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rfc:rfc206

Network Working Group J. White Request for Comments: 206 Computer Research Lab, UCSB NIC: 7176 9 August 1971

                           A User TELNET
              Description of an Initial Implementation

PREFACE

 The User TELNET described in this document has been implemented
 within UCSB's Online System by Mark Krilanovich and makes teletype-
 compatible time-sharing systems in the Net accessible to Online
 System users.

Contents

                                                                 Page
 I.   Function...................................................  1
 II.  Invoking TELNET............................................  2
 III. The Virtual Teletype.......................................  5
 IV.  Returning to TELNET........................................ 11
 V.   Breaking TELNET Connections................................ 12
 VI.  Abnormal Network Conditions................................ 12

FIGURES

                                                                 Page
 Figure 1.  Network Sites........................................  4
 Figure 2.  TELNET Character Set.................................  6
 Figure 3.  Connect Error Codes.................................. 13
 Figure 4.  Input Error Codes.................................... 13
 Figure 5.  Output Error Codes................................... 14

I. Function

 This document describes a program whose function is to make an Online
 System terminal _appear_ to any teletype-compatible, time-sharing
 system in the Network _as if it were directly connected to that
 system_.  By invoking this program from his terminal, an OLS user can
 effectively dial up a system at another site and use it as if he were
 a local user of that system.  The program performs the following
 major functions:
    1) it resolves keyboard and display device incompatibilities
    2) performs character set transformations, and

White [Page 1] RFC 206 A User TELNET August 1971

    3) makes its presence and that of the Network transparent to the
       user.
 The program which performs these functions is called a _User TELNET_.
 It operates in conjunction with another program called a _Server
 TELNET_ executing at the site whose system is being used.  A Server
 TELNET exists at each site whose system is accessible from the Net.
 Similarly, a User TELNET must exist at a site before users at that
 site have access to remote systems.
 User and Server TELNETs access the Net through their respective NCPs,
 and operate under a Network-standard protocol which specifies the
 hand-shaking procedure by which the two parties connect themselves to
 one another, as well as the format of data sent over a pair of
 Network connections established between them.  A User TELNET makes
 such protocol considerations transparent to its users.
 The TELNET protocol is based upon the notion of a virtual teletype,
 employing a 7-bit ASCII character set.  The primary function of a
 User TELNET, then, is to provide the means by which its users can
 'hit' all the keys on that virtual teletype.  If the user's keyboard
 happens in fact to actually be a teletype, then the mapping procedure
 is a very simple one.  However, in UCSB's case, where a user's input
 device is an OLS keyboard (a device very different from a teletype),
 the mapping is more complex.
 The primary function of a Server TELNET is to map the keys on the
 virtual teletype into that set of keys _its_ local users can push on
 _their_ keyboards.  Again, if those keyboards are teletypes, the
 mapping done by the Server TELNET is straightforward.  In other
 cases, the task may be very complex.
 A similar set of mappings transforms ouput generated by the remote
 system into a form displayable on the user's output device (in UCSB's
 case, this device is normally a storage scope).

II. Invoking TELNET

 This and succeeding sections describe a preliminary version of a User
 TELNET (hereafter referred to simply as TELNET) currently implemented
 within the Online System.  This initial implementation does not
 provide all of the services that a final version must provide, nor
 does it provide all the conveniences that the next version will
 offer.  It's a first pass which will be upgraded in the near future.

