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rfc:rfc1449
        Network Working Group                                  J. Case
        Request for Comments: 1449                 SNMP Research, Inc.
                                                         K. McCloghrie
                                                    Hughes LAN Systems
                                                               M. Rose
                                          Dover Beach Consulting, Inc.
                                                         S. Waldbusser
                                            Carnegie Mellon University
                                                            April 1993
                              Transport Mappings
                             for version 2 of the
                 Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMPv2)
        Status of this Memo
        This RFC specifes an IAB standards track protocol for the
        Internet community, and requests discussion and suggestions
        for improvements.  Please refer to the current edition of the
        "IAB Official Protocol Standards" for the standardization
        state and status of this protocol.  Distribution of this memo
        is unlimited.
        Table of Contents
        1 Introduction ..........................................    2
        1.1 A Note on Terminology ...............................    2
        2 Definitions ...........................................    3
        3 SNMPv2 over UDP .......................................    7
        3.1 Serialization .......................................    7
        3.2 Well-known Values ...................................    7
        4 SNMPv2 over OSI .......................................    8
        4.1 Serialization .......................................    8
        4.2 Well-known Values ...................................    8
        5 SNMPv2 over DDP .......................................    9
        5.1 Serialization .......................................    9
        5.2 Well-known Values ...................................    9
        5.3 Discussion of AppleTalk Addressing ..................    9
        5.3.1 How to Acquire NBP names ..........................   10
        5.3.2 When to Turn NBP names into DDP addresses .........   11
        5.3.3 How to Turn NBP names into DDP addresses ..........   11
        5.3.4 What if NBP is broken .............................   12
        6 SNMPv2 over IPX .......................................   13
        6.1 Serialization .......................................   13
        6.2 Well-known Values ...................................   13
        7 Proxy to SNMPv1 .......................................   14
        7.1 Transport Domain: rfc1157Domain .....................   14
        7.2 Authentication Algorithm: rfc1157noAuth .............   14
        Case, McCloghrie, Rose & Waldbusser                   [Page i]
        RFC 1449        Transport Mappings for SNMPv2       April 1993
        8 Serialization using the Basic Encoding Rules ..........   16
        8.1 Usage Example .......................................   17
        9 Acknowledgements ......................................   18
        10 References ...........................................   22
        11 Security Considerations ..............................   24
        12 Authors' Addresses ...................................   24
        13 Security Considerations ..............................   25
        14 Authors' Addresses ...................................   25
        Case, McCloghrie, Rose & Waldbusser                   [Page 1]
        RFC 1449        Transport Mappings for SNMPv2       April 1993
        1.  Introduction
        A network management system contains: several (potentially
        many) nodes, each with a processing entity, termed an agent,
        which has access to management instrumentation; at least one
        management station; and, a management protocol, used to convey
        management information between the agents and management
        stations.  Operations of the protocol are carried out under an
        administrative framework which defines both authentication and
        authorization policies.
        Network management stations execute management applications
        which monitor and control network elements.  Network elements
        are devices such as hosts, routers, terminal servers, etc.,
        which are monitored and controlled through access to their
        management information.
        The management protocol, version 2 of the Simple Network
        Management Protocol [1], may be used over a variety of
        protocol suites.  It is the purpose of this document to define
        how the SNMPv2 maps onto an initial set of transport domains.
        Other mappings may be defined in the future.
        Although several mappings are defined, the mapping onto UDP is
        the preferred mapping.  As such, to provide for the greatest
        level of interoperability, systems which choose to deploy
        other mappings should also provide for proxy service to the
        UDP mapping.
        1.1.  A Note on Terminology
        For the purpose of exposition, the original Internet-standard
        Network Management Framework, as described in RFCs 1155, 1157,
        and 1212, is termed the SNMP version 1 framework (SNMPv1).
        The current framework is termed the SNMP version 2 framework
        (SNMPv2).
