begin with "x-", because no
 standard attribute name will ever have those initial characters.
 An attribute list is a string encoding of the attributes of a
 service.  The following ABNF [11] grammar defines attribute lists:
 attr-list = attribute / attribute `,' attr-list
 attribute = `(' attr-tag `=' attr-val-list `)' / attr-tag
 attr-val-list = attr-val / attr-val `,' attr-val-list
 attr-tag = 1*safe-tag
 attr-val = intval / strval / boolval / opaque
 intval = [-]1*DIGIT
 strval = 1*safe-val
 boolval = "true" / "false"
 opaque = "\FF" 1*escape-val
 safe-val = ; Any character except reserved.
 safe-tag = ; Any character except reserved, star and bad-tag.
 reserved = `(' / `)' / `,' / `\' / `!'  / `<' / `=' / `>' / `~' / CTL
 escape-val = `\' HEXDIG HEXDIG
 bad-tag = CR / LF / HTAB / `_'
  star = `*'
 The <attr-list>, if present, MUST be scanned prior to evaluation for
 all occurrences of the escape character `\'.  Reserved characters
 MUST be escaped (other characters MUST NOT be escaped).  All escaped
 characters must be restored to their value before attempting string
 matching.  For Opaque values, escaped characters are not converted -
 they are interpreted as bytes.
    Boolean      Strings which have the form "true" or "false" can
                 only take one value and may only be compared with
                 '='.  Booleans are case insensitive when compared.
    Integer      Strings which take the form [-] 1*<digit> and fall
                 in the range "-2147483648" to "2147483647" are
                 considered to be Integers.  These are compared using
                 integer comparison.
    String       All other Strings are matched using strict lexical
                 ordering (see Section 6.4).
    Opaque       Opaque values are sequences of bytes.  These are
                 distinguished from Strings since they begin with
                 the sequence "\FF".  This, unescaped, is an illegal
                 UTF-8 encoding, indicating that what follows is a
                 sequence of bytes expressed in escape notation which
                 constitute the binary value.  For example, a '0' byte
                 is encoded "\FF\00".

Guttman, et al. Standards Track [Page 11] RFC 2608 Service Location Protocol, Version 2 June 1999

 A string which contains escaped values other than from the reserved
 set of characters is illegal.  If such a string is included in an
 <attr-list>, <tag-list> or search filter, the SA or DA which receives
 it MUST return a PARSE_ERROR to the message.
 A keyword has only an <attr-tag>, and no values.  Attributes can have
 one or multiple values.  All values are expressed as strings.
 When values have been advertised by a SA or are registered in a DA,
 they can take on implicit typing rules for matching incoming
 requests.
 Stored values must be consistent, i.e., x=4,true,sue,\ff\00\00 is
 disallowed.  A DA or SA receiving such an <attr-list> MUST return an
 INVALID_REGISTRATION error.

6. Required Features

 This section defines the minimal implementation requirements for SAs
 and UAs as well as their interaction with DAs.  A DA is not required
 for SLP to function, but if it is present, the UA and SA MUST
 interact with it as defined below.
 A minimal implementation may consist of either a UA or SA or both.
 The only required features of a UA are that it can issue SrvRqsts
 according to the rules below and interpret DAAdverts, SAAdverts and
 SrvRply messages.  The UA MUST issue requests to DAs as they are
 discovered.  An SA MUST reply to appropriate SrvRqsts with SrvRply or
 SAAdvert messages.  The SA MUST also register with DAs as they are
 discovered.
 UAs perform discovery by issuing Service Request messages.  SrvRqst
 messages are issued, using UDP, following these prioritized rules:
  1. A UA issues a request to a DA which it has been configured with
     by DHCP.
  2. A UA issues requests to DAs which it has been statically
     configured with.
  3. UA uses multicast/convergence SrvRqsts to discover DAs, then uses
     that set of DAs.  A UA that does not know of any DAs SHOULD retry
     DA discovery, increasing the waiting interval between subsequent
     attempts exponentially (doubling the wait interval each time.)
     The recommended minimum waiting interval is CONFIG_DA_FIND
     seconds.

Guttman, et al. Standards Track [Page 12] RFC 2608 Service Location Protocol, Version 2 June 1999

  4. A UA with no knowledge of DAs sends requests using multicast
     convergence to SAs.  SAs unicast replies to UAs according to the
     multicast convergence algorithm.
 UAs and SAs are configured with a list of scopes to use according to
 these prioritized rules:
  1. With DHCP.
  2. With static configuration.  The static configuration may be
     explicitly set to NO SCOPE for UAs, if the User Selectable Scope
     model is used.  See section 11.2.
  3. In the absence of configuration, the agent's scope is "DEFAULT".
 A UA MUST issue requests with one or more of the scopes it has been
 configured to use.
 A UA which has been statically configured with NO SCOPE LIST will use
 DA or SA discovery to determine its scope list dynamically.  In this
 case it uses an empty scope list to discover DAs and possibly SAs.
 Then it uses the scope list it obtains from DAAdverts and possibly
 SAAdverts in subsequent requests.
 The SA MUST register all its services with any DA it discovers, if
 the DA advertises any of the scopes it has been configured with.  A
 SA obtains information about DAs as a UA does.  In addition, the SA
 MUST listen for multicast unsolicited DAAdverts.  The SA registers by
 sending SrvReg messages to DAs, which reply with SrvReg messages to
 indicate success.  SAs register in ALL the scopes they were
 configured to use.

6.1. Use of Ports, UDP, and Multicast

 DAs MUST accept unicast requests and multicast directory agent
 discovery service requests (for the service type "service:directory-
 agent").
 SAs MUST accept multicast requests and unicast requests both.  The SA
 can distinguish between them by whether the REQUEST MCAST flag is set
 in the SLP Message header.
 The Service Location Protocol uses multicast for discovering DAs and
 for issuing requests to SAs by default.
 The reserved listening port for SLP is 427.  This is the destination
 port for all SLP messages.  SLP messages MAY be transmitted on an
 ephemeral port.  Replies and acknowledgements are sent to the port

Guttman, et al. Standards Track [Page 13] RFC 2608 Service Location Protocol, Version 2 June 1999

 from which the request was issued.  The default maximum transmission
 unit for UDP messages is 1400 bytes excluding UDP and other headers.
 If a SLP message does not fit into a UDP datagram it MUST be
 truncated to fit, and the OVERFLOW flag is set in the reply message.
 A UA which receives a truncated message MAY open a TCP connection
 (see section 6.2) with the DA or SA and retransmit the request, using
 the same XID. It MAY also attempt to make use of the truncated reply
 or reformulate a more restrictive request which will result in a
 smaller reply.
 SLP Requests messages are multicast to The Administratively Scoped
 SLP Multicast [17] address, which is 239.255.255.253.  The default
 TTL to use for multicast is 255.
 In isolated networks, broadcasts will work in place of multicast.  To
 that end, SAs SHOULD and DAs MUST listen for broadcast Service
 Location messages at port 427.  This allows UAs which do not support
 multicast the use of Service Location on isolated networks.
 Setting multicast TTL to less than 255 (the default) limits the range
 of SLP discovery in a network, and localizes service information in
 the network.

6.2. Use of TCP

 A SrvReg or SrvDeReg may be too large to fit into a datagram.  To
 send such large SLP messages, a TCP (unicast) connection MUST be
 established.
 To avoid the need to implement TCP, one MUST insure that:
  1. UAs never issue requests larger than the Path MTU. SAs can omit

TCP support only if they never have to receive unicast requests

     longer than the path MTU.
  1. UAs can accept replies with the 'OVERFLOW' flag set, and make use

of the first result included, or reformulate the request.

  1. Ensure that a SA can send a SrvRply, SrvReg, or SrvDeReg in

a single datagram. This means limiting the size of URLs,

     the number of attributes and the number of authenticators
     transmitted.
 DAs MUST be able to respond to UDP and TCP requests, as well as
 multicast DA Discovery SrvRqsts.  SAs MUST be able to respond to TCP
 unless the SA will NEVER receive a request or send a reply which will
 exceed a datagram in size (e.g., some embedded systems).

Guttman, et al. Standards Track [Page 14] RFC 2608 Service Location Protocol, Version 2 June 1999

 A TCP connection MAY be used for a single SLP transaction, or for
 multiple transactions.  Since there are length fields in the message
 headers, SLP Agents can send multiple requests along a connection and
 read the return stream for acknowledgments and replies.
 The initiating agent SHOULD close the TCP connection.  The DA SHOULD
 wait at least CONFIG_CLOSE_CONN seconds before closing an idle
 connection.  DAs and SAs SHOULD close an idle TCP connection after
 CONFIG_CLOSE_CONN seconds to ensure robust operation, even when the
 initiating agent neglects to close it.  See Section 13 for timing
 rules.

6.3. Retransmission of SLP messages

 Requests which fail to elicit a response are retransmitted.  The
 initial retransmission occurs after a CONFIG_RETRY wait period.
 Retransmissions MUST be made with exponentially increasing wait
 intervals (doubling the wait each time).  This applies to unicast as
 well as multicast SLP requests.
 Unicast requests to a DA or SA should be retransmitted until either a
 response (which might be an error) has been obtained, or for
 CONFIG_RETRY_MAX seconds.
 Multicast requests SHOULD be reissued over CONFIG_MC_MAX seconds
 until a result has been obtained.  UAs need only wait till they
 obtain the first reply which matches their request.  That is,
 retransmission is not required if the requesting agent is prepared to
 use the 'first reply' instead of 'as many replies as possible within
 a bounded time interval.'
 When SLP SrvRqst, SrvTypeRqst, and AttrRqst messages are multicast,
 they contain a <PRList> of previous responders.  Initially the
 <PRList> is empty.  When these requests are unicast, the <PRList> is
 always empty.
 Any DA or SA which sees its address in the <PRList> MUST NOT respond
 to the request.
 The message SHOULD be retransmitted until the <PRList> causes no
 further responses to be elicited or the previous responder list and
 the request will not fit into a single datagram or until
 CONFIG_MC_MAX seconds elapse.
 UAs which retransmit a request use the same XID. This allows a DA or
 SA to cache its reply to the original request and then send it again,
 should a duplicate request arrive.  This cached information should
 only be held very briefly.  XIDs SHOULD be randomly chosen to avoid

Guttman, et al. Standards Track [Page 15] RFC 2608 Service Location Protocol, Version 2 June 1999

 duplicate XIDs in requests if UAs restart frequently.