White [Page 2] RFC 206 A User TELNET August 1971

 TELNET is accessible from NET, a subsystem (like MOLSF and COL) of
 OLS.  A user is by default prohibited from loading NET.  To have
 access to NET enabled fro his user number, a user need only contact
 the Computer Center.  Assuming the foregoing, Net can be loaded with
 the key sequence:
    KEYBOARD ENTRY          OLS QUERY/RESPONSE
    SYST                    WORK AREAS UPDATED
    LOAD NET                LOAD NET
    RETURN                  FILE LOADED
 or by specifying the system name 'NET' at login.
 Once in NET, TELNET is invoked by going to Level II Real and hitting
 _LOG_.  TELNET responds with a query for site number.  The user
 should enter in decimal the number of the site (as indicated in
 Figure 1) to which he desires access, followed by _RETURN_.  TELNET
 will then query the user for the Server TELNET's socket_number.  By
 convention, this number is normally 1, but in certain cases some
 other socket may be appropriate.  In any case, the user should enter
 the socket number in decimal and hit _RETURN_.  The dialogue, then,
 goes like this:
    KEYBOARD ENTRY          OLS QUERY/RESPONSE
    II LOG                  FOREIGN SITE NO. = (site number)
    site number RETURN      FOREIGN SCK NO. = 1
    1 RETURN
 When the second RETURN is depressed, TELNET will attempt to contact
 the designated Server TELNET and establish a duplex connection for
 the user.  Once the connection has been established, TELNET will
 erase the tube and position the carriage to the upper left-hand
 corner of the screen.  From this point on, the user is effectively
 connected to the remote system.  TELNET enters a mode in which keys
 pushed by the user are mapped into their virtual-teletype equivalents
 and incoming text similarly transformed and displayed on the scope.
 If the remote system to which the user is connected normally issues a
 login message, that message will be the first to be displayed.  In
 any case, the user should proceed by logging in to the remote system
 according to the conventions appropriate to that system.

White [Page 3] RFC 206 A User TELNET August 1971

                               Figure 1.
                             Network Sites

Institution Location Computer Site Site # Site #

                                              Name    (HEX)   (DEC)

———————————————————————— UCLA Los Angeles Sigma-7 UCLA 01 1

UCLA Los Angeles IBM 360/91 UCL1 41 65

Stanford Research Institute Menlo Park PDP-10 SRI0 02 2

Stanford Research Institute Menlo Park PDP-15 SRI1 42 66

UCSB Santa Barbara IBM 360/75 UCSB 03 3

University of Salt Lake City, Utah Utah PDP-10 UTAH 04 4

Bolt, Beranek, Cambridge, and Newman Mass. PDP-10 BBN0 05 5

Bolt, Beranek, Cambridge, and Newman Mass. DDP-516 BBN1 45 69

MIT Cambridge,

              Mass.           GE 645          MIT0    06        6

MIT Cambridge,

              Mass.           PDP-10          MIT1    46       70

Rand Corporation Santa Monica IBM 1800 RAND 07 7

                              (IBM 360/65)

System Development Corporation Santa Monica DDP-516 SDC 08 8

                              (IBM 360/67)

Harvard Cambridge, University Mass. PDP-10 HRV0 09 9

Harvard Cambridge, University Mass. PDP-1 HRV1 49 73

White [Page 4] RFC 206 A User TELNET August 1971

Lincoln Lexington, Laboratory (MIT)Mass. IBM 360/67 LINO 0A 10

Lincoln Lexington, Laboratory (MIT)Mass. TX2 LIN1 4A 74

Stanford University Stanford PDP-10 STAN 0B 11

University of Urbana, Ill. PDP-11 ILl 0C 12 Illinois

Case Western Resevrve Cleveland, University Ohio PDP-10 CASE 0D 13

Carnegie-Mellon Pittsburgh, University Pa. PDP-10 CARN 0E 14

Burroughs Paoli, Pa. B-6500 BURR 0F 15

                              (Illiac IV)

III. The Virtual Teletype

 The algorithm by which TELNET maps the OLS keyboard into the virtual
 teletype's character set, and by which it maps that same character
 set into the set of characters which can be displayed on the user's
 storage scope is defined in Figure 2.  A line of that figure reads as
 follows:
    For line 11:
    The key labeled 'LF' (meaning 'Line Feed') on the virtual
    teletype, sometimes referred to as 'control-J', is struck by
    pressing either _SUB_, _CASE J_, or [1] on an OLS keyboard.
    TELNET sends to the remote system an 8-bit character with the
    value X'0A'.  Whenever 'LF' is received from the foreign system,
    TELNET displays it by rolling the carriage down one line.
 As indicated in the figure, _CASE_ substitutes for the CNTRL key on a
 teletype.  Hence, for example, 'control-C' is represented by the key
 pair 'CASE C'.  Note, however, that _CASE_ and 'C' are hit in
 sequence, whereas on a teletype the CNTRL key is held down while 'C'
 is struck.  'CASE A' - 'CASE Z' each have an equivalent on the upper
 keyboard, and the position of that key on the upper keyboard
 corresponds to that of its counterpart on the lower keyboard.  Hence,
 LS equivalent to CASE A.