        Case, McCloghrie, Rose & Waldbusser                   [Page 2]
        RFC 1449        Transport Mappings for SNMPv2       April 1993
        2.  Definitions
        SNMPv2-TM DEFINITIONS ::= BEGIN
        IMPORTS
            snmpDomains, snmpProxys
                FROM SNMPv2-SMI
            TEXTUAL-CONVENTION
                FROM SNMPv2-TC;
  1. - SNMPv2 over UDP
        snmpUDPDomain  OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { snmpDomains 1 }
        -- for a SnmpUDPAddress of length 6:
        --
        -- octets   contents        encoding
        --  1-4     IP-address      network-byte order
        --  5-6     UDP-port        network-byte order
        --
        SnmpUDPAddress ::= TEXTUAL-CONVENTION
            DISPLAY-HINT "1d.1d.1d.1d/2d"
            STATUS       current
            DESCRIPTION
                    "Represents a UDP address."
            SYNTAX       OCTET STRING (SIZE (6))
        Case, McCloghrie, Rose & Waldbusser                   [Page 3]
        RFC 1449        Transport Mappings for SNMPv2       April 1993
  1. - SNMPv2 over OSI
        snmpCLNSDomain OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { snmpDomains 2 }
        snmpCONSDomain OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { snmpDomains 3 }
        -- for a SnmpOSIAddress of length m:
        --
        -- octets   contents            encoding
        --    1     length of NSAP      "n" as an unsigned-integer
        --                                (either 0 or from 3 to 20)
        -- 2..(n+1) NSAP                concrete binary representation
        -- (n+2)..m TSEL                string of (up to 64) octets
        --
        SnmpOSIAddress ::= TEXTUAL-CONVENTION
            DISPLAY-HINT "*1x:/1x:"
            STATUS       current
            DESCRIPTION
                    "Represents an OSI transport-address."
            SYNTAX       OCTET STRING (SIZE (1 | 4..85))
        Case, McCloghrie, Rose & Waldbusser                   [Page 4]
        RFC 1449        Transport Mappings for SNMPv2       April 1993
  1. - SNMPv2 over DDP
        snmpDDPDomain  OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { snmpDomains 4 }
        -- for a SnmpNBPAddress of length m:
        --
        --    octets      contents         encoding
        --       1        length of object "n" as an unsigned integer
        --     2..(n+1)   object           string of (up to 32) octets
        --      n+2       length of type   "p" as an unsigned integer
        -- (n+3)..(n+2+p) type             string of (up to 32) octets
        --     n+3+p      length of zone   "q" as an unsigned integer
        -- (n+4+p)..m     zone             string of (up to 32) octets
        --
        -- for comparison purposes, strings are case-insensitive
        --
        -- all strings may contain any octet other than 255 (hex ff)
        --
        SnmpNBPAddress ::= TEXTUAL-CONVENTION
            STATUS       current
            DESCRIPTION
                    "Represents an NBP name."
            SYNTAX       OCTET STRING (SIZE (3..99))
  1. - SNMPv2 over IPX
        snmpIPXDomain  OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { snmpDomains 5 }
        -- for a SnmpIPXAddress of length 12:
        --
        -- octets   contents            encoding
        --  1-4     network-number      network-byte order
        --  5-10    physical-address    network-byte order
        -- 11-12    socket-number       network-byte order
        --
        SnmpIPXAddress ::= TEXTUAL-CONVENTION
            DISPLAY-HINT "4x.1x:1x:1x:1x:1x:1x.2d"
            STATUS       current
            DESCRIPTION
                    "Represents an IPX address."
            SYNTAX       OCTET STRING (SIZE (12))
        Case, McCloghrie, Rose & Waldbusser                   [Page 5]
        RFC 1449        Transport Mappings for SNMPv2       April 1993
  1. - for proxy to community-based SNMPv1 (RFC 1157)
        rfc1157Proxy   OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { snmpProxys 1 }
  1. - uses SnmpUDPAddress

rfc1157Domain OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { rfc1157Proxy 1 }

  1. - the community-based noAuth

rfc1157noAuth OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { rfc1157Proxy 2 }

        END
        Case, McCloghrie, Rose & Waldbusser                   [Page 6]
        RFC 1449        Transport Mappings for SNMPv2       April 1993
        3.  SNMPv2 over UDP
        This is the preferred transport mapping.
        3.1.  Serialization
        Each instance of a message is serialized onto a single UDP[2]
        datagram, using the algorithm specified in Section 8.
        3.2.  Well-known Values
        Although the partyTable gives transport addressing information
        for an SNMPv2 party, it is suggested that administrators
        configure their SNMPv2 entities acting in an agent role to
        listen on UDP port 161.  Further, it is suggested that
        notification sinks be configured to listen on UDP port 162.