6.4. Strings in SLP messages

 The escape character is a backslash (UTF-8 0x5c) followed by the two
 hexadecimal digits of the escaped character.  Only reserved
 characters are escaped.  For example, a comma (UTF-8 0x29) is escaped
 as `\29', and a backslash `\' is escaped as `\5c'.  String lists used
 in SLP define the comma to be the delimiter between list elements, so
 commas in data strings must be escaped in this manner.  Backslashes
 are the escape character so they also must always be escaped when
 included in a string literally.
 String comparison for order and equality in SLP MUST be case
 insensitive inside the 0x00-0x7F subrange of UTF-8 (which corresponds
 to ASCII character encoding).  Case insensitivity SHOULD be supported
 throughout the entire UTF-8 encoded Unicode [6] character set.
 The case insensitivity rule applies to all string matching in SLPv2,
 including Scope strings, SLP SPI strings, service types, attribute
 tags and values in query handling, language tags, previous responder
 lists.  Comparisons of URL strings, however, is case sensitive.
 White space (SPACE, CR, LF, TAB) internal to a string value is folded
 to a single SPACE character for the sake of string comparisons.
 White space preceding or following a string value is ignored for the
 purposes of string comparison.  For example, "  Some String  "
 matches "SOME    STRING".
 String comparisons (using comparison operators such as `<=' or `>=')
 are done using lexical ordering in UTF-8 encoded characters, not
 using any language specific rules.
 The reserved character `*' may precede, follow or be internal to a
 string value in order to indicate substring matching.  The query
 including this character matches any character sequence which
 conforms to the letters which are not wildcarded.

6.4.1. Scope Lists in SLP

 Scope Lists in SLPv2 have the following grammar:
 scope-list = scope-val / scope-val `,' scope-list
 scope-val = 1*safe
  safe = ; Any character except reserved.
 reserved = `(' / `)' / `,' / `\' / `!'  / `<' / `=' / `>' / `~' / CTL
       / `;' / `*' / `+'
 escape-val = `\' HEXDIG HEXDIG

Guttman, et al. Standards Track [Page 16] RFC 2608 Service Location Protocol, Version 2 June 1999

 Scopes which include any reserved characters must replace the escaped
 character with the escaped-val format.

7. Errors

 If the Error Code in a SLP reply message is nonzero, the rest of the
 message MAY be truncated.  No data is necessarily transmitted or
 should be expected after the header and the error code, except
 possibly for some optional extensions to clarify the error, for
 example as in section D.1.
 Errors are only returned for unicast requests.  Multicast requests
 are silently discarded if they result in an error.
 LANGUAGE_NOT_SUPPORTED = 1: There is data for the service type in
       the scope in the AttrRqst or SrvRqst, but not in the requested
       language.
 PARSE_ERROR = 2: The message fails to obey SLP syntax.
 INVALID_REGISTRATION = 3: The SrvReg has problems -- e.g., a zero
       lifetime or an omitted Language Tag.
 SCOPE_NOT_SUPPORTED = 4: The SLP message did not include a scope in
       its <scope-list> supported by the SA or DA.
 AUTHENTICATION_UNKNOWN = 5: The DA or SA receives a request for an
       unsupported SLP SPI.
 AUTHENTICATION_ABSENT = 6: The DA expected URL and ATTR
       authentication in the SrvReg and did not receive it.
 AUTHENTICATION_FAILED = 7: The DA detected an authentication error in
       an Authentication block.
 VER_NOT_SUPPORTED = 9: Unsupported version number in message header.
 INTERNAL_ERROR = 10: The DA (or SA) is too sick to respond.
 DA_BUSY_NOW = 11: UA or SA SHOULD retry, using exponential back off.
 OPTION_NOT_UNDERSTOOD = 12: The DA (or SA) received an unknown option
       from the mandatory range (see section 9.1).
 INVALID_UPDATE = 13: The DA received a SrvReg without FRESH set, for
       an unregistered service or with inconsistent Service Types.
 MSG_NOT_SUPPORTED = 14: The SA received an AttrRqst or SrvTypeRqst
       and does not support it.
 REFRESH_REJECTED = 15: The SA sent a SrvReg or partial SrvDereg to a
       DA more frequently than the DA's min-refresh-interval.

8. Required SLP Messages

 All length fields in SLP messages are in network byte order.  Where '
 tuples' are defined, these are sequences of bytes, in the precise
 order listed, in network byte order.
 SLP messages all begin with the following header:

Guttman, et al. Standards Track [Page 17] RFC 2608 Service Location Protocol, Version 2 June 1999

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |    Version    |  Function-ID  |            Length             |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   | Length, contd.|O|F|R|       reserved          |Next Ext Offset|
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |  Next Extension Offset, contd.|              XID              |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |      Language Tag Length      |         Language Tag          \
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
        Message Type             Abbreviation     Function-ID
        Service Request          SrvRqst              1
        Service Reply            SrvRply              2
        Service Registration     SrvReg               3
        Service Deregister       SrvDeReg             4
        Service Acknowledge      SrvAck               5
        Attribute Request        AttrRqst             6
        Attribute Reply          AttrRply             7
        DA Advertisement         DAAdvert             8
        Service Type Request     SrvTypeRqst          9
        Service Type Reply       SrvTypeRply          10
        SA Advertisement         SAAdvert             11
 SAs and UAs MUST support SrvRqst, SrvRply and DAAdvert.  SAs MUST
 also support SrvReg, SAAdvert and SrvAck.  For UAs and SAs, support
 for other messages are OPTIONAL.
  1. Length is the length of the entire SLP message, header included.
  2. The flags are: OVERFLOW (0x80) is set when a message's length

exceeds what can fit into a datagram. FRESH (0x40) is set on

     every new SrvReg.  REQUEST MCAST (0x20) is set when multicasting
     or broadcasting requests.  Reserved bits MUST be 0.
   - Next Extension Offset is set to 0 unless extensions are used.
     The first extension begins at 'offset' bytes, from the message's
     beginning.  It is placed after the SLP message data.  See
     Section 9.1 for how to interpret unrecognized SLP Extensions.
   - XID is set to a unique value for each unique request.  If the
     request is retransmitted, the same XID is used.  Replies set
     the XID to the same value as the xid in the request.  Only
     unsolicited DAAdverts are sent with an XID of 0.
   - Lang Tag Length is the length in bytes of the Language Tag field.
   - Language Tag conforms to [7].  The Language Tag in a reply MUST
     be the same as the Language Tag in the request.  This field must
     be encoded 1*8ALPHA *("-" 1*8ALPHA).

Guttman, et al. Standards Track [Page 18] RFC 2608 Service Location Protocol, Version 2 June 1999

 If an option is specified, and not included in the message, the
 receiver MUST respond with a PARSE_ERROR.

8.1. Service Request

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |       Service Location header (function = SrvRqst = 1)        |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |      length of <PRList>       |        <PRList> String        \
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |   length of <service-type>    |    <service-type> String      \
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |    length of <scope-list>     |     <scope-list> String       \
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |  length of predicate string   |  Service Request <predicate>  \
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |  length of <SLP SPI> string   |       <SLP SPI> String        \
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
 In order for a Service to match a SrvRqst, it must belong to at least
 one requested scope, support the requested service type, and match
 the predicate.  If the predicate is present, the language of the
 request (ignoring the dialect part of the Language Tag) must match
 the advertised service.
 <PRList> is the Previous Responder List.  This <string-list> contains
 dotted decimal notation IP (v4) addresses, and is iteratively
 multicast to obtain all possible results (see Section 6.3).  UAs
 SHOULD implement this discovery algorithm.  SAs MUST use this to
 discover all available DAs in their scope, if they are not already
 configured with DA addresses by some other means.
 A SA silently drops all requests which include the SA's address in
 the <PRList>.  An SA which has multiple network interfaces MUST check
 if any of the entries in the <PRList> equal any of its interfaces.
 An entry in the PRList which does not conform to an IPv4 dotted
 decimal address is ignored:  The rest of the <PRList> is processed
 normally and an error is not returned.
 Once a <PRList> plus the request exceeds the path MTU, multicast
 convergence stops.  This algorithm is not intended to find all
 instances; it finds 'enough' to provide useful results.
 The <scope-list> is a <string-list> of configured scope names.  SAs
 and DAs which have been configured with any of the scopes in this
 list will respond.  DAs and SAs MUST reply to unicast requests with a

Guttman, et al. Standards Track [Page 19] RFC 2608 Service Location Protocol, Version 2 June 1999

 SCOPE_NOT_SUPPORTED error if the <scope-list> is omitted or fails to
 include a scope they support (see Section 11).  The only exceptions
 to this are described in Section 11.2.
 The <service-type> string is discussed in Section 4.  Normally, a
 SrvRqst elicits a SrvRply.  There are two exceptions:  If the
 <service-type> is set to "service:directory-agent", DAs respond to
 the SrvRqst with a DAAdvert (see Section 8.5.)  If set to
 "service:service-agent", SAs respond with a SAAdvert (see Section
 8.6.)  If this field is omitted, a PARSE_ERROR is returned - as this
 field is REQUIRED.
 The <predicate> is a LDAPv3 search filter [14].  This field is
 OPTIONAL. Services may be discovered simply by type and scope.
 Otherwise, services are discovered which satisfy the <predicate>.  If
 present, it is compared to each registered service.  If the attribute
 in the filter has been registered with multiple values, the filter is
 compared to each value and the results are ORed together, i.e.,
 "(x=3)" matches a registration of (x=1,2,3); "(!(Y=0))" matches
 (y=0,1) since Y can be nonzero.  Note the matching is case
 insensitive.  Keywords (i.e., attributes without values) are matched
 with a "presence" filter, as in "(keyword=*)".
 An incoming request term MUST have the same type as the attribute in
 a registration in order to match.  Thus, "(x=33)" will not match '
 x=true', etc.  while "(y=foo)" will match 'y=FOO'.
 "(|(x=33)(y=foo))" will be satisfied, even though "(x=33)" cannot be
 satisfied, because of the `|' (boolean disjunction).
 Wildcard matching MUST be done with the '=' filter.  In any other
 case, a PARSE_ERROR is returned.  Request terms which include
 wildcards are interpreted to be Strings.  That is, (x=34*) would
 match 'x=34foo', but not 'x=3432' since the first value is a String
 while the second value is an Integer; Strings don't match Integers.
 Examples of Predicates follow.  <t> indicates the service type of the
 SrvRqst, <s> gives the <scope-list> and <p> is the predicate string.
    <t>=service:http  <s>=DEFAULT  <p>=  (empty string)
             This is a minimal request string.  It matches all http
             services advertised with the default scope.
    <t>=service:pop3  <s>=SALES,DEFAULT  <p>=(user=wump)
             This is a request for all pop3 services available in
             the SALES or DEFAULT scope which serve mail to the user
             `wump'.

