GENWiki

Premier IT Outsourcing and Support Services within the UK

User Tools

Site Tools

Problem, Formatting or Query -  Send Feedback

Was this page helpful?-10+1


rfc:rfc1866

Network Working Group T. Berners-Lee Request for Comments: 1866 MIT/W3C Category: Standards Track D. Connolly

                                                        November 1995
                  Hypertext Markup Language - 2.0

Status of this Memo

 This document specifies an Internet standards track protocol for the
 Internet community, and requests discussion and suggestions for
 improvements.  Please refer to the current edition of the "Internet
 Official Protocol Standards" (STD 1) for the standardization state
 and status of this protocol.  Distribution of this memo is unlimited.

Abstract

 The Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) is a simple markup language used
 to create hypertext documents that are platform independent. HTML
 documents are SGML documents with generic semantics that are
 appropriate for representing information from a wide range of
 domains. HTML markup can represent hypertext news, mail,
 documentation, and hypermedia; menus of options; database query
 results; simple structured documents with in-lined graphics; and
 hypertext views of existing bodies of information.
 HTML has been in use by the World Wide Web (WWW) global information
 initiative since 1990. This specification roughly corresponds to the
 capabilities of HTML in common use prior to June 1994. HTML is an
 application of ISO Standard 8879:1986 Information Processing Text and
 Office Systems; Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML).
 The "text/html" Internet Media Type (RFC 1590) and MIME Content Type
 (RFC 1521) is defined by this specification.

Table of Contents

  1.     Introduction ........................................... 2
  1.1    Scope .................................................. 3
  1.2    Conformance ............................................ 3
  2.     Terms .................................................. 6
  3.     HTML as an Application of SGML .........................10
  3.1    SGML Documents .........................................10
  3.2    HTML Lexical Syntax ................................... 12
  3.3    HTML Public Text Identifiers .......................... 17
  3.4    Example HTML Document ................................. 17
  4.     HTML as an Internet Media Type ........................ 18

Berners-Lee & Connolly Standards Track [Page 1] RFC 1866 Hypertext Markup Language - 2.0 November 1995

  4.1    text/html media type .................................. 18
  4.2    HTML Document Representation .......................... 19
  5.     Document Structure .................................... 20
  5.1    Document Element: HTML ................................ 21
  5.2    Head: HEAD ............................................ 21
  5.3    Body: BODY ............................................ 24
  5.4    Headings: H1 ... H6 ................................... 24
  5.5    Block Structuring Elements ............................ 25
  5.6    List Elements ......................................... 28
  5.7    Phrase Markup ......................................... 30
  5.8    Line Break: BR ........................................ 34
  5.9    Horizontal Rule: HR ................................... 34
  5.10   Image: IMG ............................................ 34
  6.     Characters, Words, and Paragraphs ..................... 35
  6.1    The HTML Document Character Set ....................... 36
  7.     Hyperlinks ............................................ 36
  7.1    Accessing Resources ................................... 37
  7.2    Activation of Hyperlinks .............................. 38
  7.3    Simultaneous Presentation of Image Resources .......... 38
  7.4    Fragment Identifiers .................................. 38
  7.5    Queries and Indexes ................................... 39
  7.6    Image Maps ............................................ 39
  8.     Forms ................................................. 40
  8.1    Form Elements ......................................... 40
  8.2    Form Submission ....................................... 45
  9.     HTML Public Text ...................................... 49
  9.1    HTML DTD .............................................. 49
  9.2    Strict HTML DTD ....................................... 61
  9.3    Level 1 HTML DTD ...................................... 62
  9.4    Strict Level 1 HTML DTD ............................... 63
  9.5    SGML Declaration for HTML ............................. 64
  9.6    Sample SGML Open Entity Catalog for HTML .............. 65
  9.7    Character Entity Sets ................................. 66
  10.    Security Considerations ............................... 69
  11.    References ............................................ 69
  12.    Acknowledgments ....................................... 71
  12.1   Authors' Addresses .................................... 71
  13.    The HTML Coded Character Set .......................... 72
  14.    Proposed Entities ..................................... 75

1. Introduction

 The HyperText Markup Language (HTML) is a simple data format used to
 create hypertext documents that are portable from one platform to
 another. HTML documents are SGML documents with generic semantics
 that are appropriate for representing information from a wide range
 of domains.

Berners-Lee & Connolly Standards Track [Page 2] RFC 1866 Hypertext Markup Language - 2.0 November 1995

 As HTML is an application of SGML, this specification assumes a
 working knowledge of [SGML].

1.1. Scope

 HTML has been in use by the World-Wide Web (WWW) global information
 initiative since 1990. Previously, informal documentation on HTML has
 been available from a number of sources on the Internet. This
 specification brings together, clarifies, and formalizes a set of
 features that roughly corresponds to the capabilities of HTML in
 common use prior to June 1994. A number of new features to HTML are
 being proposed and experimented in the Internet community.
 This document thus defines a HTML 2.0 (to distinguish it from the
 previous informal specifications). Future (generally upwardly
 compatible) versions of HTML with new features will be released with
 higher version numbers.
 HTML is an application of ISO Standard 8879:1986, "Information
 Processing Text and Office Systems; Standard Generalized Markup
 Language" (SGML). The HTML Document Type Definition (DTD) is a formal
 definition of the HTML syntax in terms of SGML.
 This specification also defines HTML as an Internet Media
 Type[IMEDIA] and MIME Content Type[MIME] called `text/html'. As such,
 it defines the semantics of the HTML syntax and how that syntax
 should be interpreted by user agents.

1.2. Conformance

 This specification governs the syntax of HTML documents and aspects
 of the behavior of HTML user agents.

1.2.1. Documents

 A document is a conforming HTML document if:
  • It is a conforming SGML document, and it conforms to the

HTML DTD (see 9.1, "HTML DTD").

          NOTE - There are a number of syntactic idioms that
          are not supported or are supported inconsistently in
          some historical user agent implementations. These
          idioms are identified in notes like this throughout
          this specification.
  • It conforms to the application conventions in this

specification. For example, the value of the HREF attribute

Berners-Lee & Connolly Standards Track [Page 3] RFC 1866 Hypertext Markup Language - 2.0 November 1995

      of the <A> element must conform to the URI syntax.
  • Its document character set includes [ISO-8859-1] and

agrees with [ISO-10646]; that is, each code position listed

      in 13, "The HTML Coded Character Set" is included, and each
      code position in the document character set is mapped to the
      same character as [ISO-10646] designates for that code
      position.
          NOTE - The document character set is somewhat
          independent of the character encoding scheme used to
          represent a document. For example, the `ISO-2022-JP'
          character encoding scheme can be used for HTML
          documents, since its repertoire is a subset of the
          [ISO-10646] repertoire. The critical distinction is
          that numeric character references agree with
          [ISO-10646] regardless of how the document is
          encoded.

1.2.2. Feature Test Entities

 The HTML DTD defines a standard HTML document type and several
 variations, by way of feature test entities. Feature test entities
 are declarations in the HTML DTD that control the inclusion or
 exclusion of portions of the DTD.
  HTML.Recommended
          Certain features of the language are necessary for
          compatibility with widespread usage, but they may
          compromise the structural integrity of a document. This
          feature test entity selects a more prescriptive document
          type definition that eliminates those features. It is
          set to `IGNORE' by default.
          For example, in order to preserve the structure of a
          document, an editing user agent may translate HTML
          documents to the recommended subset, or it may require
          that the documents be in the recommended subset for
          import.
  HTML.Deprecated
          Certain features of the language are necessary for
          compatibility with earlier versions of the
          specification, but they tend to be used and implemented
          inconsistently, and their use is deprecated. This
          feature test entity enables a document type definition
          that allows these features. It is set to `INCLUDE' by
          default.

Berners-Lee & Connolly Standards Track [Page 4] RFC 1866 Hypertext Markup Language - 2.0 November 1995

          Documents generated by translation software or editing
          software should not contain deprecated idioms.

1.2.3. User Agents

 An HTML user agent conforms to this specification if:
  • It parses the characters of an HTML document into data

characters and markup according to [SGML].

          NOTE - In the interest of robustness and
          extensibility, there are a number of widely deployed
          conventions for handling non-conforming documents.
          See 4.2.1, "Undeclared Markup Error Handling" for
          details.
  • It supports the `ISO-8859-1' character encoding scheme and

processes each character in the ISO Latin Alphabet No. 1 as

      specified in 6.1, "The HTML Document Character Set".
          NOTE - To support non-western writing systems, HTML
          user agents are encouraged to support
          `ISO-10646-UCS-2' or similar character encoding
          schemes and as much of the character repertoire of
          [ISO-10646] as is practical.
  • It behaves identically for documents whose parsed token

sequences are identical.

      For example, comments and the whitespace in tags disappear
      during tokenization, and hence they do not influence the
      behavior of conforming user agents.
  • It allows the user to traverse (or at least attempt to

traverse, resources permitting) all hyperlinks from <A>

      elements in an HTML document.
 An HTML user agent is a level 2 user agent if, additionally:
  • It allows the user to express all form field values

specified in an HTML document and to (attempt to) submit the

      values as requests to information services.

Berners-Lee & Connolly Standards Track [Page 5] RFC 1866 Hypertext Markup Language - 2.0 November 1995

2. Terms

  absolute URI
          a URI in absolute form; for example, as per [URL]
  anchor
          one of two ends of a hyperlink; typically, a phrase
          marked as an <A> element.
  base URI
          an absolute URI used in combination with a relative URI
          to determine another absolute URI.
  character
          An atom of information, for example a letter or a digit.
          Graphic characters have associated glyphs, whereas
          control characters have associated processing semantics.
  character encoding
  scheme
          A function whose domain is the set of sequences of
          octets, and whose range is the set of sequences of
          characters from a character repertoire; that is, a
          sequence of octets and a character encoding scheme
          determines a sequence of characters.
  character repertoire
          A finite set of characters; e.g. the range of a coded
          character set.
  code position
          An integer. A coded character set and a code position
          from its domain determine a character.
  coded character set
          A function whose domain is a subset of the integers and
          whose range is a character repertoire. That is, for some
          set of integers (usually of the form {0, 1, 2, ..., N}
          ), a coded character set and an integer in that set
          determine a character. Conversely, a character and a
          coded character set determine the character's code
          position (or, in rare cases, a few code positions).
  conforming HTML user
  agent
          A user agent that conforms to this specification in its
          processing of the Internet Media Type `text/html'.

Berners-Lee & Connolly Standards Track [Page 6] RFC 1866 Hypertext Markup Language - 2.0 November 1995

  data character
          Characters other than markup, which make up the content
          of elements.
  document character set
          a coded character set whose range includes all
          characters used in a document. Every SGML document has
          exactly one document character set. Numeric character
          references are resolved via the document character set.
  DTD
          document type definition. Rules that apply SGML to the
          markup of documents of a particular type, including a
          set of element and entity declarations. [SGML]
  element
          A component of the hierarchical structure defined by a
          document type definition; it is identified in a document
          instance by descriptive markup, usually a start-tag and
          end-tag. [SGML]
  end-tag
          Descriptive markup that identifies the end of an
          element. [SGML]
  entity
          data with an associated notation or interpretation; for
          example, a sequence of octets associated with an
          Internet Media Type. [SGML]
  fragment identifier
          the portion of an HREF attribute value following the `#'
          character which modifies the presentation of the
          destination of a hyperlink.
  form data set
          a sequence of name/value pairs; the names are given by
          an HTML document and the values are given by a user.
  HTML document
          An SGML document conforming to this document type
          definition.
  hyperlink
          a relationship between two anchors, called the head and
          the tail. The link goes from the tail to the head. The
          head and tail are also known as destination and source,
          respectively.

Berners-Lee & Connolly Standards Track [Page 7] RFC 1866 Hypertext Markup Language - 2.0 November 1995

  markup
          Syntactically delimited characters added to the data of
          a document to represent its structure. There are four
          different kinds of markup: descriptive markup (tags),
          references, markup declarations, and processing
          instructions. [SGML]
  may
          A document or user interface is conforming whether this
          statement applies or not.
  media type
          an Internet Media Type, as per [IMEDIA].
  message entity
          a head and body. The head is a collection of name/value
          fields, and the body is a sequence of octets. The head
          defines the content type and content transfer encoding
          of the body. [MIME]
  minimally conforming
  HTML user agent
          A user agent that conforms to this specification except
          for form processing. It may only process level 1 HTML
          documents.
  must
          Documents or user agents in conflict with this statement
          are not conforming.
  numeric character
  reference
          markup that refers to a character by its code position
          in the document character set.
  SGML document
          A sequence of characters organized physically as a set
          of entities and logically into a hierarchy of elements.
          An SGML document consists of data characters and markup;
          the markup describes the structure of the information
          and an instance of that structure. [SGML]
  shall
          If a document or user agent conflicts with this
          statement, it does not conform to this specification.

Berners-Lee & Connolly Standards Track [Page 8] RFC 1866 Hypertext Markup Language - 2.0 November 1995

  should
          If a document or user agent conflicts with this
          statement, undesirable results may occur in practice
          even though it conforms to this specification.
  start-tag
          Descriptive markup that identifies the start of an
          element and specifies its generic identifier and
          attributes. [SGML]
  syntax-reference
  character set
          A coded character set whose range includes all
          characters used for markup; e.g. name characters and
          delimiter characters.
  tag
          Markup that delimits an element. A tag includes a name
          which refers to an element declaration in the DTD, and
          may include attributes. [SGML]
  text entity
          A finite sequence of characters. A text entity typically
          takes the form of a sequence of octets with some
          associated character encoding scheme, transmitted over
          the network or stored in a file. [SGML]
  typical
          Typical processing is described for many elements. This
          is not a mandatory part of the specification but is
          given as guidance for designers and to help explain the
          uses for which the elements were intended.
  URI
          A Uniform Resource Identifier is a formatted string that
          serves as an identifier for a resource, typically on the
          Internet. URIs are used in HTML to identify the anchors
          of hyperlinks. URIs in common practice include Uniform
          Resource Locators (URLs)[URL] and Relative URLs
          [RELURL].
  user agent
          A component of a distributed system that presents an
          interface and processes requests on behalf of a user;
          for example, a www browser or a mail user agent.

Berners-Lee & Connolly Standards Track [Page 9] RFC 1866 Hypertext Markup Language - 2.0 November 1995

  WWW
          The World-Wide Web is a hypertext-based, distributed
          information system created by researchers at CERN in
          Switzerland. <URL:http://www.w3.org/>

3. HTML as an Application of SGML

 HTML is an application of ISO 8879:1986 -- Standard Generalized
 Markup Language (SGML). SGML is a system for defining structured
 document types and markup languages to represent instances of those
 document types[SGML]. The public text -- DTD and SGML declaration --
 of the HTML document type definition are provided in 9, "HTML Public
 Text".
 The term "HTML" refers to both the document type defined here and the
 markup language for representing instances of this document type.

3.1. SGML Documents

 An HTML document is an SGML document; that is, a sequence of
 characters organized physically into a set of entities, and logically
 as a hierarchy of elements.
 In the SGML specification, the first production of the SGML syntax
 grammar separates an SGML document into three parts: an SGML
 declaration, a prologue, and an instance. For the purposes of this
 specification, the prologue is a DTD. This DTD describes another
 grammar: the start symbol is given in the doctype declaration, the
 terminals are data characters and tags, and the productions are
 determined by the element declarations. The instance must conform to
 the DTD, that is, it must be in the language defined by this grammar.
 The SGML declaration determines the lexicon of the grammar. It
 specifies the document character set, which determines a character
 repertoire that contains all characters that occur in all text
 entities in the document, and the code positions associated with
 those characters.
 The SGML declaration also specifies the syntax-reference character
 set of the document, and a few other parameters that bind the
 abstract syntax of SGML to a concrete syntax. This concrete syntax
 determines how the sequence of characters of the document is mapped
 to a sequence of terminals in the grammar of the prologue.