White [Page 5] RFC 206 A User TELNET August 1971

 Although TELNET provides the user with the means for transmitting
 both upper- and lower-case alphabetics (hitting 'A' sends a lower-
 case 'A'; holding down _SHIFT_ and hitting 'A' sends upper-case 'A'),
 there is no provision in OLS for displaying lower-case characters on
 the storage scope.  Hence, TELNET maps lower-case alphabetics into
 upper-case before displaying them.
 The four virtual teltype keys 'ENQ', 'ACK', 'BEL', and 'NAK' are
 displayed by TELNET in a special manner.  Two lines are reserved for
 these characters at the top of the display area, and whenever TELNET
 receives such a character from the remote system, it displays it in
 its assigned position within the two-line field.  TELNET always
 positions those four characters at the top of the display area,
 regardless of the user's current position on the scope, then returns
 to it.
 A storage scope has both positive and negative attributes relative to
 a teletype.  Display is much quieter on a scope than on a teletype.
 However, the noise made by the return of a teletype carriage is often
 a valuable cue to the user, frequently signifying that the previous
 line of input from the user has been accepted by the system.  As a
 substitute for this particular cue, TELNET displays an underline
 ('_') at the left edge on the next line whenever it receives a
 carriage return (CR) from the remote system.
              Figure 2.  TELNET Character Set

To | | Also |Push | Or |Code Sent |Upon receipt Send| (Explanation)| Known as |Either| |is (in hex)|Displayed as —-+————–+———-+——+———+———–+———— NUL |NULL | ^@ | [2] | | 00 |

  |              |          |      |         |           |

SOH |Start of | [3]^A | LS |[4]CASE A| 01 |

  |     Heading  |          |      |         |           |
  |              |          |      |         |           |

STX |Start of Text | ^B | ATAN | CASE B | 02 |

  |              |          |      |         |           |

ETX |End of Text | ^C | LOG | CASE C | 03 |

  |              |          |      |         |           |

EOT |End of | | | | |

  |  Transmission|    ^D    | REFL | CASE D  |    04     |
  |              |          |      |         |           |

ENQ |Enquiry | ^E | [4] | CASE E | 05 | [5] <ENQ>

  |              |          |      |         |           |

ACK |Acknowledge | ^F | UP | CASE F | 06 | <ACK>

  |              |          |      |         |           |

BEL |Bell | ^G | DOWN | CASE G | 07 | <BELL>

White [Page 6] RFC 206 A User TELNET August 1971

BS |Backspace | ^H | EVAL | CASE H | 08 |

  |              |          |      |         |           |

HT |Horizontal | | | | |

  |Tab.          |    ^I    | INV  | CASE I, |    09     |
  |              |          |      |   TAB   |           |
  |              |          |      |         |           |

LF |Line Feed | ^J | SUB | CASE J, | 0A | Carriage

  |              |          |      |   [1]   |           | rolled down
  |              |          |      |         |           |

VT |Vertical Tab. | ^K | MAX | CASE K | 0B |

  |              |          |      |         |           |

FF |Form Feed | ^L | MOD | CASE L | 0C |

  |              |          |      |         |           |

CR |Carriage | | | | |

  |     Return   |    ^M    | DEL  | CASE M, |    0D     |[6]Carriage
  |              |          |      |   RETURN|           |   returned
  |              |          |      |         |           |

SO |Shift Out | ^N | ARG | CASE N | 0E |

  |              |          |      |         |           |

SI |Shift In | ^O | DIFF | CASE O | 0F |

  |              |          |      |         |           |

DLE |Data Link | | | | |

  |       Escape |    ^P    | SUM  | CASE P  |    10     |
  |              |          |      |         |           |

DC1 |Device | | | | |

  |    Control 1 |    ^Q    | [7]  | CASE Q  |    11     |
  |              |          |      |         |           |

DC2 |Device | | | | |

  |    Control 2 |    ^R    | [8]  | CASE R  |    12     |
  |              |          |      |         |           |

DC3 |Device | | | | |

  |    Control 3 |    ^S    |  RS  | CASE S  |    13     |
  |              |          |      |         |           |

DC4 |Device | | | | |

  |    Control 4 |    ^T    |  SQ  | CASE T  |    14     |
  |              |          |      |         |           |