        The partyTable also lists the maximum message size which a
        SNMPv2 party is willing to accept.  This value must be at
        least 484 octets.  Implementation of larger values is
        encouraged whenever possible.
        Case, McCloghrie, Rose & Waldbusser                   [Page 7]
        RFC 1449        Transport Mappings for SNMPv2       April 1993
        4.  SNMPv2 over OSI
        This is an optional transport mapping.
        4.1.  Serialization
        Each instance of a message is serialized onto a single TSDU
        [3,4] for the OSI Connectionless-mode Transport Service
        (CLTS), using the algorithm specified in Section 8.
        4.2.  Well-known Values
        Although the partyTable gives transport addressing information
        for an SNMPv2 party, it is suggested that administrators
        configure their SNMPv2 entities acting in an agent role to
        listen on transport selector "snmp-l" (which consists of six
        ASCII characters), when using a CL-mode network service to
        realize the CLTS.  Further, it is suggested that notification
        sinks be configured to listen on transport selector "snmpt-l"
        (which consists of seven ASCII characters) when using a CL-
        mode network service to realize the CLTS.  Similarly, when
        using a CO-mode network service to realize the CLTS, the
        suggested transport selectors are "snmp-o"  and "snmpt-o", for
        agent and notification sink, respectively.
        The partyTable also lists the maximum message size which a
        SNMPv2 party is willing to accept.  This value must be at
        least 484 octets.  Implementation of larger values is
        encouraged whenever possible.
        Case, McCloghrie, Rose & Waldbusser                   [Page 8]
        RFC 1449        Transport Mappings for SNMPv2       April 1993
        5.  SNMPv2 over DDP
        This is an optional transport mapping.
        5.1.  Serialization
        Each instance of a message is serialized onto a single DDP
        datagram [5], using the algorithm specified in Section 8.
        5.2.  Well-known Values
        SNMPv2 messages are sent using DDP protocol type 8.  SNMPv2
        entities acting in an agent role listens on DDP socket number
        8, whilst notification sinks listen on DDP socket number 9.
        Although the partyTable gives transport addressing information
        for an SNMPv2 party, administrators must configure their
        SNMPv2 entities acting in an agent role to use NBP type "SNMP
        Agent" (which consists of ten ASCII characters), whilst
        notification sinks must be configured to use NBP type "SNMP
        Trap Handler" (which consists of seventeen ASCII characters).
        The NBP name for agents and notification sinks should be
        stable - NBP names should not change any more often than the
        IP address of a typical TCP/IP node.  It is suggested that the
        NBP name be stored in some form of stable storage.
        The partyTable also lists the maximum message size which a
        SNMPv2 party is willing to accept.  This value must be at
        least 484 octets.  Implementation of larger values is
        encouraged whenever possible.
        5.3.  Discussion of AppleTalk Addressing
        The AppleTalk protocol suite has certain features not manifest
        in the TCP/IP suite.  AppleTalk's naming strategy and the
        dynamic nature of address assignment can cause problems for
        SNMPv2 entities that wish to manage AppleTalk networks.
        TCP/IP nodes have an associated IP address which distinguishes
        each from the other.  In contrast, AppleTalk nodes generally
        have no such characteristic.  The network-level address, while
        often relatively stable, can change at every reboot (or more
        Case, McCloghrie, Rose & Waldbusser                   [Page 9]
        RFC 1449        Transport Mappings for SNMPv2       April 1993
        frequently).
        Thus, when SNMPv2 is mapped over DDP, nodes are identified by
        a "name", rather than by an "address".  Hence, all AppleTalk
        nodes that implement this mapping are required to respond to
        NBP lookups and confirms (e.g., implement the NBP protocol
        stub), which guarantees that a mapping from NBP name to DDP
        address will be possible.
        In determining the SNMP identity to register for an SNMPv2
        entity, it is suggested that the SNMP identity be a name which
        is associated with other network services offered by the
        machine.
        NBP lookups, which are used to map NBP names into DDP
        addresses, can cause large amounts of network traffic as well
        as consume CPU resources.  It is also the case that the
        ability to perform an NBP lookup is sensitive to certain
        network disruptions (such as zone table inconsistencies) which
        would not prevent direct AppleTalk communications between two
        SNMPv2 entities.