Berners-Lee & Connolly Standards Track [Page 10] RFC 1866 Hypertext Markup Language - 2.0 November 1995

 For example, consider the following document:
  <!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//IETF//DTD HTML 2.0//EN">
  <title>Parsing Example</title>
  <p>Some text. <em>&#42;wow&#42;</em></p>
 An HTML user agent should use the SGML declaration that is given in
 9.5, "SGML Declaration for HTML". According to its document character
 set, `&#42;' refers to an asterisk character, `*'.
 The instance above is regarded as the following sequence of
 terminals:
      1. start-tag: TITLE
      2. data characters: "Parsing Example"
      3. end-tag: TITLE
      4. start-tag: P
      5. data characters "Some text."
      6. start-tag: EM
      7. data characters: "*wow*"
      8. end-tag: EM
      9. end-tag: P

Berners-Lee & Connolly Standards Track [Page 11] RFC 1866 Hypertext Markup Language - 2.0 November 1995

 The start symbol of the DTD grammar is HTML, and the productions are
 given in the public text identified by `-//IETF//DTD HTML 2.0//EN'
 (9.1, "HTML DTD"). The terminals above parse as:
     HTML
      |
      \-HEAD
      |  |
      |  \-TITLE
      |      |
      |      \-<TITLE>
      |      |
      |      \-"Parsing Example"
      |      |
      |      \-</TITLE>
      |
      \-BODY
        |
        \-P
          |
          \-<P>
          |
          \-"Some text. "
          |
          \-EM
          |  |
          |  \-<EM>
          |  |
          |  \-"*wow*"
          |  |
          |  \-</EM>
          |
          \-</P>
 Some of the elements are delimited explicitly by tags, while the
 boundaries of others are inferred. The <HTML> element contains a
 <HEAD> element and a <BODY> element. The <HEAD> contains <TITLE>,
 which is explicitly delimited by start- and end-tags.

3.2. HTML Lexical Syntax

 SGML specifies an abstract syntax and a reference concrete syntax.
 Aside from certain quantities and capacities (e.g. the limit on the
 length of a name), all HTML documents use the reference concrete
 syntax. In particular, all markup characters are in the repertoire of
 [ISO-646]. Data characters are drawn from the document character set
 (see 6, "Characters, Words, and Paragraphs").

Berners-Lee & Connolly Standards Track [Page 12] RFC 1866 Hypertext Markup Language - 2.0 November 1995

 A complete discussion of SGML parsing, e.g. the mapping of a sequence
 of characters to a sequence of tags and data, is left to the SGML
 standard[SGML]. This section is only a summary.

3.2.1. Data Characters

 Any sequence of characters that do not constitute markup (see 9.6
 "Delimiter Recognition" of [SGML]) are mapped directly to strings of
 data characters. Some markup also maps to data character strings.
 Numeric character references map to single-character strings, via the
 document character set. Each reference to one of the general entities
 defined in the HTML DTD maps to a single-character string.
 For example,
  abc&lt;def    => "abc","<","def"
  abc&#60;def   => "abc","<","def"
 The terminating semicolon on entity or numeric character references
 is only necessary when the character following the reference would
 otherwise be recognized as part of the name (see 9.4.5 "Reference
 End" in [SGML]).
  abc &lt def     => "abc ","<"," def"
  abc &#60 def    => "abc ","<"," def"
 An ampersand is only recognized as markup when it is followed by a
 letter or a `#' and a digit:
  abc & lt def    => "abc & lt def"
  abc &# 60 def    => "abc &# 60 def"
 A useful technique for translating plain text to HTML is to replace
 each '<', '&', and '>' by an entity reference or numeric character
 reference as follows:
                   ENTITY      NUMERIC
         CHARACTER REFERENCE   CHAR REF     CHARACTER DESCRIPTION
         --------- ----------  -----------  ---------------------
           &       &amp;       &#38;        Ampersand
           <       &lt;        &#60;        Less than
           >       &gt;        &#62;        Greater than
      NOTE - There are SGML mechanisms, CDATA and RCDATA
      declared content, that allow most `<', `>', and `&'
      characters to be entered without the use of entity
      references. Because these mechanisms tend to be used and
      implemented inconsistently, and because they conflict

Berners-Lee & Connolly Standards Track [Page 13] RFC 1866 Hypertext Markup Language - 2.0 November 1995

      with techniques for reducing HTML to 7 bit ASCII for
      transport, they are deprecated in this version of HTML.
      See 5.5.2.1, "Example and Listing: XMP, LISTING".

3.2.2. Tags

 Tags delimit elements such as headings, paragraphs, lists, character
 highlighting, and links. Most HTML elements are identified in a
 document as a start-tag, which gives the element name and attributes,
 followed by the content, followed by the end tag. Start-tags are
 delimited by `<' and `>'; end tags are delimited by `</' and `>'. An
 example is:
 <H1>This is a Heading</H1>
 Some elements only have a start-tag without an end-tag. For example,
 to create a line break, use the `<BR>' tag.  Additionally, the end
 tags of some other elements, such as Paragraph (`</P>'), List Item
 (`</LI>'), Definition Term (`</DT>'), and Definition Description
 (`</DD>') elements, may be omitted.
 The content of an element is a sequence of data character strings and
 nested elements. Some elements, such as anchors, cannot be nested.
 Anchors and character highlighting may be put inside other
 constructs. See the HTML DTD, 9.1, "HTML DTD" for full details.
    NOTE - The SGML declaration for HTML specifies SHORTTAG YES, which
    means that there are other valid syntaxes for tags, such as NET
    tags, `<EM/.../'; empty start tags, `<>'; and empty end-tags,
    `</>'. Until support for these idioms is widely deployed, their
    use is strongly discouraged.

3.2.3. Names

 A name consists of a letter followed by letters, digits, periods, or
 hyphens. The length of a name is limited to 72 characters by the
 `NAMELEN' parameter in the SGML declaration for HTML, 9.5, "SGML
 Declaration for HTML". Element and attribute names are not case
 sensitive, but entity names are.  For example, `<BLOCKQUOTE>',
 `<BlockQuote>', and `<blockquote>' are equivalent, whereas `&amp;' is
 different from `&AMP;'.
 In a start-tag, the element name must immediately follow the tag open
 delimiter `<'.

Berners-Lee & Connolly Standards Track [Page 14] RFC 1866 Hypertext Markup Language - 2.0 November 1995

3.2.4. Attributes

 In a start-tag, white space and attributes are allowed between the
 element name and the closing delimiter. An attribute specification
 typically consists of an attribute name, an equal sign, and a value,
 though some attribute specifications may be just a name token. White
 space is allowed around the equal sign.
 The value of the attribute may be either:
  • A string literal, delimited by single quotes or double

quotes and not containing any occurrences of the delimiting

      character.
          NOTE - Some historical implementations consider any
          occurrence of the `>' character to signal the end of
          a tag. For compatibility with such implementations,
          when `>' appears in an attribute value, it should be
          represented with a numeric character reference. For
          example, `<IMG SRC="eq1.jpg" alt="a>b">' should be
          written `<IMG SRC="eq1.jpg" alt="a&#62;b">' or `<IMG
          SRC="eq1.jpg" alt="a&gt;b">'.
  • A name token (a sequence of letters, digits, periods, or

hyphens). Name tokens are not case sensitive.

          NOTE - Some historical implementations allow any
          character except space or `>' in a name token.
 In this example, <img> is the element name, src is the attribute
 name, and `http://host/dir/file.gif' is the attribute value:
 <img src='http://host/dir/file.gif'>
 A useful technique for computing an attribute value literal for a
 given string is to replace each quote and white space character by an
 entity reference or numeric character reference as follows:
                   ENTITY      NUMERIC
         CHARACTER REFERENCE   CHAR REF     CHARACTER DESCRIPTION
         --------- ----------  -----------  ---------------------
           HT                  &#9;         Tab
           LF                  &#10;        Line Feed
           CR                  &#13;        Carriage Return
           SP                  &#32;        Space
           "       &quot;      &#34;        Quotation mark
           &       &amp;       &#38;        Ampersand

Berners-Lee & Connolly Standards Track [Page 15] RFC 1866 Hypertext Markup Language - 2.0 November 1995

 For example:
 <IMG SRC="image.jpg" alt="First &quot;real&quot; example">
 The `NAMELEN' parameter in the SGML declaration (9.5, "SGML
 Declaration for HTML") limits the length of an attribute value to
 1024 characters.
 Attributes such as ISMAP and COMPACT may be written using a minimized
 syntax (see 7.9.1.2 "Omitted Attribute Name" in [SGML]). The markup:
 <UL COMPACT="compact">
 can be written using a minimized syntax:
 <UL COMPACT>
 NOTE - Some historical implementations only understand the minimized
 syntax.

3.2.5. Comments

 To include comments in an HTML document, use a comment declaration. A
 comment declaration consists of `<!' followed by zero or more
 comments followed by `>'. Each comment starts with `--' and includes
 all text up to and including the next occurrence of `--'. In a
 comment declaration, white space is allowed after each comment, but
 not before the first comment.  The entire comment declaration is
 ignored.
    NOTE - Some historical HTML implementations incorrectly consider
    any `>' character to be the termination of a comment.
 For example:
  <!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//IETF//DTD HTML 2.0//EN">
  <HEAD>
  <TITLE>HTML Comment Example</TITLE>
  <!-- Id: html-sgml.sgm,v 1.5 1995/05/26 21:29:50 connolly Exp  -->
  <!-- another -- -- comment -->
  <!>
  </HEAD>
  <BODY>
  <p> <!- not a comment, just regular old data characters ->

Berners-Lee & Connolly Standards Track [Page 16] RFC 1866 Hypertext Markup Language - 2.0 November 1995

3.3. HTML Public Text Identifiers

 To identify information as an HTML document conforming to this
 specification, each document must start with one of the following
 document type declarations.
 <!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//IETF//DTD HTML 2.0//EN">
 This document type declaration refers to the HTML DTD in 9.1, "HTML
 DTD".
    NOTE - If the body of a `text/html' message entity does not begin
    with a document type declaration, an HTML user agent should infer
    the above document type declaration.
 <!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//IETF//DTD HTML 2.0 Level 2//EN">
 This document type declaration also refers to the HTML DTD which
 appears in 9.1, "HTML DTD".
 <!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//IETF//DTD HTML 2.0 Level 1//EN">
 This document type declaration refers to the level 1 HTML DTD in 9.3,
 "Level 1 HTML DTD". Form elements must not occur in level 1
 documents.
 <!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//IETF//DTD HTML 2.0 Strict//EN">
 <!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//IETF//DTD HTML 2.0 Strict Level 1//EN">
 These two document type declarations refer to the HTML DTD in 9.2,
 "Strict HTML DTD" and 9.4, "Strict Level 1 HTML DTD". They refer to
 the more structurally rigid definition of HTML.
 HTML user agents may support other document types. In particular,
 they may support other formal public identifiers, or other document
 types altogether. They may support an internal declaration subset
 with supplemental entity, element, and other markup declarations.

3.4. Example HTML Document

  <!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//IETF//DTD HTML 2.0//EN">
  <HTML>
  <!-- Here's a good place to put a comment. -->
  <HEAD>
  <TITLE>Structural Example</TITLE>
  </HEAD><BODY>
  <H1>First Header</H1>
  <P>This is a paragraph in the example HTML file. Keep in mind

Berners-Lee & Connolly Standards Track [Page 17] RFC 1866 Hypertext Markup Language - 2.0 November 1995

  that the title does not appear in the document text, but that
  the header (defined by H1) does.</P>
  <OL>
  <LI>First item in an ordered list.
  <LI>Second item in an ordered list.
    <UL COMPACT>
    <LI> Note that lists can be nested;
    <LI> Whitespace may be used to assist in reading the
         HTML source.
    </UL>
  <LI>Third item in an ordered list.
  </OL>
  <P>This is an additional paragraph. Technically, end tags are
  not required for paragraphs, although they are allowed. You can
  include character highlighting in a paragraph. <EM>This sentence
  of the paragraph is emphasized.</EM> Note that the &lt;/P&gt;
  end tag has been omitted.
  <P>
  <IMG SRC ="triangle.xbm" alt="Warning: ">
  Be sure to read these <b>bold instructions</b>.
  </BODY></HTML>

4. HTML as an Internet Media Type

 An HTML user agent allows users to interact with resources which have
 HTML representations. At a minimum, it must allow users to examine
 and navigate the content of HTML level 1 documents. HTML user agents
 should be able to preserve all formatting distinctions represented in
 an HTML document, and be able to simultaneously present resources
 referred to by IMG elements (they may ignore some formatting
 distinctions or IMG resources at the request of the user). Level 2
 HTML user agents should support form entry and submission.

4.1. text/html media type

 This specification defines the Internet Media Type [IMEDIA] (formerly
 referred to as the Content Type [MIME]) called `text/html'. The
 following is to be registered with [IANA].
  Media Type name
          text
  Media subtype name
          html
  Required parameters
          none

Berners-Lee & Connolly Standards Track [Page 18] RFC 1866 Hypertext Markup Language - 2.0 November 1995

  Optional parameters
          level, charset
  Encoding considerations
          any encoding is allowed
  Security considerations
          see 10, "Security Considerations"
  The optional parameters are defined as follows:
  Level
          The level parameter specifies the feature set used in
          the document. The level is an integer number, implying
          that any features of same or lower level may be present
          in the document. Level 1 is all features defined in this
          specification except those that require the <FORM>
          element. Level 2 includes form processing. Level 2 is
          the default.
  Charset
          The charset parameter (as defined in section 7.1.1 of
          RFC 1521[MIME]) may be given to specify the character
          encoding scheme used to represent the HTML document as a
          sequence of octets. The default value is outside the
          scope of this specification; but for example, the
          default is `US-ASCII' in the context of MIME mail, and
          `ISO-8859-1' in the context of HTTP [HTTP].

4.2. HTML Document Representation

 A message entity with a content type of `text/html' represents an
 HTML document, consisting of a single text entity. The `charset'
 parameter (whether implicit or explicit) identifies a character
 encoding scheme. The text entity consists of the characters
 determined by this character encoding scheme and the octets of the
 body of the message entity.

4.2.1. Undeclared Markup Error Handling

 To facilitate experimentation and interoperability between
 implementations of various versions of HTML, the installed base of
 HTML user agents supports a superset of the HTML 2.0 language by
 reducing it to HTML 2.0: markup in the form of a start-tag or end-
 tag, whose generic identifier is not declared is mapped to nothing
 during tokenization. Undeclared attributes are treated similarly. The
 entire attribute specification of an unknown attribute (i.e., the
 unknown attribute and its value, if any) should be ignored. On the

Berners-Lee & Connolly Standards Track [Page 19] RFC 1866 Hypertext Markup Language - 2.0 November 1995

 other hand, references to undeclared entities should be treated as
 data characters.
 For example:
  <div class=chapter><h1>foo</h1><p>...</div>
    => <H1>,"foo",</H1>,<P>,"..."
  xxx <P ID=z23> yyy
    => "xxx ",<P>," yyy
  Let &alpha; &amp; &beta; be finite sets.
    => "Let &alpha; & &beta; be finite sets."
 Support for notifying the user of such errors is encouraged.
 Information providers are warned that this convention is not binding:
 unspecified behavior may result, as such markup does not conform to
 this specification.

4.2.2. Conventional Representation of Newlines

 SGML specifies that a text entity is a sequence of records, each
 beginning with a record start character and ending with a record end
 character (code positions 10 and 13 respectively) (section 7.6.1,
 "Record Boundaries" in [SGML]).
 [MIME] specifies that a body of type `text/*' is a sequence of lines,
 each terminated by CRLF, that is, octets 13, 10.
 In practice, HTML documents are frequently represented and
 transmitted using an end of line convention that depends on the
 conventions of the source of the document; frequently, that
 representation consists of CR only, LF only, or a CR LF sequence.
 Hence the decoding of the octets will often result in a text entity
 with some missing record start and record end characters.
 Since there is no ambiguity, HTML user agents are encouraged to infer
 the missing record start and end characters.
 An HTML user agent should treat end of line in any of its variations
 as a word space in all contexts except preformatted text. Within
 preformatted text, an HTML user agent should treat any of the three
 common representations of end-of-line as starting a new line.

5. Document Structure

 An HTML document is a tree of elements, including a head and body,
 headings, paragraphs, lists, etc. Form elements are discussed in 8,
 "Forms".

Berners-Lee & Connolly Standards Track [Page 20] RFC 1866 Hypertext Markup Language - 2.0 November 1995

5.1. Document Element: HTML

 The HTML document element consists of a head and a body, much like a
 memo or a mail message. The head contains the title and optional
 elements. The body is a text flow consisting of paragraphs, lists,
 and other elements.

5.2. Head: HEAD

 The head of an HTML document is an unordered collection of
 information about the document. For example:
  <!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//IETF//DTD HTML 2.0//EN">
  <HEAD>
  <TITLE>Introduction to HTML</TITLE>
  </HEAD>
  ...

5.2.1. Title: TITLE

 Every HTML document must contain a <TITLE> element.
 The title should identify the contents of the document in a global
 context. A short title, such as "Introduction" may be meaningless out
 of context. A title such as "Introduction to HTML Elements" is more
 appropriate.
    NOTE - The length of a title is not limited; however, long titles
    may be truncated in some applications. To minimize this
    possibility, titles should be fewer than 64 characters.
 A user agent may display the title of a document in a history list or
 as a label for the window displaying the document. This differs from
 headings (5.4, "Headings: H1 ... H6"), which are typically displayed
 within the body text flow.

5.2.2. Base Address: BASE

 The optional <BASE> element provides a base address for interpreting
 relative URLs when the document is read out of context (see 7,
 "Hyperlinks"). The value of the HREF attribute must be an absolute
 URI.

5.2.3. Keyword Index: ISINDEX

 The <ISINDEX> element indicates that the user agent should allow the
 user to search an index by giving keywords. See 7.5, "Queries and
 Indexes" for details.

Berners-Lee & Connolly Standards Track [Page 21] RFC 1866 Hypertext Markup Language - 2.0 November 1995

5.2.4. Link: LINK

 The <LINK> element represents a hyperlink (see 7, "Hyperlinks").  Any
 number of LINK elements may occur in the <HEAD> element of an HTML
 document. It has the same attributes as the <A> element (see 5.7.3,
 "Anchor: A").
 The <LINK> element is typically used to indicate authorship, related
 indexes and glossaries, older or more recent versions, document
 hierarchy, associated resources such as style sheets, etc.

5.2.5. Associated Meta-information: META

 The <META> element is an extensible container for use in identifying
 specialized document meta-information.  Meta-information has two main
 functions:
  • to provide a means to discover that the data set exists

and how it might be obtained or accessed; and

  • to document the content, quality, and features of a data

set, indicating its fitness for use.

 Each <META> element specifies a name/value pair. If multiple META
 elements are provided with the same name, their combined contents--
 concatenated as a comma-separated list--is the value associated with
 that name.
      NOTE - The <META> element should not be used where a
      specific element, such as <TITLE>, would be more
      appropriate. Rather than a <META> element with a URI as
      the value of the CONTENT attribute, use a <LINK>
      element.
 HTTP servers may read the content of the document <HEAD> to generate
 header fields corresponding to any elements defining a value for the
 attribute HTTP-EQUIV.
      NOTE - The method by which the server extracts document
      meta-information is unspecified and not mandatory. The
      <META> element only provides an extensible mechanism for
      identifying and embedding document meta-information --
      how it may be used is up to the individual server
      implementation and the HTML user agent.

Berners-Lee & Connolly Standards Track [Page 22] RFC 1866 Hypertext Markup Language - 2.0 November 1995

  Attributes of the META element:
  HTTP-EQUIV
          binds the element to an HTTP header field. An HTTP
          server may use this information to process the document.
          In particular, it may include a header field in the
          responses to requests for this document: the header name
          is taken from the HTTP-EQUIV attribute value, and the
          header value is taken from the value of the CONTENT
          attribute. HTTP header names are not case sensitive.
  NAME
          specifies the name of the name/value pair. If not
          present, HTTP-EQUIV gives the name.
  CONTENT
          specifies the value of the name/value pair.
  Examples
  If the document contains:
  <META HTTP-EQUIV="Expires"
        CONTENT="Tue, 04 Dec 1993 21:29:02 GMT">
  <meta http-equiv="Keywords" CONTENT="Fred">
  <META HTTP-EQUIV="Reply-to"
        content="fielding@ics.uci.edu (Roy Fielding)">
  <Meta Http-equiv="Keywords" CONTENT="Barney">
  then the server may include the following header fields:
  Expires: Tue, 04 Dec 1993 21:29:02 GMT
  Keywords: Fred, Barney
  Reply-to: fielding@ics.uci.edu (Roy Fielding)
  as part of the HTTP response to a `GET' or `HEAD' request for
  that document.
  An HTTP server must not use the <META> element to form an HTTP
  response header unless the HTTP-EQUIV attribute is present.
  An HTTP server may disregard any <META> elements that specify
  information controlled by the HTTP server, for example `Server',
  `Date', and `Last-modified'.

Berners-Lee & Connolly Standards Track [Page 23] RFC 1866 Hypertext Markup Language - 2.0 November 1995

5.2.6. Next Id: NEXTID

 The <NEXTID> element is included for historical reasons only.  HTML
 documents should not contain <NEXTID> elements.
 The <NEXTID> element gives a hint for the name to use for a new <A>
 element when editing an HTML document. It should be distinct from all
 NAME attribute values on <A> elements. For example:
 <NEXTID N=Z27>

5.3. Body: BODY

 The <BODY> element contains the text flow of the document, including
 headings, paragraphs, lists, etc.
 For example:
  <BODY>
  <h1>Important Stuff</h1>
  <p>Explanation about important stuff...
  </BODY>

5.4. Headings: H1 … H6

 The six heading elements, <H1> through <H6>, denote section headings.
 Although the order and occurrence of headings is not constrained by
 the HTML DTD, documents should not skip levels (for example, from H1
 to H3), as converting such documents to other representations is
 often problematic.
 Example of use:
  <H1>This is a heading</H1>
  Here is some text
  <H2>Second level heading</H2>
  Here is some more text.
  Typical renderings are:
  H1
          Bold, very-large font, centered. One or two blank lines
          above and below.
  H2
          Bold, large font, flush-left. One or two blank lines
          above and below.

Berners-Lee & Connolly Standards Track [Page 24] RFC 1866 Hypertext Markup Language - 2.0 November 1995

  H3
          Italic, large font, slightly indented from the left
          margin. One or two blank lines above and below.
  H4
          Bold, normal font, indented more than H3. One blank line
          above and below.
  H5
          Italic, normal font, indented as H4. One blank line
          above.
  H6
          Bold, indented same as normal text, more than H5. One
          blank line above.

5.5. Block Structuring Elements

 Block structuring elements include paragraphs, lists, and block
 quotes. They must not contain heading elements, but they may contain
 phrase markup, and in some cases, they may be nested.

5.5.1. Paragraph: P

 The <P> element indicates a paragraph. The exact indentation, leading
 space, etc. of a paragraph is not specified and may be a function of
 other tags, style sheets, etc.
 Typically, paragraphs are surrounded by a vertical space of one line
 or half a line. The first line in a paragraph is indented in some
 cases.
 Example of use:
  <H1>This Heading Precedes the Paragraph</H1>
  <P>This is the text of the first paragraph.
  <P>This is the text of the second paragraph. Although you do not
  need to start paragraphs on new lines, maintaining this
  convention facilitates document maintenance.</P>
  <P>This is the text of a third paragraph.</P>

5.5.2. Preformatted Text: PRE

 The <PRE> element represents a character cell block of text and is
 suitable for text that has been formatted for a monospaced font.
 The <PRE> tag may be used with the optional WIDTH attribute. The
 WIDTH attribute specifies the maximum number of characters for a line

Berners-Lee & Connolly Standards Track [Page 25] RFC 1866 Hypertext Markup Language - 2.0 November 1995

 and allows the HTML user agent to select a suitable font and
 indentation.
 Within preformatted text:
  • Line breaks within the text are rendered as a move to the

beginning of the next line.

          NOTE - References to the "beginning of a new line"
          do not imply that the renderer is forbidden from
          using a constant left indent for rendering
          preformatted text. The left indent may be
          constrained by the width required.
  • Anchor elements and phrase markup may be used.
          NOTE - Constraints on the processing of <PRE>
          content may limit or prevent the ability of the HTML
          user agent to faithfully render phrase markup.
  • Elements that define paragraph formatting (headings,

address, etc.) must not be used.

          NOTE - Some historical documents contain <P> tags in
          <PRE> elements. User agents are encouraged to treat
          this as a line break. A <P> tag followed by a
          newline character should produce only one line
          break, not a line break plus a blank line.
  • The horizontal tab character (code position 9 in the HTML

document character set) must be interpreted as the smallest

      positive nonzero number of spaces which will leave the
      number of characters so far on the line as a multiple of 8.
      Documents should not contain tab characters, as they are not
      supported consistently.
  Example of use:
  <PRE>
  Line 1.
         Line 2 is to the right of line 1.     <a href="abc">abc</a>
         Line 3 aligns with line 2.            <a href="def">def</a>
  </PRE>

Berners-Lee & Connolly Standards Track [Page 26] RFC 1866 Hypertext Markup Language - 2.0 November 1995

5.5.2.1. Example and Listing: XMP, LISTING

 The <XMP> and <LISTING> elements are similar to the <PRE> element,
 but they have a different syntax. Their content is declared as CDATA,
 which means that no markup except the end-tag open delimiter-in-
 context is recognized (see 9.6 "Delimiter Recognition" of [SGML]).
    NOTE - In a previous draft of the HTML specification, the syntax
    of <XMP> and <LISTING> elements allowed closing tags to be treated
    as data characters, as long as the tag name was not <XMP> or
    <LISTING>, respectively.
 Since CDATA declared content has a number of unfortunate interactions
 with processing techniques and tends to be used and implemented
 inconsistently, HTML documents should not contain <XMP> nor <LISTING>
 elements -- the <PRE> tag is more expressive and more consistently
 supported.
 The <LISTING> element should be rendered so that at least 132
 characters fit on a line. The <XMP> element should be rendered so
 that at least 80 characters fit on a line but is otherwise identical
 to the <LISTING> element.
    NOTE - In a previous draft, HTML included a <PLAINTEXT> element
    that is similar to the <LISTING> element, except that there is no
    closing tag: all characters after the <PLAINTEXT> start-tag are
    data.

5.5.3. Address: ADDRESS

 The <ADDRESS> element contains such information as address, signature
 and authorship, often at the beginning or end of the body of a
 document.
 Typically, the <ADDRESS> element is rendered in an italic typeface
 and may be indented.
 Example of use:
  <ADDRESS>
  Newsletter editor<BR>
  J.R. Brown<BR>
  JimquickPost News, Jimquick, CT 01234<BR>
  Tel (123) 456 7890
  </ADDRESS>

Berners-Lee & Connolly Standards Track [Page 27] RFC 1866 Hypertext Markup Language - 2.0 November 1995

5.5.4. Block Quote: BLOCKQUOTE

 The <BLOCKQUOTE> element contains text quoted from another source.
 A typical rendering might be a slight extra left and right indent,
 and/or italic font. The <BLOCKQUOTE> typically provides space above
 and below the quote.
 Single-font rendition may reflect the quotation style of Internet
 mail by putting a vertical line of graphic characters, such as the
 greater than symbol (>), in the left margin.
 Example of use:
  I think the play ends
  <BLOCKQUOTE>
  <P>Soft you now, the fair Ophelia. Nymph, in thy orisons, be all
  my sins remembered.
  </BLOCKQUOTE>
  but I am not sure.

5.6. List Elements

 HTML includes a number of list elements. They may be used in
 combination; for example, a <OL> may be nested in an <LI> element of
 a <UL>.
 The COMPACT attribute suggests that a compact rendering be used.

5.6.1. Unordered List: UL, LI

 The <UL> represents a list of items -- typically rendered as a
 bulleted list.
 The content of a <UL> element is a sequence of <LI> elements.  For
 example:
  <UL>
  <LI>First list item
  <LI>Second list item
   <p>second paragraph of second item
  <LI>Third list item
  </UL>

5.6.2. Ordered List: OL

 The <OL> element represents an ordered list of items, sorted by
 sequence or order of importance. It is typically rendered as a

Berners-Lee & Connolly Standards Track [Page 28] RFC 1866 Hypertext Markup Language - 2.0 November 1995

 numbered list.
 The content of a <OL> element is a sequence of <LI> elements.  For
 example:
  <OL>
  <LI>Click the Web button to open URI window.
  <LI>Enter the URI number in the text field of the Open URI
  window. The Web document you specified is displayed.
    <ol>
     <li>substep 1
     <li>substep 2
    </ol>
  <LI>Click highlighted text to move from one link to another.
  </OL>

5.6.3. Directory List: DIR

 The <DIR> element is similar to the <UL> element. It represents a
 list of short items, typically up to 20 characters each. Items in a
 directory list may be arranged in columns, typically 24 characters
 wide.
 The content of a <DIR> element is a sequence of <LI> elements.
 Nested block elements are not allowed in the content of <DIR>
 elements. For example:
  <DIR>
  <LI>A-H<LI>I-M
  <LI>M-R<LI>S-Z
  </DIR>

5.6.4. Menu List: MENU

 The <MENU> element is a list of items with typically one line per
 item. The menu list style is typically more compact than the style of
 an unordered list.
 The content of a <MENU> element is a sequence of <LI> elements.
 Nested block elements are not allowed in the content of <MENU>
 elements. For example:
  <MENU>
  <LI>First item in the list.
  <LI>Second item in the list.
  <LI>Third item in the list.
  </MENU>

Berners-Lee & Connolly Standards Track [Page 29] RFC 1866 Hypertext Markup Language - 2.0 November 1995

5.6.5. Definition List: DL, DT, DD

 A definition list is a list of terms and corresponding definitions.
 Definition lists are typically formatted with the term flush-left and
 the definition, formatted paragraph style, indented after the term.
 The content of a <DL> element is a sequence of <DT> elements and/or
 <DD> elements, usually in pairs. Multiple <DT> may be paired with a
 single <DD> element. Documents should not contain multiple
 consecutive <DD> elements.
 Example of use:
  <DL>
  <DT>Term<DD>This is the definition of the first term.
  <DT>Term<DD>This is the definition of the second term.
  </DL>
 If the DT term does not fit in the DT column (typically one third of
 the display area), it may be extended across the page with the DD
 section moved to the next line, or it may be wrapped onto successive
 lines of the left hand column.
 The optional COMPACT attribute suggests that a compact rendering be
 used, because the list items are small and/or the entire list is
 large.
 Unless the COMPACT attribute is present, an HTML user agent may leave
 white space between successive DT, DD pairs. The COMPACT attribute
 may also reduce the width of the left-hand (DT) column.
  <DL COMPACT>
  <DT>Term<DD>This is the first definition in compact format.
  <DT>Term<DD>This is the second definition in compact format.
  </DL>

5.7. Phrase Markup

 Phrases may be marked up according to idiomatic usage, typographic
 appearance, or for use as hyperlink anchors.
 User agents must render highlighted phrases distinctly from plain
 text. Additionally, <EM> content must be rendered as distinct from
 <STRONG> content, and <B> content must rendered as distinct from <I>
 content.
 Phrase elements may be nested within the content of other phrase
 elements; however, HTML user agents may render nested phrase elements

Berners-Lee & Connolly Standards Track [Page 30] RFC 1866 Hypertext Markup Language - 2.0 November 1995

 indistinctly from non-nested elements:
 plain <B>bold <I>italic</I></B> may be rendered
 the same as plain <B>bold </B><I>italic</I>

5.7.1. Idiomatic Elements

 Phrases may be marked up to indicate certain idioms.
    NOTE - User agents may support the <DFN> element, not included in
    this specification, as it has been deployed to some extent. It is
    used to indicate the defining instance of a term, and it is
    typically rendered in italic or bold italic.

5.7.1.1. Citation: CITE

    The <CITE> element is used to indicate the title of a book or
    other citation. It is typically rendered as italics. For example:
    He just couldn't get enough of <cite>The Grapes of Wrath</cite>.

5.7.1.2. Code: CODE

    The <CODE> element indicates an example of code, typically
    rendered in a mono-spaced font. The <CODE> element is intended for
    short words or phrases of code; the <PRE> block structuring
    element (5.5.2, "Preformatted Text: PRE") is more appropriate
     for multiple-line listings. For example:
    The expression <code>x += 1</code>
    is short for <code>x = x + 1</code>.

5.7.1.3. Emphasis: EM

    The <EM> element indicates an emphasized phrase, typically
    rendered as italics. For example:
    A singular subject <em>always</em> takes a singular verb.

5.7.1.4. Keyboard: KBD

    The <KBD> element indicates text typed by a user, typically
    rendered in a mono-spaced font. This is commonly used in
    instruction manuals. For example:
    Enter <kbd>FIND IT</kbd> to search the database.

Berners-Lee & Connolly Standards Track [Page 31] RFC 1866 Hypertext Markup Language - 2.0 November 1995

5.7.1.5. Sample: SAMP

    The <SAMP> element indicates a sequence of literal characters,
    typically rendered in a mono-spaced font. For example:
    The only word containing the letters <samp>mt</samp> is dreamt.

5.7.1.6. Strong Emphasis: STRONG

    The <STRONG> element indicates strong emphasis, typically rendered
    in bold. For example:
    <strong>STOP</strong>, or I'll say "<strong>STOP</strong>" again!

5.7.1.7. Variable: VAR

    The <VAR> element indicates a placeholder variable, typically
    rendered as italic. For example:
    Type <SAMP>html-check <VAR>file</VAR> | more</SAMP>
    to check <VAR>file</VAR> for markup errors.