Guttman, et al. Standards Track [Page 20] RFC 2608 Service Location Protocol, Version 2 June 1999

    <t>=service:backup  <s>=BLDG 32  <p>=(&(q<=3)(speed>=1000))
             This returns the backup service which has a queue length
             less than 3 and a speed greater than 1000.  It will
             return this only for services registered with the BLDG 32
             scope.
    <t>=service:directory-agent  <s>=DEFAULT  <p>=
             This returns DAAdverts for all DAs in the DEFAULT scope.
 DAs are discovered by sending a SrvRqst with the service type set to
 "service:directory-agent".  If a predicate is included in the
 SrvRqst, the DA SHOULD respond only if the predicate can be satisfied
 with the DA's attributes.  The <scope-list> MUST contain all scopes
 configured for the UA or SA which is discovering DAs.
 The <SLP SPI> string indicates a SLP SPI that the requester has been
 configured with.  If this string is omitted, the responder does not
 include any Authentication Blocks in its reply.  If it is included,
 the responder MUST return a reply which has an associated
 authentication block with the SLP SPI in the SrvRqst.  If no replies
 may be returned because the SLP SPI is not supported, the responder
 returns an AUTHENTICATION_UNKNOWN error.

8.2. Service Reply

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |        Service Location header (function = SrvRply = 2)       |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |        Error Code             |        URL Entry count        |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |       <URL Entry 1>          ...       <URL Entry N>          \
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
 The service reply contains zero or more URL entries (see Section
 4.3).  A service reply with zero URL entries MUST be returned in
 response to a unicast Service Request, if no matching URLs are
 present.  A service reply with zero URL entries MUST NOT be sent in
 response to a multicast or broadcast service request (instead, if
 there was no match found or an error processing the request, the
 service reply should not be generated at all).
 If the reply overflows, the UA MAY simply use the first URL Entry in
 the list.  A URL obtained by SLP may not be cached longer than
 Lifetime seconds, unless there is a URL Authenticator block present.

Guttman, et al. Standards Track [Page 21] RFC 2608 Service Location Protocol, Version 2 June 1999

 In that case, the cache lifetime is indicated by the Timestamp in the
 URL Authenticator (see Section 9.2).
 An authentication block is returned in the URL Entries, including the
 SLP SPI in the SrvRqst.  If no SLP SPI was included in the request,
 no Authentication Blocks are returned in the reply.  URL
 Authentication Blocks are defined in Section 9.2.1.
 If a SrvRply is sent by UDP, a URL Entry MUST NOT be included unless
 it fits entirely without truncation.

8.3. Service Registration

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |         Service Location header (function = SrvReg = 3)       |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                          <URL-Entry>                          \
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   | length of service type string |        <service-type>         \
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |     length of <scope-list>    |         <scope-list>          \
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |  length of attr-list string   |          <attr-list>          \
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |# of AttrAuths |(if present) Attribute Authentication Blocks...\
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
 The <entry> is a URL Entry (see section 4.3).  The Lifetime defines
 how long a DA can cache the registration.  SAs SHOULD reregister
 before this lifetime expires (but SHOULD NOT more often than once per
 second).  The Lifetime MAY be set to any value between 0 and 0xffff
 (maximum, around 18 hours).  Long-lived registrations remain stale
 longer if the service fails and the SA does not deregister the
 service.
 The <service-type> defines the service type of the URL to be
 registered, regardless of the scheme of the URL. The <scope-list>
 MUST contain the names of all scopes configured for the SA, which the
 DA it is registering with supports.  The default value for the
 <scope-list> is "DEFAULT" (see Section 11).
 The SA MUST register consistently with all DAs.  If a SA is
 configured with scopes X and Y and there are three DAs, whose scopes
 are "X", "Y" and "X,Y" respectively, the SA will register the with
 all three DAs in their respective scopes.  All future updates and
 deregistrations of the service must be sent to the same set of DAs in

Guttman, et al. Standards Track [Page 22] RFC 2608 Service Location Protocol, Version 2 June 1999

 the same scopes the service was initially registered in.
 The <attr-list>, if present, specifies the attributes and values to
 be associated with the URL by the DA (see Section 5).
 A SA configured with the ability to sign service registrations MUST
 sign each of the URLs and Attribute Lists using each of the keys it
 is configured to use, and the DA it is registering with accepts.
 (The SA MUST acquire DAAdverts for all DAs it will register with to
 obtain the DA's SLP SPI list and attributes, as described in Section
 8.5).  The SA supplies a SLP SPI in each authentication block
 indicating the SLP SPI configuration required to verify the digital
 signature.  The format of the digital signatures used is defined in
 section 9.2.1.
 Subsequent registrations of previously registered services MUST
 contain the same list of SLP SPIs as previous ones or else DAs will
 reject them, replying with an AUTHENTICATION_ABSENT error.
 A registration with the FRESH flag set will replace *entirely* any
 previous registration for the same URL in the same language.  If the
 FRESH flag is not set, the registration is an "incremental"
 registration (see Section 9.3).

8.4. Service Acknowledgment

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |          Service Location header (function = SrvAck = 5)      |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |          Error Code           |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
 A DA returns a SrvAck to an SA after a SrvReg.  It carries only a two
 byte Error Code (see Section 7).

Guttman, et al. Standards Track [Page 23] RFC 2608 Service Location Protocol, Version 2 June 1999

8.5. Directory Agent Advertisement

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |        Service Location header (function = DAAdvert = 8)      |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |          Error Code           |  DA Stateless Boot Timestamp  |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |DA Stateless Boot Time,, contd.|         Length of URL         |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   \                              URL                              \
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |     Length of <scope-list>    |         <scope-list>          \
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |     Length of <attr-list>     |          <attr-list>          \
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |    Length of <SLP SPI List>   |     <SLP SPI List> String     \
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   | # Auth Blocks |         Authentication block (if any)         \
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
 The Error Code is set to 0 when the DAAdvert is multicast.  If the
 DAAdvert is being returned due to a unicast SrvRqst (ie.  a request
 without the REQUEST MCAST flag set) the DA returns the same errors a
 SrvRply would.
 The <scope-list> of the SrvRqst must either be omitted or include a
 scope which the DA supports.  The DA Stateless Boot Timestamp
 indicates the state of the DA (see section 12.1).
 The DA MAY include a list of its attributes in the DAAdvert.  This
 list SHOULD be kept short, as the DAAdvert must fit into a datagram
 in order to be multicast.
 A potential scaling problem occurs in SLPv2 if SAs choose too low a
 Lifetime.  In this case, an onerous amount of reregistration occurs
 as more services are deployed.  SLPv2 allows DAs to control SAs
 frequency of registration.  A DA MAY reissue a DAAdvert with a new
 set of attributes at any time, to change the reregistration behavior
 of SAs.  These apply only to subsequent registrations; existing
 service registrations with the DA retain their registered lifetimes.
 If the DAAdvert includes the attribute "min-refresh-interval" it MUST
 be set to a single Integer value indicating a number of seconds.  If
 this attribute is present SAs MUST NOT refresh any particular service
 advertisement more frequently than this value.  If SrvReg with the
 FRESH FLAG not set or SrvDereg with a non-empty tag list updating a

Guttman, et al. Standards Track [Page 24] RFC 2608 Service Location Protocol, Version 2 June 1999

 particular service are received more often than the value for the
 DA's advertised "min-refresh-interval" attribute the DA SHOULD reject
 the message and return a REFRESH_REJECTED error in the SrvAck.
 The URL is "service:directory-agent://"<addr> of the DA, where <addr>
 is the dotted decimal numeric address of the DA. The <scope-list> of
 the DA MUST NOT be NULL.
 The SLP SPI List is the list of SPIs that the DA is capable of
 verifying.  SAs MUST NOT register services with authentication blocks
 for those SLP SPIs which are not on the list.  DAs will reject
 service registrations which they cannot verify, returning an
 AUTHENTICATION_UNKNOWN error.
 The format of DAAdvert signatures is defined in Section 9.2.1.
 The SLP SPI which is used to verify the DAAdvert is included in the
 Authentication Block.  When DAAdverts are multicast, they may have to
 transmit multiple DAAdvert Authentication Blocks.  If the DA is
 configured to be able to generate signatures for more than one SPI,
 the DA MUST include one Authentication Block for each SPI.  If all
 these Authentication Blocks do not fit in a single datagram (to
 multicast or broadcast) the DA MUST send separate DAAdverts so that
 Authentication Blocks for all the SPIs the DA is capable of
 generating are sent.
 If the DAAdvert is being sent in response to a SrvRqst, the DAAdvert
 contains only the authentication block with the SLP SPI in the
 SrvRqst, if the DA is configured to be able to produce digital
 signatures using that SLP SPI. If the SrvRqst is unicast to the DA
 (the REQUEST MCAST flag in the header is not set) and an unsupported
 SLP SPI is included, the DA replies with a DAAdvert with the Error
 Code set to an AUTHENTICATION_UNKNOWN error.
 UAs SHOULD be configured with SLP SPIs that will allow them to verify
 DA Advertisements.  If the UA is configured with SLP SPIs and
 receives a DAAdvert which fails to be verified using one of them, the
 UA MUST discard it.