        Thus, it is recommended that NBP lookups be used infrequently,
        primarily to create a cache of name-to-address mappings.
        These cached mappings should then be used for any further SNMP
        traffic.  It is recommended that SNMPv2 entities acting in a
        manager role should maintain this cache between reboots.  This
        caching can help minimize network traffic, reduce CPU load on
        the network, and allow for (some amount of) network trouble
        shooting when the basic name-to-address translation mechanism
        is broken.
        5.3.1.  How to Acquire NBP names
        An SNMPv2 entity acting in a manager role may have a pre-
        configured list of names of "known" SNMPv2 entities acting in
        an agent role.  Similarly, an SNMPv2 entity acting in a
        manager role might interact with an operator.  Finally, an
        SNMPv2 entity acting in a manager role might communicate with
        all SNMPv2 entities acting in an agent role in a set of zones
        or networks.
        Case, McCloghrie, Rose & Waldbusser                  [Page 10]
        RFC 1449        Transport Mappings for SNMPv2       April 1993
        5.3.2.  When to Turn NBP names into DDP addresses
        When an SNMPv2 entity uses a cache entry to address an SNMP
        packet, it should attempt to confirm the validity mapping, if
        the mapping hasn't been confirmed within the last T1 seconds.
        This cache entry lifetime, T1, has a minimum, default value of
        60 seconds, and should be configurable.
        An SNMPv2 entity acting in a manager role may decide to prime
        its cache of names prior to actually communicating with
        another SNMPv2 entity.  In general, it is expected that such
        an entity may want to keep certain mappings "more current"
        than other mappings, e.g., those nodes which represent the
        network infrastructure (e.g., routers) may be deemed "more
        important".
        Note that an SNMPv2 entity acting in a manager role should not
        prime its entire cache upon initialization - rather, it should
        attempt resolutions over an extended period of time (perhaps
        in some pre-determined or configured priority order).  Each of
        these resolutions might, in fact, be a wildcard lookup in a
        given zone.
        An SNMPv2 entity acting in an agent role must never prime its
        cache.  Such an entity should do NBP lookups (or confirms)
        only when it needs to send an SNMP trap.  When generating a
        response, such an entity does not need to confirm a cache
        entry.
        5.3.3.  How to Turn NBP names into DDP addresses
        If the only piece of information available is the NBP name,
        then an NBP lookup should be performed to turn that name into
        a DDP address.  However, if there is a piece of stale
        information, it can be used as a hint to perform an NBP
        confirm (which sends a unicast to the network address which is
        presumed to be the target of the name lookup) to see if the
        stale information is, in fact, still valid.
        An NBP name to DDP address mapping can also be confirmed
        implicitly using only SNMP transactions.  For example, an
        SNMPv2 entity acting in a manager role issuing a retrieval
        operation could also retrieve the relevant objects from the
        NBP group [6] for the SNMPv2 entity acting in an agent role.
        Case, McCloghrie, Rose & Waldbusser                  [Page 11]
        RFC 1449        Transport Mappings for SNMPv2       April 1993
        This information can then be correlated with the source DDP
        address of the response.
        5.3.4.  What if NBP is broken
        Under some circumstances, there may be connectivity between
        two SNMPv2 entities, but the NBP mapping machinery may be
        broken, e.g.,
        o    the NBP FwdReq (forward NBP lookup onto local attached
             network) mechanism might be broken at a router on the
             other entity's network; or,
        o    the NBP BrRq (NBP broadcast request) mechanism might be
             broken at a router on the entity's own network; or,
        o    NBP might be broken on the other entity's node.
        An SNMPv2 entity acting in a manager role which is dedicated
        to AppleTalk management might choose to alleviate some of
        these failures by directly implementing the router portion of
        NBP.  For example, such an entity might already know all the
        zones on the AppleTalk internet and the networks on which each
        zone appears.  Given an NBP lookup which fails, the entity
        could send an NBP FwdReq to the network in which the agent was
        last located.  If that failed, the station could then send an
        NBP LkUp (NBP lookup packet) as a directed (DDP) multicast to
        each network number on that network.  Of the above (single)
        failures, this combined approach will solve the case where
        either the local router's BrRq-to-FwdReq mechanism is broken
        or the remote router's FwdReq-to-LkUp mechanism is broken.