5.7.2. Typographic Elements

    Typographic elements are used to specify the format of marked
    text.
    Typical renderings for idiomatic elements may vary between user
    agents. If a specific rendering is necessary -- for example, when
    referring to a specific text attribute as in "The italic parts are
    mandatory" -- a typographic element can be used to ensure that the
    intended typography is used where possible.
    NOTE - User agents may support some typographic elements not
    included in this specification, as they have been deployed to some
    extent. The <STRIKE> element indicates horizontal line through the
    characters, and the <U> element indicates an underline.

5.7.2.1. Bold: B

 The <B> element indicates bold text. Where bold typography is
 unavailable, an alternative representation may be used.

5.7.2.2. Italic: I

 The <I> element indicates italic text. Where italic typography is
 unavailable, an alternative representation may be used.

Berners-Lee & Connolly Standards Track [Page 32] RFC 1866 Hypertext Markup Language - 2.0 November 1995

5.7.2.3. Teletype: TT

 The <TT> element indicates teletype (monospaced )text. Where a
 teletype font is unavailable, an alternative representation may be
 used.

5.7.3. Anchor: A

 The <A> element indicates a hyperlink anchor (see 7, "Hyperlinks").
 At least one of the NAME and HREF attributes should be present.
 Attributes of the <A> element:
  HREF
          gives the URI of the head anchor of a hyperlink.
  NAME
          gives the name of the anchor, and makes it available as
          a head of a hyperlink.
  TITLE
          suggests a title for the destination resource --
          advisory only. The TITLE attribute may be used:
  • for display prior to accessing the destination

resource, for example, as a margin note or on a

              small box while the mouse is over the anchor, or
              while the document is being loaded;
  • for resources that do not include a title, such as

graphics, plain text and Gopher menus, for use as a

              window title.
  REL
          The REL attribute gives the relationship(s) described by
          the hyperlink. The value is a whitespace separated list
          of relationship names. The semantics of link
          relationships are not specified in this document.
  REV
          same as the REL attribute, but the semantics of the
          relationship are in the reverse direction. A link from A
          to B with REL="X" expresses the same relationship as a
          link from B to A with REV="X". An anchor may have both
          REL and REV attributes.
  URN
          specifies a preferred, more persistent identifier for
          the head anchor of the hyperlink. The syntax and

Berners-Lee & Connolly Standards Track [Page 33] RFC 1866 Hypertext Markup Language - 2.0 November 1995

          semantics of the URN attribute are not yet specified.
  METHODS
          specifies methods to be used in accessing the
          destination, as a whitespace-separated list of names.
          The set of applicable names is a function of the scheme
          of the URI in the HREF attribute. For similar reasons as
          for the TITLE attribute, it may be useful to include the
          information in advance in the link. For example, the
          HTML user agent may chose a different rendering as a
          function of the methods allowed; for example, something
          that is searchable may get a different icon.

5.8. Line Break: BR

 The <BR> element specifies a line break between words (see 6,
 "Characters, Words, and Paragraphs"). For example:
  <P> Pease porridge hot<BR>
  Pease porridge cold<BR>
  Pease porridge in the pot<BR>
  Nine days old.

5.9. Horizontal Rule: HR

 The <HR> element is a divider between sections of text; typically a
 full width horizontal rule or equivalent graphic.  For example:
  <HR>
  <ADDRESS>February 8, 1995, CERN</ADDRESS>
  </BODY>

5.10. Image: IMG

 The <IMG> element refers to an image or icon via a hyperlink (see
 7.3, "Simultaneous Presentation of Image Resources").
 HTML user agents may process the value of the ALT attribute as an
 alternative to processing the image resource indicated by the SRC
 attribute.
    NOTE - Some HTML user agents can process graphics linked via
    anchors, but not <IMG> graphics. If a graphic is essential, it
    should be referenced from an <A> element rather than an <IMG>
    element. If the graphic is not essential, then the <IMG> element
    is appropriate.
 Attributes of the <IMG> element:

Berners-Lee & Connolly Standards Track [Page 34] RFC 1866 Hypertext Markup Language - 2.0 November 1995

  ALIGN
          alignment of the image with respect to the text
          baseline.
  • `TOP' specifies that the top of the image aligns

with the tallest item on the line containing the

              image.
  • `MIDDLE' specifies that the center of the image

aligns with the baseline of the line containing the

              image.
  • `BOTTOM' specifies that the bottom of the image

aligns with the baseline of the line containing the

              image.
  ALT
          text to use in place of the referenced image resource,
          for example due to processing constraints or user
          preference.
  ISMAP
          indicates an image map (see 7.6, "Image Maps").
  SRC
          specifies the URI of the image resource.
              NOTE - In practice, the media types of image
              resources are limited to a few raster graphic
              formats: typically `image/gif', `image/jpeg'. In
              particular, `text/html' resources are not
              intended to be used as image resources.
  Examples of use:
  <IMG SRC="triangle.xbm" ALT="Warning:"> Be sure
  to read these instructions.
  <a href="http://machine/htbin/imagemap/sample">
  <IMG SRC="sample.xbm" ISMAP>
  </a>

6. Characters, Words, and Paragraphs

 An HTML user agent should present the body of an HTML document as a
 collection of typeset paragraphs and preformatted text.  Except for
 preformatted elements (<PRE>, <XMP>, <LISTING>, <TEXTAREA>), each
 block structuring element is regarded as a paragraph by taking the

Berners-Lee & Connolly Standards Track [Page 35] RFC 1866 Hypertext Markup Language - 2.0 November 1995

 data characters in its content and the content of its descendant
 elements, concatenating them, and splitting the result into words,
 separated by space, tab, or record end characters (and perhaps hyphen
 characters). The sequence of words is typeset as a paragraph by
 breaking it into lines.

6.1. The HTML Document Character Set

 The document character set specified in 9.5, "SGML Declaration for
 HTML" must be supported by HTML user agents. It includes the graphic
 characters of Latin Alphabet No. 1, or simply Latin-1.  Latin-1
 comprises 191 graphic characters, including the alphabets of most
 Western European languages.
    NOTE - Use of the non-breaking space and soft hyphen indicator
    characters is discouraged because support for them is not widely
    deployed.
    NOTE - To support non-western writing systems, a larger character
    repertoire will be specified in a future version of HTML. The
    document character set will be [ISO-10646], or some subset that
    agrees with [ISO-10646]; in particular, all numeric character
    references must use code positions assigned by [ISO-10646].
 In SGML applications, the use of control characters is limited in
 order to maximize the chance of successful interchange over
 heterogeneous networks and operating systems. In the HTML document
 character set only three control characters are allowed: Horizontal
 Tab, Carriage Return, and Line Feed (code positions 9, 13, and 10).
 The HTML DTD references the Added Latin 1 entity set, to allow
 mnemonic representation of selected Latin 1 characters using only the
 widely supported ASCII character repertoire. For example:
 Kurt G&ouml;del was a famous logician and mathematician.
 See 9.7.2, "ISO Latin 1 Character Entity Set" for a table of the
 "Added Latin 1" entities, and 13, "The HTML Coded Character Set" for
 a table of the code positions of [ISO 8859-1] and the control
 characters in the HTML document character set.

7. Hyperlinks

 In addition to general purpose elements such as paragraphs and lists,
 HTML documents can express hyperlinks. An HTML user agent allows the
 user to navigate these hyperlinks.

Berners-Lee & Connolly Standards Track [Page 36] RFC 1866 Hypertext Markup Language - 2.0 November 1995

 A hyperlink is a relationship between two anchors, called the head
 and the tail of the hyperlink[DEXTER]. Anchors are identified by an
 anchor address: an absolute Uniform Resource Identifier (URI),
 optionally followed by a '#' and a sequence of characters called a
 fragment identifier. For example:
 http://www.w3.org/hypertext/WWW/TheProject.html
 http://www.w3.org/hypertext/WWW/TheProject.html#z31
 In an anchor address, the URI refers to a resource; it may be used in
 a variety of information retrieval protocols to obtain an entity that
 represents the resource, such as an HTML document. The fragment
 identifier, if present, refers to some view on, or portion of the
 resource.
 Each of the following markup constructs indicates the tail anchor of
 a hyperlink or set of hyperlinks:
  • <A> elements with HREF present.
  • <LINK> elements.
  • <IMG> elements.
  • <INPUT> elements with the SRC attribute present.
  • <ISINDEX> elements.
  • <FORM> elements with `METHOD=GET'.
 These markup constructs refer to head anchors by a URI, either
 absolute or relative, or a fragment identifier, or both.
 In the case of a relative URI, the absolute URI in the address of the
 head anchor is the result of combining the relative URI with a base
 absolute URI as in [RELURL]. The base document is taken from the
 document's <BASE> element, if present; else, it is determined as in
 [RELURL].

7.1. Accessing Resources

 Once the address of the head anchor is determined, the user agent may
 obtain a representation of the resource.
 For example, if the base URI is `http://host/x/y.html' and the
 document contains:
 <img src="../icons/abc.gif">

Berners-Lee & Connolly Standards Track [Page 37] RFC 1866 Hypertext Markup Language - 2.0 November 1995

 then the user agent uses the URI `http://host/icons/abc.gif' to
 access the resource, as in [URL]..

7.2. Activation of Hyperlinks

 An HTML user agent allows the user to navigate the content of the
 document and request activation of hyperlinks denoted by <A>
 elements. HTML user agents should also allow activation of <LINK>
 element hyperlinks.
 To activate a link, the user agent obtains a representation of the
 resource identified in the address of the head anchor. If the
 representation is another HTML document, navigation may begin again
 with this new document.

7.3. Simultaneous Presentation of Image Resources

 An HTML user agent may activate hyperlinks indicated by <IMG> and
 <INPUT> elements concurrently with processing the document; that is,
 image hyperlinks may be processed without explicit request by the
 user. Image resources should be embedded in the presentation at the
 point of the tail anchor, that is the <IMG> or <INPUT> element.
 <LINK> hyperlinks may also be processed without explicit user
 request; for example, style sheet resources may be processed before
 or during the processing of the document.

7.4. Fragment Identifiers

 Any characters following a `#' character in a hypertext address
 constitute a fragment identifier. In particular, an address of the
 form `#fragment' refers to an anchor in the same document.
 The meaning of fragment identifiers depends on the media type of the
 representation of the anchor's resource. For `text/html'
 representations, it refers to the <A> element with a NAME attribute
 whose value is the same as the fragment identifier.  The matching is
 case sensitive. The document should have exactly one such element.
 The user agent should indicate the anchor element, for example by
 scrolling to and/or highlighting the phrase.
 For example, if the base URI is `http://host/x/y.html' and the user
 activated the link denoted by the following markup:
 <p> See: <a href="app1.html#bananas">appendix 1</a>
 for more detail on bananas.

Berners-Lee & Connolly Standards Track [Page 38] RFC 1866 Hypertext Markup Language - 2.0 November 1995

 Then the user agent accesses the resource identified by
 `http://host/x/app1.html'. Assuming the resource is represented using
 the `text/html' media type, the user agent must locate the <A>
 element whose NAME attribute is `bananas' and begin navigation there.

7.5. Queries and Indexes

 The <ISINDEX> element represents a set of hyperlinks. The user can
 choose from the set by providing keywords to the user agent.  The
 user agent computes the head URI by appending `?' and the keywords to
 the base URI. The keywords are escaped according to [URL] and joined
 by `+'. For example, if a document contains:
  <BASE HREF="http://host/index">
  <ISINDEX>
  and the user provides the keywords `apple' and `berry', then the
  user agent must access the resource
  `http://host/index?apple+berry'.
  <FORM> elements with `METHOD=GET' also represent sets of
  hyperlinks. See 8.2.2, "Query Forms: METHOD=GET" for details.

7.6. Image Maps

 If the ISMAP attribute is present on an <IMG> element, the <IMG>
 element must be contained in an <A> element with an HREF present.
 This construct represents a set of hyperlinks. The user can choose
 from the set by choosing a pixel of the image. The user agent
 computes the head URI by appending `?' and the x and y coordinates of
 the pixel to the URI given in the <A> element.  For example, if a
 document contains:
 <!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//IETF//DTD HTML 2.0//EN">
 <head><title>ImageMap Example</title>
 <BASE HREF="http://host/index"></head>
 <body>
 <p> Choose any of these icons:<br>
 <a href="/cgi-bin/imagemap"><img ismap src="icons.gif"></a>
 and the user chooses the upper-leftmost pixel, the chosen
 hyperlink is the one with the URI
 `http://host/cgi-bin/imagemap?0,0'.

Berners-Lee & Connolly Standards Track [Page 39] RFC 1866 Hypertext Markup Language - 2.0 November 1995

8. Forms

 A form is a template for a form data set and an associated
 method and action URI. A form data set is a sequence of
 name/value pair fields. The names are specified on the NAME
 attributes of form input elements, and the values are given
 initial values by various forms of markup and edited by the
 user. The resulting form data set is used to access an
 information service as a function of the action and method.
 Forms elements can be mixed in with document structuring
 elements. For example, a <PRE> element may contain a <FORM>
 element, or a <FORM> element may contain lists which contain
 <INPUT> elements. This gives considerable flexibility in
 designing the layout of forms.
 Form processing is a level 2 feature.

8.1. Form Elements

8.1.1. Form: FORM

 The <FORM> element contains a sequence of input elements, along
 with document structuring elements. The attributes are:
  ACTION
          specifies the action URI for the form. The action URI of
          a form defaults to the base URI of the document (see 7,
          "Hyperlinks").
  METHOD
          selects a method of accessing the action URI. The set of
          applicable methods is a function of the scheme of the
          action URI of the form. See 8.2.2, "Query Forms:
          METHOD=GET" and 8.2.3, "Forms with Side-Effects:
          METHOD=POST".
  ENCTYPE
          specifies the media type used to encode the name/value
          pairs for transport, in case the protocol does not
          itself impose a format. See 8.2.1, "The form-urlencoded
          Media Type".

8.1.2. Input Field: INPUT

 The <INPUT> element represents a field for user input. The TYPE
 attribute discriminates between several variations of fields.

Berners-Lee & Connolly Standards Track [Page 40] RFC 1866 Hypertext Markup Language - 2.0 November 1995

 The <INPUT> element has a number of attributes. The set of applicable
 attributes depends on the value of the TYPE attribute.