8.6. Service Agent Advertisement

 User Agents MUST NOT solicit SA Advertisements if they have been
 configured to use a particular DA, if they have been configured with
 a <scope-list> or if DAs have been discovered.  UAs solicit SA
 Advertisements only when they are explicitly configured to use User
 Selectable scopes (see Section 11.2) in order to discover the scopes
 that SAs support.  This allows UAs without scope configuration to
 make use of either DAs or SAs without any functional difference

Guttman, et al. Standards Track [Page 25] RFC 2608 Service Location Protocol, Version 2 June 1999

 except performance.
 A SA MAY be configured with attributes, and SHOULD support the
 attribute 'service-type' whose value is all the service types of
 services represented by the SA. SAs MUST NOT respond if the SrvRqst
 predicate is not satisfied.  For example, only SAs offering 'nfs'
 services SHOULD respond with a SAAdvert to a SrvRqst for service type
 "service:service-agent" which includes a predicate "(service-
 type=nfs)".
    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |        Service Location header (function = SAAdvert = 11)     |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |         Length of URL         |              URL              \
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |     Length of <scope-list>    |         <scope-list>          \
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |     Length of <attr-list>     |          <attr-list>          \
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   | # auth blocks |        authentication block (if any)          \
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
 The SA responds only to multicast SA discovery requests which either
 include no <scope-list> or a scope which they are configured to use.
 The SAAdvert MAY include a list of attributes the SA supports.  This
 attribute list SHOULD be kept short so that the SAAdvert will not
 exceed the path MTU in size.
 The URL is "service:service-agent://"<addr> of the SA, where <addr>
 is the dotted decimal numeric address of the SA. The <scope-list> of
 the SA MUST NOT be null.
 The SAAdvert contains one SAAdvert Authentication block for each SLP
 SPI the SA can produce Authentication Blocks for.  If the UA can
 verify the Authentication Block of the SAAdvert, and the SAAdvert
 fails to be verified, the UA MUST discard it.

9. Optional Features

 The features described in this section are not mandatory.  Some are
 useful for interactive use of SLP (where a user rather than a program
 will select services, using a browsing interface for example) and for
 scalability of SLP to larger networks.

Guttman, et al. Standards Track [Page 26] RFC 2608 Service Location Protocol, Version 2 June 1999

9.1. Service Location Protocol Extensions

 The format of a Service Location Extension is:
    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |         Extension ID          |       Next Extension Offset   |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   | Offset, contd.|                Extension Data                 \
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
 Extension IDs are assigned in the following way:
 0x0000-0x3FFF Standardized.  Optional to implement.  Ignore if
       unrecognized.
 0x4000-0x7FFF Standardized.  Mandatory to implement.  A UA or SA
       which receives this option in a reply and does not understand
       it MUST silently discard the reply.  A DA or SA which receives
       this option in a request and does not understand it MUST return
       an OPTION_NOT_UNDERSTOOD error.
 0x8000-0x8FFF For private use (not standardized).  Optional to
       implement.  Ignore if unrecognized.
 0x9000-0xFFFF Reserved.
 The three byte offset to next extension indicates the position of the
 next extension as offset from the beginning of the SLP message.
 The offset value is 0 if there are no extensions following the
 current extension.
 If the offset is 0, the length of the current Extension Data is
 determined by subtracting total length of the SLP message as given in
 the SLP message header minus the offset of the current extension.
 Extensions defined in this document are in Section D.  See section 15
 for procedures that are required when specifying new SLP extensions.

Guttman, et al. Standards Track [Page 27] RFC 2608 Service Location Protocol, Version 2 June 1999

9.2. Authentication Blocks

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |  Block Structure Descriptor   |  Authentication Block Length  |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                           Timestamp                           |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |     SLP SPI String Length     |         SLP SPI String        \
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |              Structured Authentication Block ...              \
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
 Authentication blocks are returned with certain SLP messages to
 verify that the contents have not been modified, and have been
 transmitted by an authorized agent.  The authentication data
 (contained in the Structured Authentication Block) is typically case
 sensitive.  Even though SLP registration data (e.g., attribute
 values) are typically are not case sensitive, the case of the
 registration data has to be preserved by the registering DA so that
 UAs will be able to verify the data used for calculating digital
 signature data.
 The Block Structure Descriptor (BSD) identifies the format of the
 Authenticator which follows.  BSDs 0x0000-0x7FFF will be maintained
 by IANA. BSDs 0x8000-0x8FFF are for private use.
 The Authentication Block Length is the length of the entire block,
 starting with the BSD.
 The Timestamp is the time that the authenticator expires (to prevent
 replay attacks.)  The Timestamp is a 32-bit unsigned fixed-point
 number of seconds relative to 0h on 1 January 1970.  SAs use this
 value to indicate when the validity of the digital signature expires.
 This Timestamp will wrap back to 0 in the year 2106.  Once the value
 of the Timestamp wraps, the time at which the Timestamp is relative
 to resets.  For example, after 06h28 and 16 seconds 5 February 2106,
 all Timestamp values will be relative to that epoch date.
 The SLP Security Parameters Index (SPI) string identifies the key
 length, algorithm parameters and keying material to be used by agents
 to verify the signature data in the Structured Authentication Block.
 The SLP SPI string has the same grammar as the <scope-val> defined in
 Section 6.4.1.
 Reserved characters in SLP SPI strings must be escaped using the same
 convention as used throughout SLPv2.

Guttman, et al. Standards Track [Page 28] RFC 2608 Service Location Protocol, Version 2 June 1999

 SLP SPIs deployed in a site MUST be unique.  An SLP SPI used for
 BSD=0x0002 must not be the same as used for some other BSD.
 All SLP agents MUST implement DSA [20] (BSD=0x0002).  SAs MUST
 register services with DSA authentication blocks, and they MAY
 register them with other authentication blocks using other
 algorithms.  SAs MUST use DSA authentication blocks in SrvDeReg
 messages and DAs MUST use DSA authentication blocks in unsolicited
 DAAdverts.

9.2.1. SLP Message Authentication Rules

 The sections below define how to calculate the value to apply to the
 algorithm identified by the BSD value.  The components listed are
 used as if they were a contiguous single byte aligned buffer in the
 order given.
    URL
        16-bit Length of SLP SPI String, SLP SPI String.
        16-bit Length of URL, URL,
        32-bit Timestamp.
    Attribute List
        16-bit Length of SLP SPI String, SLP SPI String,
        16-bit length of <attr-list>, <attr-list>,
        32-bit Timestamp.
    DAAdvert
        16-bit Length of SLP SPI String, SLP SPI String,
        32-bit DA Stateless Boot Timestamp,
        16-bit Length of URL, URL,
        16-bit Length of <attr-list>, <attr-list>,
        16-bit Length of DA's <scope-list>, DA's <scope-list>,
        16-bit Length of DA's <SLP SPI List>, DA's <SLP SPI List>,
        32-bit Timestamp.
        The first SLP SPI is the SLP SPI in the Authentication
        Block.  This SLP SPI indicates the keying material and other
        parameters to use to verify the DAAdvert.  The SLP SPI List is
        the list of SLP SPIs the DA itself supports, and is able to
        verify.
    SAAdvert
        16-bit Length of SLP SPI String, SLP SPI String,
        16-bit Length of URL, URL,
        16-bit Length of <attr-list>, <attr-list>,
        16-bit Length of <scope-list>, <scope-list>,
        32-bit Timestamp.

Guttman, et al. Standards Track [Page 29] RFC 2608 Service Location Protocol, Version 2 June 1999

9.2.2 DSA with SHA-1 in Authentication Blocks

 BSD=0x0002 is defined to be DSA with SHA-1.  The signature
 calculation is defined by [20].  The signature format conforms to
 that in the X.509 v3 certificate:
  1. The signature algorithm identifier (an OID)
  2. The signature value (an octet string)
  3. The certificate path.
 All data is represented in ASN.1 encoding:
      id-dsa-with-sha1 ID  ::=  {
                      iso(1) member-body(2) us(840) x9-57 (10040)
                      x9cm(4) 3 }
 i.e., the ASN.1 encoding of 1.2.840.10040.4.3 followed immediately
 by:
      Dss-Sig-Value  ::=  SEQUENCE  {
                      r       INTEGER,
                      s       INTEGER  }
 i.e., the binary ASN.1 encoding of r and s computed using DSA and
 SHA-1.  This is followed by a certificate path, as defined by X.509
 [10], [2], [3], [4], [5].
 Authentication Blocks for BSD=0x0002 have the following format.  In
 the future, BSDs may be assigned which have different formats.
    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                   ASN.1 encoded DSA signature                 \
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

9.3. Incremental Service Registration

 Incremental registrations update attribute values for a previously
 registered service.  Incremental service registrations are useful
 when only a single attribute has changed, for instance.  In an
 incremental registration, the FRESH flag in the SrvReg header is NOT
 set.
 The new registration's attributes replace the previous
 registration's, but do not affect attributes which were included
 previously and are not present in the update.

Guttman, et al. Standards Track [Page 30] RFC 2608 Service Location Protocol, Version 2 June 1999

 For example, suppose service:x://a.org has been registered with
 attributes A=1, B=2, C=3.  If an incremental registration comes for
 service:x://a.org with attributes C=30, D=40, then the attributes for
 the service after the update are A=1, B=2, C=30, D=40.
 Incremental registrations MUST NOT be performed for services
 registered with Authentication Blocks.  These must be registered with
 ALL attributes, with the FRESH flag in the SrvReg header set.  DAs
 which receive such registration messages return an
 AUTHENTICATION_FAILED error.
 If the FRESH flag is not set and the DA does not have a prior
 registration for the service, the incremental registration fails with
 error code INVALID_UPDATE.
 The SA MUST use the same <scope-list> in an update message as was
 used in the prior registration.  If this is not done, the DA returns
 a SCOPE_NOT_SUPPORTED error.  In order to change the scope of a
 service advertisement it MUST be deregistered first and reregistered
 with a new <scope-list>.
 The SA MUST use the same <service-type> in an update message as was
 used in a prior registration of the same URL. If this is not done,
 the DA returns an INVALID_UPDATE error.

9.4. Tag Lists

 Tag lists are used in SrvDeReg and AttrReq messages.  The syntax of a
 <tag-list> item is:
 tag-filter = simple-tag / substring
 simple-tag = 1*filt-char
 substring = [initial] any [final]
 initial = 1*filt-char
   any = `*' *(filt-char `*')
 final = 1*filt-char
 filt-char = Any character excluding <reserved> and <bad-tag> (see
       grammar in Section 5).
 Wild card characters in a <tag-list> item match arbitrary sequences
 of characters.  For instance "*bob*" matches "some bob I know",
 "bigbob", "bobby" and "bob".

Guttman, et al. Standards Track [Page 31] RFC 2608 Service Location Protocol, Version 2 June 1999

10. Optional SLP Messages

 The additional requests provide features for user interaction and for
 efficient updating of service advertisements with dynamic attributes.

10.1. Service Type Request

 The Service Type Request (SrvTypeRqst) allows a UA to discover all
 types of service on a network.  This is useful for general purpose
 service browsers.
    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |      Service Location header (function = SrvTypeRqst = 9)     |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |        length of PRList       |        <PRList> String        \
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |   length of Naming Authority  |   <Naming Authority String>   \
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |     length of <scope-list>    |      <scope-list> String      \
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
 The <PRList> list and <scope-list> are interpreted as in Section 8.1.
 The Naming Authority string, if present in the request, will limit
 the reply to Service Type strings with the specified Naming
 Authority.  If the Naming Authority string is absent, the IANA
 registered service types will be returned.  If the length of the
 Naming Authority is set to 0xFFFF, the Naming Authority string is
 omitted and ALL Service Types are returned, regardless of Naming
 Authority.

10.2. Service Type Reply

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |      Service Location header (function = SrvTypeRply = 10)    |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |           Error Code          |    length of <srvType-list>   |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                       <srvtype--list>                         \
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
 The service-type Strings (as described in Section 4.1) are provided
 in <srvtype-list>, which is a <string-list>.

Guttman, et al. Standards Track [Page 32] RFC 2608 Service Location Protocol, Version 2 June 1999

 If a service type has a Naming Authority other than IANA it MUST be
 returned following the service type string and a `.'  character.
 Service types with the IANA Naming Authority do not include a Naming
 Authority string.

10.3. Attribute Request

 The Attribute Request (AttrRqst) allows a UA to discover attributes
 of a given service (by supplying its URL) or for an entire service
 type.  The latter feature allows the UA to construct a query for an
 available service by selecting desired features.  The UA may request
 that all attributes are returned, or only a subset of them.
    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |       Service Location header (function = AttrRqst = 6)       |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |       length of PRList        |        <PRList> String        \
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |         length of URL         |              URL              \
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |    length of <scope-list>     |      <scope-list> string      \
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |  length of <tag-list> string  |       <tag-list> string       \
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |   length of <SLP SPI> string  |        <SLP SPI> string       \
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
 The <PRList>, <scope-list> and <SLP SPI> string are interpreted as in
 Section 8.1.
 The URL field can take two forms.  It can simply be a Service Type
 (see Section 4.1), such as "http" or "service:tftp".  In this case,
 all attributes and the full range of values for each attribute of all
 services of the given Service Type is returned.
 The URL field may alternatively be a full URL, such as
 "service:printer:lpr://igore.wco.ftp.com:515/draft" or
 "nfs://max.net/znoo".  In this, only the registered attributes for
 the specified URL are returned.
 The <tag-list> field is a <string-list> of attribute tags, as defined
 in Section 9.4 which indicates the attributes to return in the
 AttrRply.  If <tag-list> is omitted, all attributes are returned.
 <tag-list> MUST be omitted and a full URL MUST be included when
 attributes when a SLP SPI List string is included, otherwise the DA
 will reply with an AUTHENTICATION_FAILED error.

Guttman, et al. Standards Track [Page 33] RFC 2608 Service Location Protocol, Version 2 June 1999

10.4. Attribute Reply

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |       Service Location header (function = AttrRply = 7)       |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |         Error Code            |      length of <attr-list>    |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                         <attr-list>                           \
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |# of AttrAuths |  Attribute Authentication Block (if present)  \
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
 The format of the <attr-list> and the Authentication Block is as
 specified for SrvReg (see Section 9.2.1).
 Attribute replies SHOULD be returned with the original case of the
 string registration intact, as they are likely to be human readable.
 In the case where the AttrRqst was by service type, all attributes
 defined for the service type, and all their values are returned.
 Although white space is folded for string matching, attribute tags
 and values MUST be returned with their original white space
 preserved.
 Only one copy of each attribute tag or String value should be
 returned, arbitrarily choosing one version (with respect to upper and
 lower case and white space internal to the strings):  Duplicate
 attributes and values SHOULD be removed.  An arbitrary version of the
 string value and tag name is chosen for the merge.  For example:
 "(A=a a,b)" merged with "(a=A   A,B)" may yield "(a=a a,B)".

10.5. Attribute Request/Reply Examples

 Suppose that printer services have been registered as follows:
 Registered Service:
   URL        = service:printer:lpr://igore.wco.ftp.com/draft
   scope-list = Development
   Lang. Tag  = en
   Attributes = (Name=Igore),(Description=For developers only),
                (Protocol=LPR),(location-description=12th floor),
                (Operator=James Dornan \3cdornan@monster\3e),
                (media-size=na-letter),(resolution=res-600),x-OK
   URL        = service:printer:lpr://igore.wco.ftp.com/draft
   scope-list = Development

Guttman, et al. Standards Track [Page 34] RFC 2608 Service Location Protocol, Version 2 June 1999

   Lang. Tag  = de
   Attributes = (Name=Igore),(Description=Nur fuer Entwickler),
                (Protocol=LPR),(location-description=13te Etage),
                (Operator=James Dornan \3cdornan@monster\3e),
                (media-size=na-letter),(resolution=res-600),x-OK
   URL        = service:printer:http://not.wco.ftp.com/cgi-bin/pub-prn
   scope-list = Development
   Lang. Tag  = en
   Attributes = (Name=Not),(Description=Experimental IPP printer),
                (Protocol=http),(location-description=QA bench),
                (media-size=na-letter),(resolution=other),x-BUSY
 Notice the first printer, "Igore" is registered in both English and
 German.  The `<' and `>' characters in the Operator attribute value
 which are part of the Email address had to be escaped, as they are
 reserved characters for values.
 Attribute tags are not translated, though attribute values may be,
 see [13].
 The attribute Request:
   URL        = service:printer:lpr://igore.wco.ftp.com/draft
   scope-list = Development
   Lang. Tag  = de
   tag-list   = resolution,loc*
 receives the Attribute Reply:
   (location-description=13te Etage),(resolution=res-600)
 The attribute Request:
   URL        = service:printer
   scope-list = Development
   Lang. Tag  = en
   tag-list   = x-*,resolution,protocol
 receives an Attribute Reply containing:
   (protocols=http,LPR),(resolution=res-600,other),x-OK,x-BUSY
 The first request is by service instance and returns the requested
 values, in German.  The second request is by abstract service type
 (see Section 4) and returns values from both "Igore" and "Not".

Guttman, et al. Standards Track [Page 35] RFC 2608 Service Location Protocol, Version 2 June 1999

 An attribute Authentication Block is returned if an authentication
 block with the SLP SPI in the AttrRqst can be returned.  Note that
 the <attr-list> returned from a DA with an Authentication Block MUST
 be identical to the <attr-list> registered by a SA, in order for the
 authentication verification calculations to be possible.
 A SA or DA only returns an Attribute Authentication Block if the
 AttrRqst included a full URL in the request and no tag list.
 If an SLP SPI is specified in a unicast request (the REQUEST MCAST
 flag in the header is not set) and the SA or DA cannot return an
 Authentication Block with that SLP SPI, an AUTHENTICATION_UNKNOWN
 error is returned.  The # of Attr Auths field is set to 0 if there no
 Authentication Block is included, or 1 if an Authentication Block
 follows.

10.6. Service Deregistration

 A DA deletes a service registration when its Lifetime expires.
 Services SHOULD be deregistered when they are no longer available,
 rather than leaving the registrations to time out.
    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |         Service Location header (function = SrvDeReg = 4)     |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |    Length of <scope-list>     |         <scope-list>          \
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                           URL Entry                           \
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |      Length of <tag-list>     |            <tag-list>         \
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
 The <scope-list> is a <string-list> (see section 2.1).
 The SA MUST retry if there is no response from the DA, see Section
 12.3.  The DA acknowledges a SrvDeReg with a SrvAck.  Once the SA
 receives an acknowledgment indicating success, the service and/or
 attributes are no longer advertised by the DA. The DA deregisters the
 service or service attributes from every scope specified in the
 SrvDeReg which it was previously registered in.
 The SA MUST deregister all services with the same scope list used to
 register the service with a DA. If this is not done in the SrvDeReg
 message, the DA returns a SCOPE_NOT_SUPPORTED error.  The Lifetime
 field in the URL Entry is ignored for the purposes of the SrvDeReg.

Guttman, et al. Standards Track [Page 36] RFC 2608 Service Location Protocol, Version 2 June 1999

 The <tag-list> is a <string-list> of attribute tags to deregister as
 defined in Section 9.4.  If no <tag-list> is present, the SrvDeReg
 deregisters the service in all languages it has been registered in.
 If the <tag-list> is present, the SrvDeReg deregisters the attributes
 whose tags are listed in the tag spec.  Services registered with
 Authentication Blocks MUST NOT include a <tag-list> in a SrvDeReg
 message:  A DA will respond with an AUTHENTICATION_FAILED error in
 this case.
 If the service to be deregistered was registered with an
 authentication block or blocks, a URL authentication block for each
 of the SLP SPIs registered must be included in the SrvDeReg.
 Otherwise, the DA returns an AUTHENTICATION_ABSENT error.  If the
 message fails to be verified by the DA, an AUTHENTICATION_FAILED
 error is returned by the DA.

11. Scopes

 Scopes are sets of services.  The primary use of Scopes is to provide
 the ability to create administrative groupings of services.  A set of
 services may be assigned a scope by network administrators.  A client
 seeking services is configured to use one or more scopes.  The user
 will only discover those services which have been configured for him
 or her to use.  By configuring UAs and SAs with scopes,
 administrators may provision services.  Scopes strings are case
 insensitive.  The default SCOPE string is "DEFAULT".
 Scopes are the primary means an administrator has to scale SLP
 deployments to larger networks.  When DAs with NON-DEFAULT scopes are
 present on the network, further gains can be had by configuring UAs
 and SAs to have a predefined non-default scope.  These agents can
 then perform DA discovery and make requests using their scope.  This
 will limit the number of replies.