        Case, McCloghrie, Rose & Waldbusser                  [Page 12]
        RFC 1449        Transport Mappings for SNMPv2       April 1993
        6.  SNMPv2 over IPX
        This is an optional transport mapping.
        6.1.  Serialization
        Each instance of a message is serialized onto a single IPX
        datagram [7], using the algorithm specified in Section 8.
        6.2.  Well-known Values
        SNMPv2 messages are sent using IPX packet type 4 (i.e., Packet
        Exchange Packet).
        Although the partyTable gives transport addressing information
        for an SNMPv2 party, it is suggested that administrators
        configure their SNMPv2 entities acting in an agent role to
        listen on IPX socket 36879 (900f hexadecimal).  Further, it is
        suggested that notification sinks be configured to listen on
        IPX socket 36880 (9010 hexadecimal)
        The partyTable also lists the maximum message size which a
        SNMPv2 party is willing to accept.  This value must be at
        least 546 octets.  Implementation of larger values is
        encouraged whenever possible.
        Case, McCloghrie, Rose & Waldbusser                  [Page 13]
        RFC 1449        Transport Mappings for SNMPv2       April 1993
        7.  Proxy to SNMPv1
        In order to provide proxy to community-based SNMP [8], some
        definitions are necessary for both transport domains and
        authentication protocols.
        7.1.  Transport Domain: rfc1157Domain
        The transport domain, rfc1157Domain, indicates the transport
        mapping for community-based SNMP messages defined in RFC 1157.
        When a party's transport domain (partyTDomain) is
        rfc1157Domain:
        (1)  the party's transport address (partyTAddress) shall be 6
             octets long, the initial 4 octets containing the IP-
             address in network-byte order, and the last two octets
             containing the UDP port in network-byte order; and,
        (2)  the party's authentication protocol (partyAuthProtocol)
             shall be rfc1157noAuth.
        When a proxy relationship identifies a proxy destination party
        which has rfc1157Domain as its transport domain:
        (1)  the proxy source party (contextSrcPartyIndex) and proxy
             context (contextProxyContext) components of the proxy
             relationship are irrelevant; and,
        (2)  Section 3.1 of [9] specifies the behavior of the proxy
             agent.
        7.2.  Authentication Algorithm: rfc1157noAuth
        A party's authentication protocol (partyAuthProtocol)
        specifies the protocol and mechanism by which the party
        authenticates the integrity and origin of the SNMPv1 or SNMPv2
        PDUs it generates.  When a party's authentication protocol is
        rfc1157noAuth:
        (1)  the party's public authentication key (partyAuthPublic),
             clock (partyAuthClock), and lifetime (partyAuthLifetime)
             are irrelevant; and,
        Case, McCloghrie, Rose & Waldbusser                  [Page 14]
        RFC 1449        Transport Mappings for SNMPv2       April 1993
        (2)  the party's private authentication key
             (partySecretsAuthPrivate) shall be used as the 1157
             community for the proxy destination, and shall be at
             least one octet in length.  (No maximum length is
             specified.)
        Note that when setting the party's private authentication key,
        the exclusive-OR semantics specified in [10] still apply.
        Case, McCloghrie, Rose & Waldbusser                  [Page 15]
        RFC 1449        Transport Mappings for SNMPv2       April 1993
        8.  Serialization using the Basic Encoding Rules
        When the Basic Encoding Rules [11] are used for serialization:
        (1)  When encoding the length field, only the definite form is
             used; use of the indefinite form encoding is prohibited.
             Note that when using the definite-long form, it is
             permissible to use more than the minimum number of length
             octets necessary to encode the length field.
        (2)  When encoding the value field, the primitive form shall
             be used for all simple types, i.e., INTEGER, OCTET
             STRING, OBJECT IDENTIFIER, and BIT STRING (either
             IMPLICIT or explicit).  The constructed form of encoding
             shall be used only for structured types, i.e., a SEQUENCE
             or an IMPLICIT SEQUENCE.
        (3)  When a BIT STRING is serialized, all named-bits are
             transferred regardless of their truth-value.  Further, if
             the number of named-bits is not an integral multiple of
             eight, then the fewest number of additional zero-valued
             bits are transferred so that an integral multiple of
             eight bits is transferred.