NAK |Negative | | | | |

  | Acknowledge  |    ^U    | CONJ | CASE U  |    15     | <NAK>
  |              |          |      |         |           |

SYN |Synchronous | | | | |

  |    Idle      |    ^V    | EXP  | CASE V  |    16     |
  |              |          |      |         |           |

ETB |End of | | | | |

  |  Transmission|          |      |         |           |
  |  Block       |    ^W    | [9]  | CASE W  |    17     |
  |              |          |      |         |           |

CAN |Cancel | ^X | COS | CASE X | 18 |

White [Page 7] RFC 206 A User TELNET August 1971

EM |End of Medium | ^Y | SQRT | CASE Y | 19 |

  |              |          |      |         |           |

SUB | Substitute | ^Z | SIN | CASE Z | 1A |

  |              |          |      |         |           |

ESC | Escape |Alt Mode, | NEG | | 1B |

  |              |    ^[    |      |         |           |
  |              |          |      |         |           |

FS | File | ^ | PROD | | 1C |

  | Separator    |          |      |         |           |
  |              |          |      |         |           |

GS | Group | ^] | SORT | | 1D |

  | Separator    |          |      |         |           |
  |              |          |      |         |           |

RS | Record | ^^ | CONV | | 1E |

  | Separator    |          |      |         |           |
  |              |          |      |         |           |

US | Unit | ^← | PWR | | 1F |

  | Separator    |          |      |         |           |
  |              |          |      |         |           |

SP | Space | |SPACE | | 20 |blank

  |              |          |      |         |           |

! | Exclamation | | ! | | 21 | !

  |   Point      |          |      |         |           |
  |              |          |      |         |           |

" | Quotation |Diaeresis | " | | 22 | "

  |   Marks      |          |      |         |           |
  |              |          |      |         |           |

# | Number Sign | | # | | 23 | #

  |              |          |      |         |           |

$ | Dollar Sign | | $ | | 24 | $

  |              |          |      |         |           |

% | Percent | | % | | 25 | %

  |              |          |      |         |           |

& | Ampersand | | & | | 26 | &

  |              |          |      |         |           |

' | Apostrophe |Acute | ' | | 27 | '

  |              | Accent,  |      |         |           |
  |              | Closing  |      |         |           |
  |              | Single   |      |         |           |
  |              |   Quote  |      |         |           |
  |              |          |      |         |           |

( | Opening | | | | 28 | (

  |   Parenthesis|          |  (   |         |           |
  |              |          |      |         |           |

) | Closing | | | | 29 | (

  |   Parenthesis|          |  (   |         |           |
  |              |          |      |         |           |

* | Asterick | | * | | 2A | *

White [Page 8] RFC 206 A User TELNET August 1971

+ | Plus | | + | | 2B | +

  |              |          |      |         |           |

, | Comma |Cedilla | , | | 2C | ,

  |              |          |      |         |           |

- | Hyphen |Minus | - | | 2D | -

  |              |          |      |         |           |

. | Period |Decimal | . | | 2E | .

  |              |  Point   |      |         |           |
  |              |          |      |         |           |

/ | Slant | | / | | 2F | /

  |              |          |      |         |           |

: | Colon | | : | | 3A | :

  |              |          |      |         |           |

; | Semicolon | | ; | | 3B | ;

  |              |          |      |         |           |

< | Less than | | < | | 3C | <

  |              |          |      |         |           |

= | Equals | | = | | 3D | =

  |              |          |      |         |           |

> | Greater than | | > | | 3E | >

  |              |          |      |         |           |

? | Question Mark| | ? | | 3F | ?

  |              |          |      |         |           |

@ | Commercial At| | @ | | 40 | @

  |              |          |      |         |           |

[ | Opening | | [ | | 5B | [

  | Bracket      |          |      |         |           |
  |              |          |      |         |           |

\ | Reverse Slant| |CASE /| | 5C | \

  |              |          |      |         |           |

] | Closing | | ] | | 5D | ]

  | Bracket      |          |      |         |           |
  |              |          |      |         |           |

