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rfc:rfc1941

Network Working Group J. Sellers Request for Comments: 1941 Sterling Software/NASA IITA FYI: 22 J. Robichaux Obsoletes: 1578 InterNIC Category: Informational May 1996

               Frequently Asked Questions for Schools

Status of This Memo

 This memo provides information for the Internet community.  This memo
 does not specify an Internet standard of any kind.  Distribution of
 this memo is unlimited.

Abstract

 The goal of this FYI document, produced by the Internet School
 Networking (ISN) group in the User Services Area of the Internet
 Engineering Task Force (IETF), is to act as an introduction to the
 Internet for faculty, administration, and other school personnel in
 primary and secondary schools. The intended audience is educators who
 are recently connected to the Internet, who are accessing the
 Internet by some means other than a direct connection, or who are
 just beginning to consider Internet access as a resource for their
 schools.  Although the Internet Engineering Task Force is an
 international organization and this paper will be valuable to
 educators in many countries, it is limited in focus to
 internetworking in the United States.

Table of Contents

 1. Introduction...................................................  2
 2. Acknowledgments................................................  3
 3. Questions About the Internet in an Educational Setting.........  3
 4. Questions About Getting the Internet into the School...........  7
 5. Questions About Using Internet Services........................ 17
 6. Questions About Classroom Resources, Projects, & Collaboration. 21
 7. Questions About Security and Ethics............................ 25
 8. Suggested Reading.............................................. 29
 9. Resources and Contacts......................................... 31
 10. References.................................................... 50
 11. Security Considerations....................................... 51
 12. Authors' Addresses............................................ 51
 Appendix A: Glossary of Terms Used in this Document............... 52
 Appendix B: Ways to Get Requests for Comments (RFCs).............. 60
 Appendix C: Examples of Educational Projects Using the Internet... 61

Sellers & Robichaux Informational [Page 1] RFC 1941 Frequently Asked Questions for Schools May 1996

1. Introduction

 As more and more schools begin using technology to achieve
 educational goals, access to the worldwide network of computer
 networks known as the Internet is expanding. Help for schools in the
 form of printed materials, electronic resources, and people is also
 expanding. The Internet School Networking (ISN) group of the Internet
 Engineering Task Force (IETF) remains committed to articulating the
 advantages of Internet connections for schools and providing
 solutions to the challenges schools face in getting connected. The
 FYI (For Your Information) series, which is a subset of the IETF-
 produced RFCs (Requests for Comments) is one way to achieve these
 goals. (See Appendix A, "Glossary of Terms Used in This Document" for
 further explanation of "FYI" and "RFC.")
 While the IETF and ISN are international groups, the authors of this
 document are experienced only in bringing the Internet to schools in
 the United States. We are aware that culture and the national economy
 effect how one views the issues surrounding school networking. (To
 give just one example, in the United States, educational reform is an
 important reason for schools to get connected to the Internet. Other
 countries may not have the same incentive to transform the teacher's
 role to more of a guide toward knowledge and less of a sole provider
 of information.) So, while this document may have a U.S. flavor, we
 feel that the focus will not prevent it from being useful to those in
 other countries!
 Some of the questions educators have about the Internet are of a more
 general nature, and for those we recommend reading FYI 4, "Answers to
 Commonly Asked 'New Internet User' Questions." (For information on
 how to get this and other IETF documents of interest to the general
 Internet user, See Appendix B, "Ways to Get RFCs.")
 Remember that the Internet is a changing environment. Although we
 have tried to include only the most stable of network services and
 contacts, you may still find that something listed is unavailable or
 has changed.  The positive side of this constant change is that you
 will discover much on your own, and some of what you discover will be
 new since the writing of this document.
 This is an update of an earlier document (FYI 22/RFC 1578, "Answers
 to Commonly Asked 'Primary and Secondary School Internet User'
 Questions"), and renders that document obsolete. If future updates
 are produced, the RFC number will change again, and the FYI number
 (22) will remain the same.

Sellers & Robichaux Informational [Page 2] RFC 1941 Frequently Asked Questions for Schools May 1996

2. Acknowledgments

 In addition to Ronald Elliott, Klaus Fueller, Raymond Harder, Ellen
 Hoffman, William Manning, April Marine, Michael Newell, and Anthony
 Rutkowski, all of whom contributed to the first version of this
 document, we would like to thank Sepideh Boroumand, Sandy Dueck, Jeff
 Gong, Bill Grenoble, Pat Kaspar, Ed Klein, Yermo Lamers, Gary Malkin,
 April Marine, Michael Newell, and Jan Wee for their invaluable
 suggestions and contributions to this version. Thanks also to Nathan
 Hickson for checking each of the entries in the formidable Section 9.

3. Questions About the Internet in an Educational Setting

3.1 What is the Internet?

 The Internet is a large and rapidly growing worldwide network
 comprised of smaller computer networks, all linked by a common
 protocol, that enables computers of different types to exchange
 information. The networks are owned by countless commercial,
 research, government, and education organizations and individuals.
 The Internet allows the almost 5 million computers [1] and countless
 users of the system to collaborate easily and quickly either in pairs
 or in groups. Users are able to discover and access people and
 information, distribute information, and experiment with new
 technologies and services. The Internet has become a major global
 infrastructure used for education, research, professional learning,
 public service, and business.
 There is a confusing variety of types of Internet access. These types
 of access are distinguished either by the services one can use
 (telnet, Gopher, FTP or File Transfer Protocol, World Wide Web) or by
 the technology underlying the access (the protocol, or rules the
 computers must follow in order to communicate with one another). The
 Internet is most clearly defined by its technology, but other
 technologies now offer access to many of the same Internet services,
 most notably electronic mail and the World Wide Web. The most
 important question for a user today is probably not "Am I on the
 Internet?" but "Do I have access to the Internet services I want?"
 See Section 5, "Questions About Using Internet Services," for further
 discussion of telnet, Gopher, FTP, the World Wide Web, and electronic
 mail.
 While there is no official governing body of the Internet, the
 Internet Society serves as the international organization for
 Internet cooperation and coordination. See Section 9, "Resources and
 Contacts" for Internet Society contact information.

Sellers & Robichaux Informational [Page 3] RFC 1941 Frequently Asked Questions for Schools May 1996

 For a more complete basic introduction to the Internet, see FYI 20,
 "What is the Internet?" cited in Section 8, "Suggested Reading." For
 information on how to retrieve FYI documents produced by the Internet
 Engineering Task Force, see Appendix B, "Ways to Get RFCs."

3.2 What are the benefits of using the Internet in the classroom?

 The Internet is an exciting classroom resource. It expands the
 classroom dramatically by delivering information, data, images, and
 even computer software from places otherwise impossible to reach, and
 it does this almost instantly. This access to up-to-the-minute
 information can make a student's education more relevant. Some of
 these materials are original sources which are too expensive or in
 other ways difficult for schools to own. Some information is news
 unfiltered by mass media, requiring students to critically assess its
 content and value.
 But the Internet is not strictly a place from which to gather
 something.  It is also a place to communicate, to make contact with
 people all over the world. The Internet brings into the classroom
 experts in every content area, new and old friends, and colleagues in
 education. And it allows students and teachers to leave the classroom
 by sharing ideas with people far away. The isolation inherent in the
 teaching profession is well-known among educators. By having Internet
 access to colleagues in other parts of the world, as well as to those
 who work outside of classrooms, educators are not as isolated.
 Your site can become a valuable source of information as well.
 Consider the expertise in your school which could be shared with
 others around the world. For guidance in finding schools with a
 presence on the Internet, see Section 9, "Resources and Contacts."
 Use of the Internet shifts focus away from a teacher-as-expert model
 and toward one of shared responsibility for learning, making it a
 vital part of school reform. Many reform efforts attempt to move away
 from teacher isolation and toward teacher collaboration, away from
 learning in a school-only context and toward learning in a life
 context, away from an emphasis on knowing and toward an emphasis on
 learning, away from a focus on content and toward a focus on concepts
 [2]. The Internet can play an integral part in helping to achieve
 these shifts, since it is well-suited for use as a project resource.
 Information on the Internet, as in the rest of the world outside the
 classroom, is not divided into separate disciplines such as geometry,
 writing, geography, or painting.
 As a hands-on classroom tool, the use of the Internet encourages the
 kind of independence and autonomy that many educators agree is
 important to the learning process. Internet use itself can also be a

Sellers & Robichaux Informational [Page 4] RFC 1941 Frequently Asked Questions for Schools May 1996

 motivator for students. Additionally, because class, race, ability,
 and disability are removed as factors in communication while using
 the Internet, it is a natural tool for addressing the needs of all
 students.
 There are a number of resources you can use to convince others of the
 benefits of the Internet in the classroom. The NASA IITA (National
 Aeronautics and Space Administration Information Infrastructure
 Technology and Applications) K-12 Internet Initiative has produced an
 11-minute video describing the benefits to schools in using the
 Internet.  Its title is "Global Quest: The Internet in the
 Classroom." Another video appropriate for a mixed audience of
 stakeholders is "Experience the Power: Network Technology for
 Education," produced by the National Center for Education Statistics
 in the U.S. Department of Education. Several articles appearing in
 various periodicals make a strong case for using the Internet in the
 classroom. A particularly good one by Al Rogers of the Global
 SchoolNet Foundation is called, "Global Literacy in a Gutenberg
 Culture." Student essays can also give compelling testimony.  For
 information on the Rogers article, see Section 8, "Suggested
 Reading." Some student essays can be found on NASA's Quest server
 listed in Section 9, "Resources and Contacts," as can information on
 the videos.

3.3 Will using the Internet replace teachers?

 Just as textbooks, periodicals, videos, guest speakers, and field
 trips are often used to support a curriculum, the Internet can be
 used as a tool for teaching and learning. This does not mean that it
 must be the sole instructional method in a classroom. Teachers will
 remain responsible for making educated and informed decisions about
 the best way to use the Internet as a tool, just as they do with
 other materials used in the classroom. They can also use the Internet
 to individualize student learning, making a student's classroom
 experiences more relevant.

3.4 Will this technology replace books?

 There is room in any school for all kinds of materials and resources.
 Books and other print materials will certainly continue to be
 important.  Internet resources have the advantage of tying together
 information from all over the globe, making them useful research
 tools. As mentioned before, they can also provide up-to-the-minute
 information and are therefore particularly relevant. In addition, you
 may be able to engage an expert in a dialog that clarifies or updates
 what you find in published materials.

Sellers & Robichaux Informational [Page 5] RFC 1941 Frequently Asked Questions for Schools May 1996

 One factor to consider is that much of the material published on the
 Internet lacks the authority imputed by an established publishing
 house or a reputable author, and may therefore be viewed as less
 reliable than books. For example, an encyclopedia or almanac found in
 a school library might reasonably be accepted as valid without
 question, while a source found on the Internet may require a more
 critical look. However, lack of authority is not always a negative.
 Reading an account of the fall of the Berlin Wall by a student in the
 local region the day it happened can be valuable even if the student
 is not a reputable author. Moreover, while it's true that with
 Internet materials it becomes increasingly important to evaluate
 where they came from, one of the hallmarks of a good education is the
 ability to assess information critically, whether the source be
 print, television, or some other media.

3.5 How can use of the Internet be integrated into the existing

   curriculum?
 This is a key question. In order for the Internet to be used
 successfully in schools, it must be employed as a tool to teach
 content and to reach educational goals that have already been
 established. It cannot be seen as an end in itself.
 Individual teachers will first need to become familiar enough with
 the Internet to know how to do at least two things: find information
 on topics they consider important and locate people with like
 educational goals.  Sections 5 and 6, "Questions About Using Internet
 Services" and "Questions About Classroom Resources, Projects, and
 Collaboration" will give you some ideas about how to begin.
 Once they are familiar with how to find content on the Internet, most
 teachers can decide how to use Internet resources to help their
 students meet goals. For example, science teachers often teach about
 hurricanes and other weather phenomena in the normal course of
 instruction. With Internet access they can use information and
 satellite data pertaining to the most recent storm to make their
 points, rather than outdated examples from textbooks.
 When teachers become familiar with finding other people on the
 Internet, some of them already grouped into network "communities" of
 interest, they can gain experience in using the Internet from
 educators who have been using it longer; they can join existing
 projects, contribute to the evolution of proposed projects, and
 propose their own projects; and they can ask for and give help to
 solve problems in the classroom ranging from the content they teach,
 to addressing students as individuals, to mastering effective
 discipline.

Sellers & Robichaux Informational [Page 6] RFC 1941 Frequently Asked Questions for Schools May 1996

 Internet access supports project-based learning. A teacher in an
 individual classroom can use the data and information available on
 the Internet as a resource for classroom projects, and there are also
 a variety of projects which take place over the Internet in more than
 one classroom at a time. A project may be initiated by any educator
 with an idea. A popular example of an educator-initiated project is
 one which requires data to be collected from diverse sites around the
 world or at least around the country. For example, together students
 in various locations have tracked butterfly and bird migrations,
 compared bodies of water, and measured the north-south circumference
 of the Earth. Various organizations also run projects in which
 schools can participate. Among the many groups which have invited
 schools to participate in projects with a focus on a specific topic
 are the Global SchoolNet Foundation, The European Schools Project,
 the International Educational and Research Network (I*EARN), and
 groups associated with such federal agencies as the Department of
 Energy, the United States Geological Survey, and the National
 Aeronautics and Space Administration.
 The Internet can also be used for peer review of student materials;
 as a medium for publishing student newspapers, art exhibits, and
 science fairs; and in a global email pen-pal program for the
 discussion of classroom topics.
 It cannot be stressed enough that the key factor these Internet uses
 have in common is that they are supporting classroom curriculum, not
 defining it.
 Learning about the Internet and how to use it is an important goal
 for any school's Internet program, but in the classroom, the message
 needs to be emphasized over the medium.
 There are several sources of material for discussing curriculum
 infusion, including mailing lists, World Wide Web sites, and archives
 of sample lesson plans. Most of the mail lists, Internet computers,
 and organizations in Section 9, "Resources and Contacts," address
 infusion of technology into the curriculum. See also Appendix C,
 "Examples of Educational Projects Using the Internet."