        These restrictions apply to all aspects of ASN.1 encoding,
        including the message wrappers, protocol data units, and the
        data objects they contain.
        Case, McCloghrie, Rose & Waldbusser                  [Page 16]
        RFC 1449        Transport Mappings for SNMPv2       April 1993
        8.1.  Usage Example
        As an example of applying the Basic Encoding Rules, suppose
        one wanted to encode an instance of the GetBulkRequest-PDU
        [1]:
             [5] IMPLICIT SEQUENCE {
                     request-id      1414684022,
                     non-repeaters   1,
                     max-repetitions 2,
                     variable-bindings {
                         { name sysUpTime,
                           value { unspecified NULL } },
                         { name ipNetToMediaPhysAddress,
                           value { unspecified NULL } },
                         { name ipNetToMediaType,
                           value { unspecified NULL } }
                     }
                 }
        Applying the BER, this would be encoded (in hexadecimal) as:
        [5] IMPLICIT SEQUENCE          a5 82 00 39
            INTEGER                    02 04 52 54 5d 76
            INTEGER                    02 01 01
            INTEGER                    02 01 02
            SEQUENCE                   30 2b
                SEQUENCE               30 0b
                    OBJECT IDENTIFIER  06 07 2b 06 01 02 01 01 03
                    NULL               05 00
                SEQUENCE               30 0d
                    OBJECT IDENTIFIER  06 09 2b 06 01 02 01 04 16 01 02
                    NULL               05 00
                SEQUENCE               30 0d
                    OBJECT IDENTIFIER  06 09 2b 06 01 02 01 04 16 01 04
                    NULL               05 00
        Note that the initial SEQUENCE is not encoded using the
        minimum number of length octets.  (The first octet of the
        length, 82, indicates that the length of the content is
        encoded in the next two octets.)
        Case, McCloghrie, Rose & Waldbusser                  [Page 17]
        RFC 1449        Transport Mappings for SNMPv2       April 1993
        9.  Acknowledgements
        The UDP-based mapping is based, in part, on RFC 1157.
        The OSI-based mapping is based, in part, on RFC 1283.
        The DDP-based mapping is based, in part, on earlier work by
        Greg Minshall of Novell, Inc., and Mike Ritter of Apple
        Computer, Inc.
        The IPX-based mapping is based, in part, on RFC 1298.
        The section on proxy to community-based SNMP is based on
        earlier work that was based in part on a suggestion by
        Jonathan Biggar of Netlabs, Inc.
        Finally, the comments of the SNMP version 2 working group are
        gratefully acknowledged:
             Beth Adams, Network Management Forum
             Steve Alexander, INTERACTIVE Systems Corporation
             David Arneson, Cabletron Systems
             Toshiya Asaba
             Fred Baker, ACC
             Jim Barnes, Xylogics, Inc.
             Brian Bataille
             Andy Bierman, SynOptics Communications, Inc.
             Uri Blumenthal, IBM Corporation
             Fred Bohle, Interlink
             Jack Brown
             Theodore Brunner, Bellcore
             Stephen F. Bush, GE Information Services
             Jeffrey D. Case, University of Tennessee, Knoxville
             John Chang, IBM Corporation
             Szusin Chen, Sun Microsystems
             Robert Ching
             Chris Chiotasso, Ungermann-Bass
             Bobby A. Clay, NASA/Boeing
             John Cooke, Chipcom
             Tracy Cox, Bellcore
             Juan Cruz, Datability, Inc.
             David Cullerot, Cabletron Systems
             Cathy Cunningham, Microcom
             James R. (Chuck) Davin, Bellcore
             Michael Davis, Clearpoint
        Case, McCloghrie, Rose & Waldbusser                  [Page 18]
        RFC 1449        Transport Mappings for SNMPv2       April 1993
             Mike Davison, FiberCom
             Cynthia DellaTorre, MITRE
             Taso N. Devetzis, Bellcore
             Manual Diaz, DAVID Systems, Inc.
             Jon Dreyer, Sun Microsystems
             David Engel, Optical Data Systems
             Mike Erlinger, Lexcel
             Roger Fajman, NIH
             Daniel Fauvarque, