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rfc:rfc2491

Network Working Group G. Armitage Request for Comments: 2491 Lucent Technologies Category: Standards Track P. Schulter

                                            Bright Tiger Technologies
                                                              M. Jork
                                               Digital Equipment GmbH
                                                            G. Harter
                                                               Compaq
                                                         January 1999
      IPv6 over Non-Broadcast Multiple Access (NBMA) networks

Status of this Memo

 This document specifies an Internet standards track protocol for the
 Internet community, and requests discussion and suggestions for
 improvements.  Please refer to the current edition of the "Internet
 Official Protocol Standards" (STD 1) for the standardization state
 and status of this protocol.  Distribution of this memo is unlimited.

Copyright Notice

 Copyright (C) The Internet Society (1999).  All Rights Reserved.

Abstract

 This document describes a general architecture for IPv6 over NBMA
 networks. It forms the basis for subsidiary companion documents that
 describe details for various specific NBMA technologies (such as ATM
 or Frame Relay). The IPv6 over NBMA architecture allows conventional
 host-side operation of the IPv6 Neighbor Discovery protocol, while
 also supporting the establishment of 'shortcut' NBMA forwarding paths
 when dynamically signaled NBMA links are available. Operations over
 administratively configured Point to Point NBMA links are also
 described.
 Dynamic NBMA shortcuts are achieved through the use of IPv6 Neighbor
 Discovery protocol operation within Logical Links, and inter-router
 NHRP for the discovery of off-Link NBMA destinations. Both flow-
 triggered and explicitly source-triggered shortcuts are supported.

1. Introduction.

 Non Broadcast Multiple Access (NBMA) networks may be utilized in a
 variety of ways. At one extreme, they can be used to simply provide
 administratively configurable point to point service, sufficient to
 interconnect IPv6 routers (and even IPv6 hosts, in certain

Armitage, et. al. Standards Track [Page 1] RFC 2491 IPv6 over NBMA networks January 1999

 situations). At the other extreme, NBMA networks that support dynamic
 establishment and teardown of Virtual Circuits (or functional
 equivalents) may be used to emulate the service provided to the IPv6
 layer by conventional broadcast media such as Ethernet.  Typically
 this emulation requires complex convergence protocols, particularly
 to support IPv6 multicast.
 This document describes a general architecture for IPv6 over NBMA
 networks. It forms the basis for companion documents that provide
 details specific to various NBMA technologies (for example, ATM [17]
 or Frame Relay). The IPv6 over NBMA architecture allows conventional
 host-side operation of the IPv6 Neighbor Discovery protocol, while
 also supporting the establishment of 'shortcut' NBMA forwarding paths
 (when dynamically signaled NBMA links are available).
 The majority of this document focuses on the use of dynamically
 managed point to point and point to multipoint calls between
 interfaces on an NBMA network. These will be generically referred to
 as "SVCs" in the rest of the document. The use of administratively
 configured point to point calls will also be discussed. Such calls
 will be generically referred to as "PVCs". Depending on context,
 either may be shortened to "VC".
 Certain NBMA networks may provide a form of connectionless service
 (e.g. SMDS). In these cases, a "call" or "VC" shall be considered to
 implicitly exist if the sender has an NBMA destination address to
 which it can transmit packets whenever it desires.

1.1 Neighbor Discovery.

 A key difference between this architecture and previous IP over NBMA
 protocols is its mechanism for supporting IPv6 Neighbor Discovery.
 The IPv4 world evolved an approach to address resolution that
 depended on the operation of an auxiliary protocol operating at the
 'link layer' - starting with Ethernet ARP (RFC 826 [14]). In the
 world of NBMA (Non Broadcast, Multiple Access) networks ARP has been
 applied to IPv4 over SMDS (RFC 1209 [13]) and IPv4 over ATM (RFC 1577
 [3]). More recently the ION working group has developed NHRP (Next
 Hop Resolution Protocol [8]), a general protocol for performing
 intra-subnet and inter-subnet address resolution applicable to a
 range of NBMA network technologies.
 IPv6 developers opted to migrate away from a link layer specific
 approach, chosing to combine a number of tasks into a protocol known
 as Neighbor Discovery [7], intended to be non-specific across a
 number of link layer technologies.  A key assumption made by Neighbor
 Discovery's actual protocol is that the link technology underlying a

Armitage, et. al. Standards Track [Page 2] RFC 2491 IPv6 over NBMA networks January 1999

 given IP interface is capable of native multicasting.  This is not
 particularly true of most NBMA network services, and usually requires
 convergence protocols to emulate the desired service.  (The MARS
 protocol, RFC 2022 [5], is an example of such a convergence
 protocol.) This document augments and optimizes the MARS protocol for
 use in support of IPv6 Neighbor Discovery, generalizing the
 applicability of RFC 2022 beyond ATM networks.

1.2 NBMA Shortcuts.

 A shortcut is an NBMA level call (VC) directly connecting two IP
 endpoints that are logically separated by one or more routers at the
 IP level. IPv6 packets traversing this VC are said to 'shortcut' the
 routers that are in the logical IPv6 path between the VC's endpoints.
 NBMA shortcuts are a mechanism for minimizing the consumption of
 resources within an IP over NBMA cloud (e.g. router hops and NBMA
 VCs).
 It is important that NBMA shortcuts are supported whenever IP is
 deployed across NBMA networks capable of supporting dynamic
 establishment of calls (SVCs or functional equivalent).  For IPv6
 over NBMA, shortcut discovery and management is achieved through a
 mixture of Neighbor Discovery and NHRP.

1.3 Key components of the IPv6 over NBMA architecture.

1.3.1 NBMA networks providing PVC support.

 When the NBMA network is used in PVC mode, each PVC will connect
 exactly two nodes and the use of Neighbor Discovery and other IPv6
 features is limited.  IPv6/NBMA interfaces have only one neighbor on
 each Link. The MARS and NHRP protocols are NOT necessary, since
 multicast and broadcast operations collapse down to an NBMA level
 unicast operation. Dynamically discovered shortcuts are not
 supported.
 The actual details of encapsulations and link token generation SHALL
 be covered by companion documents covering specific NBMA technology.
 They SHALL conform to the following guidelines:
    Both unicast and multicast IPv6 packets SHALL be transmitted over
    PVC links using the encapsulation described in section 4.4.1.
    Interface tokens for PVC links SHALL be constructed as described
    in section 5. Interface tokens need only be unique between the two
    nodes on the PVC link.

Armitage, et. al. Standards Track [Page 3] RFC 2491 IPv6 over NBMA networks January 1999

    This use of PVC links does not mandate, nor does it prohibit the
    use of extensions to the Neighbor Discovery protocol which may be
    developed for either general use of for use in PVC connections
    (for example, Inverse Neighbor Discovery).
 NBMA-specific companion documents MAY additionally specify the
 concatenation of IPv6 over PPP and PPP over NBMA mechanisms as an
 OPTIONAL approach to point to point IPv6.
 Except where noted above, the remainder of this document focuses on
 the SVC case.

1.3.2 NBMA networks providing SVC support.

 When the NBMA network is used in SVC mode, the key components are:
  1. The IPv6 Neighbor model, where neighbors are discovered through

the use of messages multicast to members of an IPv6 interface's

      local IPv6 Link.
    - The MARS model, allowing emulation of general multicast using
      multipoint calls provided by the underlying NBMA network.
    - The NHRP service for seeking out the NBMA identities of IP
      interfaces who are logically distant in an IP topological sense.
    - The modeling of IP traffic as 'flows', and optionally using the
      existence of a flow as the basis for attempting to set up a
      shortcut link level connection.
 In summary:
    The IPv6 "Link" is generalized to "Logical Link" (LL) in NBMA
    environments (analogous to the generalization of IPv4 IP Subnet to
    Logical IP Subnet in RFC 1209 and subsequently RFC 1577).
    IPv6/NBMA interfaces utilize RFC 2022 (MARS) for general intra-
    Logical Link multicasting. The MARS itself is used to optimally
    distribute discovery messages within the Logical Link.
    For destinations not currently considered to be Neighbors, a host
    sends the packets to one of its default routers.
    When appropriately configured, the egress router from a Logical
    Link is responsible for detecting the existence of an IP packet
    flow through it that might benefit from a shortcut connection.
       While continuing to conventionally forward the flow's packets,
       the router initiates an NHRP query for the flow's destination
       IP address.

Armitage, et. al. Standards Track [Page 4] RFC 2491 IPv6 over NBMA networks January 1999

       The last router/NHS before the target of the NHRP query
       ascertains the target interface's preferred NBMA address.
       The originally querying router then issues a Redirect to the IP
       source, identifying the flow's destination as a transient
       Neighbor.
    Host-initiated triggering of shortcut discovery, regardless of the
    existence of a packet flow, is also supported through specific
    Neighbor Solicitations sent to a source host's default router.
 A number of key advantages are claimed for this approach. These are:
    The IPv6 stacks on hosts do not implement separate ND protocols
    for each link layer technology.
    When the destination of a flow is solicited as a transient
    neighbor, the returned NBMA address will be the one chosen by the
    destination when the flow was originally established through hop-
    by-hop processing. This supports the existing ND ability for IPv6
    destinations to perform their own dynamic interface load sharing.

1.4 Terminology.

 The bit-pattern or numeric value used to identify a particular NBMA
 interface at the NBMA level will be referred to as an "NBMA address".
 (An example would be an ATM End System Address, AESA, when applying
 this architecture to ATM networks, or an E.164 number when applying
 this architecture to SMDS networks.)
 The call that, once established, is used to transfer IP packets from
 one NBMA interface to another will be referred to as an SVC or PVC
 depending on whether the call is dynamically established through some
 signaling mechanism, or administratively established. The specific
 signaling mechanisms used to establish or tear down an SVC will be
 defined in the NBMA-specific companion specifications.  Certain NBMA
 networks may provide a form of connectionless service (e.g. SMDS). In
 these cases, a "call" or "SVC" shall be considered to implicitly
 exist if the sender has an NBMA destination address to which it can
 transmit packets whenever it desires.
 The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
 "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED",  "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
 document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [16].

Armitage, et. al. Standards Track [Page 5] RFC 2491 IPv6 over NBMA networks January 1999

1.5 Document Structure.

 The remainder of this document is structured as follows: Section 2
 explains the generalization of IPv6 Link to "Logical Link" when used
 over NBMA networks, and introduces the notion of the Transient
 Neighbor.  Section 3 describes the modifications to the MARS protocol
 for efficient distribution of ND messages within a Logical Link, and
 the rules and mechanisms for discovering Transient Neighbors.
 Section 4 covers the basic rules governing IPv6/NBMA interface
 initialization, packet and control message encapsulations, and rules
 for SVC management. Section 5 describes the general rules for
 constructing Interface Tokens, the Link Layer Address Option, and
 Link Local addresses.  Section 6 concludes the normative sections of
 the document.  Appendix A provides some non-normative descriptive
 text regarding the operation of Ipv6 Neighbor Discovery.  Appendix B
 describes some sub-optimal solutions for emulating the multicasting
 of Neighbor Discovery messages around a Logical Link.  Appendix C
 discusses shortcut suppression and briefly reviews the future
 relationships between flow detection and mapping of flows onto SVCs
 of differing qualities of service.

2. Logical Links, and Transient Neighbors.

 IPv6 contains a concept of on-link and off-link. Neighbors are those
 nodes that are considered on-link and whose link-layer addresses may
 therefore be located using Neighbor Discovery.  Borrowing from the
 terminology definitions in the ND text:
 on-link   - an address that is assigned to a neighbor's interface on
             a shared link.  A host considers an address to be on-
             link if:
               - it is covered by one of the link's prefixes, or
               - a neighboring router specifies the address as the
                 target of a Redirect message, or
               - a Neighbor Advertisement message is received for the
                 target address, or
               - a Neighbor Discovery message is received from the
                 address.
 off-link  - the opposite of "on-link"; an address that is not
             assigned to any interfaces attached to a shared link.
 Off-link nodes are considered to only be accessible through one of
 the routers directly attached to the link.

Armitage, et. al. Standards Track [Page 6] RFC 2491 IPv6 over NBMA networks January 1999

 The NBMA environment complicates the sense of the word 'link' in much
 the same way as it complicated the sense of 'subnet' in the IPv4
 case. For IPv4 this required the definition of the Logical IP Subnet
 (LIS) - an administratively constructed set of hosts that would share
 the same routing prefixes (network and subnetwork masks).
 This document considers the IPv6 analog to be a Logical Link (LL).
    An LL consists of nodes administratively configured to be 'on
    link' with respect to each other.
    The members of an LL are an IPv6 interface's initial set of
    neighbors, and each interface's Link Local address only needs to
    be unique amongst this set.
 It should be noted that whilst members of an LL are IPv6 Neighbors,
 it is possible for Neighbors to exist that are not, administratively,
 members of the same LL.
 Neighbor Discovery events can result in the expansion of an IPv6
 interface's set of Neighbors. However, this does not change the set
 of interfaces that make up its LL. This leads to three possible
 relationships between any two IPv6 interfaces:
  1. On LL, Neighbor.
  2. Off LL, Neighbor.
  3. Off LL, not Neighbor.
 Off LL Neighbors represent the 'shortcut' connections, where it has
 been ascertained that direct connectivity at the NBMA level is
 possible to a target that is not a member of the source's LL.
 Neighbors discovered through the operation of unsolicited messages,
 such as Redirects, are termed 'Transient Neighbors'.

3. Intra-LL and Inter-LL Discovery.

 This document makes a distinction between the discovery of neighbors
 within a Logical Link (intra-LL) and neighbors beyond the LL (inter-
 LL). The goal is to allow both inter- and intra-LL neighbor discovery
 to involve no changes to the host-side IPv6 stack for NBMA
 interfaces.
 Note that section 1.3.1 applies when the NBMA network is being used
 to provide only configured point to point (PVC) service.

Armitage, et. al. Standards Track [Page 7] RFC 2491 IPv6 over NBMA networks January 1999

3.1 Intra-LL - ND over emulated multicast.

 The basic model of ND assumes that a link layer interface will do
 something meaningful with an ICMPv6 packet sent to a multicast IP
 destination address. (IPv6 assumes that multicasting is an integral
 part of the Internet service.) This document assumes multicast
 support will be provided using the RFC 2022 (MARS) [5] service
 (generalized for use over other NBMA technologies in addition to
 ATM).  An IPv6 LL maps directly onto an IPv6 MARS Cluster in the same
 way an IPv4 LIS maps directly onto an IPv4 MARS Cluster.
 The goal of intra-LL operation is that the IPv6 layer must be able to
 simply pass multicast ICMPv6 packets down to the IPv6/NBMA driver
 without any special, NBMA specific processing. The underlying
 mechanism for distributing Neighbor Discovery and Router Discovery
 messages then works as expected.
 Sections 3.1.1 describes the additional functionality that SHALL be
 required of any MARS used in conformance with this document.
 Background discussion of these additions is provided in Appendix B.

3.1.1 Mandatory augmented MARS and MARS Client behavior.

 IPv6/NBMA interfaces SHALL register as MARS Cluster members as
 described in section 4.1, and SHALL send certain classes of outgoing
 IPv6 packets directly to their local MARS as described in section
 4.4.2.
 The MARS itself SHALL then re-transmit these packets according to the
 following rules:
  1. When the MARS receives an IPv6 packet, it scans the group

membership database to find the NBMA addresses of the IPv6

      destination group's members.
  1. The MARS then checks to see if every group member currently has

its pt-pt control VC open to the MARS. If so, the MARS sends a

      copy of the data packet directly to each group member over the
      existing pt-pt VCs.
  1. If one or more of the discovered group members do not have an

open pt-pt VC to the MARS, or if there are no group members

      listed, the packet is sent out ClusterControlVC instead. No
      copies of the packet are sent over the existing (if any) pt-pt
      VCs.

Armitage, et. al. Standards Track [Page 8] RFC 2491 IPv6 over NBMA networks January 1999

3.2 Inter-LL - Redirects, and their generation.

 Shortcut connections are justified on the grounds that demanding
 flows of IP packets may exist between source/destination pairs that
 are separated by IP routing boundaries. Shortcuts are created between
 Transient Neighbors.
 The key to creating transient neighbors is the Redirect message
 (section 8 [7]).  IPv6 allows a router to inform the members of an LL
 that there is a better 'first hop' to a given destination (section
 8.2 [7]).  The advertisement itself is achieved through a Router
 Redirect message, which may carry the link layer address of this
 better hop.
 A transmitting host only listens to Router Redirects from the router
 that is currently acting as the default router for the IP destination
 that the Redirect refers to. If a Redirect arrives that indicates a
 better first hop for a given destination, and supplies a link layer
 (NBMA) address to use as the better first hop, the associated
 Neighbor Cache entry in the source host is updated and its
 reachability set to STALE. Updating the cache in this context
 involves building a new VC to the new NBMA address. If this is
 successful, the old VC is torn down only if it no longer required
 (since the old VC was to the router, it may still be required by
 other packets from the host that are heading to the router).
 Two mechanisms are provided for triggering the discovery of a better
 first hop:
    Router-based flow identification/detection.
    Host-initiated shortcut request.
 Section 3.2.1 discusses flow-based triggers, section 3.2.2 discusses
 the host initiated trigger, and section 3.2.3 discusses the use of
 NHRP to discover mappings for IPv6 targets in remote LLs.

3.2.1 Flow Triggered Redirection.

 The modification of forwarding paths based on the dynamic detection
 of IP packet flows is at the core of models such as the Cell Switch
 Router [11] and the IP Switch [12]. Responsibility for detecting
 flows is placed into the routers, where packets cross the edges of IP
 routing boundaries.

Armitage, et. al. Standards Track [Page 9] RFC 2491 IPv6 over NBMA networks January 1999

 For the purpose of conformance with this document, a router MAY
 choose to initiate the discovery of a better first-hop when it
 determines that an identifiable flow of IP packets are passing
 through it.
    Such a router:
       SHALL only track flows that originate from a directly attached
       host (a host that is within the LL-local scope of one of the
       router's interfaces).
       SHALL NOT use IP packets arriving from another router to
       trigger the generation of a Router Redirect.
       SHALL only consider IPv6 packets with FlowID of zero for the
       purposes of flow detection as defined in this section.
       SHALL utilize NHRP as described in section 3.2.3 to ascertain a
       better first-hop when a suitable flow is detected, and
       advertise the information in a Router Redirect.
 IPv6 routers that support the OPTIONAL flow detection behavior
 described above SHALL support administrative mechanisms to switch off
 flow-detection. They MAY provide mechanisms for adding additional
 constraints to the categories of IPv6 packets that constitute a
 'flow'.
 The actual algorithm(s) for determining what sequence of IPv6 packets
 constitute a 'flow' are outside the scope of this document.  Appendix
 C discusses the rationale behind the use of non-zero FlowID to
 suppress flow detection.

3.2.2 Host Triggered Redirection

 A source host MAY also trigger a redirection to a transient neighbor.
 To support host-triggered redirects, routers conforming to this
 document SHALL recognize specific Neighbor Solicitation messages sent
 by hosts as requests for the resolution of off-link addresses.
 To perform a host-triggered redirect, a source host SHALL:
    Create a Neighbor Solicitation message referring to the off-LL
    destination (target) for which a shortcut is desired
    Address the NS message to the router that would be the next hop
    for traffic sent towards the off-LL target (rather than the
    target's solicited node multicast address).

Armitage, et. al. Standards Track [Page 10] RFC 2491 IPv6 over NBMA networks January 1999

    Use the standard ND hop limit of 255 to ensure the NS won't be
    discarded by the router.
    Include the shortcut limit option defined in appendix D. The value
    of this option should be equal to the hop limit of the data flow
    for which this trigger is being sent. This ensures that the router
    is able to restrict the shortcut attempt to not exceed the reach
    of the data flow.
    Forward the NS packet to the router that would be the next hop for
    traffic sent towards the off-LL target.
 Routers SHALL consider a unicast NS with shortcut limit option as a
 request for a host-triggered redirect. However, actual shortcut
 discovery is OPTIONAL for IPv6 routers.
 When shortcut discovery is not supported, the router SHALL construct
 a Redirect message identifying the router itself as the best
 'shortcut', and return it to the soliciting host.
 If shortcut discovery is to be supported, the router's response SHALL
 be:
    A suitable NHRP Request is constructed and sent as described in
    section 3.2.3.  The original NS message SHOULD be discarded.
    Once the NHRP Reply is received by the originating router, the
    router SHALL construct a Redirect message containing the IPv6
    address of the transient neighbor, and the NBMA link layer address
    returned by the NHRP resolution process.
    The resulting Redirect message SHALL then be transmitted back to
    the source host. When the Redirect message is received, the source
    host SHALL update its Neighbor and Destination caches.
    The off-LL target is now considered a Transient Neighbor.  The
    next packet sent to the Transient Neighbor will result in the
    creation of the direct, shortcut VC (to the off-LL target itself,
    or to the best egress router towards that neighbor as determined
    by NHRP).
    If a NHRP NAK or error indication is received for a host-triggered
    shortcut attempt, the requesting router SHALL construct a Redirect
    message identifying the router itself as the best 'shortcut', and
    return it to the soliciting host.

Armitage, et. al. Standards Track [Page 11] RFC 2491 IPv6 over NBMA networks January 1999

3.2.3 Use of NHRP between routers.

 Once flow detection has occurred, or a host trigger has been
 detected, routers SHALL use NHRP in an NHS to NHS mode to establish
 the IPv6 to link level address mapping of a better first hop.
 IPv6/NBMA routers supporting shortcut discovery will need to perform
 some or all of the following functions:
  1. Construct NHRP Requests and Replies.
  1. Parse incoming NHRP Requests and Replies from other NHSes

(routers).

  1. Forward NHRP Requests towards an NHS that is topologically

closer to the IPv6 target.

  1. Forward NHRP Replies towards an NHS that is topologically closer

to the requester.

  1. Perform syntax translation between Neighbor Solicitations and

outbound NHRP Requests.

  1. Perform syntax translation between inbound NHRP Replies and

Redirects.

 The destination of the flow that caused the trigger (or the target of
 the host initiated trigger) is used as the target for resolution in a
 NHRP Request. The router then forwards this NHRP Request to the next
 closest NHS. The process continues (as it would for normal NHRP)
 until the Request reaches an NHS that believes the IP target is
 within link-local scope of one of its interfaces.  (This may
 potentially occur within a single router.)
 As NHRP resolution requests always follow the routed path for a given
 target protocol address, the scope of a shortcut request will be
 automatically bounded to the scope of the IPv6 target address.  (e.g.
 resolution requests for site-local addresses will not be forwarded
 across site boundaries.)
 The last hop router SHALL resolve the NHRP Request from mapping
 information contained in its neighbor cache for the interface on
 which the specified target is reachable. If there is no appropriate
 entry in the Neighbor cache, or the destination is currently
 considered unreachable, the last hop router SHALL perform Neighbor
 Discovery on the local interface, and build the NHRP Reply from the
 resulting answer. (Note, in the case where the NHRP Request
 originated due to flow detection, there must already be a hop-by-hop

Armitage, et. al. Standards Track [Page 12] RFC 2491 IPv6 over NBMA networks January 1999

 flow of packets going through the last hop router towards the target.
 In this typical case the Neighbor cache will already have the desired
 information.)
 The NHRP Reply is propagated back to the source of the NHRP Request,
 using a hop-by-hop path as it would for normal NHRP.
 If the discovery process was triggered through flow detection at the
 originating router, the return of the NHRP Reply results in the
 following events:
    A Redirect is constructed using the IPv6/NBMA mapping carried in
    the NHRP Reply.
    The Redirect is unicast to the IP packet flow's source (using the
    VC on which the flow is arriving at the router, if it is a bi-
    directional pt-pt VC).
    Any Redirect message sent by a router MUST conform to all the
    rules described in [7] so that the packet is properly validated by
    the receiving host.  Specifically, if the target of the resulting
    short-cut is the destination host then the ICMP Target Address
    MUST be the same as the ICMP Destination Address in the original
    message.  If the target of the short-cut is an egress router then
    the ICMP Target Address MUST be a Link Local address of the egress
    router that is unique to the NBMA cloud to which the router's NBMA
    interface is attached.
    Also note that egress routers may subsequently redirect the source
    host. To do so, the Link Local ICMP Source Address of the Redirect
    message MUST be the same as the Link Local ICMP Target Address of
    the original Redirect message.
 Note that the router constructing the NHRP Reply does so using the
 NBMA address returned by the target host when the target host first
 accepted the flow of IP traffic. This retains a useful feature of
 Neighbor Discovery - destination interface load sharing.
 Upon receipt of a NHRP NAK reply or error indication for a flow-
 triggered shortcut attempt, no indication is sent to the source of
 the flow.

3.2.3.1 NHRP/ND packet translation rules.

 The following translation rules are meant to augment the packet
 format specification in section 5 of the NHRP specification [8],
 covering those packet fields specifically utilized by the IPv6/NBMA
 architecture.

Armitage, et. al. Standards Track [Page 13] RFC 2491 IPv6 over NBMA networks January 1999

 NHRP messages are constructed and sent according to the rules in [8].
 The value of the NBMA technology specific fields such as ar$afn,
 ar$pro.type, ar$pro.snap and link layer address format are defined in
 NBMA-specific companion documents. Source, destination or client
 protocol addresses in the common header or CIE of a NHRP message are
 always IPv6 addresses of length 16.
 When constructing an host-triggered NHRP resolution request in
 response to a Neighbor Solicitation:
    The ar$hopcnt field MUST be smaller than the shortcut limit value
    specified in the shortcut limit option included in the triggering
    NS message. This ensures that hosts have control over the reach of
    their shortcut request. Note that the shortcut limit given in the
    option is relative to the requesting host, thus the requirement of
    ar$hopcnt being smaller than the given shortcut limit.
    The Flags field in the common header of the NHRP resolution
    request SHOULD have the Q and S bits set.
    The U bit SHOULD be set.  NBMA and protocol source addresses are
    those of the router constructing the request.
    The target address from the NS message is used as the NHRP
    destination protocol address.  A CIE SHALL NOT be specified.
 When constructing a NHRP resolution request as a result of flow
 detection, the choice of values is configuration dependent.
 A NHRP resolution reply is build according to the rules in [8].
    For each CIE returned, the holding time is 10 minutes.
    The MTU may be 0 or a value specified in the NBMA-specific
    companion document.
 A successful NHRP resolution reply for a host-triggered shortcut
 attempt is translated into an IPv6 Redirect message as follows:
 IP Fields:
    Source Address
          The link-local address assigned to the router's interface
          from which this message is sent.
    Destination Address
          IPv6 Source Address of the triggering NS
    Hop Limit
          255

Armitage, et. al. Standards Track [Page 14] RFC 2491 IPv6 over NBMA networks January 1999

 ICMP Fields:
    Target Address
          NHRP Client Protocol Address
    Destination Address
          Target of triggering NS (this is equivalent to the NHRP
          Destination Protocol Address)
    Target link-layer address
          NHRP Client NBMA Address
 All NHRP extensions currently defined in [8] have no effect on
 NHRP/ND translation and MAY be used in NHRP messages for IPv6.

3.2.3.2 NHRP Purge rules.

 Purges are generated by NHRP when changes are detected that
 invalidate a previously issued NHRP Reply (this may include topology
 changes, or a target host going down or changing identity). Any IPv6
 shortcut previously established on the basis of newly purged
 information SHOULD be torn down.
 Routers SHALL keep track of NHRP cache entries for which they have
 issued Neighbor Advertisements or Router Redirects. If a NHRP Purge
 is received that invalidates information previously issued to local
 host, the router SHALL issue a Router Redirect specifying the router
 itself as the new best next-hop for the affected IPv6 target.
 Routers SHALL keep track of Neighbor cache entries that have
 previously been used to generate an NHRP Reply. The expiry of any
 such Neighbor cache entry SHALL result in a NHRP Purge being sent
 towards the router that originally requested the NHRP Reply.

3.3. Neighbor Unreachability Detection.

 Neighbor Solicitations sent for the purposes of Neighbor
 Unreachability Detection (NUD) are unicast to the Neighbor in
 question, using the VC that is already open to that Neighbor. This
 suggests that as far as NUD is concerned, the Transient Neighbor is
 indistinguishable from an On-LL Neighbor.

3.4. Duplicate Address Detection.

 Duplicate Address Detection is only required within the link-local
 scope, which in this case is the LL-local scope. Transient Neighbors
 are outside the scope of the LL. No particular interaction is
 required between the mechanism for establishing shortcuts and the
 mechanism for detection of duplicate link local addresses.

Armitage, et. al. Standards Track [Page 15] RFC 2491 IPv6 over NBMA networks January 1999

4 Node Operation Concepts.

 This section describes node operations for performing basic functions
 (such as sending and receiving data) on a Logical Link.  The
 application of these basic functions to the operation of the various
 IPv6 protocols such as Neighbor Discovery is described in Appendix A.
 The majority of this section applies only to NBMA networks when used
 to provide point to point and point to multipoint SVCs.  Section 7
 discusses the case where the NBMA network is being used to supply
 only point to point PVCs.

4.1.Connecting to a Logical Link.

 Before a node can send or receive IPv6 datagrams its underlying
 IPv6/NBMA interface(s) must first join a Logical Link.
 An IPv6/NBMA driver SHALL establish a pt-pt VC to the MARS associated
 with its Logical Link, and register as a Cluster Member [5].  The
 node's IPv6/NBMA interface will then be a member of the LL, have a
 Cluster Member ID (CMI) assigned, and can begin supporting IPv6 and
 IPv6 ND operations.
 If the node is a host or router starting up it SHALL issue a single
 group MARS_JOIN for the following groups:
  1. Its derived Solicited-node address(es) with link-local scope.
  2. The All-nodes address with link-local scope.
  3. Other configured multicast groups with at least link-local

scope.

 If the node is a router it SHALL additionally issue:
  1. A single group MARS_JOIN for the All-routers address with

link-local scope.

  1. A block MARS_JOIN for the range(s) of IPv6 multicast addresses

(with greater than link-local scope) for which promiscuous

      reception is required.
 The encapsulation mechanism for, and key field values of, MARS
 control messages SHALL be defined in companion documents specific to
 particular NBMA network technologies.

4.2 Joining a Multicast Group.

 This section describes the node's behavior when it gets a
 JoinLocalGroup request from the IPv6 Layer. The details of how this
 behavior is achieved are going to be implementation specific.

Armitage, et. al. Standards Track [Page 16] RFC 2491 IPv6 over NBMA networks January 1999

 If a JoinLocalGroup for a node-local address is received, the
 IPv6/NBMA driver SHALL return success indication to the caller and
 take no additional action. (Packets sent to node-local addresses
 never reach the IPv6/NBMA driver.)
 If a JoinLocalGroup is received for an address with greater than
 node-local scope, the IPv6/NBMA driver SHALL send an appropriate
 single group MARS_JOIN request to register this address with the
 MARS.

4.3. Leaving a Multicast Group.

 This section describes the node's behavior when it gets a
 LeaveLocalGroup request from the IPv6 Layer. The details of how this
 behavior is achieved are going to be implementation specific.
 If a LeaveLocalGroup for a node-local address is received, the
 IPv6/NBMA driver SHALL return success indication to the caller and
 take no additional action. (Packets sent to node-local addresses
 never reach the IPv6/NBMA driver.)
 If a LeaveLocalGroup is received for an address with greater than
 node-local scope, the IPv6/NBMA driver SHALL send an appropriate
 single group MARS_LEAVE request to deregister this address with the
 MARS.