4. Questions About Getting the Internet into the School

4.1 How much does it cost to connect to the Internet, and what kind of

   equipment does my school need to support the Internet connection?
 The cost of an Internet connection varies tremendously with the
 location of your site and the kind of connection that is appropriate
 to your needs.  In order to determine the cost to your school, you
 will need to answer a number of questions. For help in learning what

Sellers & Robichaux Informational [Page 7] RFC 1941 Frequently Asked Questions for Schools May 1996

 the questions are and getting answers to them, begin asking at local
 colleges, universities, technology companies, government agencies,
 community networks (often called "FreeNets"), local electronic
 bulletin board systems (BBS), Internet access providers, or
 technology consultants. See also Question 4.6.
 To give you an idea of possible cost and equipment needs, think of
 four groups of Internet users. We will call them basic individual
 users, advanced individual users, school networks, and school
 district networks.
 How you approach acquiring service depends on which category you feel
 best describes your needs. This discussion is based on experiences in
 the United States. (For more information on the Internet services
 you'll be reading about in this section, see Section 5, "Questions
 About Using Internet Services.")
 Basic users are individuals who want to access common Internet
 services such as the World Wide Web, Gopher, and email. There are two
 types of basic users: those who plan to be online for a few hours per
 week, and those who plan to be online for many hours per day.
 Basic individual users who require access to common Internet services
 such as Web pages, FTP sites, and email for only a few hours per week
 may be best served by one of the nationwide online services such as
 America Online, CompuServe, or Prodigy. These services have the
 advantage of providing the user with a simple setup and easy,
 graphics-based access screens which hide the complex commands
 required by some Internet services. They also provide value-added
 services not available via the general Internet, such as access to
 news magazines and encyclopedias.  Hardware required is generally a
 standard Windows-based PC or Macintosh and a 14.4 kilobits per second
 (Kbs) or higher modem. At the time of this writing, prices typically
 run around $10 per month for the first 5 hours of connect time, and
 $2-4 per hour thereafter.
 Basic individual users who access common Internet services for many
 hours per day should consider a "shell" account from a local Internet
 Service Provider (ISP). Shell accounts generally provide access to a
 Unix computer which is connected to the Internet, so those choosing
 this option should be prepared to learn a few Unix commands. Shell
 account users will get all the standard Internet services but at a
 cheaper rate, generally in the $30 per month range for 6 hours per
 day access plus $1-2 per hour for extra hours. Most shell account
 vendors do not provide nationwide access, and shell accounts do not
 have graphical user interfaces, so you cannot use Web browsers such
 as Netscape and Mosaic.  While you may be able to use Lynx, a text-
 based browser, some ISPs do not install it on their computer servers.

Sellers & Robichaux Informational [Page 8] RFC 1941 Frequently Asked Questions for Schools May 1996

 Many FreeNets also offer shell account access gratis, but they may
 not be able to offer much support.
 In the United States, there are a number of statewide educational
 networks, most of them with access to the Internet. To find out if
 there is a state education network in your area which gives basic
 user accounts to educators and/or students, contact the Consortium
 for School Networking (CoSN) or consult the document "Getting US
 Educators Online"  by Linda Conrad, listed in Section 8, "Suggested
 Reading."
 Advanced individual users are those who want graphical user
 interfaces to Internet services and who may want to use their
 computers to offer services to other Internet users. For example,
 they may want to create Web pages for others to access or put files
 online for others to retrieve. If you are an advanced user, you might
 consider getting a Serial Line Internet Protocol (SLIP) or Point to
 Point Protocol (PPP) account from an Internet Service Provider. The
 interface is similar to that of nationwide online services available
 to basic users, but the performance is better and the cost is less
 for someone who wants to use the service for more than just a few
 hours per week.
 Setting up a SLIP or PPP account requires configuration and
 installation of Internet and SLIP/PPP software. Some ISPs only
 provide the software, some will install the software for you, and
 some preconfigure the software and send it on disk, with instructions
 to the user, via postal mail.  Again, hardware required is generally
 a standard Windows-based PC or Macintosh and a 14.4 Kbs or higher
 modem. Costs are generally comparable to basic shell accounts, but
 for 24-hour connections expect to pay $100 or more per month.
 If in your school you plan to have more than a few individual
 Internet users, you will need to consider a network with a high-speed
 dedicated line connected to the Internet. This school network is
 probably a small- or medium-sized network in a single building or a
 very few geographically close buildings. It may include only one or
 several LANs.
 Most high speed connectivity is provided through a dedicated leased
 line, which is a permanent connection between two points. This allows
 you to have a high quality permanent Internet connection at all
 times. Most leased lines are provided by a telephone company, a cable
 television company, or a private network provider and cost $200 per
 month or more.  Typically the connection from your LAN or LANs is a
 digital leased line with a Channel Service Unit/Data Service Unit
 (CSU/DSU) which costs between $600 and $1000. Less frequently, the
 connection is an analog leased line with a modem which costs between

Sellers & Robichaux Informational [Page 9] RFC 1941 Frequently Asked Questions for Schools May 1996

 $200 and $800. You will also need a router which costs roughly $1500.
 This is a substantially more difficult setup to manage. After you
 have determined the ways in which you believe you will use Internet
 access, you should contact several ISPs in your area and compare
 prices and services.
 School district networks are even more complex. If you have several
 locations which require connectivity, you should contact several ISPs
 and get bids for the service.
 The ISP world is changing very rapidly, especially at the low end. At
 the time of the first edition of this document, local ISPs were rare,
 small, and fairly expensive. At the time of this writing ISPs abound,
 offering a wide variety of services at reasonable prices.
 Additionally, several groups are working on low-cost solutions to
 school networking. Subscribe to the mail lists in Section 9,
 "Resources and Contacts," to keep abreast of new developments.
 "Getting US Educators Online" and "Connecting to the Internet: An
 O'Reilly Buyer's Guide" by Susan Estrada are both listed in Section
 8, "Suggested Reading." Other books about the Internet and how to get
 connected to it are available and new ones are being published. Check
 libraries, bookstores, and booksellers' catalogs. Two lists of
 Internet providers available via the World Wide Web can be found in
 Section 9, "Resources and Contacts" along with the Consortium for
 School Networking.  The global regional Network Information Centers
 (NICs) such as the Reseaux IP Europeens Network Coordination Centre
 (RIPE NCC) in Europe can also provide a list of service providers.
 The Asia Pacific Network Information Center (APNIC) in the Pacific
 Rim will have a similar list in the near future. These two NICs are
 listed in Section 9, "Resources and Contacts."

4.2 What are the other costs associated with having Internet access?

 When budgeting for your school's Internet connection there are a
 number of factors to consider that might not seem immediately
 obvious. Technical support and training will incur additional ongoing
 costs, even if those costs show up only as someone's time. Equipment
 will need to be maintained and upgraded as time passes, and even when
 all teachers have received basic Internet training, they will most
 likely have questions as they explore and learn more on their own. A
 general rule for budget planning is this: for every dollar you spend
 on hardware and software, plan to spend three dollars to support the
 technology and those using it.
 It will be necessary for your school to have some technical expertise
 on-site. (See also Question 4.4.) Your network access provider may
 offer training and support for technical issues, and other groups

Sellers & Robichaux Informational [Page 10] RFC 1941 Frequently Asked Questions for Schools May 1996

 also offer formal classes and seminars. If your school has designated
 technical personnel, they will be good candidates for such classes
 and seminars. If your school does not have designated technical
 personnel, a teacher or other staff member with a strong interest may
 take on the task of becoming the local expert, but a better solution
 is to have someone dedicated to this at least part time. Students can
 help local experts maintain equipment and do other tasks, which
 allows them to learn new skills at the same time.
 Training is an equally significant component to deployment of the
 Internet in schools. Most teachers learn about the Internet during
 the time they use to learn about any new teaching tool, which often
 means they "steal" time at lunch, on weekends, and before and after
 school to explore resources and pursue relationships via the
 Internet. When a school is committed to providing the Internet as an
 educational resource, the administration will make in-service time
 available. It will also ensure that someone at the school is
 sufficiently knowledgeable to field questions and help people as they
 risk trying new ways of teaching using Internet resources. Again,
 some students make excellent tutors.
 Some technical support and a variety of training materials can be
 found by using the Internet itself. You can send questions to people
 in the know and join discussion lists and news groups that discuss
 and answer questions about support and training. The Edtech mail list
 is one such list. Some World Wide Web sites offer technical support
 information.  Videos also help bridge the information gap. See
 Section 9, "Resources and Contacts," for a preliminary listing of
 these resources. Your local community may also have resources. These
 include colleges and universities, businesses, computer clubs and
 user groups, technology consultants, and government agencies.

4.3 How can my school afford access to the Internet?

 Although school budgets are impossibly tight in most cases, the cost
 of an Internet connection can be squeezed from the budget when its
 value becomes apparent. Costs for a low-end connection can be
 reasonable. (See the next question.) The challenge facing those
 advocating an Internet connection sometimes has less to do with the
 actual cost than it has with the difficulty of convincing
 administrators to spend money on an unfamiliar resource.
 In order to move the Internet connection closer to the top of your
 school's priority list, consider at least two possibilities. First,
 your school may be in the process of reform, as are many schools. As
 mentioned earlier, use of the Internet supports reform efforts, so
 framing Internet access as a component to systemic reform may help to
 persuade some people.  Second, to convince people of the value of a

Sellers & Robichaux Informational [Page 11] RFC 1941 Frequently Asked Questions for Schools May 1996

 connection, an actual Internet demonstration can be more useful than
 words. While this may sound like a chicken-and-egg situation (I need
 Internet access to get Internet access), some organizations will
 provide guest accounts on an Internet-connected computer for people
 in schools who are trying to convince others of the value of an
 Internet connection. Another way to begin using Internet services is
 to sign up for one of the popular online services such as America
 Online, CompuServe, or Prodigy. Once subscribed, you can use these
 services either from home or from school. This method is recommended
 only as way to introduce yourself and others in your school community
 to the value of the Internet. It is not a good long-term solution to
 providing Internet access for a lot of users at one site such as a
 school.
 Contact local colleges, universities, technology companies, service
 providers, community networks, and government agencies for both guest
 accounts and funding ideas. For alternatives to your own school's
 budget or for supplements to it, look for funding in federal, state,
 and district budgets as well as from private grants. Work with
 equipment vendors to provide the hardware needed at low or no cost to
 your school, and consider forming a School/Community Technology
 Committee, or a joint School District/School/Community Technology
 Committee. Also investigate the possibility of a back-door connection
 to a local college or university.  Service providers often allow
 schools to connect to higher education sites at a lower cost.
 A number of sites on the Internet provide more information about
 grants and organizations that offer them. Two in particular that you
 may find useful are Grants Web, for grant information of all kinds,
 and the Foundation Center, for information on private and nonprofit
 organizations.  For information on where to find these sites on the
 Internet, see Section 9, "Resources and Contacts."

4.4 What organizational structure needs to be in place in order for my

   school to have Internet access?
 Schools and school districts have devised structures that vary
 widely, depending on a school's particular requirements. In many
 schools, the librarians/media specialists guide the development of
 the network and policies on its use and serve as the top of the
 structure within the school. In other schools, an interested teacher
 becomes the driving force behind getting the Internet into the school
 and may be the most appropriate person to see the project through.
 The school administration, if not the guiding force, needs to be
 behind the plan to bring the Internet into the school. And all other
 parties who might have a stake in the development should be brought
 in as early as possible, whether or not they are knowledgeable about
 the Internet. These might include area businesses, community leaders,

Sellers & Robichaux Informational [Page 12] RFC 1941 Frequently Asked Questions for Schools May 1996

 teachers with Internet access at home, the librarian or media
 specialist, parents, and anyone in the school who finds the idea of
 bringing the Internet into the school appealing. In short, any
 organizational structure will do as long as it is clear and simple
 and includes the people who might have a stake in the process of
 bringing the Internet into the school.
 One way to ensure that an organizational structure develops and that
 the right people become involved is to invite a wide variety of
 people to create a technology plan for the school. The by-product of
 technology planning can be the development of an organizational
 structure, but of course the planning is useful in itself to help
 your school define and meet goals for Internet and other technology
 use. The National Center for Technology Planning hosts a collection
 of technology plans and planning aids for people who need help, new
 ideas, or solutions as they tackle technology planning in their
 schools or districts. Information on the National Center for
 Technology Planning can be found in Section 9, "Resources and
 Contacts."
 No matter what the structure, there should be someone at the school
 who can take the lead in working with vendors and Internet Service
 Providers (ISPs). This person should be knowledgeable about - or
 willing to learn about - the technical aspects of connecting to the
 Internet, including knowledge about any networks the school already
 has in place. The lead person should have an alternate so that the
 school is not completely dependent on one person. If your school
 hires an independent consultant, someone at the school should be
 aware of everything the consultant does and should receive at least
 some training in the areas of the consultant's work.
 Another role that must be filled is that of in-house network
 administrator. Having an already busy teacher take on this role as an
 extra duty is a bad idea; a greater time commitment is needed.

4.5 What questions do I need to ask people who are selling network

   services?
 There are a number of questions you should ask. Anything you hear
 that you don't understand must be questioned. If a vendor knows the
 product and the process well, he or she should be able to explain in
 terms you can understand.
 You should also ask any kind of vendor how available they are and at
 what point they either stop helping you or begin charging by the
 hour. Get references from other customers, preferably including at
 least one school which has requirements similar to yours.

Sellers & Robichaux Informational [Page 13] RFC 1941 Frequently Asked Questions for Schools May 1996

 Questions for LAN vendors:
    If the school has not yet purchased a Local Area Network (LAN),
    ask the LAN vendor how the product will interact with TCP/IP.
    (TCP/IP stands for Transmission Control Protocol/Internet
    Protocol, the technology which forms the basis of the Internet.)
    If necessary, arrange a meeting with the LAN vendor, the ISP, and
    any consultants that may be involved.
    Make a list of the school's requirements, including security, the
    number of computers on the LAN which will have Internet access,
    and the Internet services you want students and teachers to be
    able to use. (See Section 5, "Questions About Using Internet
    Services," for an introduction to the services.) Ask the vendors
    if they can provide services that will meet your requirements.
 Questions for Internet Service Providers:
    In general, ask the ISP what services are included with your
    purchase of Internet connectivity.
    Will they terminate the circuit in a router and leave you to your
    own resources to take care of the "LAN side" of the connection?
    Will they provide a primary domain name server for you?
    Will they register your domain name with the InterNIC?
    Are they providing you with all the IP addresses you need?
    Will they help you with security issues?
    Do they provide a newsfeed or a newsreading service? (Do you know
    the difference?)
    If they agree to do some work on the LAN side, what is the extent
    of that work? (Configure individual computers? Handle subnetting
    and routing issues?)
    Will they answer questions from your network administrator?
    Will a dedicated computer be needed as an Internet server for such
    things as domain name service, the World Wide Web, Gopher, and
    FTP?
    Do they provide any training sessions for your staff and are these
    sessions included in the connectivity price?

Sellers & Robichaux Informational [Page 14] RFC 1941 Frequently Asked Questions for Schools May 1996

    Do they offer any other classes or seminars and are these included
    in the connectivity price?
    Does the ISP do their own training or do they contract to someone
    else, and if the latter, who is it? Check references on any
    contractors.
    Questions for Internet Service Providers furnishing dial-in
    service:
    There are some specific questions you should ask of an ISP who is
    providing dial-in connections. (See Question 4.7 for a further
    discussion on dialing in from home.)
    What is the charge per minute for connectivity?
    Is SLIP or PPP connectivity available?
    Will the ISP be providing software which allows you to use
    Internet services such as email and the World Wide Web or will
    they help you obtain it?
    Will they help you install it?
    Ask for references of other clients using dial-in service and when
    you check them, one of the questions to ask other customers is if
    they encounter lots of busy signals. (You can also check this
    yourself by trying the access provider's dial-in number at various
    times during the day. Just dial it by phone and see how many busy
    signals you get.)