11.1. Scope Rules

 SLP messages which fail to contain a scope that the receiving Agent
 is configured to use are dropped (if the request was multicast) or a
 SCOPE_NOT_SUPPORTED error is returned (if the request was unicast).
 Every SrvRqst (except for DA and SA discovery requests), SrvReg,
 AttrRqst, SrvTypeRqst, DAAdvert, and SAAdvert message MUST include a
 <scope-list>.
 A UA MUST unicast its SLP messages to a DA which supports the desired
 scope, in preference to multicasting a request to SAs.  A UA MAY
 multicast the request if no DA is available in the scope it is
 configured to use.

Guttman, et al. Standards Track [Page 37] RFC 2608 Service Location Protocol, Version 2 June 1999

11.2. Administrative and User Selectable Scopes

 All requests and services are scoped.  The two exceptions are
 SrvRqsts for "service:directory-agent" and "service:service-agent".
 These MAY have a zero-length <scope-list> when used to enable the
 user to make scope selections.  In this case UAs obtain their scope
 list from DAAdverts (or if DAs are not available, from SAAdverts.)
 Otherwise, if SAs and UAs are to use any scope other than the default
 (i.e., "DEFAULT"), the UAs and SAs are configured with lists of
 scopes to use by system administrators, perhaps automatically by way
 of DHCP option 78 or 79 [21].  Such administrative scoping allows
 services to be provisioned, so that users will only see services they
 are intended to see.
 User configurable scopes allow a user to discover any service, but
 require them to do their own selection of scope.  This is similar to
 the way AppleTalk [12] and SMB [19] networking allow user selection
 of AppleTalk Zone or workgroups.
 Note that the two configuration choices are not compatible.  One
 model allows administrators control over service provision.  The
 other delegates this to users (who may not be prepared to do any
 configuration of their system).

12. Directory Agents

 DAs cache service location and attribute information.  They exist to
 enhance the performance and scalability of SLP. Multiple DAs provide
 further scalability and robustness of operation, since they can each
 store service information for the same SAs, in case one of the DAs
 fails.
 A DA provides a centralized store for service information.  This is
 useful in a network with several subnets or with many SLP Agents.
 The DA address can be dynamically configured with UAs and SAs using
 DHCP, or by using static configuration.
 SAs configured to use DAs with DHCP or static configuration MUST
 unicast a SrvRqst to the DA, when the SA is initialized.  The SrvRqst
 omits the scope list and sets the service type of the request to
 "service:directory-agent".  The DA will return a DAAdvert with its
 attributes, SLP SPI list, and other parameters which are essential
 for proper SA to DA communication.
 Passive detection of DAs by SAs enables services to be advertised
 consistently among DAs of the same scope.  Advertisements expire if
 not renewed, leaving only transient stale registrations in DAs, even

Guttman, et al. Standards Track [Page 38] RFC 2608 Service Location Protocol, Version 2 June 1999

 in the case of a failure of a SA.
 A single DA can support many UAs.  UAs send the same requests to DAs
 that they would send to SAs and expect the same results.  DAs reduce
 the load on SAs, making simpler implementations of SAs possible.
 UAs MUST be prepared for the possibility that the service information
 they obtain from DAs is stale.

12.1. Directory Agent Rules

 When DAs are present, each SA MUST register its services with DAs
 that support one or more of its scope(s).
 UAs MUST unicast requests directly to a DA (when scoping rules
 allow), hence avoiding using the multicast convergence algorithm, to
 obtain service information.  This decreases network utilization and
 increases the speed at which UAs can obtain service information.
 DAs MUST flush service advertisements once their lifetime expires or
 their URL Authentication Block "Timestamp" of expiration is past.
 DAAdverts MUST include DA Stateless Boot Timestamp, in the same
 format as the Authentication Block (see Section 9.2).  The Timestamp
 in the Authentication Block indicates the time at which all previous
 registrations were lost (i.e., the last stateless reboot).  The
 Timestamp is set to 0 in a DAAdvert to notify UAs and SAs that the DA
 is going down.  DAs MUST NOT use equal or lesser Boot Timestamps to
 previous ones, if they go down and restart without service
 registration state.  This would mislead SAs to not reregister with
 the DA.
 DAs which receive a multicast SrvRqst for the service type
 "service:directory-agent" MUST silently discard it if the <scope-
 list> is (a) not omitted and (b) does not include a scope they are
 configured to use.  Otherwise the DA MUST respond with a DAAdvert.
 DAs MUST respond to AttrRqst and SrvTypeRqst messages (these are
 OPTIONAL only for SAs, not DAs.)

12.2. Directory Agent Discovery

 UAs can discover DAs using static configuration, DHCP options 78 and
 79, or by multicasting (or broadcasting) Service Requests using the
 convergence algorithm in Section 6.3.

Guttman, et al. Standards Track [Page 39] RFC 2608 Service Location Protocol, Version 2 June 1999

 See Section 6 regarding unsolicited DAAdverts.  Section 12.2.2
 describes how SAs may reduce the number of times they must reregister
 with DAs in response to unsolicited DAAdverts.
 DAs MUST send unsolicited DAAdverts once per CONFIG_DA_BEAT. An
 unsolicited DAAdvert has an XID of 0.  SAs MUST listen for DAAdverts,
 passively, as described in Section 8.5.  UAs MAY do this.  If they do
 not listen for unsolicited DAAdverts, however, they will not discover
 DAs as they become available.  UAs SHOULD, in this case, do periodic
 active DA discovery, see Section 6.
 A URL with the scheme "service:directory-agent" indicates the DA's
 location as defined in Section 8.5.  For example:
 "service:directory-agent://foobawooba.org".
 The following sections suggest timing algorithms which enhance the
 scalability of SLP.

12.2.1. Active DA Discovery

 After a UA or SA restarts, its initial DA discovery request SHOULD be
 delayed for some random time uniformly distributed from 0 to
 CONFIG_START_WAIT seconds.
 The UA or SA sends the DA Discovery request using a SrvRqst, as
 described in Section 8.1.  DA Discovery requests MUST include a
 Previous Responder List.  SrvRqsts for Active DA Discovery SHOULD NOT
 be sent more than once per CONFIG_DA_FIND seconds.
 After discovering a new DA, a SA MUST wait a random time between 0
 and CONFIG_REG_ACTIVE seconds before registering their services.

12.2.2. Passive DA Advertising

 A DA MUST multicast (or broadcast) an unsolicited DAAdvert every
 CONFIG_DA_BEAT seconds.  CONFIG_DA_BEAT SHOULD be specified to
 prevent DAAdverts from using more than 1% of the available bandwidth.
 All UAs and SAs which receive the unsolicited DAAdvert SHOULD examine
 its DA stateless Boot Timestamp.  If it is set to 0, the DA is going
 down and no further messages should be sent to it.
 If a SA detects a DA it has never encountered (with a nonzero
 timestamp,) the SA must register with it.  SAs MUST examine the
 DAAdvert's timestamp to determine if the DA has had a stateless
 reboot since the SA last registered with it.  If so it registers with
 the DA. SAs MUST wait a random interval between 0 and
 CONFIG_REG_PASSIVE before beginning DA registration.

Guttman, et al. Standards Track [Page 40] RFC 2608 Service Location Protocol, Version 2 June 1999

12.3. Reliable Unicast to DAs and SAs

 If a DA or SA fails to respond to a unicast UDP message in
 CONFIG_RETRY seconds, the message should be retried.  The wait
 interval for each subsequent retransmission MUST exponentially
 increase, doubling each time.  If a DA or SA fails to respond after
 CONFIG_RETRY_MAX seconds, the sender should consider the receiver to
 have gone down.  The UA should use a different DA. If no such DA
 responds, DA discovery should be used to find a new DA. If no DA is
 available, multicast requests to SAs are used.

12.4. DA Scope Configuration

 By default, DAs are configured with the "DEFAULT" scope.
 Administrators may add other configured scopes, in order to support
 UAs and SAs in non default scopes.  The default configuration MUST
 NOT be removed from the DA unless:
  1. There are other DAs which support the "DEFAULT" scope, or
  1. All UAs and SAs have been configured with non-default scopes.
 Non-default scopes can be phased-in as the SLP deployment grows.
 Default scopes should be phased out only when the non-default scopes
 are universally configured.
 If a DA and SA are coresident on a host (quite possibly implemented
 by the same process), configuration of the host is considerably
 simplified if the SA supports only scopes also supported by the DA.
 That is, the SA SHOULD NOT advertise services in any scopes which are
 not supported by the coresident DA. This means that incoming requests
 can be answered by a single data store; the SA and DA registrations
 do not need to be kept separately.

12.5. DAs and Authentication Blocks

 DAs are not configured to sign service registrations or attribute
 lists.  They simply cache services registered by Service Agents.  DAs
 MUST NOT accept registrations including authentication blocks for SLP
 SPIs which it is not configured with, see Section 8.5.
 A DA protects registrations which are made with authentication blocks
 using SLP SPIs it is configured to use.  If a service S is
 registered, a subsequent registration (which will replace the
 adertisement) or a deregistration (which will remove it) MUST include
 an Authentication Block with the corresponding SLP SPI, see Section
 8.3 and Section 10.6.

Guttman, et al. Standards Track [Page 41] RFC 2608 Service Location Protocol, Version 2 June 1999

 Example:
 A DA is configured to be able to verify Authentication Blocks with
 SLP SPIs "X,Y", that is X and Y.
 An SA registers a service with an Authentication Block with SPI "Z".
 The DA stores the registration, but discards the Authentication
 Block.  If a UA requests a service with an SLP SPI string "Z", the DA
 will respond with an AUTHENTICATION_UNKNOWN error.
 An SA registers a service S with Authentication Blocks including SLP
 SPIs "X" and "Y".  If a UA requests a service with an SLP SPI string
 "X" the DA will be able to return S (if the service type, language,
 scope and predicate of the SrvRqst match S) The DA will also return
 the Authentication Block with SLP SPI set to "X".  If the DA receives
 a subsequent SrvDeReg for S (which will remove the advertisement) or
 a subsequent SrvReg for S (which will replace it), the message must
 include two URL Authentication Blocks, one each for SPIs "X" and "Y".
 If either of these were absent, the DA would return an
 AUTHENTICATION_ABSENT error.

13. Protocol Timing Defaults

Interval name Section Default Value Meaning ——————- ——- ————- ———————— CONFIG_MC_MAX 6.3 15 seconds Max time to wait for a

                                            complete multicast query
                                            response (all values.)

CONFIG_START_WAIT 12.2.1 3 seconds Wait to perform DA

                                            discovery on reboot.

CONFIG_RETRY 12.3 2 seconds Wait interval before

                                            initial retransmission
                                            of multicast or unicast
                                            requests.

CONFIG_RETRY_MAX 12.3 15 seconds Give up on unicast

                                            request retransmission.

CONFIG_DA_BEAT 12.2.2 3 hours DA Heartbeat, so that SAs

                                            passively detect new DAs.

CONFIG_DA_FIND 12.3 900 seconds Minimum interval to wait

                                            before repeating Active
                                            DA discovery.

CONFIG_REG_PASSIVE 12.2 1-3 seconds Wait to register services

                                            on passive DA discovery.

CONFIG_REG_ACTIVE 8.3 1-3 seconds Wait to register services

                                            on active DA discovery.

CONFIG_CLOSE_CONN 6.2 5 minutes DAs and SAs close idle

                                            connections.

Guttman, et al. Standards Track [Page 42] RFC 2608 Service Location Protocol, Version 2 June 1999

14. Optional Configuration

    Broadcast Only
             Any SLP agent SHOULD be configurable to use broadcast
             only.  See Sections 6.1 and 12.2.
    Predefined DA
             A UA or SA SHOULD be configurable to use a predefined DA.
    No DA Discovery
             The UA or SA SHOULD be configurable to ONLY use
             predefined and DHCP-configured DAs and perform no active
             or passive DA discovery.
    Multicast TTL
             The default multicast TTL is 255.  Agents SHOULD be
             configurable to use other values.  A lower value will
             focus the multicast convergence algorithm on smaller
             subnetworks, decreasing the number of responses and
             increases the performance of service location.  This
             may result in UAs obtaining different results for the
             identical requests depending on where they are connected
             to the network.
    Timing Values
             Time values other than the default MAY be configurable.
             See Section 13.
    Scopes
             A UA MAY be configurable to support User Selectable
             scopes by omitting all predefined scopes.  See
             Section 11.2.  A UA or SA MUST be configurable to use
             specific scopes by default.  Additionally, a UA or SA
             MUST be configurable to use specific scopes for requests
             for and registrations of specific service types.  The
             scope or scopes of a DA MUST be configurable.  The
             default value for a DA is to have the scope "DEFAULT" if
             not otherwise configured.
    DHCP Configuration
             DHCP options 78 and 79 may be used to configure SLP. If
             DA locations are configured using DHCP, these SHOULD
             be used in preference to DAs discovered actively or
             passively.  One or more of the scopes configured using
             DHCP MUST be used in requests.  The entire configured
             <scope-list> MUST be used in registration and DA
             configuration messages.

Guttman, et al. Standards Track [Page 43] RFC 2608 Service Location Protocol, Version 2 June 1999

    Service Template
             UAs and SAs MAY be configured by using Service Templates.
             Besides simplifying the specification of attribute
             values, this also allows them to enforce the inclusion
             of 'required' attributes in SrvRqst, SrvReg and SrvDeReg
             messages.  DAs MAY be configured with templates to
             allow them to WARN UAs and SAs in these cases.  See
             Section 10.4.
    SLP SPI for service discovery
             Agents SHOULD be configurable to support SLP SPIs using
             the following parameters:  BSD=2 (DSA with SHA-1) and
             a public key identified by the SLP SPI String.  In
             the future, when a Public Key Infrastructure exists,
             SLP Agents may be able to obtain public keys and
             cryptographic parameters corresponding to the names used
             in SLP SPI Strings.
             Note that if the SLP SPI string chosen is identical
             to a scope string, it is effectively the same as a
             Protected Scope in SLPv1.  Namely, every SA advertising
             in that scope would be configured with the same Private
             Key.  Every DA and UA of that scope would be configured
             with the appropriate Public Key to verify signatures
             produced by those SAs.  This is a convenient way to
             configure SLP deployments in the absence of a Public Key
             Infrastructure.  Currently, it would be too difficult to
             manage the keying of UAs and DAs if each SA had its own
             key.
    SLP SPI for Directory Agent discovery
             Agents SHOULD be configurable to support SLP SPIs as
             above, to be used when discovering DAs.  This SPI SHOULD
             be sent in SrvRqsts to discover DAs and be used to verify
             multicast DAAdvert messages.
    SA and DA Private Key
             SAs and DAs which can generate digital signatures require
             a Private Key and a corresponding SLP SPI indentifier
             to include in the Authentication Block.  The SLP SPI
             identifies the Public Key to use to verify the digital
             signature in the Authentication Block.

15. IANA Considerations

 SLP includes four sets of identifiers which may be registered with
 IANA. The policies for these registrations (See [18]) are noted in
 each case.

Guttman, et al. Standards Track [Page 44] RFC 2608 Service Location Protocol, Version 2 June 1999

 The Block Structure Descriptor (BSD) identifies the format of the
 Authenticator which follows.  BSDs 0x8000-0x8FFF are for Private Use.
 Further Block Structured Descriptor (BSD) values, from the range
 0x0003-0x7FFF may be standardized in the future by submitting a
 document which describes:
  1. The data format of the Structured Authenticator block.
  1. Which cryptographic algorithm to use (including a reference

to a technical specification of the algorithm.)

  1. The format of any keying material required for

preconfiguring UAs, DAs and SAs. Also include any

          considerations regarding key distribution.
  1. Security considerations to alert others to the strengths and

weaknesses of the approach.

 The IANA will assign Cryptographic BSD numbers on the basis of IETF
 Consenus.
 New function-IDs, in the range 12-255, may be standardized by the
 method of IETF Consensus.
 New SLP Extensions with types in the range 2-65535 may be registered
 following review by a Designated Expert.
 New error numbers in the range 15-65535 are assigned on the basis of
 a Standards Action.
 Protocol elements used with Service Location Protocol may also
 require IANA registration actions.  SLP is used in conjunction with
 "service:" URLs and Service Templates [13].  These are standardized
 by review of a Designated Expert and a mailing list (See [13].)

16. Internationalization Considerations

 SLP messages support the use of multiple languages by providing a
 Language Tag field in the common message header (see Section 8).
 Services MAY be registered in multiple languages.  This provides
 attributes so that users with different language skills may select
 services interactively.
 Attribute tags are not translated.  Attribute values may be
 translated unless the Service Template [13] defines the attribute
 values to be 'literal'.

Guttman, et al. Standards Track [Page 45] RFC 2608 Service Location Protocol, Version 2 June 1999

 A service which is registered in multiple languages may be queried in
 multiple languages.  The language of the SrvRqst or AttrRqst is used
 to satisfy the request.  If the requested language is not supported,
 a LANGUAGE_NOT_SUPPORTED error is returned.  SrvRply and AttrRply
 messages are always in the same language of the request.
 A DA or SA MAY be configured with translations of Service Templates
 [13] for the same service type.  This will allow the DA or SA to
 translate a request (say in Italian) to the language of the service
 advertisement (say in English) and then translate the reply back to
 Italian.  Similarly, a UA MAY use templates to translate outgoing
 requests and incoming replies.
 The dialect field in the Language Tag MAY be used:  Requests which
 can be fulfilled by matching a language and dialect will be preferred
 to those which match only the language portion.  Otherwise, dialects
 have no effect on matching requests.

17. Security Considerations

 SLP provides for authentication of service URLs and service
 attributes.  This provides UAs and DAs with knowledge of the
 integrity of service URLs and attributes included in SLP messages.
 The only systems which can generate digital signatures are those
 which have been configured by administrators in advance.  Agents
 which verify signed data may assume it is 'trustworthy' inasmuch as
 administrators have ensured the cryptographic keying of SAs and DAs
 reflects 'trustworthiness.'
 Service Location does not provide confidentiality.  Because the
 objective of this protocol is to advertise services to a community of
 users, confidentiality might not generally be needed when this
 protocol is used in non-sensitive environments.  Specialized schemes
 might be able to provide confidentiality, if needed in the future.
 Sites requiring confidentiality should implement the IP Encapsulating
 Security Payload (ESP) [3] to provide confidentiality for Service
 Location messages.
 If Agents are not configured to generate Authentication Blocks and
 Agents are not configured to verify them, an adversary might easily
 use this protocol to advertise services on servers controlled by the
 adversary and thereby gain access to users' private information.
 Further, an adversary using this protocol will find it much easier to
 engage in selective denial of service attacks.  Sites that are in
 potentially hostile environments (e.g., are directly connected to the
 Internet) should consider the advantages of distributing keys
 associated with SLP SPIs prior to deploying the sensitive directory
 agents or service agents.

Guttman, et al. Standards Track [Page 46] RFC 2608 Service Location Protocol, Version 2 June 1999

 SLP is useful as a bootstrap protocol.  It may be used in
 environments in which no preconfiguration is possible.  In such
 situations, a certain amount of "blind faith" is required:  Without
 any prior configuration it is impossible to use any of the security
 mechanisms described above.  SLP will make use of the mechanisms
 provided by the Security Area of the IETF for key distribution as
 they become available.  At this point it would only be possible to
 gain the benefits associated with the use of Authentication Blocks if
 cryptographic information and SLP SPIs can be preconfigured with the
 end systems before they use SLP.
 SLPv2 enables a number of security policies with the mechanisms it
 includes.  A SLPv2 UA could, for instance, reject any SLP message
 which did not carry an authentication block which it could verify.
 This is not the only policy which is possible to implement.

Guttman, et al. Standards Track [Page 47] RFC 2608 Service Location Protocol, Version 2 June 1999

A. Appendix: Changes to the Service Location Protocol from v1 to v2

 SLP version 2 (SLPv2) corrects race conditions present in SLPv1 [22].
 In addition, authentication has been reworked to provide more
 flexibility and protection (especially for DA Advertisements).  SLPv2
 also changes the formats and definition of many flags and values and
 reduces the number of 'required features.'  SLPv2 clarifies and
 changes the use of 'Scopes', eliminating support for 'unscoped
 directory agents' and 'unscoped requests'.  SLPv2 uses LDAPv3
 compatible string encodings of attributes and search filters.  Other
 changes (such as Language and Character set handling) adopt practices
 recommended by the Internet Engineering Steering Group.
 Effort has been made to make SLPv2 operate the same whether DAs are
 present or not.  For this reason, a new message (the SAAdvert) has
 been added.  This allows UAs to discover scope information in the
 absence of administrative configuration and DAs.  This was not
 possible in SLPv1.
 SLPv2 is incompatible in some respects with SLPv1.  If a DA which
 supports both SLPv1 and SLPv2 with the same scope is present,
 services advertised by SAs using either version of the protocol will
 be available to both SLPv1 and SLPv2 UAs.  SLPv1 DAs SHOULD be phased
 out and replace with SLPv2 DAs which support both versions of the
 protocol.
 SLPv1 allows services to be advertised and requested without a scope.
 Further, DAs can be configured without a scope.  This is incompatible
 with SLPv2 and presents scalability problems.  To facilitate this
 forward migration, SLPv1 agents MUST use scopes for all registrations
 and requests.  SLPv1 DAs MUST be configured with a scope list.  This
 constitutes a revision of RFC 2165 [22].

B. Appendix: Service Discovery by Type: Minimal SLPv2 Features

 Service Agents may advertise services without attributes.  This will
 enable only discovery of services by type.  Service types discovered
 this way will have a Service Template [13] defined which specifies
 explicitly that no attributes are associated with the service
 advertisement.  Service types associated with Service Templates which
 specify attributes MUST NOT be advertised by SAs which do not support
 attributes.
 While discovery of service by service type is a subset of the
 features possible using SLPv2 this form of discovery is consistent
 with the current generation of products that allow simple browsing of
 all services in a 'zone' or 'workgroup' by type.  In some cases,
 attribute discovery, security and feature negotiation is handled by

Guttman, et al. Standards Track [Page 48] RFC 2608 Service Location Protocol, Version 2 June 1999

 application layer protocols - all that is required is the basic
 discovery of services that support a certain service.
 UAs requesting only service of that service type would only need to
 support service type and scope fields of the Service Request.  UAs
 would still perform DA discovery and unicast SLPv2 SrvRqst messages
 to DAs in their scope once they were discovered instead of
 multicasting them.
 SAs would also perform DA discovery and use a SLPv2 SrvReg to
 register all their advertised services with SLPv2 DAs in their scope.
 These advertisements would needless to say contain no attribute
 string.
 These minimal SAs could ignore the Language Tag in requests since
 SrvRqst messages would contain no attributes, hence no strings would
 be internationalized.  Further, any non-null predicate string would
 fail to match a service advertisement with no attributes, so these
 SAs would not have to parse and interpret search filters.  Overflow
 will never occur in SrvRqst, SrvRply or SrvReg messages so TCP
 message handling would not have to be implemented.  Finally, all
 AttrRqst messages could be dropped by the SA, since no attributes are
 supported.

C. Appendix: DAAdverts with arbitrary URLs

 Using Active DA Discovery, a SrvRqst with its service type field set
 to "service:directory-agent".  DAs will respond with a DAAdvert
 containing a URL with the "service:directory-agent:" scheme.  This is
 the same DAAdvert that such a DA would multicast in unsolicited DA
 advertisements.
 A UA or SA which receives an unsolicited DAAdvert MUST examine the
 URL to determine if it has a recognized scheme.  If the UA or SA does
 not recognize the DAAdvert's URL scheme, the DAAdvert is silently
 discarded.  This document specifies only how to use URLs with the
 "service:directory-agent:" scheme.
 This provides the possibility for forward compatibility with future
 versions of SLP and enables other services to advertise their ability
 to serve as a clearinghouse for service location information.
 For example, if LDAPv3 [15] is used for service registration and
 discovery by a set of end systems, they could interpret a LDAP URL
 [16] to passively discover the LDAP server to use for this purpose.
 This document does not specify how this is done:  SLPv2 agents
 without further support would simply discard this DAAdvert.

Guttman, et al. Standards Track [Page 49] RFC 2608 Service Location Protocol, Version 2 June 1999

D. Appendix: SLP Protocol Extensions

D.1. Required Attribute Missing Option

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |    Extension Type = 0x0001    |        Extension Length       |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |      Template IDVer Length    |     Template IDVer String     \
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |Required Attr <tag-list> Length|    Required Attr <tag-list>   \
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
 Required attributes and the format of the IDVer string are defined by
 [13].
 If a SA or DA receives a SrvRqst or a SrvReg which fails to include a
 Required Attribute for the requested Service Type (according to the
 Service Template), it MAY return the Required Attribute Extension in
 addition to the reply corresponding to the message.  The sender
 SHOULD reissue the message with a search filter including the
 attributes listed in the returned Required Attribute Extension.
 Similarly, the Required Attribute Extension may be returned in
 response to a SrvDereg message that contains a required attribute
 tag.
 The Template IDVer String is the name and version number string of
 the Service Template which defines the given attribute as required.
 It SHOULD be included, but can be omitted if a given SA or DA has
 been individually configured to have 'required attributes.'
 The Required Attribute <tag-list> MUST NOT include wild cards.

E. Acknowledgments

 This document incorporates ideas from work on several discovery
 protocols, including RDP by Perkins and Harjono, and PDS by Michael
 Day.  We are grateful for contributions by Ye Gu and Peter Ford.
 John Veizades was instrumental in the standardization of the Service
 Location Protocol.  Implementors at Novell, Axis Communications and
 Sun Microsystems have contributed significantly to make this a much
 clearer and more consistent document.

Guttman, et al. Standards Track [Page 50] RFC 2608 Service Location Protocol, Version 2 June 1999

F. References

  [1] Port numbers, July 1997.
      ftp://ftp.isi.edu/in-notes/iana/assignments/port-numbers.
  [2] ISO/IEC JTC1/SC 21.  Certificate Extensions.  Draft Amendment
      DAM 4 to ISO/IEC 9594-2, December 1996.
  [3] ISO/IEC JTC1/SC 21.  Certificate Extensions.  Draft Amendment
      DAM 2 to ISO/IEC 9594-6, December 1996.
  [4] ISO/IEC JTC1/SC 21.  Certificate Extensions.  Draft Amendment
      DAM 1 to ISO/IEC 9594-7, December 1996.
  [5] ISO/IEC JTC1/SC 21.  Certificate Extensions.  Draft Amendment
      DAM 1 to ISO/IEC 9594-8, December 1996.
  [6] Unicode Technical Report #8.  The Unicode Standard, version 2.1.
      Technical report, The Unicode Consortium, 1998.
  [7] Alvestrand, H., "Tags for the Identification of Languages",
      RFC 1766, March 1995.
  [8] Berners-Lee, T., Fielding, R. and L. Masinter, "Uniform
      Resource Identifiers (URI): Generic Syntax", RFC 2396,
      August 1998.
  [9] Bradner, S., "Key Words for Use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement
      Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.
 [10] CCITT.  The Directory Authentication Framework.  Recommendation
      X.509, 1988.
 [11] Crocker, D. and P. Overell, "Augmented BNF for Syntax
      Specifications: ABNF", RFC 2234, November 1997.
 [12] S. Gursharan, R. Andrews, and A. Oppenheimer.  Inside AppleTalk.
      Addison-Wesley, 1990.
 [13] Guttman, E., Perkins, C. and J. Kempf, "Service Templates and
      service: Schemes", RFC 2609, June 1999.
 [14] Howes, T., "The String Representation of LDAP Search Filters",
      RFC 2254, December 1997.
 [15] Wahl, M., Howes, T. and S. Kille, "Lightweight Directory
      Access Protocol (v3)", RFC 2251, December 1997.

Guttman, et al. Standards Track [Page 51] RFC 2608 Service Location Protocol, Version 2 June 1999

 [16] Howes, T. and M. Smith, "The LDAP URL Format", RFC 2255,
      December 1997.
 [17] Meyer, D., "Administratively Scoped IP Multicast", RFC 2365,
      July 1998.
 [18] Narten, T. and H. Alvestrand, "Guidelines for Writing
      an IANA Considerations Section in RFCs, BCP 26, RFC 2434,
      October 1998.
 [19] Microsoft Networks.  SMB File Sharing Protocol Extensions 3.0,
      Document Version 1.09, November 1989.
 [20] National Institute of Standards and Technology.  Digital
      signature standard.  Technical Report NIST FIPS PUB 186, U.S.
      Department of Commerce, May 1994.
 [21] Perkins, C. and E. Guttman, "DHCP Options for Service Location
      Protocol", RFC 2610, June 1999.
 [22] Veizades, J., Guttman, E., Perkins, C. and S. Kaplan, "Service
      Location Protocol", RFC 2165, July 1997.
 [23] Yergeau, F., "UTF-8, a transformation format of ISO 10646",
      RFC 2279, January 1998.

Guttman, et al. Standards Track [Page 52] RFC 2608 Service Location Protocol, Version 2 June 1999

G. Authors' Addresses

 Erik Guttman
 Sun Microsystems
 Bahnstr. 2
 74915 Waibstadt
 Germany
 Phone:    +49 7263 911 701
 EMail:    Erik.Guttman@sun.com
 Charles Perkins
 Sun Microsystems
 901 San Antonio Road
 Palo Alto, CA 94040
 USA
 Phone: +1 650 786 6464
 EMail: cperkins@sun.com
 John Veizades
 @Home Network
 425 Broadway
 Redwood City, CA 94043
 USA
 Phone:    +1 650 569 5243
 EMail:    veizades@home.net
 Michael Day
 Vinca Corporation.
 1201 North 800 East
 Orem, Utah 84097   USA
 Phone: +1 801 376-5083
 EMail: mday@vinca.com

Guttman, et al. Standards Track [Page 53] RFC 2608 Service Location Protocol, Version 2 June 1999

H. Full Copyright Statement

 Copyright (C) The Internet Society (1999).  All Rights Reserved.
 This document and translations of it may be copied and furnished to
 others, and derivative works that comment on or otherwise explain it
 or assist in its implementation may be prepared, copied, published
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Guttman, et al. Standards Track [Page 54]

/data/webs/external/dokuwiki/data/pages/rfc/rfc2608.txt · Last modified: 1999/06/21 18:23 (external edit)