4.4. Sending Data.

 Separate processing and encapsulation rules apply for outbound
 unicast and multicast packets.

4.4.1. Sending Unicast Data.

 The IP level 'next hop' for each outbound unicast IPv6 packet is used
 to identify a pt-pt VC on which to forward the packet.
    For NBMA networks where LLC/SNAP encapsulation is typically used
    (e.g. ATM or SMDS), the IPv6 packet SHALL be encapsulated with the
    following LLC/SNAP header and sent over the VC.
       [0xAA-AA-03][0x00-00-00][0x86-DD][IPv6 packet]
           (LLC)       (OUI)     (PID)
    For NBMA networks that do not use LLC/SNAP encapsulation, an
    alternative rule SHALL be specified in the NBMA-specific companion
    document.

Armitage, et. al. Standards Track [Page 17] RFC 2491 IPv6 over NBMA networks January 1999

 If no pt-pt VC exists for the next hop address for the packet, the
 node SHALL place a call to set up a VC to the next hop destination.
 Any time the IPv6/NBMA driver receives a unicast packet for
 transmission the IPv6 layer will already have determined the link-
 layer (NBMA) address of the next hop.  Thus, the information needed
 to place the NBMA call to the next hop will be available.
 The sending node SHOULD queue the packet that triggered the call
 request, and send it when the call is established.
 If the call to the next hop destination node fails the sending node
 SHALL discard the packet that triggered the call setup.  Persistent
 failure to create a VC to the next hop destination will be detected
 and handled at the IPv6 Network Layer through NUD.
 At this time no rules are specified for mapping outbound packets to
 VCs using anything more than the packet's destination address.

4.4.2. Sending Multicast Data.

 The IP level 'next hop' for each outbound multicast IPv6 packet is
 used to identify a pt-pt or pt-mpt VC on which to forward the packet.
    For NBMA networks where LLC/SNAP encapsulation is typically used
    (e.g. ATM or SMDS), multicast packets SHALL be encapsulated in the
    following manner:
       [0xAA-AA-03][0x00-00-5E][0x00-01][pkt$cmi][0x86DD][IPv6
       packet]
           (LLC)       (OUI)     (PID)    (mars encaps)
       The IPv6/NBMA driver's Cluster Member ID SHALL be copied into
       the 2 octet pkt$cmi field prior to transmission.
    For NBMA networks that do not use LLC/SNAP encapsulation, an
    alternative rule SHALL be specified in the NBMA-specific companion
    document. Some mechanism for carrying the IPv6/NBMA driver's
    Cluster Member ID SHALL be provided.
 If the packet's destination is one of the following multicast
 addresses, it SHALL be sent over the IPv6/NBMA driver's direct pt-pt
 VC to the MARS:
  1. A Solicited-node address with link-local scope.
  2. The All-nodes address with link-local scope.
  3. The All-routers address with link-local scope.
  4. A DHCP-v6 relay or server multicast address.

Armitage, et. al. Standards Track [Page 18] RFC 2491 IPv6 over NBMA networks January 1999

 The MARS SHALL then redistribute the IPv6 packet as described in
 section 3.1.1.  (If the VC to the MARS has been idle timed out for
 some reason, it MUST be re-established before forwarding the packet
 to the MARS.)
 If packet's destination is any other address, then the usual MARS
 client mechanisms are used by the IPv6/NBMA driver to select and/or
 establish a pt-mpt VC on which the packet is to be sent.
 At this time no rules are specified for mapping outbound packets to
 VCs using anything more than the packet's destination address.

4.5. Receiving Data.

 Packets received using the encapsulation shown in section 4.4.1 SHALL
 be de-encapsulated and passed up to the IPv6 layer.  The IPv6 layer
 then determines how the incoming packet is to be handled.
 Packets received using the encapsulation specified in section 4.4.2
 SHALL have their pkt$cmi field compared to the local IPv6/NBMA
 driver's own CMI.  If the pkt$cmi in the header matches the local CMI
 the packet SHALL be silently dropped.  Otherwise, the packet SHALL be
 de-encapsulated and passed to the IPv6 layer.  The IPv6 layer then
 determines how the incoming packet is to be handled.
 For NBMA networks that do not use LLC/SNAP encapsulation, alternative
 rules SHALL be specified in the NBMA-specific companion document.
 The IPv6/NBMA driver SHALL NOT attempt to filter out multicast IPv6
 packets arriving with encapsulation defined for unicast packets, nor
 attempt to filter out unicast IPv6 packets arriving with
 encapsulation defined for multicast packets.

4.6. VC Setup and release for unicast data.

 Unicast VCs are maintained separately from multicast VCs.  The setup
 and maintenance of multicast VCs are handled by the MARS client in
 each IPv6/NBMA driver [5]. Only the setup and maintenance of pt-pt
 VCs for unicast IPv6 traffic will be described here.  Only best
 effort unicast VCs are considered.  The creation of VCs for other
 classes of service is outside the scope of this document.
 Before sending a packet to a new destination within the same LL a
 node will first perform a Neighbor Discovery on the intra-LL target.
 This is done to resolve the IPv6 destination address into a link-
 layer address which the sender can then use to send unicast packets.

Armitage, et. al. Standards Track [Page 19] RFC 2491 IPv6 over NBMA networks January 1999

 Appendix A.1.1 contains non-normative, descriptive text covering the
 Neighbor Solicitation/Advertisement exchange and eventual
 establishment of a new SVC.
 A Redirect message (either a redirect to a node on the same LL, or a
 shortcut redirect to a node outside the LL) results in the sending
 (redirected) node creating a new pt-pt VC to a new receiving node.
 the Redirect message SHALL contain the link layer (NBMA) address of
 the new receiving IPv6/NBMA interface.  The redirected node does not
 concern itself where the new receiving node is located on the NBMA
 network.  The redirected node will set up a pt-pt VC to the new node
 if one does not previously exist.  The redirected node will then use
 the new VC to send data rather than whatever VC it had previously
 been using.
 Redirects are unidirectional.  Even after the source has reacted to a
 redirect, the destination will continue to send IPv6 packets back to
 the redirected node on the old path.  This happens because the
 destination node has no way of determining the IPv6 address of the
 other end of a new VC in the absence of Neighbor Discovery. Thus,
 redirects will not result in both ends of a connection using the new
 VC. IPv6 redirects are not intended to provide symmetrical
 redirection.  If the non-redirected node eventually receives a
 redirect it MAY discover the existing VC to the target node and use
 that rather than creating a new VC.
 It is desirable that VCs are released when no longer needed.
    An IPv6/NBMA driver SHALL release any VC that has been idle for 20
    minutes.
 This time limit MAY be reduced through configuration or as specified
 in companion documents for specific NBMA networks.
 If a Neighbor or Destination cache entry is purged then any VCs
 associated with the purged entry SHOULD be released.
 If the state of an entry in the Neighbor cache is set to STALE, then
 any VCs associated with the stale entry SHOULD be released.

4.7 NBMA SVC Signaling Support and MTU issues.

 Mechanisms for signaling the establishment and teardown of pt-pt and
 pt-mpt SVCs for different NBMA networks SHALL be specified in
 companion documents.

Armitage, et. al. Standards Track [Page 20] RFC 2491 IPv6 over NBMA networks January 1999

 Since any given IPv6/NBMA driver will not know if the remote end of a
 VC is in the same LL, drivers SHALL implement NBMA-specific
 mechanisms to negotiate acceptable MTUs at the VC level. These
 mechanisms SHALL be specified in companion documents.
 However, IPv6/NBMA drivers can assume that they will always be
 talking to another driver attached to the same type of NBMA network.
 (For example, an IPv6/NBMA driver does not need to consider the
 possibility of establishing a shortcut VC directly to an IPv6/FR
 driver.)

5. Interface Tokens, Link Layer Address Options, Link-Local Addresses

5.1 Interface Tokens

 Each IPv6 interface must have an interface token from which to form
 IPv6 autoconfigured addresses. This interface token must be unique
 within a Logical Link to prevent the creation of duplicate addresses
 when stateless address configuration is used.
 In cases where two nodes on the same LL produce the same interface
 token then one interface MUST choose another host-token.  All
 implementations MUST support manual configuration of interface tokens
 to allow operators to manually change a interface token on a per-LL
 basis.  Operators may choose to manually set interface tokens for
 reasons other than eliminating duplicate addresses.
 All interface tokens MUST be 64 bits in length and formatted as
 described in the following sections.  The hosts tokens will be based
 on the format of an EUI-64 identifier [10]. Refer to [19 - Appendix
 A] for a description of creating IPv6 EUI-64 based interface
 identifiers.

5.1.1 Single Logical Links on a Single NBMA Interface

 Physical NBMA interfaces will generally have some local identifier
 that may be used to generate a unique IPv6/NBMA interface token. The
 exact mechanism for generating interface tokens SHALL be specified in
 companion documents specific to each NBMA network.

5.1.2 Multiple Logical Links on a Single NBMA Interface

 Physical NBMA interfaces MAY be used to provide multiple logical NBMA
 interfaces. Since each logical NBMA interface MAY support an
 independent IPv6 interface, two separate scenarios are possible:
  1. A single host with separate IPv6/NBMA interfaces onto a number

of independent Logical Links.

Armitage, et. al. Standards Track [Page 21] RFC 2491 IPv6 over NBMA networks January 1999

  1. A set of 2 or more 'virtual hosts' (vhosts) sharing a common

NBMA driver. Each vhost is free to establish IPv6/NBMA

      interfaces associated with different or common LLs. However,
      vhosts are bound by the same requirement as normal hosts - no
      two interfaces to the same LL can share the same interface
      token.
 In the first scenario, since each IPv6/NBMA interface is associated
 with a different LL, each interface's external identity can be
 differentiated by the LL's routing prefix.  Thus, the host can re-use
 a single unique interface token across all its IPv6/NBMA interfaces.
 (Internally the host will tag received packets in some locally
 specific manner to identify what IPv6/NBMA interface they arrived on.
 However, this is an issue generic to IPv6, and does not required
 clarification in this document.)
 The second scenario is more complex, but likely to be rarer.
 When supporting multiple logical NBMA interfaces over a single
 physical NBMA interface, independent and unique identifiers SHALL be
 generated for each virtual NBMA interface to enable the construction
 of unique IPv6/NBMA interface tokens.  The exact mechanism for
 generating interface tokens SHALL be specified in companion documents
 specific to each NBMA network.

5.2 Link Layer Address Options

 Neighbor Discovery defines two option fields for carrying link-layer
 specific source and target addresses.
 Between IPv6/NBMA interfaces, the format for these two options is
 adapted from the MARS [5] and NHRP [8] specs. It SHALL be:
        [Type][Length][NTL][STL][..NBMA Number..][..NBMA
        Subaddress..]
        |   Fixed    ||            Link layer address
        |
 [Type] is a one octet field.
        1 for Source link-layer address.
        2 for Target link-layer address.
 [Length] is a one octet field.
 The total length of the option in multiples of 8 octets. Zeroed bytes
 are added to the end of the option to ensure its length is a multiple
 of 8 octets.

Armitage, et. al. Standards Track [Page 22] RFC 2491 IPv6 over NBMA networks January 1999

 [NTL] is a one octet 'Number Type & Length' field.
 [STL] is a one octet 'SubAddress Type & Length' field.
 [NBMA Number] is a variable length field. It is always present. This
 contains the primary NBMA address.
 [NBMA Subaddress] is a variable length field. It may or may not be
 present. This contains any NBMA subaddress that may be required.
 If the [NBMA Subaddress] is not present, the option ends after the
 [NBMA Number] ( and any additional padding for 8 byte alignment).
 The contents and interpretation of the [NTL], [STL], [NBMA Number],
 and [NBMA Subaddress] fields are specific to each NBMA network, and
 SHALL be specified in companion documents.

5.3 Link-Local Addresses

 The IPv6 link-local address is formed by appending the interface
 token, as defined above, to the prefix FE80::/64.
        10 bits            54 bits                  64 bits
    +----------+-----------------------+----------------------------+
    |1111111010|         (zeros)       |      Interface Token       |
    +----------+-----------------------+----------------------------+

6. Conclusion and Open Issues

 This document describes a general architecture for IPv6 over NBMA
 networks. It forms the basis for subsidiary companion documents that
 provide details for various specific NBMA technologies (such as ATM
 or Frame Relay). The IPv6 over NBMA architecture allows conventional
 host-side operation of the IPv6 Neighbor Discovery protocol, while
 also supporting the establishment of 'shortcut' NBMA forwarding paths
 (when dynamically signaled NBMA links are available).
 The IPv6 "Link" is generalized to "Logical Link" in an analagous
 manner to the IPv4 "Logical IP Subnet".  The MARS protocol is
 augmented and used to provide relatively efficient intra Logical Link
 multicasting of IPv6 packets, and distribution of Discovery messages.
 Shortcut NBMA level paths are supported either through router based
 flow detection, or host originated explicit requests.  Neighbor
 Discovery is used without modification for all intra-LL control
 (including the initiation of NBMA shortcut discovery).  Router to
 router NHRP is used to obtain the IPv6/NBMA address mappings for
 shortcut targets outside a source's Logical Link.

Armitage, et. al. Standards Track [Page 23] RFC 2491 IPv6 over NBMA networks January 1999

7. Security Considerations

 This architecture introduces no new protocols, but depends on
 existing protocols (NHRP, IPv6, ND, MARS) and is therefore subject to
 all the security threats inherent in these protocols. This
 architecture should not be used in a domain where any of the base
 protocols are considered unacceptably insecure. However, this
 protocol itself does not introduce additional security threats.
 While this proposal does not introduce any new security mechanisms
 all current IPv6 security mechanisms will work without modification
 for NBMA.  This includes both authentication and encryption for both
 Neighbor Discovery protocols as well as the exchange of IPv6 data
 packets. The MARS protocol is modified in a manner that does not
 affect or augment the security offered by RFC 2022.

Acknowledgments

 Eric Nordmark confirmed the usefulness of ND Redirect messages in
 private email during the March 1996 IETF. The discussions with
 various ION WG members during the June and December 1996 IETF helped
 solidify the architecture described here. Grenville Armitage's
 original work on IPv6/NBMA occurred while employed at Bellcore.
 Elements of section 5 were borrowed from Matt Crawford's memo on IPv6
 over Ethernet.

Armitage, et. al. Standards Track [Page 24] RFC 2491 IPv6 over NBMA networks January 1999

Authors' Addresses

 Grenville Armitage
 Bell Laboratories, Lucent Technologies
 101 Crawfords Corner Road
 Holmdel, NJ 07733
 USA
 EMail: gja@lucent.com
 Peter Schulter
 Bright Tiger Technologies
 125 Nagog Park
 Acton, MA 01720
 EMail: paschulter@acm.org
 Markus Jork
 European Applied Research Center
 Digital Equipment GmbH
 CEC Karlsruhe
 Vincenz-Priessnitz-Str. 1
 D-76131 Karlsruhe
 Germany
 EMail: jork@kar.dec.com
 Geraldine Harter
 Digital UNIX Networking
 Compaq Computer Corporation
 110 Spit Brook Road
 Nashua, NH 03062
 EMail: harter@zk3.dec.com

Armitage, et. al. Standards Track [Page 25] RFC 2491 IPv6 over NBMA networks January 1999

References

 [1] Deering, S. and R. Hinden, "Internet Protocol, Version 6 (IPv6)
     Specification", RFC 2460, December 1998.
 [2] ATM Forum, "ATM User Network Interface (UNI) Specification
     Version 3.1", ISBN 0-13-393828-X, Prentice Hall, Englewood
     Cliffs, NJ, June 1995.
 [3] Crawford, M., "A Method for the Transmission of IPv6 Packets over
     Ethernet Networks", RFC 1972, August 1996.
 [4] Heinanen, J., "Multiprotocol Encapsulation over ATM Adaptation
     Layer 5", RFC 1483, July 1993.
 [5] Armitage, G., "Support for Multicast over UNI 3.1 based ATM
     Networks", RFC 2022, November 1996.
 [6] Hinden, R. and S. Deering, "IP Version 6 Addressing
     Architecture", RFC 2373, July 1998.
 [7] Narten, T., Nordmark, E. and W. Simpson, "Neighbor Discovery for
     IP Version 6 (IPv6)", RFC 2461, December 1998.
 [8] Luciani, J., Katz, D., Piscitello, D. Cole B and N. Doraswamy,
     "NBMA Next Hop Resolution Protocol (NHRP)", RFC 2332, April 1998.
 [9] Thomson, S. and T. Narten, "IPv6 Stateless Address
     Autoconfiguration", RFC 2462, December 1998.
 [10] "64-Bit Global Identifier Format Tutorial",
      http://standards.ieee.org/db/oui/tutorials/EUI64.html.
 [11] Katsube, Y., Nagami, K. and H. Esaki, "Toshiba's Router
      Architecture Extensions for ATM : Overview", RFC 2098, February
      1997.
 [12] P. Newman, T. Lyon, G. Minshall, "Flow Labeled IP: ATM under
      IP", Proceedings of INFOCOM'96, San Francisco, March 1996,
      pp.1251-1260
 [13] Piscitello, D. and J. Lawrence, "The Transmission of IP
      Datagrams over the SMDS Service", RFC 1209, March 1991.
 [14] Plummer, D., "An Ethernet Address Resolution Protocol - or -
      Converting Network Protocol Addresses to 48.bit Ethernet Address
      for Transmission on Ethernet Hardware", STD 37, RFC 826,
      November 1982.

Armitage, et. al. Standards Track [Page 26] RFC 2491 IPv6 over NBMA networks January 1999

 [15] McCann, J., Deering, S. and J. Mogul, "Path MTU Discovery for IP
      version 6", RFC 1981, August 1996.
 [16] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement
      Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.
 [17] Armitage, G., Schulter, P. and M. Jork, "IPv6 over ATM
      Networks", RFC 2492, January 1999.
 [18] C. Perkins, J. Bound, "Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol for
      IPv6 (DHCPv6)", Work in Progress.
 [19] Hinden, R. and S. Deering, "IP Version 6 Addressing
      Architecture", RFC 2373, July 1998.

Armitage, et. al. Standards Track [Page 27] RFC 2491 IPv6 over NBMA networks January 1999

Appendix A. IPv6 Protocol Operation Description

 The IPv6 over NBMA model described in this document maintains the
 complete semantics of the IPv6 protocols. No changes need to be made
 to the IPv6 Network Layer. Since the concept of the security
 association is not being changed for NBMA, this framework maintains
 complete IPv6 security semantics and features. This allows IPv6 nodes
 to choose their responses to solicitations based on security
 information as is done with other datalinks, thereby maintaining the
 semantics of Neighbor Discovery since it is always the solicited node
 that chooses what (and even if) to reply to the solicitation. Thus,
 NBMA will be transparent to the network layer except in cases where
 extra services (such as QoS VCs) are offered.
 The remainder of this Appendix describes how the core IPv6 protocols
 will operate within the model described here.

A.1 Neighbor Discovery Operations

 Before performing any sort of Neighbor discover operation, each node
 must first join the all-node multicast group, and it's solicited node
 multicast address (the use of this address in relation to DAD is
 described in A.1.4).  The IPv6 network layer will join these
 multicast groups as described in 4.2.

A.1.1 Performing Address Resolution

 An IPv6 host performs address resolution by sending a Neighbor
 Solicitation to the solicited-node multicast address of the target
 host, as described in [7]. The Neighbor Solicitation message will
 contain a Source Link-Layer Address Option set to the soliciting
 node's NBMA address on the LL.
 When the local node's IPv6/NBMA driver is passed the Neighbor
 Solicitation message from the IPv6 network layer, it follows the
 steps described in section 4.4.2 Sending Multicast Data.
 One or more nodes will receive the Neighbor Solicitation message.
 The nodes will process the data as described in section 4.5 and pass
 the de-encapsulated packets to the IPv6 network layer.
 If the receiving node is the target of the Neighbor Solicitation it
 will update its Neighbor cache with the soliciting node's NBMA
 address, contained in the Neighbor Solicitation message's Source
 Link-Layer Address Option as described in [7].