8.1.2.1. Text Field: INPUT TYPE=TEXT

 The default value of the TYPE attribute is `TEXT', indicating a
 single line text entry field. (Use the <TEXTAREA> element for multi-
 line text fields.)
 Required attributes are:
  NAME
          name for the form field corresponding to this element.
  The optional attributes are:
  MAXLENGTH
          constrains the number of characters that can be entered
          into a text input field. If the value of MAXLENGTH is
          greater the the value of the SIZE attribute, the field
          should scroll appropriately. The default number of
          characters is unlimited.
  SIZE
          specifies the amount of display space allocated to this
          input field according to its type. The default depends
          on the user agent.
  VALUE
          The initial value of the field.
  For example:

<p>Street Address: <input name=street><br> Postal City code: <input name=city size=16 maxlength=16><br> Zip Code: <input name=zip size=10 maxlength=10 value="99999-9999"><br>

8.1.2.2. Password Field: INPUT TYPE=PASSWORD

 An <INPUT> element with `TYPE=PASSWORD' is a text field as above,
 except that the value is obscured as it is entered. (see also: 10,
 "Security Considerations").
 For example:

<p>Name: <input name=login> Password: <input type=password name=passwd>

Berners-Lee & Connolly Standards Track [Page 41] RFC 1866 Hypertext Markup Language - 2.0 November 1995

8.1.2.3. Check Box: INPUT TYPE=CHECKBOX

 An <INPUT> element with `TYPE=CHECKBOX' represents a boolean choice.
 A set of such elements with the same name represents an n-of-many
 choice field. Required attributes are:
  NAME
          symbolic name for the form field corresponding to this
          element or group of elements.
  VALUE
          The portion of the value of the field contributed by
          this element.
  Optional attributes are:
  CHECKED
          indicates that the initial state is on.
  For example:
<p>What flavors do you like?
<input type=checkbox name=flavor value=vanilla>Vanilla<br>
<input type=checkbox name=flavor value=strawberry>Strawberry<br>
<input type=checkbox name=flavor value=chocolate checked>Chocolate<br>

8.1.2.4. Radio Button: INPUT TYPE=RADIO

 An <INPUT> element with `TYPE=RADIO' represents a boolean choice. A
 set of such elements with the same name represents a 1-of-many choice
 field. The NAME and VALUE attributes are required as for check boxes.
 Optional attributes are:
  CHECKED
          indicates that the initial state is on.
 At all times, exactly one of the radio buttons in a set is checked.
 If none of the <INPUT> elements of a set of radio buttons specifies
 `CHECKED', then the user agent must check the first radio button of
 the set initially.
 For example:
  <p>Which is your favorite?
  <input type=radio name=flavor value=vanilla>Vanilla<br>
  <input type=radio name=flavor value=strawberry>Strawberry<br>
  <input type=radio name=flavor value=chocolate>Chocolate<br>

Berners-Lee & Connolly Standards Track [Page 42] RFC 1866 Hypertext Markup Language - 2.0 November 1995

8.1.2.5. Image Pixel: INPUT TYPE=IMAGE

 An <INPUT> element with `TYPE=IMAGE' specifies an image resource to
 display, and allows input of two form fields: the x and y coordinate
 of a pixel chosen from the image. The names of the fields are the
 name of the field with `.x' and `.y' appended.  `TYPE=IMAGE' implies
 `TYPE=SUBMIT' processing; that is, when a pixel is chosen, the form
 as a whole is submitted.
 The NAME attribute is required as for other input fields. The SRC
 attribute is required and the ALIGN is optional as for the <IMG>
 element (see 5.10, "Image: IMG").
 For example:
  <p>Choose a point on the map:
  <input type=image name=point src="map.gif">

8.1.2.6. Hidden Field: INPUT TYPE=HIDDEN

 An <INPUT> element with `TYPE=HIDDEN' represents a hidden field.The
 user does not interact with this field; instead, the VALUE attribute
 specifies the value of the field. The NAME and VALUE attributes are
 required.
 For example:
 <input type=hidden name=context value="l2k3j4l2k3j4l2k3j4lk23">

8.1.2.7. Submit Button: INPUT TYPE=SUBMIT

 An <INPUT> element with `TYPE=SUBMIT' represents an input option,
 typically a button, that instructs the user agent to submit the form.
 Optional attributes are:
  NAME
          indicates that this element contributes a form field
          whose value is given by the VALUE attribute. If the NAME
          attribute is not present, this element does not
          contribute a form field.
  VALUE
          indicates a label for the input (button).
  You may submit this request internally:
  <input type=submit name=recipient value=internal><br>
  or to the external world:
  <input type=submit name=recipient value=world>

Berners-Lee & Connolly Standards Track [Page 43] RFC 1866 Hypertext Markup Language - 2.0 November 1995

8.1.2.8. Reset Button: INPUT TYPE=RESET

 An <INPUT> element with `TYPE=RESET' represents an input option,
 typically a button, that instructs the user agent to reset the form's
 fields to their initial states. The VALUE attribute, if present,
 indicates a label for the input (button).
 When you are finished, you may submit this request:
 <input type=submit><br>
 You may clear the form and start over at any time: <input type=reset>

8.1.3. Selection: SELECT

 The <SELECT> element constrains the form field to an enumerated list
 of values. The values are given in <OPTION> elements.  Attributes
 are:
  MULTIPLE
          indicates that more than one option may be included in
          the value.
  NAME
          specifies the name of the form field.
  SIZE
          specifies the number of visible items. Select fields of
          size one are typically pop-down menus, whereas select
          fields with size greater than one are typically lists.
  For example:
  <SELECT NAME="flavor">
  <OPTION>Vanilla
  <OPTION>Strawberry
  <OPTION value="RumRasin">Rum and Raisin
  <OPTION selected>Peach and Orange
  </SELECT>
 The initial state has the first option selected, unless a SELECTED
 attribute is present on any of the <OPTION> elements.

8.1.3.1. Option: OPTION

 The Option element can only occur within a Select element. It
 represents one choice, and has the following attributes:
  SELECTED
          Indicates that this option is initially selected.

Berners-Lee & Connolly Standards Track [Page 44] RFC 1866 Hypertext Markup Language - 2.0 November 1995

  VALUE
          indicates the value to be returned if this option is
          chosen. The field value defaults to the content of the
          <OPTION> element.
 The content of the <OPTION> element is presented to the user to
 represent the option. It is used as a returned value if the VALUE
 attribute is not present.

8.1.4. Text Area: TEXTAREA

 The <TEXTAREA> element represents a multi-line text field.
 Attributes are:
  COLS
          the number of visible columns to display for the text
          area, in characters.
  NAME
          Specifies the name of the form field.
  ROWS
          The number of visible rows to display for the text area,
          in characters.
  For example:
  <TEXTAREA NAME="address" ROWS=6 COLS=64>
  HaL Computer Systems
  1315 Dell Avenue
  Campbell, California 95008
  </TEXTAREA>
 The content of the <TEXTAREA> element is the field's initial value.
 Typically, the ROWS and COLS attributes determine the visible
 dimension of the field in characters. The field is typically rendered
 in a fixed-width font. HTML user agents should allow text to extend
 beyond these limits by scrolling as needed.

8.2. Form Submission

 An HTML user agent begins processing a form by presenting the
 document with the fields in their initial state. The user is allowed
 to modify the fields, constrained by the field type etc.  When the
 user indicates that the form should be submitted (using a submit
 button or image input), the form data set is processed according to
 its method, action URI and enctype.

Berners-Lee & Connolly Standards Track [Page 45] RFC 1866 Hypertext Markup Language - 2.0 November 1995

 When there is only one single-line text input field in a form, the
 user agent should accept Enter in that field as a request to submit
 the form.

8.2.1. The form-urlencoded Media Type

 The default encoding for all forms is `application/x-www-form-
 urlencoded'. A form data set is represented in this media type as
 follows:
      1. The form field names and values are escaped: space
      characters are replaced by `+', and then reserved characters
      are escaped as per [URL]; that is, non-alphanumeric
      characters are replaced by `%HH', a percent sign and two
      hexadecimal digits representing the ASCII code of the
      character. Line breaks, as in multi-line text field values,
      are represented as CR LF pairs, i.e. `%0D%0A'.
      2. The fields are listed in the order they appear in the
      document with the name separated from the value by `=' and
      the pairs separated from each other by `&'. Fields with null
      values may be omitted. In particular, unselected radio
      buttons and checkboxes should not appear in the encoded
      data, but hidden fields with VALUE attributes present
      should.
          NOTE - The URI from a query form submission can be
          used in a normal anchor style hyperlink.
          Unfortunately, the use of the `&' character to
          separate form fields interacts with its use in SGML
          attribute values as an entity reference delimiter.
          For example, the URI `http://host/?x=1&y=2' must be
          written `<a href="http://host/?x=1&#38;y=2"' or `<a
          href="http://host/?x=1&amp;y=2">'.
          HTTP server implementors, and in particular, CGI
          implementors are encouraged to support the use of
          `;' in place of `&' to save users the trouble of
          escaping `&' characters this way.

8.2.2. Query Forms: METHOD=GET

 If the processing of a form is idempotent (i.e. it has no lasting
 observable effect on the state of the world), then the form method
 should be `GET'. Many database searches have no visible side-effects
 and make ideal applications of query forms.

Berners-Lee & Connolly Standards Track [Page 46] RFC 1866 Hypertext Markup Language - 2.0 November 1995

 To process a form whose action URL is an HTTP URL and whose method is
 `GET', the user agent starts with the action URI and appends a `?'
 and the form data set, in `application/x-www-form-urlencoded' format
 as above. The user agent then traverses the link to this URI just as
 if it were an anchor (see 7.2, "Activation of Hyperlinks").
    NOTE - The URL encoding may result in very long URIs, which cause
    some historical HTTP server implementations to exhibit defective
    behavior. As a result, some HTML forms are written using
    `METHOD=POST' even though the form submission has no side-effects.

8.2.3. Forms with Side-Effects: METHOD=POST

 If the service associated with the processing of a form has side
 effects (for example, modification of a database or subscription to a
 service), the method should be `POST'.
 To process a form whose action URL is an HTTP URL and whose method is
 `POST', the user agent conducts an HTTP POST transaction using the
 action URI, and a message body of type `application/x-www-form-
 urlencoded' format as above. The user agent should display the
 response from the HTTP POST interaction just as it would display the
 response from an HTTP GET above.

8.2.4. Example Form Submission: Questionnaire Form

 Consider the following document:
  <!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//IETF//DTD HTML 2.0//EN">
  <title>Sample of HTML Form Submission</title>
  <H1>Sample Questionnaire</H1>
  <P>Please fill out this questionnaire:
  <FORM METHOD="POST" ACTION="http://www.w3.org/sample">
  <P>Your name: <INPUT NAME="name" size="48">
  <P>Male <INPUT NAME="gender" TYPE=RADIO VALUE="male">
  <P>Female <INPUT NAME="gender" TYPE=RADIO VALUE="female">
  <P>Number in family: <INPUT NAME="family" TYPE=text>
  <P>Cities in which you maintain a residence:
  <UL>
  <LI>Kent <INPUT NAME="city" TYPE=checkbox VALUE="kent">
  <LI>Miami <INPUT NAME="city" TYPE=checkbox VALUE="miami">
  <LI>Other <TEXTAREA NAME="other" cols=48 rows=4></textarea>
  </UL>
  Nickname: <INPUT NAME="nickname" SIZE="42">
  <P>Thank you for responding to this questionnaire.
  <P><INPUT TYPE=SUBMIT> <INPUT TYPE=RESET>
  </FORM>

Berners-Lee & Connolly Standards Track [Page 47] RFC 1866 Hypertext Markup Language - 2.0 November 1995

  The initial state of the form data set is:
  name
          ""
  gender
          "male"
  family
          ""
  other
          ""
  nickname
          ""
  Note that the radio input has an initial value, while the
  checkbox has none.
  The user might edit the fields and request that the form be
  submitted. At that point, suppose the values are:
  name
          "John Doe"
  gender
          "male"
  family
          "5"
  city
          "kent"
  city
          "miami"
  other
          "abc\ndefk"
  nickname
          "J&D"
 The user agent then conducts an HTTP POST transaction using the URI
 `http://www.w3.org/sample'. The message body would be (ignore the
 line break):

Berners-Lee & Connolly Standards Track [Page 48] RFC 1866 Hypertext Markup Language - 2.0 November 1995

 name=John+Doe&gender=male&family=5&city=kent&city=miami&
 other=abc%0D%0Adef&nickname=J%26D

9. HTML Public Text

9.1. HTML DTD

 This is the Document Type Definition for the HyperText Markup
 Language, level 2.

<!– html.dtd

      Document Type Definition for the HyperText Markup Language
               (HTML DTD)
      $Id: html.dtd,v 1.30 1995/09/21 23:30:19 connolly Exp $
      Author: Daniel W. Connolly <connolly@w3.org>
      See Also: html.decl, html-1.dtd
        http://www.w3.org/hypertext/WWW/MarkUp/MarkUp.html

–>

<!ENTITY % HTML.Version

      "-//IETF//DTD HTML 2.0//EN"
  1. - Typical usage:
          <!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//IETF//DTD HTML//EN">
          <html>
          ...
          </html>
      --
      >

<!–============ Feature Test Entities ========================–>

<!ENTITY % HTML.Recommended "IGNORE"

  1. - Certain features of the language are necessary for

compatibility with widespread usage, but they may

         compromise the structural integrity of a document.
         This feature test entity enables a more prescriptive
         document type definition that eliminates
         those features.
      -->

<![ %HTML.Recommended [

      <!ENTITY % HTML.Deprecated "IGNORE">

Berners-Lee & Connolly Standards Track [Page 49] RFC 1866 Hypertext Markup Language - 2.0 November 1995

]]>

<!ENTITY % HTML.Deprecated "INCLUDE"

  1. - Certain features of the language are necessary for

compatibility with earlier versions of the specification,

         but they tend to be used and implemented inconsistently,
         and their use is deprecated. This feature test entity
         enables a document type definition that eliminates
         these features.
      -->

<!ENTITY % HTML.Highlighting "INCLUDE"

  1. - Use this feature test entity to validate that a

document uses no highlighting tags, which may be

         ignored on minimal implementations.
      -->

<!ENTITY % HTML.Forms "INCLUDE"

  1. - Use this feature test entity to validate that a document

contains no forms, which may not be supported in minimal

         implementations
      -->

<!–============== Imported Names ==============================–>

<!ENTITY % Content-Type "CDATA"

  1. - meaning an internet media type

(aka MIME content type, as per RFC1521)

<!ENTITY % HTTP-Method "GET | POST"

  1. - as per HTTP specification, in progress

<!–========= DTD "Macros" =====================–>

<!ENTITY % heading "H1|H2|H3|H4|H5|H6">

<!ENTITY % list " UL | OL | DIR | MENU " >

<!–======= Character mnemonic entities =================–>

<!ENTITY % ISOlat1 PUBLIC

"ISO 8879-1986//ENTITIES Added Latin 1//EN//HTML">

%ISOlat1;

<!ENTITY amp CDATA "&#38;" – ampersand –>

Berners-Lee & Connolly Standards Track [Page 50] RFC 1866 Hypertext Markup Language - 2.0 November 1995

<!ENTITY gt CDATA "&#62;" – greater than –> <!ENTITY lt CDATA "&#60;" – less than –> <!ENTITY quot CDATA "&#34;" – double quote –>

<!–========= SGML Document Access (SDA) Parameter Entities =====–>

<!– HTML 2.0 contains SGML Document Access (SDA) fixed attributes in support of easy transformation to the International Committee for Accessible Document Design (ICADD) DTD

       "-//EC-USA-CDA/ICADD//DTD ICADD22//EN".

ICADD applications are designed to support usable access to structured information by print-impaired individuals through Braille, large print and voice synthesis. For more information on SDA & ICADD:

  1. ISO 12083:1993, Annex A.8, Facilities for Braille,

large print and computer voice

  1. ICADD ListServ

ICADD%ASUACAD.BITNET@ARIZVM1.ccit.arizona.edu

  1. Usenet news group bit.listserv.easi
  2. Recording for the Blind, +1 800 221 4792

–>

<!ENTITY % SDAFORM "SDAFORM CDATA #FIXED"

  1. - one to one mapping –>

<!ENTITY % SDARULE "SDARULE CDATA #FIXED"

  1. - context-sensitive mapping –>

<!ENTITY % SDAPREF "SDAPREF CDATA #FIXED"

  1. - generated text prefix –>

<!ENTITY % SDASUFF "SDASUFF CDATA #FIXED"

  1. - generated text suffix –>

<!ENTITY % SDASUSP "SDASUSP NAME #FIXED"

  1. - suspend transform process –>

<!–========== Text Markup =====================–>

<![ %HTML.Highlighting [

<!ENTITY % font " TT | B | I ">

<!ENTITY % phrase "EM | STRONG | CODE | SAMP | KBD | VAR | CITE ">

<!ENTITY % text "#PCDATA | A | IMG | BR | %phrase | %font">

<!ELEMENT (%font;|%phrase) - - (%text)*> <!ATTLIST ( TT | CODE | SAMP | KBD | VAR )

      %SDAFORM; "Lit"

Berners-Lee & Connolly Standards Track [Page 51] RFC 1866 Hypertext Markup Language - 2.0 November 1995

      >

<!ATTLIST ( B | STRONG )

      %SDAFORM; "B"
      >

<!ATTLIST ( I | EM | CITE )

      %SDAFORM; "It"
      >

<!– <TT> Typewriter text –> <!– <B> Bold text –> <!– <I> Italic text –>

<!– <EM> Emphasized phrase –> <!– <STRONG> Strong emphasis –> <!– <CODE> Source code phrase –> <!– <SAMP> Sample text or characters –> <!– <KBD> Keyboard phrase, e.g. user input –> <!– <VAR> Variable phrase or substitutable –> <!– <CITE> Name or title of cited work –>

<!ENTITY % pre.content "#PCDATA | A | HR | BR | %font | %phrase">

]]>

<!ENTITY % text "#PCDATA | A | IMG | BR">

<!ELEMENT BR - O EMPTY> <!ATTLIST BR

      %SDAPREF; "&#RE;"
      >

<!– <BR> Line break –>

<!–========= Link Markup ======================–>

<!ENTITY % linkType "NAMES">

<!ENTITY % linkExtraAttributes

      "REL %linkType #IMPLIED
      REV %linkType #IMPLIED
      URN CDATA #IMPLIED
      TITLE CDATA #IMPLIED
      METHODS NAMES #IMPLIED
      ">

<![ %HTML.Recommended [

      <!ENTITY % A.content   "(%text)*"

Berners-Lee & Connolly Standards Track [Page 52] RFC 1866 Hypertext Markup Language - 2.0 November 1995

  1. - <H1><a name="xxx">Heading</a></H1>

is preferred to

         <a name="xxx"><H1>Heading</H1></a>
      -->

]]>

<!ENTITY % A.content "(%heading|%text)*">

<!ELEMENT A - - %A.content -(A)> <!ATTLIST A

      HREF CDATA #IMPLIED
      NAME CDATA #IMPLIED
      %linkExtraAttributes;
      %SDAPREF; "<Anchor: #AttList>"
      >