^ | Circumflex | | ^ | ^ | 5E | ^

  |              |          |      |         |           |

_ | Underline | | ← | _ | 5F | _

  |              |          |      |         |           |

` | Grave Accent | Opening |CASE `| | 60 |`

  |              | single   |      |         |           |
  |              | quote    |      |         |           |
  |              |          |      |         |           |

{ | Opening Brace| |CASE (| | 7B | {

  |              |          |      |         |           |

| | Vertical Line| | | | | 7C | |

  |              |          |      |         |           |

} | Closing Brace| |CASE )| | 7D | }

White [Page 9] RFC 206 A User TELNET August 1971

~ | Tilde | Overline,| - | | 7E | ~

  |              | General  |      |         |           |
  |              | Accent   |      |         |           |
  |              |          |      |         |           |

DEL | Delete | Rubout | BACK | | 7F |

  |              |          |      |         |           |

0-9 | Numerics | | 0-9 | | 30-39 | 0-9

  |              |          |      |         |           |

A-Z | Upper Case | |SHIFT | | 41-5A | A-Z

  | Alphabetics  |          |[9]   |         |           |
  |              |          | A-Z  |         |           |
  |              |          |      |         |           |

a-z | Lower Case | | | | 61-7A | A-Z

  | Alphabetics  |          | A-Z  |         |           |
  |              |          |      |         |           |
 Table Notes
    [1] Down arrow
    [2] Superscript 1
    [3] Superscript 2
    [4] Circle with Dot in the Middle
    [5] Superscript 3
    [6] Superscript 6
    [7] Circle with Plus (+) in the Middle
    [8] Circle with Slash (/) in the Middle
    [9] Superscript 5
 Notes for Figure 2.  TELNET Character Set
 Superscript 1 - All of the following keys send NULL:
                 SET, CLR, cent sign, Superscript 0-9
 Superscript 2 - '^A' is read 'Control A'.  Same for '^B', '^C', etc.
 Superscript 3 - ENQ, ACK, BEL, and NAK are displayed as '<ENQ>',
                 '<ACK>', '<BELL>', and '<NAK>', respectively, in an
                 area at the top of the screen reserved especially for
                 those characters.
 Superscript 4 - ^A is sent by hitting th keys 'CASE' and 'A' in turn.
                 Same for ^B, ^C, etc.
 Superscript 5 - Upper case 'A' is  sent by holding down the SHIFT key
                 while 'A' is struck.  Same for upper case 'B', 'C',
                 etc.

White [Page 10] RFC 206 A User TELNET August 1971

 Superscript 6 - CR also causes an underline '_' to be displayed in
                 the left margin as a substitute for the often useful
                 cue provided by the noisy return of a teletype
                 carriage.
 A storage scope is also a much faster display device than a teletype.
 However, in some situations this apparent attribute can be
 troublesome.  In particular, when a system displays a whole series of
 lines of text without requiring input from the user, the display may
 be wrapped around from the bottom of the scope to the top, and begin
 overlaying itself before the user has had some time to read it all.
 In such cases, the following strategy is sometimes useful (and will
 make sense once the next section -- Section IV -- has been read): hit
 _II_ before the display begins to wrap around upon itself; the
 display will stop.  After the text has been read, erase the scope and
 hit _LOG_ and display will resume.
 If the user hits _ERASE_ while in TELNET, that key will have its
 usual effect; it will have _no_effect upon the remote system.
 However, because of a quirk in the current implementation of TELNET,
 _ERASE_ will have the one additional effect of causing the display of
 incoming text to be suspended until another key on the virtual
 teletype is struck.  The user is thus cautioned against erasing the
 scope while waiting for a response from the remote system.  However,
 the user can extricate himself from the situation described by
 following the _ERASE_ with NUL on the virtual teletype.

IV. Returning to TELNET

 The user can at any time escape from TELNET (and hence from the
 remote system to which he is attached) by depressing a level key
 (e.g., I, II,...,_SYST, TYPE, LIST_) or of course, by hitting
 _RESET_.  Any time thereafter, the user may return to TELNET by
 hitting _II LOG_ (on NET) once again, and resume operation on his
 remote system _exactly where he left off_.  When _'II LOG'_ is
 pressed this second time, instead of querying the user for site
 number as before, TELNET will notice that the user is already
 connected to a remote system and simply resume where _it_ left off.
 After he escapes from TELNET and before he returns to it, the user
 may engage himself in any other Online System activity short of
 logging out but including changing systems, while still retaining the
 option of subsequently returning to TELNET and resuming activity on
 the remote system to which he remains connected.  The user can
 exploit this property of TELNET to obtain hard copy of a selected
 portion of his dialogue with the remote system.  The user simply
 brings his system to the point at which a listing is thereby desired,
 escapes from TELNET by hitting _'TYPE SEL' 1,4 RETURN'_, thereby