Armitage, et. al. Standards Track [Page 28] RFC 2491 IPv6 over NBMA networks January 1999

 The solicited IPv6 host will respond to the Neighbor Solicitation
 with a Neighbor Advertisement message sent to the IPv6 unicast
 address of the soliciting node.  The Neighbor Advertisement message
 will contain a Target Link-Layer Address Option set to the solicited
 node's NBMA address on the LL.
 The solicited node's IPv6/NBMA driver will be passed the Neighbor
 Advertisement and the soliciting node's link-layer address from the
 IPv6 network layer.  It will then follow the steps described in
 section section 4.4.1 to send the NA message to the soliciting node.
 This will create a pt-pt VC between the solicited node and soliciting
 node if one did not already exist.
 The soliciting node will then receive the Neighbor Advertisement
 message over the new PtP VC, de-encapsulate the message, and pass it
 to the IPv6 Network layer for processing as described in section 4.5.
 The soliciting node will then make the appropriate entries in it's
 Neighbor cache, including caching the NBMA link-layer address of the
 solicited node as described in [7].
 At this point each system has a complete Neighbor cache entry for the
 other system. They can exchange data over the pt-pt VC newly created
 by the solicited node when it returned the Neighbor Advertisement, or
 create a new VC.
 An IPv6 host can also send an Unsolicited Neighbor Advertisemnent to
 the all-nodes multicast address. When the local node IPv6/NBMA driver
 is passed the Neighbor Advertisement from the IPv6 network layer, it
 follows the steps described in section 4.4.2 to send the NA message
 to the all-nodes multicast address.  Each node will process the
 incoming packet as described in section 4.5 and then pass the packet
 to the IPv6 network layer where it will be processed as described in
 [7].

A.1.2 Performing Router Discovery

 Router Discovery is described in [7]. To support Router Discovery an
 IPv6 router will join the IPv6 all-routers multicast group address.
 When the IPv6/NBMA driver gets the JoinLocalGroup request from the
 IPv6 Network Layer, it follows the process described in section 4.2.
 IPv6 routers periodically send unsolicited Router Advertisements
 announcing their availability on the LL.  When an IPv6 router sends
 an unsolicited Router Advertisement, it sends a data packet addressed
 to the IPv6 all-nodes multicast address. When the local node
 IPv6/NBMA driver gets the Router Advertisement message from the IPv6
 network layer, it transmits the message by following steps described
 in section 4.4.2.  The MARS will transmit the packet on the LL's

Armitage, et. al. Standards Track [Page 29] RFC 2491 IPv6 over NBMA networks January 1999

 ClusterControlVC, which sends the packets to all nodes on the LL.
 Each node on the LL will then process the incoming packet as
 described in section 4.5 and pass the received packet to the IPv6
 Network layer for processing as appropriate.
 To perform Router Discovery, an IPv6 host sends a Router Solicitation
 message to the all-routers multicast address. When the local node
 IPv6/NBMA driver gets the request from the IPv6 Network Layer to send
 the packet, it follows the steps described in section 4.4.2.  The RS
 message will be sent to either those nodes which have joined the
 all-routers multicast group or to all nodes.  The nodes which receive
 the RA message will process the message as described in section 4.5
 and pass the RA message up to the IPv6 layer for processing.  Only
 those nodes which are routers will process the message and respond to
 it.
 An IPv6 router responds to a Router Solicitation by sending a Router
 Advertisement addressed to the IPv6 all-nodes multicast address if
 the source address of the Router Solicitation was the unspecified
 address.  If the source address in the Router Solicitation is not the
 unspecified address, the the router will unicast the Router
 Advertisement to the soliciting node.  If the router sends the Router
 Advertisement to the all-nodes multicast address then it follows the
 steps described above for unsolicited Router Advertisements.
 If the Router Advertisement is to be unicast to the soliciting node,
 the IPv6 network layer will give the node's IPv6/NBMA driver the
 Router Advertisement and link-layer address of the soliciting node
 (obtained through Address Resolution if necessary) which will send
 the packet according to the steps described in section 4.4.1 This
 will result in a new pt-pt VC being created between the router and
 the soliciting node if one did not already exist.
 The soliciting node will receive and process the Router Advertisement
 as described in section 4.5 and will pass the RA message to the IPv6
 network layer.  The IPv6 network layer may, depending on the state of
 the Neighbor cache entry, update the Neighbor cache with the router's
 NBMA address, contained in the Router Advertisement message's Source
 Link-Layer Address Option.
 If a pt-pt VC is set up during Router Discovery, subsequent IPv6 best
 effort unicast data between the soliciting node and the router will
 be transmitted over the new PtP VC.

Armitage, et. al. Standards Track [Page 30] RFC 2491 IPv6 over NBMA networks January 1999

A.1.3 Performing Neighbor Unreachability Detection (NUD)

 Neighbor Unreachability Detection (NUD) is the process by which an
 IPv6 host determines that a neighbor is no longer reachable, as
 described in [7]. Each Neighbor cache entry contains information used
 by the NUD algorithm to detect reachability failures.  Confirmation
 of a neighbor's reachability comes either from upper-layer protocol
 indications that data recently sent to the neighbor was received, or
 from the receipt of a Neighbor Advertisement message in response to a
 Neighbor Solicitation probe.
 Connectivity failures at the node's IPv6/NBMA driver, such as
 released VCs (see section 4.6) and the inability to create a VC to a
 neighbor (see section 4.4.1), are detected and handled at the IPv6
 network layer, through Neighbor Unreachability Detection.  The node's
 IPv6/NBMA driver does not attempt to detect or recover from these
 conditions.
 A persistent failure to create a VC from the IPv6 host to one of its
 IPv6 neighbors will be detected and handled through NUD. On each
 attempt to send data from the IPv6 host to its neighbor, the node's
 IPv6/NBMA driver will attempt to set up a VC to the neighbor, and
 failing to do so, will drop the packet. IPv6 reachability
 confirmation timers will eventually expire, and the neighbor's
 Neighbor cache entry will enter the PROBE state. The PROBE state will
 cause the IPv6 host to unicast Neighbor Solicitations to the
 neighbor, which will be dropped by the local node's IPv6/NBMA driver
 after again failing to setup the VC. The IPv6 host will therefore
 never receive the solicited Neighbor Advertisements needed for
 reachability confirmation, causing the neighbor's entry to be deleted
 from the Neighbor cache. The next time the IPv6 host tries to send
 data to that neighbor, address resolution will be performed.
 Depending on the reason for the previous failure, connectivity to the
 neighbor could be re-established (for example, if the previous VC
 setup failure was caused by an obsolete link-layer address in the
 Neighbor cache).
 In the event that a VC from an IPv6 neighbor is released, the next
 time a packet is sent from the IPv6 host to the neighbor, the node's
 IPv6/NBMA driver will recognize that it no longer has a VC to that
 neighbor and attempt to setup a new VC to the neighbor.  If, on the
 first and on subsequent transmissions, the node is unable to create a
 VC to the neighbor, NUD will detect and handle the failure as
 described earlier (handling the persistent failure to create a VC
 from the IPv6 host to one of its IPv6 neighbors). Depending on the
 reason for the previous failure, connectivity to the neighbor may or
 may not be re-established.

Armitage, et. al. Standards Track [Page 31] RFC 2491 IPv6 over NBMA networks January 1999

A.1.4 Performing Duplicate Address Detection (DAD)

 An IPv6 host performs Duplicate Address Detection (DAD) to determine
 that the address it wishes to use on the LL (i.e. a tentative
 address) is not already in use, as described in [9] and [7].
 Duplicate Address Detection is performed on all addresses the host
 wishes to use, regardless of the configuration mechanism used to
 obtain the address.
 Prior to performing Duplicate Address Detection, a host will join the
 all-nodes multicast address and the solicited-node multicast address
 corresponding to the host's tentative address (see 4.2.  Joining a
 Multicast Group). The IPv6 host initiates Duplicate Address Detection
 by sending a Neighbor Solicitation to solicited-node multicast
 address corresponding to the host's tentative address, with the
 tentative address as the target.  When the local node's IPv6/NBMA
 driver gets the Neighbor Solicitation message from the IPv6 network
 layer, it follows the steps outlined in section 4.4.2.  The NS
 message will be sent to those nodes which joined the target
 solicited-node multicast group or to all nodes.  The DAD NS message
 will be received by one or more nodes on the LL and processed by each
 as described in section 4.5.  Note that the MARS client of the
 sending node will filter out the message so that the sending node's
 IPv6 network layer will not see the message.  The IPv6 network layer
 of any node which is not a member of the target solicited-node
 multicast group will discard the Neighbor Solicitation message.
 If no other hosts have joined the solicited-node multicast address
 corresponding to the tentative address, then the host will not
 receive a Neighbor Advertisement containing its tentative address as
 the target.  The host will perform the retransmission logic described
 in [9], terminate Duplicate Address Detection, and assign the
 tentative address to the NBMA interface.
 Otherwise, other hosts on the LL that have joined the solicited-node
 multicast address corresponding to the tentative address will process
 the Neighbor Solicitation. The processing will depend on whether or
 not receiving IPv6 host considers the target address to be tentative.
 If the receiving IPv6 host's address is not tentative, the host will
 respond with a Neighbor Advertisement containing the target address.
 Because the source of the Neighbor Solicitation is the unspecified
 address, the host sends the Neighbor Advertisement to the all-nodes
 multicast address following the steps outlined in section 4.4.2.  The
 DAD NA message will be received and processed by the MARS clients on
 all nodes in the LL as described in section 4.5.  Note that the
 sending node will filter the incoming message since the CMI in the
 message header will match that of the receiving node.  All other

Armitage, et. al. Standards Track [Page 32] RFC 2491 IPv6 over NBMA networks January 1999

 nodes will de-encapsulate the message and pass it to the IPv6 network
 layer.  The host performing DAD will detect that its tentative
 address is the target of the Neighbor Advertisement, and determine
 that the tentative address is not unique and cannot be assigned to
 its NBMA interface.
 If the receiving IPv6 host's address is tentative, then both hosts
 are performing DAD using the same tentative address. The receiving
 host will determine that the tentative address is not unique and
 cannot be assigned to its NBMA interface.

A.1.5 Processing Redirects

 An IPv6 router uses a Redirect Message to inform an IPv6 host of a
 better first-hop for reaching a particular destination, as described
 in [7].  This can be used to direct hosts to a better first hop
 router, another host on the same LL, or to a transient neighbor on
 another LL.  The IPv6 router will unicast the Redirect to the IPv6
 source address that triggered the Redirect. The router's IPv6/NBMA
 driver will transmit the Redirect message using the procedure
 described in section 4.4.1.  This will create a VC between the router
 and the redirected host if one did not previously exist.
 The IPv6/NBMA driver of the IPv6 host that triggered the Redirect
 will receive the encapsulated Redirect over one of it's pt-pt VCs.
 It will the de-encapsulate the packet, and pass the Redirect message
 to the IPv6 Network Layer, as described section 4.5.
 Subsequent data sent from the IPv6 host to the destination will be
 sent to the next-hop address specified in the Redirect Message.  For
 NBMA networks, the Redirect Message should contain the link-layer
 address option as described in [7] and section 5.2, thus the
 redirected node will not have to perform a Neighbor Solicitation to
 learn the link-layer address of the node to which it has been
 redirected.  Thus, the redirect can be to any node on the NBMA
 network, regardless of the LL membership of the new target node.
 This allows NBMA hosts to be redirected off their LL to achieve
 shortcut by using standard IPv6 protocols.
 Once redirected, the IPv6 network layer will give the node's
 IPv6/NBMA driver the IPv6 packet and the link-layer address of the
 next-hop node when it sends data to the redirected destination. The
 node's IPv6/NBMA driver will determine if a VC to the next-hop
 destination exists.  If a pt-pt VC does not exist, then the IPv6/NBMA
 driver will queue the data packet and initiate a setup of a VC to the
 destination.  When the VC is created, or if one already exists, then
 the node will encapsulate the outgoing data packet and send it on the
 VC.

Armitage, et. al. Standards Track [Page 33] RFC 2491 IPv6 over NBMA networks January 1999

 Note that Redirects are unidirectional.  The redirected host will
 create a VC to the next-hop destination as specified in the Redirect
 message, but the next-hop will not be redirected to the source host.
 Because no Neighbor Discovery takes place, the next-hop destination
 has no way of determining the identity of the caller when it receives
 the new VC.  Also, since ND does not take place on redirects, the
 next-hop receives no event that would cause it to update it's
 neighbor or destination caches.  However, it will continue to
 transmit data back to the redirected host on the former path to the
 redirected host.  The next-hop node should be able to use the new VC
 from the redirected destination if it too receives a redirect
 redirecting it to the redirected node.  This behavior is consistent
 with [7].

A.2 Address Configuration

 IPv6 addresses are auto-configured using the stateless or stateful
 address auto-configuration mechanisms, as described in [9] and [18].
 The IPv6 auto-configuration process involves creating and verifying
 the uniqueness of a link-local address on an LL, determining whether
 to use stateless and/or stateful configurationmechanisms to obtain
 addresses, and determining if other (non- address) information is to
 be autoconfigured. IPv6 addresses can also be manually configured, if
 for example, auto-configuration fails because the autoconfigured
 link-local address is not unique.  An LL administrator specifies the
 type of autoconfiguration to use; the hosts on an LL receive this
 autoconfiguration information through Router Advertisement messages.
 The following sections describe how stateless, stateful and manual
 address configuration will work in an IPv6/NBMA environment.

A.2.1 Stateless Address Configuration

 IPv6 stateless address configuration is the process by which an IPv6
 host autoconfigures its interfaces, as described in [IPV6-ADDRCONF].
 When an IPv6 host first starts up, it generates a link-local address
 for the interface attached to the Logical Link.  It then verifies the
 uniqueness of the link-local address using Duplicate Address
 Detection (DAD).  If the IPv6 host detects that the link-local
 address is not unique, the autoconfiguration process terminates.  The
 IPv6 host must then be manually configured.
 After the IPv6 host determines that the link-local address is unique
 and has assigned it to the interface on the Logical Link, the IPv6
 host will perform Router Discovery to obtain auto-configuration
 information.  The IPv6 host will send out a Router Solicitation and
 will receive a Router Advertisement, or it will wait for an

Armitage, et. al. Standards Track [Page 34] RFC 2491 IPv6 over NBMA networks January 1999

 unsolicited Router Advertisement.  The IPv6 host will process the M
 and O bits of the Router Advertisement, as described in [9] and as a
 result may invoke stateful address auto- configuration.
 If there are no routers on the Logical Link, the IPv6 host will be
 able to communicate with other IPv6 hosts on the Logical Link using
 link-local addresses. The IPv6 host will obtain a neighbor's link-
 layer address using Address Resolution. The IPv6 host will also
 attempt to invoke stateful auto-configuration, unless it has been
 explicitly configured not to do so.

A.2.2 Stateful Address Configuration (DHCP)

 IPv6 hosts use the Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCPv6) to
 perform stateful address auto-configuration, as described in [18].
 A DHCPv6 server or relay agent is present on a Logical Link that has
 been configured with manual or stateful auto-configuration. The
 DHCPv6 server or relay agent will join the IPv6 DHCPv6 Server/Relay-
 Agent multicast group on the Logical Link. When the node's IPv6/NBMA
 driver gets the JoinLocalGroup request from the IPv6 network layer,
 it follows the process described in section 4.2.
 An IPv6 host will invoke stateful auto-configuration if M and O bits
 of Router Advertisements indicate it should do so, and may invoke
 stateful auto-configuration if it detects that no routers are present
 on the Logical Link. An IPv6 host that is obtaining configuration
 information through the stateful mechanism will hereafter be referred
 to as a DHCPv6 client.
 A DHCPv6 client will send a DHCPv6 Solicit message to the DHCPv6
 Server/Relay-Agent multicast address to locate a DHCPv6 Agent. When
 the soliciting node's IPv6/NBMA driver gets the request from the IPv6
 Network Layer to send the packet, it follows the steps described in
 section 4.4.2.  This will result in one or more nodes on the LL
 receiving the message.  Each node that receives the solicitation
 packet will process it as described in section section 4.5. Only the
 IPv6 network layer of the DHCPv6 server/relay-agent will accept the
 packet and process it.
 A DHCPv6 Server or Relay Agent on the Logical Link will unicast a
 DHCPv6 Advertisement to the DHCPv6 client. The IPv6 network layer
 will give the node's IPv6/NBMA driver the packet and link-layer
 address of the DHCPv6 client (obtained through Neighbor Discovery if
 necessary).  The node IPv6/NBMA driver will then transmit the packet
 as described in section 4.4.1.  This will result in a new pt-pt VC
 being created between the server and the client if one did not
 previously exist.

Armitage, et. al. Standards Track [Page 35] RFC 2491 IPv6 over NBMA networks January 1999

 The DHCP client's IPv6/NBMA driver will receive the encapsulated
 packet from the DHCP Server or Relay Agent, as described in section
 4.5. The node will de-encapsulate the multicast packet and then pass
 it up to the IPv6 Network Layer for processing. The IPv6 network
 layer will deliver the DHCPv6 Advertise message to the DHCPv6 client.
 Other DHCPv6 messages (Request, Reply, Release and Reconfigure) are
 unicast between the DHCPv6 client and the DHCPv6 Server.  Depending
 on the reachability of the DHCPv6 client's address, messages
 exchanged between a DHCPv6 client and a DHCPv6 Server on another LL
 are sent either via a router or DHCPv6 Relay-Agent.  Prior to sending
 the DHCPv6 message, the IPv6 network layer will perform Neighbor
 Discovery (if necessary) to obtain the link-layer address
 corresponding to the packet's next-hop. A pt-pt VC will be set up
 between the sender and the next hop, and the encapsulated packet
 transmitted over it, as described in 4.4. Sending Data.

A.2.3 Manual Address Configuration

 An IPv6 host will be manually configured if it discovers through DAD
 that its link-local address is not unique. Once the IPv6 host is
 configured with a unique interface token, the auto-configuration
 mechanisms can then be invoked.

A.3 Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP)

 IPv6 multicast routers will use the IGMPv6 protocol to periodically
 determine group memberships of local hosts.  In the framework
 described here, the IGMPv6 protocols can be used without any special
 modifications for NBMA.  While these protocols might not be the most
 efficient in this environment, they will still work as described
 below.  However, IPv6 multicast routers connected to an NBMA LL could
 optionally optimize the IGMP functions by sending
 MARS_GROUPLIST_REQUEST messages to the MARS serving the LL and
 determining group memberships by the MARS_GROUPLIST_REPLY messages.
 Querying the MARS for multicast group membership is an optional
 enchancement and is not required for routers to determine IPv6
 multicast group membership on a LL.
 There are three ICMPv6 message types that carry multicast group
 membership information: the Group Membership Query, Group Membership
 Report and Group Membership Reduction messages.  IGMPv6 will continue
 to work unmodified over the IPv6/NBMA architecture described in this
 document.
 An IPv6 multicast router receives all IPv6 multicast packets on the
 LL by joining all multicast groups in promiscuous mode [5].  The MARS
 server will then cause the multicast router to be added to all

Armitage, et. al. Standards Track [Page 36] RFC 2491 IPv6 over NBMA networks January 1999

 existing and future multicast VCs.  The IPv6 multicast router will
 thereafter be the recipient of all IPv6 multicast packets sent within
 the Logical Link.
 An IPv6 multicast router discovers which multicast groups have
 members in the Logical Link by periodically sending Group Membership
 Query messages to the IPv6 all-nodes multicast address.  When the
 local node's IPv6/NBMA driver gets the request from the IPv6 network
 layer to send the Group Membership Query packet, it follows the steps
 described in 4.4.2. The node determines that the destination address
 of the packet is the all-nodes multicast address and passes the
 packet to the node's MARS client where the packet is encapsulated and
 directly transmitted to the MARS. The MARS then relays the packet to
 all nodes in the LL. Each node's IPv6/NBMA drivers will receive the
 packet, de-encapsulate it, and passed it up to the IPv6 Network
 layer.  If the originating node receives the encapsulated packet, the
 packet will be filtered out by the MARS client since the Cluster
 Member ID of the receiving node will match the CMI in the packet's
 MARS encapsulation header.
 IPv6 hosts in the Logical Link will respond to a Group Membership
 Query with a Group Membership Report for each IPv6 multicast group
 joined by the host.  IPv6 hosts can also transmit a Group Membership
 Report when the host joins a new IPv6 multicast group.  The Group
 Membership Report is sent to the multicast group whose address is
 being reported. When the local node IPv6/NBMA driver gets the request
 from the IPv6 network layer to send the packet, it follows the steps
 described in 4.4.2.  The node determines that the packet is being
 sent to a multicast address so forwards it to the node's MARS client
 for sending on the appropriate VC.
 The Group Membership Report packets will arrive at every node which
 is a member of the group being reported through one of the VC
 attached to each node's MARS client.  The MARS client will de-
 encapsulate the incoming packet and the packet will be passed to the
 IPv6 network layer for processing.  The MARS client of the sending
 node will filter out the packet when it receives it.
 An IPv6 host sends a Group Membership Reduction message when the host
 leaves an IPv6 multicast group.  The Group Membership Reduction is
 sent to the multicast group the IPv6 host is leaving.  The
 transmission and receipt of Group Membership Reduction messages are
 handled in the same manner as Group Membership Reports.

Armitage, et. al. Standards Track [Page 37] RFC 2491 IPv6 over NBMA networks January 1999

Appendix B. Alternative models of MARS support for Intra-LL ND

B.1 Simplistic approach - Use MARS 'as is'.

 The IPv6/NBMA driver utilizes the standard MARS protocol to establish
 a VC forwarding path out of the interface on which it can transmit
 all multicast IPv6 packets, including ICMPv6 packets. The IPv6
 packets are then transmitted, and received by the intended
 destination set, using separate pt-mpt VCs per destination group.
 In this approach all the protocol elements in [5] are used 'as is'.
 However, SVC resource consumption must be taken into consideration.
 Unfortunately, ND assumes that link level multicast resources are
 best conserved by generating a sparsely distributed set of Solicited
 Node multicast addresses (to which discovery queries are initially
 sent).  The original goal was to minimize the number of innocent
 nodes that simultaneously received discovery messages really intended
 for someone else.
 However, in connection oriented NBMA environments it becomes equally
 (or more) important to minimize the number of independent VCs that a
 given NBMA interface is required to originate or terminate. If we
 treat the MARS service as a 'black box' the sparse Solicited Node
 address space can lead to a large number of short-use, but longer
 lived, pt-mpt VCs (generated whenever the node is transmitting
 Neighbor Solicitations). Even more annoying, these VCs are only
 useful for additional packets being sent to their associated
 Solicited Node multicast address.  A new pt-pt VC is required to
 actually carry the unicast IPv6 traffic that prompted the Neighbor
 Solicitation.
 The axis of inefficiency brought about by the sparse Solicited Nodes
 address space is orthogonal to the VC mesh vs Multicast Server
 tradeoff. Typically a multicast server aggregates traffic flow to a
 common multicast group onto a single VC. To reduce the VC consumption
 for ND, we need to aggregate across the Solicited Node address space
 - performing aggregation on the basis of a packet's function rather
 than its explicit IPv6 destination.  The trade-off here is that the
 aggregation removes the original value of scattering nodes sparsely
 across the Solicited Nodes space. This is a price of the mismatch
 between ND and connection oriented networks.

B.2 MARS as a Link (Multicast) Server.

 One possible aggregation mechanism is for every node's IPv6/NBMA
 driver to trap multicast ICMPv6 packets carrying multicast ND or RD
 messages, and logically remap their destinations to the All Nodes

Armitage, et. al. Standards Track [Page 38] RFC 2491 IPv6 over NBMA networks January 1999

 group (link local scope). By ensuring that the All Nodes group is
 supported by an MCS, the resultant VC load within the LL will be
 significantly reduced.
 A further optimization is for every node's IPv6/NBMA driver to trap
 multicast ICMPv6 packets carrying multicast ND or RD messages, and
 send them to the MARS itself for retransmission on ClusterControlVC
 (involving a trivial extension to the MARS itself.) This approach
 recognizes that in any LL where IPv6 multicasting is supported:
  1. Nodes already have a pt-pt VC to their MARS.
  1. The MARS has a pt-mpt VC (ClusterControlVC) out to all Cluster

members (LL members registered for multicast support).

 Because the VCs between a MARS and its MARS clients carry LLC/SNAP
 encapsulated packets, ICMP packets can be multiplexed along with
 normal MARS control messages. In essence the MARS behaves as a
 multicast server for non-MARS packets that it receives from around
 the LL.
 As there is no requirement that a MARS client accepts only MARS
 control messages on ClusterControlVC, ICMP packets received in this
 fashion may be passed to every node's IP layer without further
 comment.  Within the IP layer, filtering will occur based on the
 packet's actual destination IP address, and only the targeted node
 will end up responding.
 Regrettably this approach does result in the entire Cluster's
 membership having to receive a variety of ICMPv6 messages that they
 will always throw away.

Armitage, et. al. Standards Track [Page 39] RFC 2491 IPv6 over NBMA networks January 1999

Appendix C. Flow detection

 The relationship between IPv6 packet flows, Quality of Service
 guarantees, and optimal use of underlying IP and NBMA network
 resources are still subjects of ongoing research in the IETF
 (specifically the ISSLL, RSVP, IPNG, and ION working groups). This
 document currently only describes the use of flow detection as a
 means to optimize the use of NBMA network resources through the
 establishment of inter-LL shortcuts.

C.1. The use of non-zero FlowID to suppress flow detection

 For the purposes of this IPv6/NBMA architecture, a flow is:
    A related sequence of IPv6 packets that the first hop router is
    allowed to perform flow-detection on for the purposes of
    triggering shortcut discovery.
 How these packets are considered to be related to each other (e.g.
 through common header fields such as IPv6 destination addresses) is a
 local configuration issue.
 The flow-detection rule specifies that only packets with a zero
 FlowID can be considered as flows for which shortcut discovery may be
 triggered. The rationale behind this decision is:
    NBMA shortcuts are for the benefit of 'the network' optimizing its
    forwarding of IPv6 packets in the absence of any other guidance
    from the host.
    It is desirable for an IPv6/NBMA host to have some mechanism for
    overriding attempts by 'the network' to optimize its internal
    forwarding path.
    A zero FlowID has IPv6 semantics of "the source allows the network
    to utilize its own discretion in providing best-effort forwarding
    service for packets with zero FlowID"
    The IPv6 semantics of zero FlowID are consistent with the flow-
    detection rule in this document of "if the FlowID is zero, we are
    free to optimize the forwarding path using shortcuts"
    A non-zero FlowID has IPv6 semantics of "the source has previously
    established some preferred, end to end hop by hop forwarding
    behaviour for packets with this FlowID"

Armitage, et. al. Standards Track [Page 40] RFC 2491 IPv6 over NBMA networks January 1999

    The IPv6 semantics of non-zero FlowID are consistent with the
    flow-detection rule in this document of "if the FlowID is non-
    zero, do not attempt to impose a shortcut".
 A non-zero FlowID might be assigned by the source host after
 negotiating a preferred forwarding mechanism with 'the network' (e.g.
 through dynamic means such as RSVP, or administrative means).
 Alternatively it can simply be assigned randomly by the source host,
 and the network will provide default best effort forwarding (an IPv6
 router defaults to providing best-effort forwarding for packets whose
 FlowID/source-address pair is not recognized).
 Thus, the modes of operation supported by this document becomes:
    Zero FlowID
      Best effort forwarding, with optional shortcut discovery
      triggered through flow-detection.
    Non-zero FlowID
      Best effort forwarding if the routers along the path have not
      been otherwise configured with alternative processing rules for
      this FlowID/source-address pair. Flow detection relating to
      shortcut discovery is suspended.
      If the routers along the path have been configured with
      particular processing rules for this FlowID/source-address pair,
      the flow is handled according to those rules. Flow detection
      relating to shortcut discovery is suspended.
 Mechanisms for establishing particular per-hop processing rules for
 packets with non-zero FlowID are neither constrained by, nor implied
 by, this document.

C.2. Future directions for Flow Detection

 In the future, accurate mapping of IPv6 flows onto NBMA VCs may
 require more information to be exchanged during the Neighbor
 Discovery process than is currently available in Neighbor Discovery
 packets. In these cases, the IPv6 Neighbor Discover protocols can be
 extended to include new TLV options (see section 4.6 of RFC 1970
 [7]). However, if new options are required, the specification of
 these options must be co-ordinated with the IPNG working group.
 Since RFC 1970 specifies that nodes must silently ignore options they
 do not understand, new options can be added at any time without
 breaking backward compatibility with existing implementations.

Armitage, et. al. Standards Track [Page 41] RFC 2491 IPv6 over NBMA networks January 1999

 NHRP also provides mechanisms for adding optional TLVs to NHRP
 Requests and NHRP Replies. Future developments of this document's
 architecture will require consistent QoS extensions to both ND and
 NHRP in order to ensure they are semantically equivalent (syntactic
 differences are undesirable, but can be tolerated).
 Support for QoS on IPv6 unicast flows will not require further
 extensions to the existing MARS protocol. However, future support for
 QoS on IPv6 multicast flows may require extensions. MARS control
 messages share the same TLV extension mechanism as NHRP, allowing QoS
 extensions to be developed as needed.

Appendix D. Shortcut Limit Option

 For NS messages sent as a shortcut trigger, a new type of ND option
 is needed to pass on the information about the data flow hop limit
 from the host to the router. The use of this ND option is defined in
 section 3.2.2 of this specification. Its binary representation
 follows the rules of section 4.6 of RFC 1970:
      0                   1                   2                   3
      0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |     Type      |    Length     | Shortcut Limit|   Reserved1   |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |                           Reserved2                           |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
 Fields:
       Type            6
       Length          1
       Shortcut Limit  8-bit unsigned integer. Hop limit for shortcut
                       attempt.
       Reserved1       This field is unused. It MUST be initialized to
                       zero by the sender and MUST be ignored by the
                       receiver.
       Reserved2       This field is unused. It MUST be initialized to
                       zero by the sender and MUST be ignored by the
                       receiver.

Armitage, et. al. Standards Track [Page 42] RFC 2491 IPv6 over NBMA networks January 1999

    Description
       The shortcut limit option is used by a host in a Neighbor
       Solicitation message sent as a shortcut trigger to a default
       router. It restricts the router's shortcut query to targets
       reachable via the specified number of hops. The shortcut limit is
       given relative to the host requesting the shortcut. NS messages
       with shortcut limit values of 0 or 1 MUST be silently ignored.

Armitage, et. al. Standards Track [Page 43] RFC 2491 IPv6 over NBMA networks January 1999

Full Copyright Statement

 Copyright (C) The Internet Society (1999).  All Rights Reserved.
 This document and translations of it may be copied and furnished to
 others, and derivative works that comment on or otherwise explain it
 or assist in its implementation may be prepared, copied, published
 and distributed, in whole or in part, without restriction of any
 kind, provided that the above copyright notice and this paragraph are
 included on all such copies and derivative works.  However, this
 document itself may not be modified in any way, such as by removing
 the copyright notice or references to the Internet Society or other
 Internet organizations, except as needed for the purpose of
 developing Internet standards in which case the procedures for
 copyrights defined in the Internet Standards process must be
 followed, or as required to translate it into languages other than
 English.
 The limited permissions granted above are perpetual and will not be
 revoked by the Internet Society or its successors or assigns.
 This document and the information contained herein is provided on an
 "AS IS" basis and THE INTERNET SOCIETY AND THE INTERNET ENGINEERING
 TASK FORCE DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING
 BUT NOT LIMITED TO ANY WARRANTY THAT THE USE OF THE INFORMATION
 HEREIN WILL NOT INFRINGE ANY RIGHTS OR ANY IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF
 MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.

Armitage, et. al. Standards Track [Page 44]

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