<!– <A> Anchor; source/destination of link –> <!– <A NAME="…"> Name of this anchor –> <!– <A HREF="…"> Address of link destination –> <!– <A URN="…"> Permanent address of destination –> <!– <A REL=…> Relationship to destination –> <!– <A REV=…> Relationship of destination to this –> <!– <A TITLE="…"> Title of destination (advisory) –> <!– <A METHODS="…"> Operations on destination (advisory) –>

<!–========== Images ==========================–>

<!ELEMENT IMG - O EMPTY> <!ATTLIST IMG

      SRC CDATA  #REQUIRED
      ALT CDATA #IMPLIED
      ALIGN (top|middle|bottom) #IMPLIED
      ISMAP (ISMAP) #IMPLIED
      %SDAPREF; "<Fig><?SDATrans Img: #AttList>#AttVal(Alt)</Fig>"
      >

<!– <IMG> Image; icon, glyph or illustration –> <!– <IMG SRC="…"> Address of image object –> <!– <IMG ALT="…"> Textual alternative –> <!– <IMG ALIGN=…> Position relative to text –> <!– <IMG ISMAP> Each pixel can be a link –>

<!–========== Paragraphs=======================–>

<!ELEMENT P - O (%text)*> <!ATTLIST P

      %SDAFORM; "Para"
      >

Berners-Lee & Connolly Standards Track [Page 53] RFC 1866 Hypertext Markup Language - 2.0 November 1995

<!– <P> Paragraph –>

<!–========== Headings, Titles, Sections ===============–>

<!ELEMENT HR - O EMPTY> <!ATTLIST HR

      %SDAPREF; "&#RE;&#RE;"
      >

<!– <HR> Horizontal rule –>

<!ELEMENT ( %heading ) - - (%text;)*> <!ATTLIST H1

      %SDAFORM; "H1"
      >

<!ATTLIST H2

      %SDAFORM; "H2"
      >

<!ATTLIST H3

      %SDAFORM; "H3"
      >

<!ATTLIST H4

      %SDAFORM; "H4"
      >

<!ATTLIST H5

      %SDAFORM; "H5"
      >

<!ATTLIST H6

      %SDAFORM; "H6"
      >

<!– <H1> Heading, level 1 –> <!– <H2> Heading, level 2 –> <!– <H3> Heading, level 3 –> <!– <H4> Heading, level 4 –> <!– <H5> Heading, level 5 –> <!– <H6> Heading, level 6 –>

<!–========== Text Flows ======================–>

<![ %HTML.Forms [

      <!ENTITY % block.forms "BLOCKQUOTE | FORM | ISINDEX">

]]>

<!ENTITY % block.forms "BLOCKQUOTE">

Berners-Lee & Connolly Standards Track [Page 54] RFC 1866 Hypertext Markup Language - 2.0 November 1995

<![ %HTML.Deprecated [

      <!ENTITY % preformatted "PRE | XMP | LISTING">

]]>

<!ENTITY % preformatted "PRE">

<!ENTITY % block "P | %list | DL

      | %preformatted
      | %block.forms">

<!ENTITY % flow "(%text|%block)*">

<!ENTITY % pre.content "#PCDATA | A | HR | BR"> <!ELEMENT PRE - - (%pre.content)*> <!ATTLIST PRE

      WIDTH NUMBER #implied
      %SDAFORM; "Lit"
      >

<!– <PRE> Preformatted text –> <!– <PRE WIDTH=…> Maximum characters per line –>

<![ %HTML.Deprecated [

<!ENTITY % literal "CDATA"

  1. - historical, non-conforming parsing mode where

the only markup signal is the end tag

         in full
      -->

<!ELEMENT (XMP|LISTING) - - %literal> <!ATTLIST XMP

      %SDAFORM; "Lit"
      %SDAPREF; "Example:&#RE;"
      >

<!ATTLIST LISTING

      %SDAFORM; "Lit"
      %SDAPREF; "Listing:&#RE;"
      >

<!– <XMP> Example section –> <!– <LISTING> Computer listing –>

<!ELEMENT PLAINTEXT - O %literal> <!– <PLAINTEXT> Plain text passage –>

<!ATTLIST PLAINTEXT

      %SDAFORM; "Lit"

Berners-Lee & Connolly Standards Track [Page 55] RFC 1866 Hypertext Markup Language - 2.0 November 1995

      >

]]>

<!–========== Lists ==================–>

<!ELEMENT DL - - (DT | DD)+> <!ATTLIST DL

      COMPACT (COMPACT) #IMPLIED
      %SDAFORM; "List"
      %SDAPREF; "Definition List:"
      >

<!ELEMENT DT - O (%text)*> <!ATTLIST DT

      %SDAFORM; "Term"
      >

<!ELEMENT DD - O %flow> <!ATTLIST DD

      %SDAFORM; "LItem"
      >

<!– <DL> Definition list, or glossary –> <!– <DL COMPACT> Compact style list –> <!– <DT> Term in definition list –> <!– <DD> Definition of term –>

<!ELEMENT (OL|UL) - - (LI)+> <!ATTLIST OL

      COMPACT (COMPACT) #IMPLIED
      %SDAFORM; "List"
      >

<!ATTLIST UL

      COMPACT (COMPACT) #IMPLIED
      %SDAFORM; "List"
      >

<!– <UL> Unordered list –> <!– <UL COMPACT> Compact list style –> <!– <OL> Ordered, or numbered list –> <!– <OL COMPACT> Compact list style –>

<!ELEMENT (DIR|MENU) - - (LI)+ -(%block)> <!ATTLIST DIR

      COMPACT (COMPACT) #IMPLIED
      %SDAFORM; "List"
      %SDAPREF; "<LHead>Directory</LHead>"
      >

Berners-Lee & Connolly Standards Track [Page 56] RFC 1866 Hypertext Markup Language - 2.0 November 1995

<!ATTLIST MENU

      COMPACT (COMPACT) #IMPLIED
      %SDAFORM; "List"
      %SDAPREF; "<LHead>Menu</LHead>"
      >

<!– <DIR> Directory list –> <!– <DIR COMPACT> Compact list style –> <!– <MENU> Menu list –> <!– <MENU COMPACT> Compact list style –>

<!ELEMENT LI - O %flow> <!ATTLIST LI

      %SDAFORM; "LItem"
      >

<!– <LI> List item –>

<!–========== Document Body ===================–>

<![ %HTML.Recommended [

      <!ENTITY % body.content "(%heading|%block|HR|ADDRESS|IMG)*"
      -- <h1>Heading</h1>
         <p>Text ...
              is preferred to
         <h1>Heading</h1>
         Text ...
      -->

]]>

<!ENTITY % body.content "(%heading | %text | %block |

                               HR | ADDRESS)*">

<!ELEMENT BODY O O %body.content>

<!– <BODY> Document body –>

<!ELEMENT BLOCKQUOTE - - %body.content> <!ATTLIST BLOCKQUOTE

      %SDAFORM; "BQ"
      >

<!– <BLOCKQUOTE> Quoted passage –>

<!ELEMENT ADDRESS - - (%text|P)*> <!ATTLIST ADDRESS

      %SDAFORM; "Lit"
      %SDAPREF; "Address:&#RE;"

Berners-Lee & Connolly Standards Track [Page 57] RFC 1866 Hypertext Markup Language - 2.0 November 1995

      >

<!– <ADDRESS> Address, signature, or byline –>

<!–======= Forms ====================–>

<![ %HTML.Forms [

<!ELEMENT FORM - - %body.content -(FORM) +(INPUT|SELECT|TEXTAREA)> <!ATTLIST FORM

      ACTION CDATA #IMPLIED
      METHOD (%HTTP-Method) GET
      ENCTYPE %Content-Type; "application/x-www-form-urlencoded"
      %SDAPREF; "<Para>Form:</Para>"
      %SDASUFF; "<Para>Form End.</Para>"
      >

<!– <FORM> Fill-out or data-entry form –> <!– <FORM ACTION="…"> Address for completed form –> <!– <FORM METHOD=…> Method of submitting form –> <!– <FORM ENCTYPE="…"> Representation of form data –>

<!ENTITY % InputType "(TEXT | PASSWORD | CHECKBOX |

                      RADIO | SUBMIT | RESET |
                      IMAGE | HIDDEN )">

<!ELEMENT INPUT - O EMPTY> <!ATTLIST INPUT

      TYPE %InputType TEXT
      NAME CDATA #IMPLIED
      VALUE CDATA #IMPLIED
      SRC CDATA #IMPLIED
      CHECKED (CHECKED) #IMPLIED
      SIZE CDATA #IMPLIED
      MAXLENGTH NUMBER #IMPLIED
      ALIGN (top|middle|bottom) #IMPLIED
      %SDAPREF; "Input: "
      >

<!– <INPUT> Form input datum –> <!– <INPUT TYPE=…> Type of input interaction –> <!– <INPUT NAME=…> Name of form datum –> <!– <INPUT VALUE="…"> Default/initial/selected value –> <!– <INPUT SRC="…"> Address of image –> <!– <INPUT CHECKED> Initial state is "on" –> <!– <INPUT SIZE=…> Field size hint –> <!– <INPUT MAXLENGTH=…> Data length maximum –> <!– <INPUT ALIGN=…> Image alignment –>

Berners-Lee & Connolly Standards Track [Page 58] RFC 1866 Hypertext Markup Language - 2.0 November 1995

<!ELEMENT SELECT - - (OPTION+) -(INPUT|SELECT|TEXTAREA)> <!ATTLIST SELECT

      NAME CDATA #REQUIRED
      SIZE NUMBER #IMPLIED
      MULTIPLE (MULTIPLE) #IMPLIED
      %SDAFORM; "List"
      %SDAPREF;
      "<LHead>Select #AttVal(Multiple)</LHead>"
      >

<!– <SELECT> Selection of option(s) –> <!– <SELECT NAME=…> Name of form datum –> <!– <SELECT SIZE=…> Options displayed at a time –> <!– <SELECT MULTIPLE> Multiple selections allowed –>

<!ELEMENT OPTION - O (#PCDATA)*> <!ATTLIST OPTION

      SELECTED (SELECTED) #IMPLIED
      VALUE CDATA #IMPLIED
      %SDAFORM; "LItem"
      %SDAPREF;
      "Option: #AttVal(Value) #AttVal(Selected)"
      >

<!– <OPTION> A selection option –> <!– <OPTION SELECTED> Initial state –> <!– <OPTION VALUE="…"> Form datum value for this option–>

<!ELEMENT TEXTAREA - - (#PCDATA)* -(INPUT|SELECT|TEXTAREA)> <!ATTLIST TEXTAREA

      NAME CDATA #REQUIRED
      ROWS NUMBER #REQUIRED
      COLS NUMBER #REQUIRED
      %SDAFORM; "Para"
      %SDAPREF; "Input Text -- #AttVal(Name): "
      >

<!– <TEXTAREA> An area for text input –> <!– <TEXTAREA NAME=…> Name of form datum –> <!– <TEXTAREA ROWS=…> Height of area –> <!– <TEXTAREA COLS=…> Width of area –>

]]>

<!–======= Document Head ======================–>

<![ %HTML.Recommended [

Berners-Lee & Connolly Standards Track [Page 59] RFC 1866 Hypertext Markup Language - 2.0 November 1995

      <!ENTITY % head.extra "">

]]> <!ENTITY % head.extra "& NEXTID?">

<!ENTITY % head.content "TITLE & ISINDEX? & BASE? %head.extra">

<!ELEMENT HEAD O O (%head.content) +(META|LINK)>

<!– <HEAD> Document head –>

<!ELEMENT TITLE - - (#PCDATA)* -(META|LINK)> <!ATTLIST TITLE

      %SDAFORM; "Ti"    >

<!– <TITLE> Title of document –>

<!ELEMENT LINK - O EMPTY> <!ATTLIST LINK

      HREF CDATA #REQUIRED
      %linkExtraAttributes;
      %SDAPREF; "Linked to : #AttVal (TITLE) (URN) (HREF)>"    >

<!– <LINK> Link from this document –> <!– <LINK HREF="…"> Address of link destination –> <!– <LINK URN="…"> Lasting name of destination –> <!– <LINK REL=…> Relationship to destination –> <!– <LINK REV=…> Relationship of destination to this –> <!– <LINK TITLE="…"> Title of destination (advisory) –> <!– <LINK METHODS="…"> Operations allowed (advisory) –>

<!ELEMENT ISINDEX - O EMPTY> <!ATTLIST ISINDEX

      %SDAPREF;
 "<Para>[Document is indexed/searchable.]</Para>">

<!– <ISINDEX> Document is a searchable index –>

<!ELEMENT BASE - O EMPTY> <!ATTLIST BASE

      HREF CDATA #REQUIRED     >

<!– <BASE> Base context document –> <!– <BASE HREF="…"> Address for this document –>

<!ELEMENT NEXTID - O EMPTY> <!ATTLIST NEXTID

      N CDATA #REQUIRED     >

Berners-Lee & Connolly Standards Track [Page 60] RFC 1866 Hypertext Markup Language - 2.0 November 1995

<!– <NEXTID> Next ID to use for link name –> <!– <NEXTID N=…> Next ID to use for link name –>

<!ELEMENT META - O EMPTY> <!ATTLIST META

      HTTP-EQUIV  NAME    #IMPLIED
      NAME        NAME    #IMPLIED
      CONTENT     CDATA   #REQUIRED    >

<!– <META> Generic Meta-information –> <!– <META HTTP-EQUIV=…> HTTP response header name –> <!– <META NAME=…> Meta-information name –> <!– <META CONTENT="…"> Associated information –>

<!–======= Document Structure =================–>

<![ %HTML.Deprecated [

      <!ENTITY % html.content "HEAD, BODY, PLAINTEXT?">

]]> <!ENTITY % html.content "HEAD, BODY">

<!ELEMENT HTML O O (%html.content)> <!ENTITY % version.attr "VERSION CDATA #FIXED '%HTML.Version;'">

<!ATTLIST HTML

      %version.attr;
      %SDAFORM; "Book"
      >

<!– <HTML> HTML Document –>

9.2. Strict HTML DTD

 This document type declaration refers to the HTML DTD with the
 `HTML.Recommended' entity defined as `INCLUDE' rather than IGNORE;
 that is, it refers to the more structurally rigid definition of HTML.

<!– html-s.dtd

      Document Type Definition for the HyperText Markup Language
      with strict validation (HTML Strict DTD).
      $Id: html-s.dtd,v 1.3 1995/06/02 18:55:46 connolly Exp $
      Author: Daniel W. Connolly <connolly@w3.org>
      See Also: http://www.w3.org/hypertext/WWW/MarkUp/MarkUp.html

–>

Berners-Lee & Connolly Standards Track [Page 61] RFC 1866 Hypertext Markup Language - 2.0 November 1995

<!ENTITY % HTML.Version

      "-//IETF//DTD HTML 2.0 Strict//EN"
  1. - Typical usage:
          <!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC
              "-//IETF//DTD HTML Strict//EN">
          <html>
          ...
          </html>
      --
      >

<!– Feature Test Entities –> <!ENTITY % HTML.Recommended "INCLUDE">

<!ENTITY % html PUBLIC "-IETFDTD HTML 2.0EN"> %html; 9.3. Level 1 HTML DTD This document type declaration refers to the HTML DTD with the `HTML.Forms' entity defined as `IGNORE' rather than `INCLUDE'. Documents which contain <FORM> elements do not conform to this DTD, and must use the level 2 DTD. <!– html-1.dtd Document Type Definition for the HyperText Markup Language with Level 1 Extensions (HTML Level 1 DTD). $Id: html-1.dtd,v 1.2 1995/03/29 18:53:10 connolly Exp $ Author: Daniel W. Connolly connolly@w3.org See Also: http://info.cern.ch/hypertext/WWW/MarkUp/MarkUp.html –> <!ENTITY % HTML.Version "-IETFDTD HTML 2.0 Level 1EN"

  1. - Typical usage:
          <!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC
              "-//IETF//DTD HTML Level 1//EN">
          <html>
          ...
          </html>

Berners-Lee & Connolly Standards Track [Page 62] RFC 1866 Hypertext Markup Language - 2.0 November 1995

  1. -

>

<!– Feature Test Entities –> <!ENTITY % HTML.Forms "IGNORE">

<!ENTITY % html PUBLIC "-IETFDTD HTML 2.0EN"> %html; 9.4. Strict Level 1 HTML DTD This document type declaration refers to the level 1 HTML DTD with the `HTML.Recommended' entity defined as `INCLUDE' rather than IGNORE; that is, it refers to the more structurally rigid definition of HTML. <!– html-1s.dtd Document Type Definition for the HyperText Markup Language Struct Level 1 $Id: html-1s.dtd,v 1.3 1995/06/02 18:55:43 connolly Exp $ Author: Daniel W. Connolly connolly@w3.org See Also: http://www.w3.org/hypertext/WWW/MarkUp/MarkUp.html –> <!ENTITY % HTML.Version "-IETFDTD HTML 2.0 Strict Level 1EN"

  1. - Typical usage:
          <!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC
              "-//IETF//DTD HTML Strict Level 1//EN">
          <html>
          ...
          </html>
      --
      >

<!– Feature Test Entities –>

<!ENTITY % HTML.Recommended "INCLUDE">

<!ENTITY % html-1 PUBLIC "-IETFDTD HTML 2.0 Level 1EN"> %html-1; Berners-Lee & Connolly Standards Track [Page 63] RFC 1866 Hypertext Markup Language - 2.0 November 1995 9.5. SGML Declaration for HTML This is the SGML Declaration for HyperText Markup Language. <!SGML "ISO 8879:1986" – SGML Declaration for HyperText Markup Language (HTML). – CHARSET BASESET "ISO 646:1983CHARSET

                 International Reference Version
                 (IRV)//ESC 2/5 4/0"
       DESCSET  0   9   UNUSED
                9   2   9
                11  2   UNUSED
                13  1   13
                14  18  UNUSED
                32  95  32
                127 1   UNUSED
   BASESET   "ISO Registration Number 100//CHARSET
              ECMA-94 Right Part of
              Latin Alphabet Nr. 1//ESC 2/13 4/1"
       DESCSET  128  32   UNUSED
                160  96    32

CAPACITY SGMLREF

              TOTALCAP        150000
              GRPCAP          150000
              ENTCAP          150000

SCOPE DOCUMENT SYNTAX

       SHUNCHAR CONTROLS 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16
               17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 127
       BASESET  "ISO 646:1983//CHARSET
                 International Reference Version
                 (IRV)//ESC 2/5 4/0"
       DESCSET  0 128 0
       FUNCTION
                RE          13
                RS          10
                SPACE       32
                TAB SEPCHAR  9
       NAMING   LCNMSTRT ""
                UCNMSTRT ""

Berners-Lee & Connolly Standards Track [Page 64] RFC 1866 Hypertext Markup Language - 2.0 November 1995

                LCNMCHAR ".-"
                UCNMCHAR ".-"
                NAMECASE GENERAL YES
                         ENTITY  NO
       DELIM    GENERAL  SGMLREF
                SHORTREF SGMLREF
       NAMES    SGMLREF
       QUANTITY SGMLREF
                ATTSPLEN 2100
                LITLEN   1024
                NAMELEN  72    -- somewhat arbitrary; taken from
                              internet line length conventions --
                PILEN    1024
                TAGLVL   100
                TAGLEN   2100
                GRPGTCNT 150
                GRPCNT   64

FEATURES

MINIMIZE
  DATATAG  NO
  OMITTAG  YES
  RANK     NO
  SHORTTAG YES
LINK
  SIMPLE   NO
  IMPLICIT NO
  EXPLICIT NO
OTHER
  CONCUR   NO
  SUBDOC   NO
  FORMAL   YES
APPINFO    "SDA"  -- conforming SGML Document Access application
                  --

> <!–

      $Id: html.decl,v 1.17 1995/06/08 14:59:32 connolly Exp $
      Author: Daniel W. Connolly <connolly@w3.org>
      See also: http://www.w3.org/hypertext/WWW/MarkUp/MarkUp.html

–>

9.6. Sample SGML Open Entity Catalog for HTML

 The SGML standard describes an "entity manager" as the portion or
 component of an SGML system that maps SGML entities into the actual
 storage model (e.g., the file system). The standard itself does not

Berners-Lee & Connolly Standards Track [Page 65] RFC 1866 Hypertext Markup Language - 2.0 November 1995

 define a particular mapping methodology or notation.
 To assist the interoperability among various SGML tools and systems,
 the SGML Open consortium has passed a technical resolution that
 defines a format for an application-independent entity catalog that
 maps external identifiers and/or entity names to file names.
 Each entry in the catalog associates a storage object identifier
 (such as a file name) with information about the external entity that
 appears in the SGML document. In addition to entries that associate
 public identifiers, a catalog entry can associate an entity name with
 a storage object identifier. For example, the following are possible
 catalog entries:
  1. - catalog: SGML Open style entity catalog for HTML
  2. - $Id: catalog,v 1.3 1995/09/21 23:30:23 connolly Exp $ –
  1. - Ways to refer to Level 2: most general to most specific –

PUBLIC "-IETFDTD HTMLEN" html.dtd PUBLIC "-IETFDTD HTML 2.0EN" html.dtd PUBLIC "-IETFDTD HTML Level 2EN" html.dtd PUBLIC "-IETFDTD HTML 2.0 Level 2EN" html.dtd

  1. - Ways to refer to Level 1: most general to most specific –

PUBLIC "-IETFDTD HTML Level 1EN" html-1.dtd PUBLIC "-IETFDTD HTML 2.0 Level 1EN" html-1.dtd

  1. - Ways to refer to

Strict Level 2: most general to most specific – PUBLIC "-IETFDTD HTML StrictEN" html-s.dtd PUBLIC "-IETFDTD HTML 2.0 StrictEN" html-s.dtd PUBLIC "-IETFDTD HTML Strict Level 2EN" html-s.dtd PUBLIC "-IETFDTD HTML 2.0 Strict Level 2EN" html-s.dtd

  1. - Ways to refer to

Strict Level 1: most general to most specific – PUBLIC "-IETFDTD HTML Strict Level 1EN" html-1s.dtd PUBLIC "-IETFDTD HTML 2.0 Strict Level 1EN" html-1s.dtd

  1. - ISO latin 1 entity set for HTML

PUBLIC "ISO 8879-1986ENTITIES Added Latin 1ENHTML" ISOlat1\ sgml 9.7. Character Entity Sets The HTML DTD defines the following entities. They represent particular graphic characters which have special meanings in places in the markup, or may not be part of the character set available to Berners-Lee & Connolly Standards Track [Page 66] RFC 1866 Hypertext Markup Language - 2.0 November 1995 the writer. 9.7.1. Numeric and Special Graphic Entity Set The following table lists each of the characters included from the Numeric and Special Graphic entity set, along with its name, syntax for use, and description. This list is derived from `ISO Standard 8879:1986ENTITIES Numeric and Special GraphicEN'. However, HTML does not include for the entire entity set – only the entities listed below are included. GLYPH NAME SYNTAX DESCRIPTION < lt &lt; Less than sign > gt &gt; Greater than signn & amp &amp; Ampersand " quot &quot; Double quote sign 9.7.2. ISO Latin 1 Character Entity Set The following public text lists each of the characters specified in the Added Latin 1 entity set, along with its name, syntax for use, and description. This list is derived from ISO Standard 8879:1986ENTITIES Added Latin 1EN. HTML includes the entire entity set. <!– (C) International Organization for Standardization 1986 Permission to copy in any form is granted for use with conforming SGML systems and applications as defined in ISO 8879, provided this notice is included in all copies. –> <!– Character entity set. Typical invocation: <!ENTITY % ISOlat1 PUBLIC "ISO 8879-1986ENTITIES Added Latin 1ENHTML">

   %ISOlat1;

–> <!– Modified for use in HTML

      $Id: ISOlat1.sgml,v 1.2 1994/11/30 23:45:12 connolly Exp $ -->

<!ENTITY AElig CDATA "&#198;" – capital AE diphthong (ligature) –> <!ENTITY Aacute CDATA "&#193;" – capital A, acute accent –> <!ENTITY Acirc CDATA "&#194;" – capital A, circumflex accent –> <!ENTITY Agrave CDATA "&#192;" – capital A, grave accent –> <!ENTITY Aring CDATA "&#197;" – capital A, ring –> <!ENTITY Atilde CDATA "&#195;" – capital A, tilde –> <!ENTITY Auml CDATA "&#196;" – capital A, dieresis or umlaut mark –> <!ENTITY Ccedil CDATA "&#199;" – capital C, cedilla –> <!ENTITY ETH CDATA "&#208;" – capital Eth, Icelandic –> <!ENTITY Eacute CDATA "&#201;" – capital E, acute accent –> <!ENTITY Ecirc CDATA "&#202;" – capital E, circumflex accent –>

Berners-Lee & Connolly Standards Track [Page 67] RFC 1866 Hypertext Markup Language - 2.0 November 1995

<!ENTITY Egrave CDATA "&#200;" – capital E, grave accent –> <!ENTITY Euml CDATA "&#203;" – capital E, dieresis or umlaut mark –> <!ENTITY Iacute CDATA "&#205;" – capital I, acute accent –> <!ENTITY Icirc CDATA "&#206;" – capital I, circumflex accent –> <!ENTITY Igrave CDATA "&#204;" – capital I, grave accent –> <!ENTITY Iuml CDATA "&#207;" – capital I, dieresis or umlaut mark –> <!ENTITY Ntilde CDATA "&#209;" – capital N, tilde –> <!ENTITY Oacute CDATA "&#211;" – capital O, acute accent –> <!ENTITY Ocirc CDATA "&#212;" – capital O, circumflex accent –> <!ENTITY Ograve CDATA "&#210;" – capital O, grave accent –> <!ENTITY Oslash CDATA "&#216;" – capital O, slash –> <!ENTITY Otilde CDATA "&#213;" – capital O, tilde –> <!ENTITY Ouml CDATA "&#214;" – capital O, dieresis or umlaut mark –> <!ENTITY THORN CDATA "&#222;" – capital THORN, Icelandic –> <!ENTITY Uacute CDATA "&#218;" – capital U, acute accent –> <!ENTITY Ucirc CDATA "&#219;" – capital U, circumflex accent –> <!ENTITY Ugrave CDATA "&#217;" – capital U, grave accent –> <!ENTITY Uuml CDATA "&#220;" – capital U, dieresis or umlaut mark –> <!ENTITY Yacute CDATA "&#221;" – capital Y, acute accent –> <!ENTITY aacute CDATA "&#225;" – small a, acute accent –> <!ENTITY acirc CDATA "&#226;" – small a, circumflex accent –> <!ENTITY aelig CDATA "&#230;" – small ae diphthong (ligature) –> <!ENTITY agrave CDATA "&#224;" – small a, grave accent –> <!ENTITY aring CDATA "&#229;" – small a, ring –> <!ENTITY atilde CDATA "&#227;" – small a, tilde –> <!ENTITY auml CDATA "&#228;" – small a, dieresis or umlaut mark –> <!ENTITY ccedil CDATA "&#231;" – small c, cedilla –> <!ENTITY eacute CDATA "&#233;" – small e, acute accent –> <!ENTITY ecirc CDATA "&#234;" – small e, circumflex accent –> <!ENTITY egrave CDATA "&#232;" – small e, grave accent –> <!ENTITY eth CDATA "&#240;" – small eth, Icelandic –> <!ENTITY euml CDATA "&#235;" – small e, dieresis or umlaut mark –> <!ENTITY iacute CDATA "&#237;" – small i, acute accent –> <!ENTITY icirc CDATA "&#238;" – small i, circumflex accent –> <!ENTITY igrave CDATA "&#236;" – small i, grave accent –> <!ENTITY iuml CDATA "&#239;" – small i, dieresis or umlaut mark –> <!ENTITY ntilde CDATA "&#241;" – small n, tilde –> <!ENTITY oacute CDATA "&#243;" – small o, acute accent –> <!ENTITY ocirc CDATA "&#244;" – small o, circumflex accent –> <!ENTITY ograve CDATA "&#242;" – small o, grave accent –> <!ENTITY oslash CDATA "&#248;" – small o, slash –> <!ENTITY otilde CDATA "&#245;" – small o, tilde –> <!ENTITY ouml CDATA "&#246;" – small o, dieresis or umlaut mark –> <!ENTITY szlig CDATA "&#223;" – small sharp s, German (sz ligature)→ <!ENTITY thorn CDATA "&#254;" – small thorn, Icelandic –> <!ENTITY uacute CDATA "&#250;" – small u, acute accent –> <!ENTITY ucirc CDATA "&#251;" – small u, circumflex accent –> <!ENTITY ugrave CDATA "&#249;" – small u, grave accent –>

Berners-Lee & Connolly Standards Track [Page 68] RFC 1866 Hypertext Markup Language - 2.0 November 1995

<!ENTITY uuml CDATA "&#252;" – small u, dieresis or umlaut mark –> <!ENTITY yacute CDATA "&#253;" – small y, acute accent –> <!ENTITY yuml CDATA "&#255;" – small y, dieresis or umlaut mark –>

10. Security Considerations

 Anchors, embedded images, and all other elements which contain URIs
 as parameters may cause the URI to be dereferenced in response to
 user input. In this case, the security considerations of [URL] apply.
 The widely deployed methods for submitting forms requests -- HTTP and
 SMTP -- provide little assurance of confidentiality.  Information
 providers who request sensitive information via forms -- especially
 by way of the `PASSWORD' type input field (see 8.1.2, "Input Field:
 INPUT") -- should be aware and make their users aware of the lack of
 confidentiality.

11. References

  [URI]
          Berners-Lee, T., "Universal Resource Identifiers in WWW:
          A Unifying Syntax for the Expression of Names and
          Addresses of Objects on the Network as used in the
          World- Wide Web",  RFC 1630, CERN, June 1994.
          <URL:ftp://ds.internic.net/rfc/rfc1630.txt>
  [URL]
          Berners-Lee, T., Masinter, L., and M. McCahill, "Uniform
          Resource Locators (URL)", RFC 1738, CERN, Xerox PARC,
          University of Minnesota, December 1994.
          <URL:ftp://ds.internic.net/rfc/rfc1738.txt>
  [HTTP]
          Berners-Lee, T., Fielding, R., and H. Frystyk Nielsen,
          "Hypertext Transfer Protocol - HTTP/1.0", Work in
          Progress, MIT, UC Irvine, CERN, March 1995.
  [MIME]
          Borenstein, N., and N. Freed. "MIME (Multipurpose
          Internet Mail Extensions) Part One: Mechanisms for
          Specifying and Describing the Format of Internet Message
          Bodies", RFC 1521, Bellcore, Innosoft, September 1993.
          <URL:ftp://ds.internic.net/rfc/rfc1521.txt>
  [RELURL]
          Fielding, R., "Relative Uniform Resource Locators", RFC
          1808, June 1995
          <URL:ftp://ds.internic.net/rfc/rfc1808.txt>

Berners-Lee & Connolly Standards Track [Page 69] RFC 1866 Hypertext Markup Language - 2.0 November 1995

  [GOLD90]
          Goldfarb, C., "The SGML Handbook", Y. Rubinsky, Ed.,
          Oxford University Press, 1990.
  [DEXTER]
          Frank Halasz and Mayer Schwartz, "The Dexter Hypertext
          Reference Model", Communications of the ACM, pp.
          30-39, vol. 37 no. 2, Feb 1994.
  [IMEDIA]
          Postel, J., "Media Type Registration Procedure",
          RFC 1590, USC/Information Sciences Institute, March 1994.
          <URL:ftp://ds.internic.net/rfc/rfc1590.txt>
  [IANA]
          Reynolds, J., and J. Postel, "Assigned Numbers", STD 2,
          RFC 1700, USC/Information Sciecnes Institute, October
          1994.  <URL:ftp://ds.internic.net/rfc/rfc1700.txt>
  [SQ91]
          SoftQuad. "The SGML Primer", 3rd ed., SoftQuad Inc.,
          1991. <URL:http://www.sq.com/>
  [ISO-646]
          ISO/IEC 646:1991 Information technology -- ISO 7-bit
          coded character set for information interchange
          <URL:http://www.iso.ch/cate/d4777.html>
  [ISO-10646]
          ISO/IEC 10646-1:1993 Information technology -- Universal
          Multiple-Octet Coded Character Set (UCS) -- Part 1:
          Architecture and Basic Multilingual Plane
          <URL:http://www.iso.ch/cate/d18741.html>
  [ISO-8859-1]
          ISO 8859. International Standard -- Information
          Processing -- 8-bit Single-Byte Coded Graphic Character
          Sets -- Part 1: Latin Alphabet No. 1, ISO 8859-1:1987.
          <URL:http://www.iso.ch/cate/d16338.html>
  [SGML]
          ISO 8879. Information Processing -- Text and Office
          Systems - Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML),
          1986. <URL:http://www.iso.ch/cate/d16387.html>

Berners-Lee & Connolly Standards Track [Page 70] RFC 1866 Hypertext Markup Language - 2.0 November 1995

12. Acknowledgments

 The HTML document type was designed by Tim Berners-Lee at CERN as
 part of the 1990 World Wide Web project. In 1992, Dan Connolly wrote
 the HTML Document Type Definition (DTD) and a brief HTML
 specification.
 Since 1993, a wide variety of Internet participants have contributed
 to the evolution of HTML, which has included the addition of in-line
 images introduced by the NCSA Mosaic software for WWW. Dave Raggett
 played an important role in deriving the forms material from the
 HTML+ specification.
 Dan Connolly and Karen Olson Muldrow rewrote the HTML Specification
 in 1994. The document was then edited by the HTML working group as a
 whole, with updates being made by Eric Schieler, Mike Knezovich, and
 Eric W. Sink at Spyglass, Inc.  Finally, Roy Fielding restructured
 the entire draft into its current form.
 Special thanks to the many active participants in the HTML working
 group, too numerous to list individually, without whom there would be
 no standards process and no standard. That this document approaches
 its objective of carefully converging a description of current
 practice and formalization of HTML's relationship to SGML is a
 tribute to their effort.

12.1. Authors' Addresses

 Tim Berners-Lee
 Director, W3 Consortium
 MIT Laboratory for Computer Science
 545 Technology Square
 Cambridge, MA 02139, U.S.A.
 Phone: +1 (617) 253 9670
 Fax: +1 (617) 258 8682
 EMail: timbl@w3.org
 Daniel W. Connolly
 Research Technical Staff, W3 Consortium
 MIT Laboratory for Computer Science
 545 Technology Square
 Cambridge, MA 02139, U.S.A.
 Phone: +1 (617) 258 8682
 EMail: connolly@w3.org
 URI: http://www.w3.org/hypertext/WWW/People/Connolly/

Berners-Lee & Connolly Standards Track [Page 71] RFC 1866 Hypertext Markup Language - 2.0 November 1995

13. The HTML Coded Character Set

 This list details the code positions and characters of the HTML
 document character set, specified in 9.5, "SGML Declaration for
 HTML". This coded character set is based on [ISO-8859-1].
  REFERENCE       DESCRIPTION
  --------------  -----------
  &#00; - &#08;   Unused
  &#09;           Horizontal tab
  &#10;           Line feed
  &#11; - &#12;   Unused
  &#13;           Carriage Return
  &#14; - &#31;   Unused
  &#32;           Space
  &#33;           Exclamation mark
  &#34;           Quotation mark
  &#35;           Number sign
  &#36;           Dollar sign
  &#37;           Percent sign
  &#38;           Ampersand
  &#39;           Apostrophe
  &#40;           Left parenthesis
  &#41;           Right parenthesis
  &#42;           Asterisk
  &#43;           Plus sign
  &#44;           Comma
  &#45;           Hyphen
  &#46;           Period (fullstop)
  &#47;           Solidus (slash)
  &#48; - &#57;   Digits 0-9
  &#58;           Colon
  &#59;           Semi-colon
  &#60;           Less than
  &#61;           Equals sign
  &#62;           Greater than
  &#63;           Question mark
  &#64;           Commercial at
  &#65; - &#90;   Letters A-Z
  &#91;           Left square bracket
  &#92;           Reverse solidus (backslash)
  &#93;           Right square bracket
  &#94;           Caret
  &#95;           Horizontal bar (underscore)
  &#96;           Acute accent
  &#97; - &#122;  Letters a-z
  &#123;          Left curly brace
  &#124;          Vertical bar

Berners-Lee & Connolly Standards Track [Page 72] RFC 1866 Hypertext Markup Language - 2.0 November 1995

  &#125;          Right curly brace
  &#126;          Tilde
  &#127; - &#159; Unused
  &#160;          Non-breaking Space
  &#161;          Inverted exclamation
  &#162;          Cent sign
  &#163;          Pound sterling
  &#164;          General currency sign
  &#165;          Yen sign
  &#166;          Broken vertical bar
  &#167;          Section sign
  &#168;          Umlaut (dieresis)
  &#169;          Copyright
  &#170;          Feminine ordinal
  &#171;          Left angle quote, guillemotleft
  &#172;          Not sign
  &#173;          Soft hyphen
  &#174;          Registered trademark
  &#175;          Macron accent
  &#176;          Degree sign
  &#177;          Plus or minus
  &#178;          Superscript two
  &#179;          Superscript three
  &#180;          Acute accent
  &#181;          Micro sign
  &#182;          Paragraph sign
  &#183;          Middle dot
  &#184;          Cedilla
  &#185;          Superscript one
  &#186;          Masculine ordinal
  &#187;          Right angle quote, guillemotright
  &#188;          Fraction one-fourth
  &#189;          Fraction one-half
  &#190;          Fraction three-fourths
  &#191;          Inverted question mark
  &#192;          Capital A, grave accent
  &#193;          Capital A, acute accent
  &#194;          Capital A, circumflex accent
  &#195;          Capital A, tilde
  &#196;          Capital A, dieresis or umlaut mark
  &#197;          Capital A, ring
  &#198;          Capital AE dipthong (ligature)
  &#199;          Capital C, cedilla
  &#200;          Capital E, grave accent
  &#201;          Capital E, acute accent
  &#202;          Capital E, circumflex accent
  &#203;          Capital E, dieresis or umlaut mark
  &#204;          Capital I, grave accent

Berners-Lee & Connolly Standards Track [Page 73] RFC 1866 Hypertext Markup Language - 2.0 November 1995

  &#205;          Capital I, acute accent
  &#206;          Capital I, circumflex accent
  &#207;          Capital I, dieresis or umlaut mark
  &#208;          Capital Eth, Icelandic
  &#209;          Capital N, tilde
  &#210;          Capital O, grave accent
  &#211;          Capital O, acute accent
  &#212;          Capital O, circumflex accent
  &#213;          Capital O, tilde
  &#214;          Capital O, dieresis or umlaut mark
  &#215;          Multiply sign
  &#216;          Capital O, slash
  &#217;          Capital U, grave accent
  &#218;          Capital U, acute accent
  &#219;          Capital U, circumflex accent
  &#220;          Capital U, dieresis or umlaut mark
  &#221;          Capital Y, acute accent
  &#222;          Capital THORN, Icelandic
  &#223;          Small sharp s, German (sz ligature)
  &#224;          Small a, grave accent
  &#225;          Small a, acute accent
  &#226;          Small a, circumflex accent
  &#227;          Small a, tilde
  &#228;          Small a, dieresis or umlaut mark
  &#229;          Small a, ring
  &#230;          Small ae dipthong (ligature)
  &#231;          Small c, cedilla
  &#232;          Small e, grave accent
  &#233;          Small e, acute accent
  &#234;          Small e, circumflex accent
  &#235;          Small e, dieresis or umlaut mark
  &#236;          Small i, grave accent
  &#237;          Small i, acute accent
  &#238;          Small i, circumflex accent
  &#239;          Small i, dieresis or umlaut mark
  &#240;          Small eth, Icelandic
  &#241;          Small n, tilde
  &#242;          Small o, grave accent
  &#243;          Small o, acute accent
  &#244;          Small o, circumflex accent
  &#245;          Small o, tilde
  &#246;          Small o, dieresis or umlaut mark
  &#247;          Division sign
  &#248;          Small o, slash
  &#249;          Small u, grave accent
  &#250;          Small u, acute accent
  &#251;          Small u, circumflex accent
  &#252;          Small u, dieresis or umlaut mark

Berners-Lee & Connolly Standards Track [Page 74] RFC 1866 Hypertext Markup Language - 2.0 November 1995

  &#253;          Small y, acute accent
  &#254;          Small thorn, Icelandic
  &#255;          Small y, dieresis or umlaut mark

14. Proposed Entities

 The HTML DTD references the "Added Latin 1" entity set, which only
 supplies named entities for a subset of the non-ASCII characters in
 [ISO-8859-1], namely the accented characters. The following entities
 should be supported so that all ISO 8859-1 characters may only be
 referenced symbolically. The names for these entities are taken from
 the appendixes of [SGML].
  <!ENTITY nbsp   CDATA "&#160;" -- no-break space -->
  <!ENTITY iexcl  CDATA "&#161;" -- inverted exclamation mark -->
  <!ENTITY cent   CDATA "&#162;" -- cent sign -->
  <!ENTITY pound  CDATA "&#163;" -- pound sterling sign -->
  <!ENTITY curren CDATA "&#164;" -- general currency sign -->
  <!ENTITY yen    CDATA "&#165;" -- yen sign -->
  <!ENTITY brvbar CDATA "&#166;" -- broken (vertical) bar -->
  <!ENTITY sect   CDATA "&#167;" -- section sign -->
  <!ENTITY uml    CDATA "&#168;" -- umlaut (dieresis) -->
  <!ENTITY copy   CDATA "&#169;" -- copyright sign -->
  <!ENTITY ordf   CDATA "&#170;" -- ordinal indicator, feminine -->
  <!ENTITY laquo  CDATA "&#171;" -- angle quotation mark, left -->
  <!ENTITY not    CDATA "&#172;" -- not sign -->
  <!ENTITY shy    CDATA "&#173;" -- soft hyphen -->
  <!ENTITY reg    CDATA "&#174;" -- registered sign -->
  <!ENTITY macr   CDATA "&#175;" -- macron -->
  <!ENTITY deg    CDATA "&#176;" -- degree sign -->
  <!ENTITY plusmn CDATA "&#177;" -- plus-or-minus sign -->
  <!ENTITY sup2   CDATA "&#178;" -- superscript two -->
  <!ENTITY sup3   CDATA "&#179;" -- superscript three -->
  <!ENTITY acute  CDATA "&#180;" -- acute accent -->
  <!ENTITY micro  CDATA "&#181;" -- micro sign -->
  <!ENTITY para   CDATA "&#182;" -- pilcrow (paragraph sign) -->
  <!ENTITY middot CDATA "&#183;" -- middle dot -->
  <!ENTITY cedil  CDATA "&#184;" -- cedilla -->
  <!ENTITY sup1   CDATA "&#185;" -- superscript one -->
  <!ENTITY ordm   CDATA "&#186;" -- ordinal indicator, masculine -->
  <!ENTITY raquo  CDATA "&#187;" -- angle quotation mark, right -->
  <!ENTITY frac14 CDATA "&#188;" -- fraction one-quarter -->
  <!ENTITY frac12 CDATA "&#189;" -- fraction one-half -->
  <!ENTITY frac34 CDATA "&#190;" -- fraction three-quarters -->
  <!ENTITY iquest CDATA "&#191;" -- inverted question mark -->
  <!ENTITY Agrave CDATA "&#192;" -- capital A, grave accent -->
  <!ENTITY Aacute CDATA "&#193;" -- capital A, acute accent -->
  <!ENTITY Acirc  CDATA "&#194;" -- capital A, circumflex accent -->

Berners-Lee & Connolly Standards Track [Page 75] RFC 1866 Hypertext Markup Language - 2.0 November 1995

  <!ENTITY Atilde CDATA "&#195;" -- capital A, tilde -->
  <!ENTITY Auml   CDATA "&#196;" -- capital A, dieresis or umlaut mark -->
  <!ENTITY Aring  CDATA "&#197;" -- capital A, ring -->
  <!ENTITY AElig  CDATA "&#198;" -- capital AE diphthong (ligature) -->
  <!ENTITY Ccedil CDATA "&#199;" -- capital C, cedilla -->
  <!ENTITY Egrave CDATA "&#200;" -- capital E, grave accent -->
  <!ENTITY Eacute CDATA "&#201;" -- capital E, acute accent -->
  <!ENTITY Ecirc  CDATA "&#202;" -- capital E, circumflex accent -->
  <!ENTITY Euml   CDATA "&#203;" -- capital E, dieresis or umlaut mark -->
  <!ENTITY Igrave CDATA "&#204;" -- capital I, grave accent -->
  <!ENTITY Iacute CDATA "&#205;" -- capital I, acute accent -->
  <!ENTITY Icirc  CDATA "&#206;" -- capital I, circumflex accent -->
  <!ENTITY Iuml   CDATA "&#207;" -- capital I, dieresis or umlaut mark -->
  <!ENTITY ETH    CDATA "&#208;" -- capital Eth, Icelandic -->
  <!ENTITY Ntilde CDATA "&#209;" -- capital N, tilde -->
  <!ENTITY Ograve CDATA "&#210;" -- capital O, grave accent -->
  <!ENTITY Oacute CDATA "&#211;" -- capital O, acute accent -->
  <!ENTITY Ocirc  CDATA "&#212;" -- capital O, circumflex accent -->
  <!ENTITY Otilde CDATA "&#213;" -- capital O, tilde -->
  <!ENTITY Ouml   CDATA "&#214;" -- capital O, dieresis or umlaut mark -->
  <!ENTITY times  CDATA "&#215;" -- multiply sign -->
  <!ENTITY Oslash CDATA "&#216;" -- capital O, slash -->
  <!ENTITY Ugrave CDATA "&#217;" -- capital U, grave accent -->
  <!ENTITY Uacute CDATA "&#218;" -- capital U, acute accent -->
  <!ENTITY Ucirc  CDATA "&#219;" -- capital U, circumflex accent -->
  <!ENTITY Uuml   CDATA "&#220;" -- capital U, dieresis or umlaut mark -->
  <!ENTITY Yacute CDATA "&#221;" -- capital Y, acute accent -->
  <!ENTITY THORN  CDATA "&#222;" -- capital THORN, Icelandic -->
  <!ENTITY szlig  CDATA "&#223;" -- small sharp s, German (sz ligature) -->
  <!ENTITY agrave CDATA "&#224;" -- small a, grave accent -->
  <!ENTITY aacute CDATA "&#225;" -- small a, acute accent -->
  <!ENTITY acirc  CDATA "&#226;" -- small a, circumflex accent -->
  <!ENTITY atilde CDATA "&#227;" -- small a, tilde -->
  <!ENTITY auml   CDATA "&#228;" -- small a, dieresis or umlaut mark -->
  <!ENTITY aring  CDATA "&#229;" -- small a, ring -->
  <!ENTITY aelig  CDATA "&#230;" -- small ae diphthong (ligature) -->
  <!ENTITY ccedil CDATA "&#231;" -- small c, cedilla -->
  <!ENTITY egrave CDATA "&#232;" -- small e, grave accent -->
  <!ENTITY eacute CDATA "&#233;" -- small e, acute accent -->
  <!ENTITY ecirc  CDATA "&#234;" -- small e, circumflex accent -->
  <!ENTITY euml   CDATA "&#235;" -- small e, dieresis or umlaut mark -->
  <!ENTITY igrave CDATA "&#236;" -- small i, grave accent -->
  <!ENTITY iacute CDATA "&#237;" -- small i, acute accent -->
  <!ENTITY icirc  CDATA "&#238;" -- small i, circumflex accent -->
  <!ENTITY iuml   CDATA "&#239;" -- small i, dieresis or umlaut mark -->
  <!ENTITY eth    CDATA "&#240;" -- small eth, Icelandic -->
  <!ENTITY ntilde CDATA "&#241;" -- small n, tilde -->
  <!ENTITY ograve CDATA "&#242;" -- small o, grave accent -->

Berners-Lee & Connolly Standards Track [Page 76] RFC 1866 Hypertext Markup Language - 2.0 November 1995

  <!ENTITY oacute CDATA "&#243;" -- small o, acute accent -->
  <!ENTITY ocirc  CDATA "&#244;" -- small o, circumflex accent -->
  <!ENTITY otilde CDATA "&#245;" -- small o, tilde -->
  <!ENTITY ouml   CDATA "&#246;" -- small o, dieresis or umlaut mark -->
  <!ENTITY divide CDATA "&#247;" -- divide sign -->
  <!ENTITY oslash CDATA "&#248;" -- small o, slash -->
  <!ENTITY ugrave CDATA "&#249;" -- small u, grave accent -->
  <!ENTITY uacute CDATA "&#250;" -- small u, acute accent -->
  <!ENTITY ucirc  CDATA "&#251;" -- small u, circumflex accent -->
  <!ENTITY uuml   CDATA "&#252;" -- small u, dieresis or umlaut mark -->
  <!ENTITY yacute CDATA "&#253;" -- small y, acute accent -->
  <!ENTITY thorn  CDATA "&#254;" -- small thorn, Icelandic -->
  <!ENTITY yuml   CDATA "&#255;" -- small y, dieresis or umlaut mark -->

Berners-Lee & Connolly Standards Track [Page 77]

/data/webs/external/dokuwiki/data/pages/rfc/rfc1866.txt · Last modified: 1995/11/02 21:04 (external edit)