4.6 How many of our computers should have Internet access and where

   in the school should they be located?
 You should make Internet access possible for as many of your school's
 computers as possible. Ideally, you have computers located throughout
 the school - in classrooms, the library, and laboratories - and they
 are all connected together with printers and other peripherals in one
 or more LANs. In that case, you acquire one dedicated Internet
 connection of 56 Kbs (Kilobits per second) or higher to serve the
 whole school.
 If your budget and existing computer equipment are both limited, you
 can use a dial-up service and a modem to access the Internet, but in
 most cases that will only be viable for one computer at a time. As
 use of the Internet catches on in your school, it will eventually be
 more effective for you to create the LAN with Internet access
 mentioned above than to keep adding modems in classrooms.

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 If you must choose between Internet access in one lab in the school
 or Internet access for the same number of computers throughout the
 school, in order to get teachers to use the access you must make it
 available where they can most easily take advantage of it. This
 usually means that you make access available throughout the school.
 Although a computer lab is an easier maintenance set-up for the
 person in charge of keeping the equipment running and allows each
 individual (or pair) in an entire class to be using a computer at the
 same time, a computer located in the classroom is more convenient for
 both the teacher and the class. Internet resources can be more easily
 integrated into a classroom lesson, and the emphasis remains on using
 the Internet as an instructional tool. Since only one or two
 computers can usually be placed in each classroom, teachers will
 learn to allocate computer time creatively. And if you are able to
 provide only a few computers throughout the school, make sure that at
 least one of them is in the library where all students will have the
 chance to be exposed to the Internet as a resource.
 Networking all computers campus-wide can be expensive. You may want
 to investigate initially giving one lab, the library, and a few
 classrooms dial-up access, assuming phone lines are available. Even a
 connection to only one classroom as a demonstration may help you to
 garner more support for creating a campus-wide local area network
 that is routed to the Internet through a dedicated line.

4.7 Can people get on the Internet from home?

 This depends on your network access provider. It is certainly a
 possibility and is definitely desirable for the educators at your
 school.  To make it possible for teachers and other staff to dial in
 to the school network (and then out to the Internet) from home, you
 will need to employ, at the least, multiple phone lines and modems.
 Talk to your service provider about other technical requirements.
 Many teachers like to be able to learn at home as well as on school
 grounds, and having the ability to explore when they have the time is
 invaluable. One school district we know of made low-interest loans
 available to teachers so that they could buy home computers. When the
 technology was later made available in their classrooms, they already
 had some experience and were comfortable beginning to use it in day-
 to-day instruction.
 The question of whether or not to make the option to dial in from
 home available to students is more difficult. On one hand, a school
 may not be able to escape the idea that it is responsible for how
 students use the Internet access it provides, even though the school
 has no control over the home environment. On the other hand,
 particularly in high school, much schoolwork is done at home. Since

Sellers & Robichaux Informational [Page 16] RFC 1941 Frequently Asked Questions for Schools May 1996

 most classrooms don't have enough computers for all students to
 access the Internet at once, it is even more likely that work will
 not be completed during class time. Having Internet access from home
 becomes more important.
 Discussion of whether or not you want to make this option available
 to students - even if it is technically possible - should involve as
 many school partners as possible, including faculty, administration,
 parents, and other community members. It might take place in a public
 forum such as a school/community meeting.

5. Questions About Using Internet Services

 The way to find people, information, software, and anything else on
 the Internet is generally to use either printed or electronic guides
 and Internet services. In this section we will concentrate on the
 services.  (See Section 6, "Questions about Classroom Resources,
 Projects, and Collaboration," for information on guides.) We answer
 more questions about the World Wide Web than about other online
 services for three reasons.  First, the World Wide Web is the
 Internet tool coming into most prominence at the time of this
 writing. Second, many (if not all) of the other services are included
 seamlessly in the Web; that is, they're there, but you may or may not
 realize you're using them. Third, making your way around the Internet
 using the World Wide Web is easy; for people not interested in
 computers, access to the Internet and has become less frustrating.
 This is not to say that finding what you want is always simple. The
 Internet is like a vast library without a comprehensive card catalog.
 New ways to do indexing and searching are being devised and employed,
 and you'll need some time to learn how to use them.

5.1 What is the World Wide Web?

 The World Wide Web (WWW) is a project initiated by the European
 Laboratory for Particle Physics (CERN) located in Geneva, Switzerland
 and currently driven by the World Wide Web Consortium. When exploring
 the World Wide Web, users navigate through documents by selecting
 highlighted text that leads to another document or location. The
 highlighted text can be called a "pointer," a "link," or an "anchor."
 This navigation results in a three-dimensional exploration of
 documents instead of a flat text document. The World Wide Web
 incorporates different media into its documents, including text,
 sound, graphics, and moving images.
 The World Wide Web presents either a graphical or a text interface to
 numerous Internet resources. Not only can users access documents
 specifically designed for the Web, they can also view documents on

Sellers & Robichaux Informational [Page 17] RFC 1941 Frequently Asked Questions for Schools May 1996

 Gopher servers, use FTP to download files, and launch a telnet
 session. Some World Wide Web clients also allow for the use of email
 and Usenet news.  This is an easy-to-use, nonthreatening way to
 approach the Internet, and does not require in-depth technical
 knowledge. (See Question 5.5 for a discussion of these other
 services.)

5.2 How do I connect to the World Wide Web?

 First, you will need at least a SLIP or PPP connection. (See Question
 4.1 for more information; SLIP or PPP is the "advanced individual
 user" solution described there.) Accessing the Web is like using any
 other service on the Internet: you run a client on your computer
 which accesses a server, in this case a Web server, running on
 another computer. In Web terms, the client is called a browser. The
 browser retrieves and reads documents from Web servers. Information
 providers establish Web servers for use by network users, and when
 you become proficient at using the Internet, you may want to become
 exactly that kind of information provider.
 Most Web browsers share common features. One feature is the hotlist,
 or bookmark. This allows you to mark your favorite sites. Your
 browser will store these sites and their addresses and allow you to
 revisit them later by simply selecting the name of a site from a
 menu. Another feature common to most browsers allows you to save the
 current file to your local disk.  Some browsers keep a tally of the
 sites you've visited recently and allow you to revisit them without
 typing in the location again. Every browser is different, so it pays
 to explore your own client software and learn its features through
 practice. Most people, even those with little computer experience,
 find that it's easy to learn to use a browser just by exploring on
 their own.
 Each document contained on Web servers across the Internet has a
 unique address. This is called a URL, a uniform resource locator.
 Browsers negotiate URLs just like mail software negotiates email
 addresses. Users can type in the URL for the browser to access. URLs
 are also embedded in a Web document's text, providing a seamless link
 to another location or document.

5.3 How is the World Wide Web linked?

 The Web functions as a distributed hypermedia system. The purpose of
 this system is to allow the exchange of information across the
 Internet in the form of hypertext documents called Web pages or home
 pages. Hypertext is text with pointers or links to further
 information in various formats (text, graphic, video), allowing you
 to branch off to another document for more information on a given

Sellers & Robichaux Informational [Page 18] RFC 1941 Frequently Asked Questions for Schools May 1996

 topic, and then return to the same location in the original document
 with ease. Pointers in a Web document are analogous to HyperCard
 stacks or Microsoft help files in which you click on an option (a
 pointer or a link) and the program moves you to another document, or
 location.
 Documents published on the Web are constructed in hypertext markup
 language, or HTML. This is a simple language that allows you to
 format text, insert images and sound, and create links in a document.
 Tutorials on creating Web services are available at the NCSA Mosaic
 Home Page, the automatic starting place for Web exploration when
 using the Mosaic client.  There are also Web page creation resources
 listed in Section 9, "Resources and Contacts."

5.4 Where do I get a World Wide Web browser?

 The two most common graphical Web browsers at the time of this
 writing are Netscape and Mosaic. Netscape is a commercial product but
 is currently free for educational use. Mosaic is free.  Both of these
 packages are available for Macintosh, PC, and Unix platforms through
 the Internet. See Section 9, "Resources and Contacts," for details.
 For those users with lower-speed connections that cannot accommodate
 full graphical browsers, there is a text-based browser available for
 Unix systems called Lynx. A public-access Lynx client is accessible
 through telnet at the server of the World Wide Web Consortium, which
 is listed in Section 9, "Resources and Contacts."
 Many commercial online services, such as CompuServe, Prodigy, and
 America Online, include a Web browser as part of their offerings.
 More and more often, Web browsers are being included as part of the
 standard connection software provided by the Internet Service
 Provider.

5.5 What are the other services on the Internet?

 There are a number of other services to help you get around on the
 Internet. The most common ones are described here. For more
 information, see "EFF's (Extended) Guide to the Internet" by the
 Electronic Frontier Foundation, and "The Whole Internet User's Guide
 and Catalog" by Ed Krol, both of which are listed in Section 8,
 "Suggested Reading," in addition to the Glossary entries mentioned
 for each tool.
 Email.  Email is probably the most basic tool on the Internet. It is
 short for electronic mail and may be used in a couple of ways. You
 can send messages back and forth with just one person, or you can
 participate with a group of people who discuss topics of common

Sellers & Robichaux Informational [Page 19] RFC 1941 Frequently Asked Questions for Schools May 1996

 interest. These groups are called mail lists. You join and leave the
 lists by sending email to one address, and you post messages to all
 the people on the list by sending email to a slightly different
 address. Sometimes a human does the list registration and sometimes a
 software program does it. For more information see the entries for
 email and mailing lists in the Glossary.  A list of mail lists
 related to primary and secondary education can be found in Section 9,
 "Resources and Contacts."
 Network News.  Also known as Usenet News or Net News. Reading news is
 similar to joining an email list, but instead of the messages coming
 to your mailbox, you use news reader software to read messages on a
 computer where they are accumulated. For more information see the
 entry for Usenet News in the Glossary.
 FTP.  FTP stands for File Transfer Protocol, and just as the name
 implies, it allows you to transfer files from one computer to
 another. It is the name for both the protocol and the program. A
 special kind of FTP, Anonymous FTP, allows you to access the many
 public archives on the Internet. FTP is not used by itself as much as
 it used to be, since people often use Web browsers and Gopher clients
 which incorporate FTP when they want to retrieve files. For more
 information see the entries for Anonymous FTP and FTP in the
 Glossary.
 Telnet.  Telnet allows you to log into a computer somewhere else on
 the Internet and use the services there. For example, if you don't
 have a Gopher client or a Web browser, there are some public access
 sites that you can telnet to in order to use a Gopher client or a
 text-based Web browser.
 Gopher.  Gopher is a tool that lets you browse for information on the
 Internet using menus. If you know what you're looking for and have an
 idea about where to find it, Gopher can make your search easier. And
 when you have located something of interest, whether it's a document,
 a data set, or a picture, Gopher will retrieve it for you. For more
 information see the entry for Gopher in the Glossary.
 Searching and Indexing Tools.  Archie is a tool for searching FTP
 sites; Veronica (Very Easy Rodent-Oriented Network Index to
 Computerized Archives, which works the same way Archie does) is a
 tool for searching Gopherspace; WAIS (Wide Area Information Service;
 pronounced "wayz") is a tool for searching indexed databases, whether
 the databases are full of numbers, text, or graphics files; and
 Yahoo, Lycos, and WebCrawler are some of the many searching and
 indexing tools available on and for the World Wide Web. For more
 information see the entries for Archie, Gopher, WAIS, WWW, and
 Veronica in the Glossary.

Sellers & Robichaux Informational [Page 20] RFC 1941 Frequently Asked Questions for Schools May 1996

 Videoconferencing. At the time of this writing, schools are beginning
 to participate in conferences, meetings, and collaborative activities
 via video. The two services or applications used are Multicast
 Backbone (MBONE) and CU-SeeMe, both of which allow for desktop
 videoconferencing, or videoconferencing via computer.
 MBONE is an option for videoconferencing using several operating
 systems at the time of this writing: Unix, Windows NT, Windows 95,
 and Mac Operating System 7.5.2. It requires that your Internet
 service provider be a part of the MBONE, which depends on a
 specialized routing strategy.  Ask your service provider if they are
 equipped to support MBONE traffic.  If so, you will need to work
 fairly closely with your provider to establish working configurations
 for your network. More information on MBONE is available at the MBONE
 Information Web. (See Section 9, "Resources and Contacts.")
 CU-SeeMe, developed by Cornell University, also presents conferencing
 capabilities over an IP network. You may participate in a CU-SeeMe
 videoconference as a sender, a recipient, or both. Through use of
 reflectors, multiple sites may participate in any given conference.
 For any of these activities, you'll need a PC or a Macintosh with a
 connection to the Internet and CU-SeeMe software. Additionally, if
 you'd like to send video and audio, you will need a video camera and
 a video board in your computer. Full information on the hardware
 requirements is available at the CU-SeeMe Web site; there is also a
 mailing list for CU-SeeMe information. For guidance and discussion
 about using CU-SeeMe as an instructional tool, the Global SchoolNet
 Foundation hosts a mail list called cu-seeme-schools which announces
 opportunities for participation in CU-SeeMe events. For information
 on the Web site and mailing lists, see Section 9, "Resources and
 Contacts."

6. Questions About Classroom Resources, Projects, and Collaboration

6.1 How can I find specific projects using the Internet that are

   already developed?
 When you have learned to use some of the Internet services discussed
 in Section 5, "Questions About Using Internet Services," particularly
 the search tools, you will be able to answer that question more fully
 for yourself. In the meantime, since there are several resources on
 the Internet that are directed specifically at the primary and
 secondary school communities, here are some ideas to get you started.

Sellers & Robichaux Informational [Page 21] RFC 1941 Frequently Asked Questions for Schools May 1996

 Computer Information Servers:
    Global SchoolNet.  The Global SchoolNet Foundation's World Wide
    Web site contains a wealth of valuable information and materials,
    including help setting up projects by learning what has worked
    best based on others' experience. The GSN site also contains a
    landmark registry of projects in which schools can participate.
    EdWeb.  Andy Carvin's EdWeb is an excellent source of K-12
    information.
    CoSN.  The Consortium for School Networking maintains an Internet
    server.
    NASA.  NASA's Spacelink and Quest are directed at primary and
    secondary school educators, and both house lesson plans,
    Internet-based curriculum units, and interactive projects and
    activities. Many NASA projects also maintain computer information
    servers.
    Empire Internet Schoolhouse.  The New York State Education and
    Research Network (NYSERNet) hosts the Empire Internet Schoolhouse,
    an extension of its Bridging the Gap program.
    K-12 Schools on the Internet.  Gleason Sackman of North Dakota's
    SENDIT network for K-12 educators maintains an active list of K-12
    schools on the Internet.
    National School Network Testbed.  The Bolt Beranek and Newman
    (BBN) project called the National School Network Testbed provides
    links to numerous schools and projects.
    Internet School Networking.  The Web pages for the group which
    brings you this paper contain a collection of documents and case
    studies on projects.
 Mail lists:
    Many people on electronic mailing lists such as Ednet, Kidsphere,
    and the Consortium for School Networking Discussion List post
    their projects and ask for partners and collaborators.
 News groups:
    The K12 hierarchy of Usenet News has several groups where
    educators post these invitations as well. For subscription to
    these and other electronic lists and for names of news groups see
    Section 9, "Resources and Contacts."

Sellers & Robichaux Informational [Page 22] RFC 1941 Frequently Asked Questions for Schools May 1996

 Conferences:
    There are also a number of conferences worth looking in to. The
    National Education Computing Conference (NECC) and Tel-Ed, both
    held annually, are conferences sponsored by the International
    Society for Technology in Education (ISTE). The Internet Society
    (INET) conference is the annual conference for the Internet
    Society. See Section 9, "Resources and Contacts" for contact
    information for these organizations.
    Specific computer information servers, mail lists, news groups,
    and conference sponsors are listed in Section 9, "Resources and
    Contacts."  A number of Web sites also provide favorite
    "bookmarks," or lists of sites for educators. Bookmarks are not
    included in Section 9, but you will quickly find them if you begin
    at any of the Web server entry points listed here.

6.2 What are some examples of how the Internet is being used in

   classrooms now?
 Projects which use the Internet sometimes request sites from all over
 the world to contribute data from the local area then compile that
 data for use by all. Weather patterns, pollutants in water or air,
 and Monarch butterfly migration are some of the data that have been
 collected over the Internet. In Appendix C, "Examples of Educational
 Projects Using the Internet," you will find several examples
 collected from various online servers and electronic mailing lists
 pertaining to education, each from a different content area and
 representing different ways of using the Internet. Some of the
 projects require only that you be able to use email, some require
 that you have access to the most advanced Internet services, and some
 offer varying levels of participation.
 There are a number of specific projects you may find interesting:
 KIDS.  KIDS is a project managed by the nonprofit KIDLINK Society. It
 includes discussion lists and services, some of them only for people
 who are ten through fifteen years old.
 Academy One. Academy One is part of the National Public Telecomputing
 Network (NPTN) and usually has a number of projects running at a
 time.
 I*EARN.  The International Education and Research Network (I*EARN), a
 project of the nonprofit Copen Family Fund, facilitates
 telecommunications in schools around the world.

Sellers & Robichaux Informational [Page 23] RFC 1941 Frequently Asked Questions for Schools May 1996

 Chatback Trust.  Initiated to provide email for schools in the United
 Kingdom and around the world with students who have mental or
 physical difficulty with communicating, Chatback Trust and Chatback
 International maintain a network server that you may want to
 investigate.
 ESP.  The European Schools Project (ESP) involves approximately 200
 schools in 20 countries and has as its goal building a support system
 for secondary school educators.
 Electronic Field Trips.  The online interactive projects on NASA's
 Quest server and the JASON Project are designed especially to provide
 classroom contact with real science and scientists.
 For contact information on these groups and computer information
 servers refer to Section 9, "Resources and Contacts."

6.3 Are there any guides to using the Internet in schools that list all

   these resources in one place?
 Printed guides to using the Internet in education are appearing along
 with the new books on the Internet and you can expect to see more in
 the near future. The problem with paper resource guides is that the
 Internet is a changing environment so they become outdated quickly.
 Most (like this document) try to list only the most stable resource
 sites, and even if not everything you try is available, these guides
 can be particularly helpful if you are new to the Internet. Try the
 books entitled "Education on the Internet," "Teaching with the
 Internet:  Putting Teachers Before Technology," and "Brave New
 Schools" listed in Section 8, "Suggested Reading," for a sampling of
 those available at the time of this writing.  Check bookstores,
 libraries, and booksellers' catalogs for others.
 One answer to the problem of printed Internet guides is the
 newsletter.  Two we recommend are specifically for primary and
 secondary school educators interested in networking and contain
 information on new services on the Internet that are of interest to
 educators, projects for collaboration, conferences, new books and
 publications, essays, and practical tutorials on using network tools
 and services. NetTeach News is published ten times a year and is
 available both hardcopy and via email.  Classroom Connect is
 published nine times a year. Information on subscribing and related
 online services for both newsletters can be found in Section 9,
 "Resources and Contacts."
 Internet computers which act as guides to the Internet for educators
 are, among others, BBN's Copernicus server, the Global SchoolNet
 server, NASA's Quest server, the University of Illinois College of

Sellers & Robichaux Informational [Page 24] RFC 1941 Frequently Asked Questions for Schools May 1996

 Education's Learning Resource Server, and Web66. All are listed in
 Section 9, "Resources and Contacts."

6.4 How can I add my own contributions to the Internet?

 In addition to sharing your knowledge and expertise on the electronic
 mail lists and news groups mentioned, as you gain experience you may
 find you have the knowledge and inclination to put up a Web page for
 your own site.  Many K-12 schools are maintaining Web pages, either
 on Web servers they set up at the school or on a computer at another
 site, to publish student projects and information about their
 schools. Gleason Sackman's Hot List of K-12 Internet School Sites and
 Web66 offer a comprehensive listing of these schools and provide
 links to their home pages. These pages may give you ideas about ways
 your school can use the World Wide Web to contribute to the K-12
 Internet community. There are also a number of sites which give
 instruction in how to publish on the Web and how to maintain Web
 sites, including Web66, the National Center for Supercomputing
 Applications (NCSA), and the Geometry Forum. For the Internet
 locations of these resources see Section 9, "Resources and Contacts."

7. Questions About Security and Ethics

7.1 I've heard that there is a lot of objectionable material on the

   Internet.  How do I deal with that problem?
 Because sensational media accounts tend to downplay the educational
 uses of the Internet in favor of the more controversial material
 available, this will almost certainly be an issue raised when you
 discuss getting an Internet connection in your school. Concerned
 educators should learn more about this issue and formulate a strategy
 for resolving problems before they arise. One important point to
 realize early is that students do not accidentally bump into
 objectionable material in the course of most educational
 explorations. Although we are not suggesting that people never run
 across objectionable material by chance, most find this material only
 because they're looking for it.
 At the time of this writing the most important and effective action
 schools can take is to develop clear policies to guide students' use
 of the Internet and establish rules - and consequences for breaking
 them - that govern behavior on the Internet. These policies, called
 Acceptable Use Policies (AUPs), work best when they are in line with
 rules governing other behavior at school. Additionally, schools
 should integrate issues around technology and ethics into the
 curriculum [3]. Schools need to exercise reasonable oversight while
 realizing that it is almost impossible to absolutely guarantee that
 students will not be able to access objectionable material. It may be

Sellers & Robichaux Informational [Page 25] RFC 1941 Frequently Asked Questions for Schools May 1996

 wise to make this clear to parents and students before a student is
 given access to the Internet. To limit a school's liability, some
 systems obtain signed releases from students and parents stipulating
 that they have read the AUP and that the student agrees to abide by
 it.
 Several commercial software products are available which attempt to
 address the problem of access to objectionable material. They block
 access to controversial sites, look for specific text in email
 messages, or do both. Some can be configured in the home or school
 and some block a preconfigured collection of sites which is
 maintained and configured by the company.
 Some success has been achieved through the use of proxy servers. A
 school hooks up all its computers to a single computer that has full
 Internet access. This computer server then becomes the gateway to the
 Internet for all of the school computers. The server can be
 configured to mask away sites that have objectionable material,
 including Web pages, Gopher and FTP sites, and network news and WAIS
 servers. One further step can be taken by also installing a caching
 server on the gateway machine. A caching server can hold Web pages
 locally after they have been retrieved from other sites. Once a page
 has been loaded into the server it can thereafter be fetched from the
 cache, useful if a set of Web pages needs to be accessed frequently
 from a site that is usually busy.
 Although proxy and caching servers are relatively easy to set up by a
 system administrator, entering all the sites that are objectionable
 and keeping the cache up to date can be time consuming. Also, this
 method does not stop teachers and students from receiving and sending
 objectionable material as email attachments.
 The store-and-forward method is one way to filter information to
 which students are exposed. Usenet News and email (both described in
 Section 5, "Questions About Using Internet Services") are "stored" on
 a computer until the time appointed for that computer to contact the
 next one along the path to the final destination, at which time it is
 "forwarded" along its way. Most computers are set up to process
 outgoing requests at least every 30 minutes. This method requires
 quite a bit of management on the part of humans.
 It is also possible to control the times and opportunities that
 students have to access the Internet and only allow access under
 supervision. Many teachers find that engaging their students in
 meaningful, supervised learning activities operates as an effective
 deterrent to unauthorized Internet exploration.

Sellers & Robichaux Informational [Page 26] RFC 1941 Frequently Asked Questions for Schools May 1996

 At the time of this writing none of the technical solutions discussed
 above has proven wholly successful in addressing the problem of
 student access to controversial material. However, this area is
 currently the focus of intense development efforts. In the mean time,
 these solutions may be used in combination with clear policies and
 consequences for breaking them to ensure the integrity of the school,
 its students, and its educators. No matter what option or combination
 of options you choose, teaching the ethics of Internet access as a
 matter of course is imperative.
 There are resources for further exploration of the issue of students
 and objectionable material available on the Internet. The National
 Center for Missing and Exploited Children has produced a sensible and
 practical brochure entitled, "Child Safety on the Information
 Highway," written by Los Angeles Times columnist Lawrence J. Magid.
 It is available both online and hardcopy. Another good document,
 "Internet Parental Control Frequently Asked Questions," describes the
 tools available at the time of this writing to help with issues of
 children using the Internet, from guidance by parents to government
 restrictions to rating and filtering systems. It is produced by the
 Voters Telecommunications Watch and is available on the Internet.
 There is also at least one mailing list which you may want to join
 called Children Accessing Controversial Information (CACI). For
 information on all of these, please see Section 8, "Suggested
 Reading," and Section 9, "Resources and Contacts."

7.2 How do we keep our own and other people's computers safe from

   student "hackers"?
 In the language of computer folks, a "hacker" is someone who is
 excellent at understanding and manipulating computer systems. A
 "cracker" is someone who maliciously and/or illegally enters or
 attempts to enter someone else's computer system.
 Computer security is unquestionably important, both in maintaining
 the security of the school's computers and in ensuring the proper
 behavior of the school's students (and others who use the network).
 In this area, not only school policy, but also state and national
 laws may apply. One source of information which you can read to help
 you sort through security issues is the Site Security Handbook (FYI
 8), which suggests to site computer administrators, Network
 Information Centers, Network Operation Centers, and others how to set
 up security policies and directs you to further information. A good
 book available commercially is "Computer Security Basics" by Russell
 and Gangemi. The full reference for these two sources of information
 can be found in Section 8, "Suggested Reading."

Sellers & Robichaux Informational [Page 27] RFC 1941 Frequently Asked Questions for Schools May 1996

 Your school's AUP (see Question 7.4) should specify the consequences
 for such activity, and it may also be prudent to require a signed
 release from each student stating that he understands these
 consequences and possible legal implications of intentional
 exploitation of computer networks.
 In the unlikely event that someone from outside your school breaks in
 to a computer on your network, you should report the activity to the
 CERT Coordination Center. Contact information for the center can be
 found in Section 9, "Resources and Contacts."

7.3 How do we keep viruses from attacking all of our computers if we

   get connected to the Internet?
 Even if you use the Internet to exchange only data (such as text or
 pictures), virus infection can be a problem. This is because many
 programs today allow data files to include commands which are run
 when the data is loaded. Certainly when you download software
 programs and run them on your own computer you should use caution.
 Anything you download over the Internet or an electronic bulletin
 board system could have a virus. For that matter, any program and
 even some documents, whether on tape or a disk, including commercial
 software still in its original packaging, might possibly have a
 virus. Therefore there are two precautions you should take. First,
 install virus protection software on all your computers.  Second, use
 only trusted sources from which to download software and files. If
 you are uncertain about whether to download something, ask someone
 first.
 Virus checking software is available free over the Internet via
 Anonymous FTP from the CERT Coordination Center. Your hardware or
 software vendor, your network access provider, your technical support
 resources, or your colleagues on network mailing lists should be able
 to provide more specific information applicable to your site. Contact
 information for the CERT Coordination Center can be found in Section
 9, "Resources and Contacts."

7.4 What are the rules for using the Internet?

 When your Internet connection is established, your access provider
 should acquaint you with their Acceptable Use Policy. This policy
 explains acceptable and unacceptable uses for your connection. For
 example, it is in all cases unacceptable to use the network for
 illegal purposes. It may, in some cases, be unacceptable to use the
 network for commercial purposes.  If such a policy is not mentioned,
 ask for it. All users are expected to know what the acceptable and
 unacceptable uses of their network are.

Sellers & Robichaux Informational [Page 28] RFC 1941 Frequently Asked Questions for Schools May 1996

 Remember that it is essential to establish a school-wide policy in
 addition to the provider's AUP. A school's AUP is usually more
 restrictive and specific than the one used by the service provider. A
 repository of sample school AUPs can be found on the Armadillo Web
 server, listed in section 9, "Resources and Contacts." As mentioned
 earlier, some school systems have found it worthwhile to make
 Internet access contingent upon a student's signed agreement to abide
 by the school's AUP.
 Beyond your service provider's AUP and the one you create for your
 school, there are no overreaching rules for Internet use. There are,
 however, community standards and conventions that should be observed.
 You can review some generally agreed-upon guidelines at Arlene
 Rinaldi's etiquette page and by reading FYI 28 (RFC 1855),
 "Netiquette Guidelines." See Section 9, "Resources and Contacts," for
 the location of the etiquette page, and Appendix B, "Ways to Get
 RFCs" for instructions on obtaining FYI 28.

8. Suggested Reading

 Those items marked with an asterisk (*) are available free online.
 For information on retrieving RFCs and FYIs, see Appendix B, "Ways to
 Get RFCs."
  • Connecting to the Future: A Guide For Building a Network

Infrastructure for Education. NASA IITA, Department of Education

   NCES. 1995. Gopher: quest.arc.nasa.gov/How to Get Connected to and
   How to Use the Internet  (Also available from NASA CORE with
   accompanying video. See NASA Central Operation of Resources for
   Educators in Section 9, "Resources and Contacts.")
  • Conrad, L. B. "Getting US Educators Online"

http://quest.arc.nasa.gov/online/table.html (State-by-state

   compilation of Internet service offerings especially for teachers.)
 Cummins, J. and D. Sayers. Brave New Schools: Challenging Cultural
   Illiteracy Through Global Learning Networks. New York: St. Martin's
   Press, 1995.
 Ellsworth, J. H.  Education on the Internet: A Hands-on Book of
   Ideas, Resources, Projects, and Advice. Indianapolis, Indiana:
   Sams Publishing, 1994.
  • Electronic Frontier Foundation. EFF's (Extended) Guide to the

Internet.

   http://www.eff.org/pub/Net_info/EFF_Net_Guide/netguide.eff
   and from the EFF online archives at ftp.eff.org, gopher.eff.org,
   AOL keyword EFF, CIS EFFSIG forum.

Sellers & Robichaux Informational [Page 29] RFC 1941 Frequently Asked Questions for Schools May 1996

 Estrada, S. Connecting to the Internet: An O'Reilly Buyer's Guide.
   Sebastopol, California: O'Reilly and Associates, Inc., 1993.
  • FYI 4 "FYI on Questions and Answers: Answers to Commonly asked

`New Internet User' Questions," Marine, A., J. Reynolds, and

   G. Malkin. (fyi4.txt or rfc1594.txt)
  • FYI 5 "Choosing a Name for Your Computer," Libes, D. (fyi5.txt or

rfc1178.txt)

  • FYI 8 "Site Security Handbook," Holbrook, J.P. and J.K. Reynolds.

(fyi8.txt or rfc1244.txt)

  • FYI 18 "Internet Users' Glossary," Malkin, G. and T. LaQuey Parker.

(fyi18.txt or rfc1392.txt)

  • FYI 20 "What is the Internet?" Krol, E. and E. Hoffman. (fyi20.txt

or rfc1462.txt)

  • FYI 26 "K-12 Internetworking Guidelines," J. Gargano, D. Wasley.

November 1994. (fyi26.txt or rfc1709.txt)

  • FYI 28 "Netiquette Guidelines," Hambridge, S. (fyi28.txt or

rfc1855.txt)

 Giagnocavo, G., et. al. Educator's Internet Companion (with diskette
   and video). Lancaster, Pennsylvania: Wentworth Worldwide Media,
   1995.
 Harris, J. Way of the Ferret: Finding and Using Educational Resources
   on the Internet. Eugene, Oregon: International Society for
   Technology in Education, 1995.
 Krol, E. The Whole Internet User's Guide & Catalog, Second Edition.
   Sebastopol, CA: O'Reilly & Associates, Inc., 1994. (Also available
   in textbook version)
  • National Center for Missing and Exploited Children

http://www.missingkids.org/information_superhighway.html (Online

   brochure "Child Safety on the Information Highway")
   Also available from
   National Center for Missing and Exploited Children
   2101 Wilson Boulevard
   Suite 550
   Arlington, VA 22201-3052
   1-800-THE-LOST (1-800-843-5678)
 Protheroe, N. and E. Wilson. The Internet Handbook for School Users.

Sellers & Robichaux Informational [Page 30] RFC 1941 Frequently Asked Questions for Schools May 1996

   Arlington, Virginia: Educational Research Service, 1994.
  • RFC 1480 "The US Domain," Cooper, A. and J. Postel. June 1993.

(rfc1480.txt)

   [This document will also be useful to people not in the United
   States.  See the sites listed under the FYI documents for the
   location nearest you from which to download the file.]
  • Rinaldi, A. "The Net: User Guidelines and Netiquette,"

http://rs6000.adm.fau.edu/rinaldi/netiquette.html

  • Rogers, A. "Global Literacy in a Gutenberg Culture,"

http://gsn.org/gsn/article.gutenberg.html

 Russell, D., and G. T. Gangemi, Sr. Computer Security Basics.
   Sebastopol, California: O'Reilly and Associates, 1991.
  • Safdar, S. J. "Internet Parental Control Frequently Asked Questions,"

Voters Telecommunications Watch, 1995.

   http://www.vtw.org/pubs/ipcfaq, or email vtw@vtw.org and in the
   subject line type "send ipcfaq" without the quotes
 Steen, D.R., M.R. Roddy, D. Sheffield, and M.B. Stout. Teaching with
   the Internet: Putting Teachers Before Technology. Bellevue,
   Washington: Resolution Business Press, Inc., 1995.

9. Resources and Contacts

  1. ———-

CONFERENCES

  1. ———-
 A list of other conferences, primarily in the United States, can be
 found at http://www.classroom.net/classroom/conf.htm
 NECC and Tel-Ed
    International Society for Technology in Education
    1787 Agate Street
    Eugene, Oregon  97403-1923
    USA
    Phone:  503-346-4414 or 1-800-336-5191
    Fax:    503-346-5890
    Email:  iste@oregon.uoregon.edu
            (CompuServe:  70014,2117)
            (AppleLink:  ISTE)
 See also "Internet Computers" in this section.

Sellers & Robichaux Informational [Page 31] RFC 1941 Frequently Asked Questions for Schools May 1996

 INET
    Internet Society
    12020 Sunrise Valley Dr.
    Suite 210
    Reston, Virginia  22091
    USA
    Phone:  703-648-9888
    Fax:    703-620-0913
    Email:  isoc@isoc.org
  1. ——————–

ELECTRONIC MAIL LISTS

  1. ——————–
 Lists of electronic mail lists which you can search by category can
 be found via the World Wide Web at http://tile.net/listserv, at
 http://k12.cnidr.org:90/lists.html, and at
 http://catalog.com/vivian/interest-group-search.html.
 Classroom Connect mailing list
    To subscribe, send a message to...
    crc-request@wentworth.com
    Leave the Subject field blank and in the first line of the body
    of the message enter...
    subscribe
 CACI (Children Accessing Controversial Information)
    To subscribe, send a message to...
    caci-request@cygnus.com
    Leave the Subject field blank, and in the first line of the body
    of the message enter...
    subscribe
    To post, send a message to...
    caci@cygnus.com
 Cosndisc (Consortium for School Networking Discussion List)
    To subscribe, send a message to...
    listproc@list.cren.net
    Leave the Subject field blank, and in the first line of the body
    of the message enter...
    subscribe cosndisc YourFirstName YourLastName
    To post, send a message to...
    cosndisc@list.cren.net

Sellers & Robichaux Informational [Page 32] RFC 1941 Frequently Asked Questions for Schools May 1996

 Cu-seeme-l (General CU-SeeMe discussion list)
    To subscribe, send a message to...
    listproc@cornell.edu
    Leave the Subject field blank, and in the first line of the body
    of the message enter...
    subscribe cu-seeme-l YourFirstName YourLastName
    To post, send a message to...
    cu-seeme-l@cornell.edu
 Cu-seeme-schools (Discussion about using CU-SeeMe as an instructional
      tool)
    To subscribe, send a message to...
    majordomo@gsn.org
    Leave the Subject field blank, and in the first line of the body
    of the message enter...
    subscribe cu-seeme-schools
    To post, send a message to...
    cu-seeme-schools@gsn.org
 Ednet
    To subscribe, send a message to...
    listproc@lists.umass.edu
    Leave the Subject field blank, and in the first line of the body
    of the message enter...
    subscribe ednet YourFirstName YourLastName
    To post, send a message to...
    ednet@lists.umass.edu
 Edtech (Educational Technology list)
    To subscribe, send a message to...
    listserv@msu.edu
    Leave the Subject field blank, and in the first line of the body
    of the message enter...
    subscribe edtech YourFirstName YourLastName
    To post, send a message to...
    edtech@msu.edu
 European Schools Project (ESP)
    To subscribe, send a message to...
    listproc@educ.uva.nl

Sellers & Robichaux Informational [Page 33] RFC 1941 Frequently Asked Questions for Schools May 1996

 Leave the Subject field blank, and in the first line of the body
    of the message enter...
    subscribe bbs YourFirstName YourLastName
    To post, send a message to...
    bbs@educ.uva.nl
 Internet School Networking (List for the working group which produced
      this document)
    To subscribe, send a message to...
    listmanager@nasa.gov
    Leave the Subject field blank, and in the first line of the body
    of the message enter...
    subscribe isn-wg (NOTE: Do not add your name)
    To post, send a message to...
    isn-wg@nasa.gov
 Kidsphere
    To subscribe, send a message to...
    kidsphere-request@vms.cis.pitt.edu
    Type any message asking to subscribe.
    To post, send a message to...
    kidsphere@vms.cis.pitt.edu
 KIDLINK (Also KIDS-96, KIDS-97, etc.)
    KIDLINK operates 24 public mailing lists in English, Spanish,
    Portuguese, Japanese, Hebrew, and Scandinavian languages, and
    a private "chat" network for members.
    To learn about KIDLINK projects, subscribe to the news service by
    sending a message to...
    listserv@vm1.nodak.edu
    Leave the Subject field blank, and in the first line of the body
    of the message enter...
    subscribe KIDLINK YourFirstName YourLastName
    To receive a file of general information on KIDLINK, send email to
    the same listserv address, leave the Subject field blank, and in
    the first line of the body of the message enter...
    get kidlink general

Sellers & Robichaux Informational [Page 34] RFC 1941 Frequently Asked Questions for Schools May 1996

 K12admin (A list for K-12 educators interested in educational
    administration)
    To subscribe, send a message to...
    listserv@listserv.syr.edu
    Leave the Subject field blank, and in the first line of the body
    of the message enter...
    subscribe k12admin YourFirstName YourLastName
    To post, send a message to...
    k12admin@listserv.syr.edu
 LM_NET (A list for school library media specialists worldwide)
    To subscribe, send a message to...
    listserv@listserv.syr.edu
    Leave the Subject field blank, and in the first line of the body
    of the message enter...
    subscribe LM_NET YourFirstName YourLastName
    To post, send a message to...
    LM_NET@listserv.syr.edu
 NOVAE Group: Teachers Networking for the Future (Distribution list --
       not discussion list -- of projects and happenings of interest
       to educators)
    To subscribe, send a message to...
    listserv@idbsu.idbsu.edu
    Leave the Subject field blank, and in the first line of
    the body of the message, enter...
    subscribe novae YourFirstName YourLastName
 UK-schools (for teachers and others interested in the use of the
       Internet in UK schools and for general discussion about
       anything concerning international classroom connections)
    To subscribe, send a message to...
    mailbase@mailbase.ac.uk
    Leave the Subject field blank, and in the first line of the body
    of the message enter...
    join uk-schools YourFirstName YourLastName
    To post, send a message to...
    uk-schools@mailbase.ac.uk

Sellers & Robichaux Informational [Page 35] RFC 1941 Frequently Asked Questions for Schools May 1996

 WWWedu (the World Wide Web in Education list; pronounced "we do")
    To subscribe, send a message to...
    listproc@educom.unc.edu
    Leave the Subject field blank, and in the first line of
    the body of the message, enter...
    subscribe wwwedu YourFirstName YourLastName
    To post, send a message to...
    wwwedu@educom.unc.edu
  1. —————–

INTERNET COMPUTERS

  1. —————–
 Academy One (National Public Telecomputing Network)
    via WWW:
    http://www.nptn.org/cyber.serv/AOneP/index.html
 Armadillo's WWW Server
    via WWW:
    http://riceinfo.rice.edu:80/armadillo/
 BBN National School Network Testbed
    via Gopher:
    copernicus.bbn.com
    via WWW:
    http://copernicus.bbn.com:70/testbed/
 Censorship/Freedom of Speech/Child Safety on the Internet Web page
    via WWW:
    http://www.voicenet.com/~cranmer/censorship.html
 Classroom Connect on the Net
    via WWW:
    http://www.classroom.net/
    via FTP:
    ftp.classroom.net/wentworth/Classroom-Connect/aup-faq.txt (for an
      FAQ document on Acceptable Use Policies)
 Chatback Trust and Chatback International network server
    via WWW:
    http://www.tcns.co.uk/chatback/welcome.html

Sellers & Robichaux Informational [Page 36] RFC 1941 Frequently Asked Questions for Schools May 1996

 CERT Coordination Center
    via WWW:
    http://www.sei.cmu.edu/SEI/programs/cert/CERT.info.html
    http://www.sei.cmu.edu/technology/trustworthy.html
    via email:
    cert@cert.org
    via FTP: info.cert.org
    cd pub/
 Consortium for School Networking
    via Gopher:
    cosn.org
    via WWW:
    http://cosn.org/
 CU-SeeMe
    via WWW:
    http://cu-seeme.cornell.edu/
 Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC)
    via WWW:
    http://ericir.syr.edu/
    via Gopher:
    ericir.syr.edu
    via telnet:
    telnet bbs.oit.unc.edu
    login: launch
      (Follow directions on screen for registration. At the main menu,
      choose number 4, "Topical Document Search (WAIS)", and move to
      eric-digests.  For help in WAIS, type a question mark.)
    via email:
    askeric@ericir.syr.edu
      (In your message ask for the topic you're interested in. A human
      will answer you.)
 Empire Internet Schoolhouse
    via Gopher:
    nysernet.org (port 3000)
 Electronic Frontier Foundation ("A non-profit civil liberties
    organization working in the public interest to protect privacy,
    free expression, and access to online resources and information.")

Sellers & Robichaux Informational [Page 37] RFC 1941 Frequently Asked Questions for Schools May 1996

    via WWW:
    http://www.eff.org/
    via email:
    ask@eff.org
    via snailmail, telephone, and fax:
    The Electronic Frontier Foundation
    1550 Bryant Street
    San Francisco CA 94103 USA
    +1 415 668 7171 (voice)
    +1 415 668 7007 (fax)
 EdWeb
    via WWW:
    http://edweb.cnidr.org:90/
 European Schools Project
    via WWW:
    http://www.educ.uva.nl/ESP/
 Foundation Center
    via WWW:
    http://fdncenter.org/
 Geometry Forum
    via WWW:
    http://forum.swarthmore.edu/
    http://forum.swarthmore.edu/~steve/steve/wwwhtml.html ("Learning
      to Use the Web and Create Web Pages")
 Global SchoolNet Foundation
    via WWW:
    http://gsn.org/
    http://gsn.org/gsn/article.connect.levels.html ("Internet
      Connectivity Levels")
    http://gsn.org/gsn/article.design.project.html ("How to Design a
      Successful Project")
    http://gsn.org/gsn/article.gutenberg.html ("Global Literacy in
      a Gutenberg Culture")
 Grants Web
    via WWW:
    http://infoserv.rttonet.psu.edu/gweb.htm
 Hot List of K-12 Internet School Sites (Gleason Sackman, SENDIT)
    via WWW:
    http://www.sendit.nodak.edu/k12/

Sellers & Robichaux Informational [Page 38] RFC 1941 Frequently Asked Questions for Schools May 1996

 International Education and Research Network (I*EARN)
    via WWW:
    http:// www.iearn.org/iearn/
    via Gopher:
    gopher.iearn.org (port 7008)
    via email:
    iearn@iearn.org
 Internet School Networking (ISN) working group home page (publishers
      of this document)
    via WWW:
    http://spider.lloyd.com/isn/index.html
 International Society for Technology in Education (ISTE)
    via WWW:
    http://isteonline.uoregon.edu/
    via Gopher:
    isteonline.uoregon.edu
 KIDLINK
    via WWW:
    http://www.kidlink.org/
    via Gopher:
    gopher.kidlink.org
 Learning Resource Server, University of Illinois College of Education
    via WWW:
    http://www.ed.uiuc.edu/
    http://www.ed.uiuc.edu/Activity-Structures/ (Judi Harris' Network-
       Based Educational Activity Collection)
    via Gopher:
    gopher.ed.uiuc.edu
 MBONE (Multicast Backbone)
    via WWW:
    http://www.mbone.com/techinfo/
 NASA Jason Project
    via WWW:
    http://seawifs.gsfc.nasa.gov/JASON/JASON_HOME.html

Sellers & Robichaux Informational [Page 39] RFC 1941 Frequently Asked Questions for Schools May 1996

 NASA Online Educational Resources
    via WWW:
    http://quest.arc.nasa.gov/OER/
 NASA Quest
    via WWW:
    http://quest.arc.nasa.gov/
    http://quest.arc.nasa.gov/essay/essay-index.html ("Networks, Where
       Have You Been All My Life" student essay contest winners)
    via Gopher:
    quest.arc.nasa.gov (port 70)
    via FTP:
    ftp quest.arc.nasa.gov
 NASA Spacelink
    via WWW:
    http://spacelink.msfc.nasa.gov/
    via Gopher:
    spacelink.msfc.nasa.gov
 via telnet:
    telnet spacelink.msfc.nasa.gov
    login: guest
    via FTP:
    ftp spacelink.msfc.nasa.gov
 To find information on the NASA Teacher Resource Center Network,
 choose "Educational Services," then "Teacher Resource Center Network."
 For television schedules, follow the menu for "Educational Service"
 to nthe menu option, "Technology."
 National Center for Missing and Exploited Children
    via WWW:
    http://www.missingkids.org/
    http://www.missingkids.org/information_superhighway.html (Online
       brochure "Child Safety on the Information Highway)
 National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA)
    via WWW:
    http://www.ncsa.uiuc.edu/SDG/Software/Mosaic/NCSAMosaicHome.html
       (Mosaic Home Page)
    http://www.ncsa.uiuc.edu/General/Internet/WWW/HTMLPrimer.html
       (A Beginner's Guide to HTML)

Sellers & Robichaux Informational [Page 40] RFC 1941 Frequently Asked Questions for Schools May 1996

    via FTP:
    ftp ftp.ncsa.uiuc.edu (to download the Mosaic WWW browser)
 National Center for Technology Planning
    via Gopher:
    gopher.msstate.edu
 Choose "Resources Maintained at MS State University," then select
 "National Center for Technology Planning."
 National Science Foundation's (United States) Science and Technology
 Information System (STIS)
    via WWW:
    http://stis.nsf.gov/
    via Gopher:
    stis.nsf.gov
    via telnet:
    telnet stis.nsf.gov
    login:  public
    Follow instructions on screen.
 Netscape Communications
    via WWW:
    http://www.netscape.com/
    via FTP:
    ftp ftp.netscape.com
 Netscape's WWW browser can be downloaded from Netscape's FTP sites at
 ftp.netscape.com, ftp2.netscape.com, ftp3.netscape.com...through
 ftp7.netscape.com.
 Office of Educational Research and Improvement (U.S. Department of
 nEducation)
    via WWW:
    http://oeri.ed.gov/
     via Gopher:
     gopher.ed.gov

Sellers & Robichaux Informational [Page 41] RFC 1941 Frequently Asked Questions for Schools May 1996

 Providers of Commercial Internet Access (for a list of Internet
 Service Providers)
    via WWW:
    http://www.celestin.com/pocia/
 THE LIST (for a list of Internet Service Providers)
    via WWW:
    http://thelist.com
 Voters Telecommunications Watch
    via WWW:
    http://www.vtw.org/
    http://www.vtw.org/pubs/ipcfaq [Internet Parental Control
       Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) by Shabbir J. Safdar]
 World Wide Web Consortium
    via WWW:
    http://www.w3.org/pub/WWW/
    via telnet:
    telnet telnet.w3.org (public access Lynx client. Use "lynx"
       without the quotes if a login is requested.)
 Web66
    via WWW:
    http://web66.coled.umn.edu/
    http://web66.coled.umn.edu/schools.html (International WWW Schools
       Registry)
    http://web66.coled.umn.edu/Cookbook/contents.html (Classroom
       Internet Server Cookbook)
  1. ———-

NEWS GROUPS

  1. ———-
    alt.algebra.help
    alt.comp.shareware.for-kids
    alt.education.distance
    alt.kids-talk
    bit.listserv.edtech
    comp.security.announce
    k12.chat.elementary
    k12.chat.junior
    k12.chat.senior
    k12.chat.teacher
    k12.ed.art
    k12.ed.business

Sellers & Robichaux Informational [Page 42] RFC 1941 Frequently Asked Questions for Schools May 1996

    k12.ed.comp.literacy
    k12.ed.health-pe
    k12.ed.life-skills
    k12.ed.math
    k12.ed.music
    k12.ed.science
    k12.ed.soc-studies
    k12.ed.special
    k12.ed.tag
    k12.ed.tech
    k12.edu.life-skills (especially for school counselors)
    k12.euro.teachers (in Europe)
    k12.lang.art
    k12.lang.deutsch-eng
    k12.lang.esp-eng
    k12.lang.francais
    k12.lang.russian
    k12.library
    k12.news
    k12.sys.projects
    misc.education
    misc.education.language.english
    misc.education.multimedia
    misc.kids
    misc.kids.computer
    news.announce.newusers
    uk.education.misc
    uk.education.teachers
  1. ———————–

NEWSLETTERS and JOURNALS

  1. ———————–
 Classroom Connect
    Published monthly during the school year, a subscription currently
    costs U.S. $39.00.
    Wentworth Worldwide Media
    1866 Colonial Village Lane
    P.O. Box 10488
    Lancaster, PA 17605-0488
    USA
    Phone:  1-717-393-1000
            1-800-638-1639
    Fax:    1-717-390-4378
    Email:  connect@wentworth.com

Sellers & Robichaux Informational [Page 43] RFC 1941 Frequently Asked Questions for Schools May 1996

    via WWW:
    http://www.wentworth.com/classroom/crcpub.htm (Classroom Connect
       homen page)
    http://www.wentworth.com/classroom/orderform.htm (order form for
       Classroom Connect Newsletter, books, software, and videos about
       the Internet for educators)
 Electronic Learning
    Published eight times per year, a current subscription to this
    magazine for technology and school change costs $23.95.
    Scholastic, Inc.
    2931 East McCarty Street
    P.O. Box 3710
    Jefferson City, MO  65102-3710
 Learning and Leading with Technology (Formerly "The Computing
 Teacher")
    Published monthly, the current U.S. $61.00 ISTE membership fee
    includes $36.00 for this journal.
    ISTE (International Society for Technology in Education)
    1787 Agate Street
    Eugene, OR  97403
    Phone:  1-503-346-4414
 MultiMedia Schools
    Published five times a year, a subscription currently costs
    U.S. $38.00.
    Online, Inc.
    462 Danbury Road
    Wilton, CT  06897-2126
    USA
    Phone:  1-800-222-3766
 NetTeach News
    Published ten times a year, subscription prices are as follows.
    Annual hardcopy subscription cost:
    U.S. $38.00  for individual subscriptions in the U.S.
    U.S. $45.00  for individual subscriptions in Canada and Mexico
    U.S. $60.00  for individual subscriptions outside North America

Sellers & Robichaux Informational [Page 44] RFC 1941 Frequently Asked Questions for Schools May 1996

    Annual ASCII electronic copy cost:
    U.S. $22.00  for individual subscriptions worldwide
    Site licenses are available for the electronic version.
    Discounts are available for ten or more orders of the printed
    version for educational institutions.
    For subscription questions and submissions contact:
    Kathleen M. Rutkowski, Editor
    Chaos Publications
    13102 Weather Vane Way
    Herndon, VA  22071
    USA
    Phone:  1-703-471-0593
    Fax:    1-703-471-0596
    Email:  netteach@chaos.com
    via WWW:
    http://www.chaos.com/netteach
  1. ————

ORGANIZATIONS

  1. ————
 Asia Pacific Network Information Center
    c/o The United Nations University
    53-70 Jingumae 5-Chome
    Shibuya-ku, Tokyo 150
    Japan
    Phone:  +81-3-5467-7014
    Fax:    +81-3-5467-7015
    Email:  hostmaster@apnic.net
    WWW:    http://www.apnic.net
 AskERIC Project
    ERIC Clearinghouse on Information Resources
    Syracuse University
    4-194 Center for Science & Technology
    Syracuse, New York 13244-4100
    Phone:  315-443-3640
    Fax:    315-443-5448
    Email:  AskERIC@ericir.syr.edu
 See also "Internet Computers" above.

Sellers & Robichaux Informational [Page 45] RFC 1941 Frequently Asked Questions for Schools May 1996

 CERT Coordination Center (Formerly CERT, Computer Emergency Response
 Team)
    Software Engineering Institute
    Carnegie Mellon University
    Pittsburgh, PA 15313-3890
    USA
    Phone:  412-268-7090
    Fax:    412-268-6989
    Email:  cert@cert.org
 See also "Internet Computers" above.
 Chatback International
    Dr. R. Zenhausern, Executive Director
    Psychology Department
    St. Johns University
    SB 15, Marillac
    Jamaica, NY  11439
    USA
    Phone:  718-990-6447
    Fax:    718-990-6705
    Email:  drz@sjuvm.stjohns.edu
 The Chatback Trust
    Tom Holloway, UK Director
    6 St. Mary's Crescent
    Royal Leamington Spa
    Warwickshire, 1JL
    Phone:  +44-926-888333
    Fax:    +44-926-420204
    Email:  t.holloway@warwick.ac.uk
 See also "Internet Computers" above.
 Consortium for School Networking
    P.O. Box 65193
    Washington, DC  20035-5193
    USA
    Phone:  202-466-6296
    Fax:    202-872-4318
    Email:  info@cosn.org
 See also "Internet Computers" above.

Sellers & Robichaux Informational [Page 46] RFC 1941 Frequently Asked Questions for Schools May 1996

 European Schools Project ("...a support system for secondary schools
       to explore applications of educational telematics.")
    University of Amsterdam
    Centre for Tele-Learning
    Wibautstraat 4
    1091 GM Amsterdam
    The Netherlands
    Contact: Dr. Pauline Meijer or Dr. Henk Sligte
    Phone:   +31-20-5251248
    Fax:     +31-20-5251211
    Email:   risc@esp.educ.uva.nl
    WWW:     http://www.educ.uva.nl/ESP
 FidoNet
    1151 SW Vermont Street
    Portland, OR 97219
    USA
    Contact: Janet Murray
    Phone:   1-503-280-5280
    Email:   jmurray@psg.com
    WWW: http://bbs.owls.com/~jerrys/fidonet.html (A Fidonet Primer)
 Global SchoolNet Foundation (formerly FrEdMail)
    P.O. Box 243,
    Bonita, CA 91908
    USA
    Phone: (619) 475-4852
    Fax: (619) 472-0735
    Email:  info@gsn.org
 See also "Internet Computers" above.
 International Education and Research Network (I*EARN)
    c/o Copen Family Fund
    345 Kear Street
    Yorktown Heights, NY 10598
    USA
    Contact: Dr. Edwin H. Gragert
    Phone:   914-962-5864
    Fax:     914-962-6472
    Email: iearn@iearn.org
 See also "Internet Computers" above.

Sellers & Robichaux Informational [Page 47] RFC 1941 Frequently Asked Questions for Schools May 1996

 Internet Society
    12020 Sunrise Valley Dr.
    Suite 210
    Reston, Virginia  22091
    USA
    Phone:  703-648-9888
    Fax:    703-620-0913
    Email:  isoc@isoc.org
    WWW:    http://www.isoc.org/home.html
 KIDLINK Society
    4815 Saltrod
    Norway
    Phone:   +47-370-31204
    Fax:     +47-370-27111
    Email:   kidlink-info@kidlink.org
 See also "Internet Computers" and "Electronic Mail Lists" above.
 K12Net
    1151 SW Vermont Street
    Portland, OR 97219
    USA
    Phone:   503-280-5280
    Contact: Janet Murray
    Email:   jmurray@psg.com
    Gopher:  gopher.psg.com
    WWW:     http://arlo.wilsonhs.pps.k12.or.us/k12.html
 Reseaux IP Europeens Network Coordination Centre (RIPE NCC)
    Kruislaan 409
    NL-1098 SJ  Amsterdam
    The Netherlands
    Phone: +31 20 592 5065
    Fax:   +31 20 592 5090
    Email: ncc@ripe.net
    WWW: http://www.ripe.net/ripe/default.html

Sellers & Robichaux Informational [Page 48] RFC 1941 Frequently Asked Questions for Schools May 1996

  1. —–

VIDEOS

  1. —–
 Master Communications Group
    7322 Ohms Lane
    Minneapolis, MN  55439
    Phone:  1-800-862-6164
    Fax:    1-612-835-9573
 Titles:
    Experience the Power: Network Technology for Education (produced
      by the National Center for Education Statistics)
    Future Schools: Connected to the World (produced by MIT)
 NASA Central Operation of Resources for Educators (CORE)
    Lorain County Joint Vocational School
    15181 Route 58 South
    Oberlin, OH  44074
    USA
    Phone:   1-216-774-1051, x293/294
    Fax:     1-216-774-2144
    Email: video-info@quest.arc.nasa.gov
 Titles:
    Global Quest: The Internet in the Classroom
    Connecting to the Future: A Guide for Building a Network
       Infrastructure for Education
    Global Quest II: The Internet in the Curriculum
    Others
 The fee for the videos is cost plus shipping and handling.  You may
 also make a copy yourself by taking a blank copy to the nearest NASA
 Teacher Resource Center. For information on the NASA Teacher Resource
 Center Network or on NASA Select, contact your nearest NASA facility
 or consult NASA Spacelink, listed above in "Internet Computers."

Sellers & Robichaux Informational [Page 49] RFC 1941 Frequently Asked Questions for Schools May 1996

 Wentworth Worldwide Media
    1866 Colonial Village Lane
    P.O. Box 10488
    Lancaster, PA 17605-0488
    USA
    Phone:  1-717-393-1000
            1-800-638-1639
    Fax:    1-717-390-4378
 Titles:
    The Amazing Internet
    Internet Email
    Searching the Internet
    Discovering the World Wide Web
    Others

10. References

 [1] "Internet Domain Survey, January 1995," Network Wizards
     http://www.nw.com/zone/WWW/report.html
 [2] "Restructuring Schools: A Systematic View," Action Line, the
     newsletter of the Maryland State Teachers Association, a National
     Education Association Affiliate. R. Kuhn, Editor. No. 93-6. June,
     1993.
 [3] Sivin, J. P. and E. R. Bialo, "Ethical Uses of Information
     Technologies in Education." Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of
     Justice, Office of Justice Programs, National Institute of
     Justice. 1992.

Sellers & Robichaux Informational [Page 50] RFC 1941 Frequently Asked Questions for Schools May 1996

11. Security Considerations

 General security considerations are discussed in Section 7 of this
 document.

12. Authors' Addresses

 Julie Robichaux
 InterNIC
 505 Huntmar Park Dr.
 Herndon, VA  22070
 Phone: 703-742-4839
 EMail: julier@internic.net
 Jennifer Sellers
 Sterling Software/NASA IITA
 700 13th Street, NW
 Suite 950
 Washington, DC  20005
 Phone:  202-434-8954
 EMail:  sellers@quest.arc.nasa.gov

Sellers & Robichaux Informational [Page 51] RFC 1941 Frequently Asked Questions for Schools May 1996

APPENDIX A: GLOSSARY OF TERMS USED IN THIS DOCUMENT

 The following is a short glossary of terms used in this document. For
 a more complete glossary of Internet terms, refer to FYI 18,
 "Internet Users' Glossary." These definitions are largely excerpted
 from that glossary. (See Section 8, "Suggested Reading," above for
 complete reference information.)
 Acceptable Use Policy (AUP)
 The policy which defines the uses of the network that the network's
 administrators consider appropriate. Enforcement of AUPs varies with
 the network.
 Anonymous FTP
 Accessing data via the File Transfer Protocol using the special
 username "anonymous." This was devised as a method to provide a
 relatively secure way of providing restricted access to public data.
 Users who wish to acquire data from a public source may use FTP to
 connect to the source, then use the special username "anonymous" and
 their email address as the password to log into a public data area.
 Archie
 A system to automatically gather, index and serve information on the
 Internet. The initial implementation of Archie provided an indexed
 directory of filenames from all anonymous FTP archives on the
 Internet.  Later versions provide other collections of information.
 Client
 An application which requests information from, or requests a service
 of, a shared resource (a computer or "server"). See also Server.
 Cracker
 A person who uses computer knowledge to attempt to gain access to
 computer systems and/or maliciously damage those systems or data.
 Dial-in (also dial-up)
 A connection, usually made via modems, between two computers (or
 servers) over standard voice grade telephone lines.

Sellers & Robichaux Informational [Page 52] RFC 1941 Frequently Asked Questions for Schools May 1996

 Download
 To copy data from a remote computer to a local computer. The opposite
 of upload.
 DSU/CSU (Data Service Unit/Channel Service Unit)
 The digital equivalent of a modem. A Channel Service Unit connects to
 a telephone company-provided digital data circuit, and a Data Service
 Unit provides the electronics required to connect digital equipment
 to the CSU.  Paired together a DSU/CSU allows computer equipment to
 be connected into the telephone digital service for highly
 conditioned, high speed data communications.
 Electronic Bulletin Board System (BBS)
 A computer, and associated software, which typically provides
 electronic messaging services, archives of files, and any other
 services or activities of interest to the bulletin board system's
 operator. Although BBSs have traditionally been the domain of
 hobbyists, an increasing number of BBSs are connected directly to the
 Internet, and many BBSs are currently operated by government,
 educational, and research institutions.
 Email (Electronic Mail)
 A system whereby a computer user can exchange messages with other
 computer users (or groups of users) via a communications network.
 FidoNet
 A network of computers interconnected using the FIDO dial-up
 protocols.  The FIDO protocol provides a means of "store and forward"
 file transfer similar to UUCP.
 FTP (File Transfer Protocol)
 A protocol which allows a user on one host to access, and transfer
 files to and from, another host over a network.  Also, FTP is usually
 the name of the program the user invokes to execute the protocol.
 FYI (For Your Information)
 A subseries of RFCs that are not technical standards or descriptions
 of protocols.  FYIs convey general information about topics related
 to TCP/IP or the Internet. See also RFC (Request for Comments).

Sellers & Robichaux Informational [Page 53] RFC 1941 Frequently Asked Questions for Schools May 1996

 Gopher
 A distributed information service that makes available hierarchical
 collections of information across the Internet. Gopher uses a simple
 protocol that allows a single Gopher client to access information
 from any accessible Gopher server, providing the user with a single
 "Gopher space" of information. Public domain versions of the client
 and server are available
 Hacker
 A person who delights in having an intimate understanding of the
 internal workings of a system, computers and computer networks in
 particular. The popular media has corrupted this term to give it the
 pejorative connotation of a person who maliciously uses computer
 knowledge to cause damage to computers and data. The proper term for
 this type of person is "cracker."
 Home page
 A form of Web page that serves as the introductory or main page for a
 subject. The home page generally contains basic information about a
 subject and hypertext links to other pages which contain more
 detailed information. See also WWW and Web page.
 Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)
 The IETF is a large, open community of network designers, operators,
 vendors, and researchers whose purpose is to coordinate the
 operation, management and evolution of the Internet, and to resolve
 short-range and mid-range protocol and architectural issues. It is a
 major source of protocol proposals and standards.
 Internet Service Provider (ISP)
 See Network Access Provider.
 InterNIC
 A Network Information Center (NIC), funded by the National Science
 foundation, that provides information about the Internet. The
 InterNIC offers support in the areas of Information Services (the
 task most often cited in this document), Registration Services, and
 Directory and Database Services.

Sellers & Robichaux Informational [Page 54] RFC 1941 Frequently Asked Questions for Schools May 1996

 Kbs (Kilo-Bits per Second)
 A data transmission rate expressed in 1000 bit per second units. For
 example, 56 Kbs is 56*1000 = 56,000 bits per second.
 LAN (Local Area Network)
 A data network intended to serve an area of only a few square
 kilometers or less. Since such networks are relatively small, they
 can usually be directly controlled by the users and operate at
 relatively high speeds (up to 100 Mbs [10 million bits per second])
 over inexpensive wiring.
 Leased line
 A leased line is a special phone company permanent connection between
 two locations. Leased lines are generally used where high-speed data
 (usually 960 characters per second and higher) is continually
 exchanged between two computers (in the Internet, generally between
 routers). A leased line is billed at the same rate per month
 independent of how much the line is used and can be cheaper than
 using dial modems depending on the usage.  Leased lines may also be
 used where higher data rates are needed beyond what a dial modem can
 provide.
 Listserv (mailing list server)
 An automated program that accepts mail messages from users and
 performs basic operations on mailing lists for those users. In the
 Internet, listservs are usually accessed as "listname@host." For
 example, the list server for the hypothetical list
 "newsreports@acme.org" would be called "listserv@acme.org." Sending
 email to "newsreports@acme.org" causes the message to be sent to all
 the list subscribers, while sending a message (to subscribe or
 unsubscribe, for example) to "listserv@acme.org" sends the message
 only to the list server program. Not all mailing lists use list
 servers to handle list administration duties. More than one automated
 mailing program exists on the Internet, although the term "listserv"
 is sometimes confusingly used to refer to any such program.
 Mailing Lists
 A list of email addresses.  Generally, a mailing list is used to
 discuss a certain set of topics, and different mailing lists discuss
 different topics.  A mailing list may be moderated. That is, messages
 sent to the list are actually sent to a moderator who determines
 whether or not to send the messages on to everyone else.  Many
 mailing lists are maintained by mail handling software such as

Sellers & Robichaux Informational [Page 55] RFC 1941 Frequently Asked Questions for Schools May 1996

 listserv, majordomo, or listproc, which are programs that
 automatically handle operations such as adding new people to the
 list.  (See above.) In the Internet, for those mailing lists
 maintained by a human, rather than by a program, you can generally
 subscribe to a list by sending a mail message to: "listname-
 REQUEST@host" and in the body of the message enter a request to
 subscribe.  To send messages to other subscribers, you will then use
 the address "listname@host."
 Modem (MODulator/DEModulator)
 A device that converts the digital signals used by computers into
 analog signals needed by voice telephone systems.
 Network Access Provider (Network Service Provider, Internet Service
 Provider)
 Any organization that provides network connectivity or dial-up
 access.  Service providers may be corporations, government agencies,
 universities, or other organizations.
 Network News
 Another name for "Usenet News."
 NIC (Network Information Center)
 A central place where information about a network within the Internet
 is maintained. Usually NICs are staffed by personnel who answer user
 telephone calls and electronic mail, and provide general network
 usage information and referrals, among other possible tasks. Most
 network service providers also provide a NIC for their users.
 Port
 A specific access point on an Internet computer, designated by a
 number.  Most common Internet services, such as the World Wide Web,
 have specific port numbers associated with them, which makes it
 easier for applications on the Internet to interact. Human users of
 the Intern et normally do not need to worry about port numbers.
 PPP (Point to Point Protocol)
 A protocol used to establish TCP/IP connections using serial lines
 such as dial-up telephone lines. Similar to SLIP (see below), PPP is
 a later standard that includes features such as demand dial-up,
 compression, and better flow control.

Sellers & Robichaux Informational [Page 56] RFC 1941 Frequently Asked Questions for Schools May 1996

 Protocol
 A formal description of message formats and the rules two computers
 must follow to exchange those messages. Protocols can describe low-
 level details of machine-to-machine interfaces (e.g., the order in
 which bits and bytes are sent across a wire) or high-level exchanges
 between allocation programs (e.g., the way in which two programs
 transfer a file across the Internet).
 Protocol Stack
 A series of protocols linked together to provide an end-to-end
 service.  For example, the File Transfer Protocol uses the
 Transmission Control Protocol, which uses the Internet Protocol,
 which may use the Point to Point protocol, to transfer a file from
 one computer to another. The series FTP->TCP->IP->PPP is called a
 protocol stack.
 RFC (Request for Comments)
 The document series, begun in 1969, which describes the Internet
 suite of protocols and related experiments. Not all (in fact very
 few) RFCs describe Internet standards, but all Internet standards are
 written up as RFCs. The RFCs include the documentary record of the
 Internet standards process.
 Router
 A computer which forwards traffic between networks. The forwarding
 decision is based on network layer information and routing tables,
 often constructed by routing protocols.
 Server
 A shared resource which provides information or services to user
 applications or clients. See also Client.
 SLIP (Serial Line Internet Protocol)
 A protocol used to establish TCP/IP connections using serial lines
 such as dial-up telephone lines. Small computers, such as PCs and
 Macintoshes, can use SLIP to dial up to servers, which then allow the
 computer to act as a full Internet node. SLIP is generally used at
 sites with a few users as a cheaper alternative than a full Internet
 connection. SLIP is being replaced by PPP at many sites.

Sellers & Robichaux Informational [Page 57] RFC 1941 Frequently Asked Questions for Schools May 1996

 TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol)
 TCP/IP is named for two of the major communications protocols used
 within the Internet (TCP and IP). These protocols (along with several
 others) provide the basic foundation for communications between hosts
 in the Internet. All of the service protocols, such as FTP, Telnet,
 and Gopher, use TCP/IP to transfer information.
 Telnet
 Telnet is the Internet standard protocol for remote terminal
 connection service. The name "telnet" also is used to refer to
 programs that allow interactive access to remote computers, as well
 as the action of using said programs. For example, the phrase "Telnet
 to host xyzzy" means to interactively log into host "xyzzy" from some
 other host in the Internet.
 Upload
 To copy data from a local computer to a remote computer. The opposite
 of download.
 Usenet News
 An electronic bulletin board system created originally by the Unix
 community and which is accessible via the Internet. Usenet News forms
 a discussion forum accessible by millions of users in almost every
 country in the world. Usenet News consists of thousands of topics
 arranged in a hierarchical form. Major topics include "comp" for
 computer topics, "rec" for recreational topics, "soc" for social
 topics, "sci" for science topics, etc. Within the major topics are
 subtopics, such as "rec.music.classical" for classical music, or
 "sci.med.physics" for discussions relating to the physics of medical
 science.
 UUCP (Unix-to-Unix CoPy)
 This was initially a program run under the Unix operating system that
 allowed one Unix system to send files to another Unix system via
 dial-up phone lines. Today, the term is more commonly used to
 describe the large international network which uses the UUCP protocol
 to pass news and electronic mail.
 Veronica (Very Easy Rodent-Oriented Network Index to Computerized
 Archives)
 A utility which searches Gopher servers based on a user's list of
 keywords.

Sellers & Robichaux Informational [Page 58] RFC 1941 Frequently Asked Questions for Schools May 1996

 Virus
 A program which replicates itself on computer systems by
 incorporating itself into other programs which are shared among
 computer systems. The term virus is also often used more generally to
 refer to any unauthorized software intrusion into a computer, no
 matter the type or behavior of the program.
 Web
 See WWW.
 Web page
 A document, usually containing hypertext links, which is available
 through the World Wide Web. Web pages are composed in a special
 language called Hypertext Markup Language (HTML), which allows basic
 formatting such as font sizes, bold, underline, blinking text, and
 inclusion of graphics images. Web pages usually contain hypertext
 links to other Web pages. See also WWW and Home page.
 WAIS (Wide Area Information Server)
 A distributed information service which offers simple natural
 language input, indexed searching for fast retrieval, and a
 "relevance feedback" mechanism which allows the results of initial
 searches to influence future searches. Public domain implementations
 are available.
 WWW (World Wide Web)
 A hypertext-based, distributed information system created by
 researchers at the European Laboratory for Particle Physics (CERN) in
 Switzerland.  The Web information system may be used to create, edit,
 or browse hypertext documents. The Web protocol interlinks
 information in such a way that a user can traverse the Web from any
 starting point. The protocol also interacts with many other Internet
 services, such as Gopher, to provide one consistent, transparent user
 interface to the Internet. Client and server software is widely
 available via a number of methods: as free software, as client
 software often included as part of an Internet connection package, or
 as a commercial product.

Sellers & Robichaux Informational [Page 59] RFC 1941 Frequently Asked Questions for Schools May 1996

APPENDIX B: WAYS TO GET RFCs

 FYI documents such as the one your are reading are a subset of the
 Internet Engineering Task Force's RFC documents.
 Note that the latest version of the following file may be found on
 the World Wide Web at http://www.isi.edu/in-notes/rfc-editor/rfc-info
 For more information on Internet Engineering Task Force publications,
 visit the RFC Editor's home page on the World Wide Web at
 http://www.isi.edu:80/rfc-editor/rfc-sources.html
 RFC-Info Simplified Help
 ------------------------
 Use RFC-Info by sending email messages to RFC-INFO@ISI.EDU.
 1.  To get a specific RFC send a message with text as follows:
         Retrieve: RFC
          Doc-ID: RFC1500
 This gets RFC 1500.  All RFC numbers in the Doc-Id are 4 digits (RFC
 791 would be Doc-ID: RFC0791).
 2.  To get a specific FYI send a message with text as follows:
         Retrieve: FYI
          Doc-ID: FYI0004
 3.  To get a list of available RFCs that match a certain criteria:
         LIST: RFC
          Keywords: Gateway
 Returns a list of RFCs with the word Gateway in the title or specified
 as a keyword.
 4.  To get the Index of all RFCs published:
         HELP: rfc_index
 5.  To get information about other ways to get RFCs, FYIs, STDs, or
     IMRs.
         HELP: ways_to_get_rfcs
         HELP: ways_to_get_fyis
         HELP: ways_to_get_stds

Sellers & Robichaux Informational [Page 60] RFC 1941 Frequently Asked Questions for Schools May 1996

         HELP: ways_to_get_imrs
 6.  To get help about using RFC-Info:
         HELP: help
     or
         HELP: topics

APPENDIX C: EXAMPLES OF EDUCATIONAL PROJECTS USING THE INTERNET

 The following examples of projects using the Internet appeared on
 various online computers and electronic mailing lists pertaining to
 education during the 1995-96 school year. The messages have been
 edited in the interest of space and because many of the details about
 how to participate will become dated, but the information presented
 can give you a feel for the types and range of projects that are
 happening at the time of this writing.
 A good source for project examples is "Judi Harris' Network-Based
 Educational Activity Collection" and other World Wide Web sites
 listed above in Section 9, "Resources and Contacts."
  1. —————————————–

Example One: Interdisciplinary, Grades 2-4

  1. —————————————–
 From> KIDSPHERE Mailing List <kidsphere@vms.cis.pitt.edu>
 Subject> interdisciplinary project - grades 2-4
 Project description: This interdisciplinary data collection activity
 will enable students to answer the question: Does our community size
 and location affect the types and numbers of pets we own?
 For grades 2,3,4
 Timeline:  January 29-March 4
 Our classes will collect and share information about our communities
 and will then collect and share data about the types and numbers of
 pets we own.  Students will be able to use the collected information
 to draw conclusions.
 To participate, please send me your:
 Name and grade level
 School address
 community size generalization:  rural, urban or suburban

Sellers & Robichaux Informational [Page 61] RFC 1941 Frequently Asked Questions for Schools May 1996

  1. ———————————————————-

Example Two: Science, Engineering, and Careers, Levels K-12

  1. ———————————————————-
 NASA is pleased to announce another exciting opportunity for K-12
 classrooms to interact with our scientists, engineers and support
 staff.
 This time, the men and women of the Galileo project will provide a
 behind-the-scenes look at what it's like to be part of the flight team
 on a pioneering interplanetary expedition through the ONLINE FROM
 JUPITER project.
 Galileo scientists and mission engineers are opening their notebooks
 to classrooms, museums and the public via the Internet to share their
 observations and experiences working on the NASA spacecraft mission to
 Jupiter.
 From now through January 1996, members of the flight team will write
 brief field journal entries describing the scientific puzzles,
 engineering challenges and excitement of discovery as the Galileo
 orbiter and atmospheric entry probe begin their scientific
 investigation of Jupiter.  The atmospheric probe is set to descend
 into Jupiter's atmosphere on Dec.  7, the same day the Galileo orbiter
 begins circling the giant planet for a two-year mission.
 "For the first time, we're providing a window on the inner workings
 and interactions of a scientific deep space mission," said Dr. Jo
 Pitesky, member of the Galileo Mission Planning Office.  "In sharing
 the journal entries, we hope to give readers, particularly students,
 an idea of the tremendous efforts that go into controlling and
 collecting data from a robot spacecraft a half-billion miles away."
 After reading background material and the journals, kindergarten
 through 12th grade students and their teachers can ask project members
 questions -- via E-mail -- starting in late November and running
 through January 1996.  They will receive personal responses,
 corresponding with experts on subjects ranging from atmospheric
 science to spacecraft systems. An archive of all questions and answers
 will be available online.
 In addition, students will be able to take part in online experiments
 that will use actual probe data. Another activity will challenge
 students to predict the exact timing of the Galileo probe's first-ever
 plunge into the Jovian atmosphere. Additionally, students will be
 invited to create Stumpers (riddles and puzzles) to share with one
 another. Other curriculum resources will help teachers integrate the
 Galileo project into their classrooms. As well, mechanisms will be

Sellers & Robichaux Informational [Page 62] RFC 1941 Frequently Asked Questions for Schools May 1996

 provided to help like-minded teachers connect with each another to
 pursue collaborative projects of their own.
 Other than your own time, there is no cost to get involved. Please
 consider joining us on this learning adventure. To participate, you
 must sign up for the ONLINE FROM JUPITER maillist. To do this, send an
 email message to listmanager@quest.arc.nasa.gov. In the message body,
 write only these words: subscribe updates-jup
 For more information, make a webstop at our "continuous construction"
 site: http://quest.arc.nasa.gov/jupiter.html
 These projects are part of the "Sharing NASA with the Classroom"
 series.  They are made possible by funding from the NASA Information
 Infrastructure Technology and Applications (IITA) program. IITA is
 part of the High Performance Computing and Communications program
 authorized by Federal legislation passed in December 1991.
  1. —————————————————–

Example Three: MathMagic; Math at Various Grade Levels

  1. —————————————————–
 [Note: The MathMagic World Wide Web home page is located at
 http://forum.swarthmore.edu/mathmagic/]
 What is MathMagic?
 MathMagic is a K-12 telecommunications project developed in El Paso,
 Texas. It provides strong motivation for students to use computer
 technology while increasing problem-solving strategies and
 communications skills. MathMagic posts challenges in each of four
 categories (k-3, 4-6, 7-9 and 10-12) to trigger each registered team
 to pair up with another team and engage in a problem-solving dialog.
 When an agreement has been reached, one solution is posted for every
 pair.
 MathMagic has received wide ideological acceptance by hundreds of past
 FidoNet users because it addresses most of the National Council of
 Teachers of Mathematics standards. A modified format has now expanded
 into the Internet and is available via regular e-mail or via the World
 Wide Web (WWW).
 Who can participate?
 K-12 teachers and students, but higher education teachers, librarians,
 technology coordinators, computer teachers, and even home-schoolers
 are joining to act as facilitators.

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 What is needed?
 Any teacher with access to electronic mail via the Internet can
 participate. Several net service providers and most of the commercial
 boards (America Online, Genie, CompuServe, Delphi, The Well, etc.) now
 offer e-mail gateways and other Internet services. MathMagic is best
 suited to schools that use computers with modems and have direct
 Internet access.
 In some areas, a local Bulletin Board System (BBS) or a Net user (such
 as a parent with net access) may have to act as a go-between. Please
 ask about special arrangements.
 [Example challenge for grades 10-12:]
  • MathMagic Cycle 18: Level 10-12 Regular *
 Using the numbers 1 9 9 2 in a "locked" position, can you develop a 31
 day calendar for the month of October?  You can use addition (+),
 subtraction (-), multiplication (*), division (/) exponents (^)
 factorial (!) square root (sqrt) and, naturally, parenthesis ( ).
 Example: Friday the 13th could be: (1+sqrt(9))!-9-2 (Scary, isn't it?)
 (Notice that the numbers appear in the "locked" sequence)
  • * MathMagic Cycle 18: Level 10-12 Advanced What 6 digit number, with 6 different digits, when multiplied by all integers up to 6, circulates its digits through all 6 possible positions, as follows: ABCDEF * 1 - ABCDEF ABCDEF * 3 - BCDEFA ABCDEF * 2 - CDEFAB ABCDEF * 6 - DEFABC ABCDEF * 4 - EFABCD ABCDEF * 5 - FABCDE Sellers & Robichaux Informational [Page 64] RFC 1941 Frequently Asked Questions for Schools May 1996 * Good luck MrH [Example challenges for grades K-3:] * MathMagic Cycle 16: Level K-3 Regular * When two straight lines meet, they form an angle. Some angles are easy to recognize. For instance, a RIGHT ANGLE is any of the four angles formed by a piece of paper (like typing or computer paper) that has sharp corners. Using a clock and "talking" with your partners, try to figure out how many times in a day (24 hours) the hour hand and the minute hand form a right angle. You may want to do a chart and watch the hour hand move between the numbers, as you move the minute hand…
 MathMagic Cycle 16: Level K-3 Advanced
  • *
 One of the better known works of architecture of the Roman Empire was
 the Coliseum. For a few months, at its maximum splendor (before the
 senate began cutting its funding... yes, old problem) there stood an
 Imperial Roman Guard in each of its 1000 arches. Imagine the splendor!
 (Not too cool if you were the entertainment.)
 The first budget conscious cut called for the removal of every other
 Imperial Guard. Imagine, one stayed, the next went. The second senate
 cut called for the removal of every third guard (from the original
 count). So, the order went out that guards of gate 1 and gate 2 (if
 there was one) could stay, while guard of gate 3 (and every other
 third one) had to go...  Naturally, what the senate was doing was
 getting rid of some guards, but also getting the credit for a lot of
 "cuts" of gates that had no guard.
 The "cuts" continued number after number, until a diligent member of
 the opposition party cried foul. He said, "Only some of the cuts are
 actually getting rid of guards. A lot of them are not!" Can you build
 an argument for this senator?

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 Also, if you were a Roman Imperial Guard that every week had to choose
 a different gate you had to look after (and run the risk of loosing
 your job), which gates would be your choice?
  1. —————–

Good luck MrH

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Example Four: Various Projects Announced by Global SchoolNet

  1. ———————————————————–
 Hi,
 Our teachers have been doing K12 projects over the Internet for the
 past 12 years.
 There is NO CHARGE for schools to participate in the projects. Global
 SchoolNet organizes, manages, and facilitates collaborative learning
 projects for schools with any level of connectivity . . . from email
 only . . . to desktop videoconferencing.
 To access these projects go to:
  http://gsn.org/gsn/gsn.projects.html
 Sample of Projects you will find
 ---------------------------------
 The Global Schoolhouse (Featuring Desktop Video-Conferencing)
 Today's "school of the future" uses the most powerful Internet tools,
 including live video, to link K12 classrooms to their communities and
 to other children around the world.
 CALREN: Building the California Global Schoolhouse
 Education leader (Global SchoolNet) partners with business leader
 (Aldea Communications) to discover and document how schools,
 businesses, and the community can network to share resources.
 CyberStars: Number Ones of Tomorrow
 For the first time ever, children around the globe can share their
 musical talents with the world via the Internet.
 PAACE: Personal Achievement And Career Awareness
 Students learn and practice important career skills, including those
 dealing with education, attitude, manners, grooming, and fashion.

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 Scientist-on-Tap
 Scientists from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory demonstrate the power of
 distance learning, by interacting with students around world, from the
 comfort of their own offices!
 Projects that Require Email Access Only
 --------------------------------------
 Ask a Geologist (AAG)
 Have you ever wondered about why California has so many earthquakes
 and New York does not? Why is there so much oil in Texas but not in
 Wisconsin?  What are the deepest canyons in the United States? (The
 answer might surprise you!) While the answers to many of these
 questions might be as close as an encyclopedia, some questions are
 difficult to answer without checking many sources. Beginning Monday,
 October 3, 1994, the USGS will offer a new, experimental Internet
 service - Ask-A-Geologist.  General questions on earth sciences may be
 sent by electronic mail
 Family Tree-Mail: Language Translation
 In this pilot project, children use Globalink's language translation
 software to share family histories via email in their native languages
 of Spanish, French, German, and Italian.
 Field Trips
 Join other classes on their live field trips. In turn, you take other
 classes with you when you visit local places of interest. Our
 FIELDTRIPS-L mailing list manages this "exchange" of classroom field
 trips and excursions.
 Geogame
 This perennially favorite project will excite your students as they
 immerse themselves in atlases, maps, almanacs, and other references in
 order to solve a geography puzzle. Your students help create the
 puzzle by answering 8 questions about your community: latitude,
 typical weather, land formations, time zone, points of interest, etc.
 We combine their responses with other classes to create a geography
 puzzle your students will love to solve. A simple first project for
 beginning telecommunicators.

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 Global Grocery List
 Your students visit their local grocery stores and record the prices
 of items on the grocery list, then share their prices with other
 participating classes all over the world. The result is a growing
 table of current, peer-collected data that can be used in math, social
 studies, science, and health classes (and others). This project is
 especially good for telecomputing beginners: it has very little
 structure and no timeline.
 Jane Goodall Institute
 Students learn about the interconnectedness of all life on earth as
 they observe the world around them and become involved in
 environmental and humanitarian issues. Explore Gombe and Kibira
 National Parks, ChimpanZoo, and the Roots & Shoots Program.
 The Jason Project
 The Jason Project brings the thrill of exploration and discovery live
 to students around the world as they participate in an amazing
 electronic field trip. In 1995 they trekked to Hawaii to study
 volcanoes. The Global SchoolNet Foundation manages the Jason Project
 Listservs and features them in our Global SCHLnet Newsgroup Service.
 LOGO Foundation
 The Logo Foundation, in cooperation with the Global SchoolNet
 Foundation, is now managing a Logo listserv discussion group available
 to anybody on the Internet.
 Newsday
 Your students write articles and post them on the Newsday Newswire for
 the whole world to see! Then they read and choose articles from other
 schools to download and include in their own newspaper! Finally... you
 share your newspaper with other classes... and they in turn share
 theirs with you.  Your students' reading and writing skills will
 improve while they learn about current local, national, and global
 issues.
 Where on the Globe is Roger?
 Children are invited to learn about history, culture, geography, and
 the environment, while they electronically travel around the world
 with Roger Williams - in his quest to promote world peace!

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Example Five: Professional Development

  1. ————————————-
        THE WEATHER UNDERGROUND ANNOUNCES "DISASTER IN THE CLASSROOM"
        A *LIVE* TELEVISION PROGRAM TO ILLUSTRATE USES OF REAL-TIME
        WEATHER AND ENVIRONMENTAL IMAGERY IN K-12 EDUCATION
 Beginning in September 1995, Professor Perry Samson, University of
 Michigan professor and Director of the Weather Underground, will host
 an innovative, biweekly series of live, interactive, television shows
 aimed at teachers, administrators, and parents interested in K-12
 education, Internet resources, and the use of real-time weather
 information in science.  Aimed specifically at the professional
 development of teachers, the programs create a model for teachers to
 carry back into their classroom, a model that promotes project-based
 student centered learning environments using new technology and
 science ideas creatively.
 The programs, interactive in design, allow participants to ask
 questions and respond to information through a simultaneous e-mail
 dialogue. A strength in the design of this series is its ability to
 allow an interactive discussion of environmental issues (severe
 weather, snowstorms, droughts, earthquakes, volcanic activity , El
 Nino, etc.) in a timely manner, matching current news items to
 science activities. The programs in the virtual classroom series are
 uplinked to a satellite from the University of Michigan.  Teachers,
 administrators, parents or students can view the class either on
 their own or in groups.  Participants will be encouraged to use their
 computer and modem to log into our server during the show.  This
 interactive virtual classroom will allow participants to pose or
 answer questions live (or after the show).
 Navigation on the Internet and pointers to information specific to
 the science curriculum ideas presented on the show are emphasized and
 made available to teachers for use in their classrooms.  Participants
 are shown where on the Internet to find imagery and activities
 relevant to the topics discussed and are lead through a discussion of
 new methods to utilize these data in their classroom activities.
 Example activities utilizing current weather, climate and
 environmental conditions are demonstrated.

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 If you are interested in participating in this series from your home
 or school and would like to receive graduate credit for it, please
 contact:
         The Weather Underground
 URL:    http://groundhog.sprl.umich.edu
 [other contact information deleted]
 First show is Sept. 18, contact us or look to URL above for more
 information soon!!!!!!

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