White [Page 11] RFC 206 A User TELNET August 1971

 selecting the line printer as a secondary output device, and then
 returns to TELNET by pressing _'II LOG'_.  All subsequent
 communication with the remote system will be recorded for eventual
 output on the printer.  Logging off of OLS while escaped from TELNET
 causes the TELNET connection to be broken automatically by the
 system.

V. Breaking TELNET Connections

 At any time while the user is in contact with TELNET, after the
 connection to the remote system has been established, the user may
 terminate that connection by hitting _'CON RETURN'_.  TELNET will
 respond _'SOCKETS PURGED_'.  \ subsequent call to TELNET (i.e., a
 subsequent instance of _'II LOG'_) will illicit the original query
 for remote site number.  The user is then free to connect himself to
 another foreign system.
 The user is cautioned that breaking Network connections as just
 described is not necessarily equivalent to logging out of the remote
 system.  Some Server TELNETs may, when they detect the breaking of
 connections, log the user off of their system; others may leave the
 user logged on.  The user should be aware of the conventions of the
 systems he uses and, where appropriate, log himself off before
 breaking connections.
 The key sequence _'I DEL RETURN'_ will also terminate a TELNET
 connection, but all other connections that may have been previously
 established using the operators of Level I are closed as well.

VI. Abnormal Network Conditions

 While the user is in TELNET and attached to a remote system, TELNET
 monitors the user's Network connections.  If any abnormal condition
 is detected, it terminates its monitoring and issues a message of the
 form:
          {CONNECT}
          {INPUT}         ERROR - CODE = n
          {OUTPUT}
 where 'n' is one of the values listed in Figures 3-5.  A CONNECT
 error may occur during TELNET's initial attempt to establish
 connections to the remote system; an INPUT error may occur when
 TELNET attempts to extract incoming data from the NET; and an OUTPUT
 error may occur as TELNET tries to insert outgoing data into the Net.

White [Page 12] RFC 206 A User TELNET August 1971

                    Figure 3.  Connect Error Codes
 4      -        A previous invocation of TELNET left a local receive
                 socket open; the  send socket is closed.  Hit _'I DEL
                 RETURN'_.
 8      -        A previous invocation of TELNET aborted, and _'I DEL
                 RETURN'_ failed to close the Network connections.
                 The remote site is probably dead.
 12      -       All communication paths between UCSB and the
                 specified remote site are in use.
 16      -       UCSB's NCP is running at capacity or is drained or
                 stopped.
 20      -       The connection attempt was refused by the remote
                 site.
 28      -       No such remote site.
 36      -       Remote site was discovered to be dead.
 44      -       The Operator has stopped or reset the NCP.
 60      -       Either the specified remote site is not accepting
                 input from the net, or there was a failure in the
                 subnet.
 68      -       The specified remote site has broken all existing
                 connections to UCSB.
 72      -       The remote site is known to be dead.
                              Figure 4. Input Error Codes
 8       -       Connections to the server TELNET at the remote site
                 have been broken.
 16      -       Connections to the Server TELNET at the remote site
                 are being broken.
 52      -       An interrupt was sent by the remote system.  Resume
                 by hitting _LOG_.

White [Page 13] RFC 206 A User TELNET August 1971

                             Figure 5. Output Error Codes
 8       -       Connections to the Server TELNET at the remote site
                 have been broken.
 16      -       Connections to the Server TELNET at the remote site
                 are being broken.
 20      -       same as 8.
 36      -       Remote site has died.
 44      -       The Operator has stopped or reset the NCP.
 52      -       An interrupt was sent by the remote system.  Resume
                 by hitting _LOG_.
 60      -       Either the remote site has stopped accepting input
                 from the Net or  there was a failure in the subnet.
 64      -       same as 60.
 68      -       The remote site has broken all existing connections
                 to UCSB.

White [Page 14]

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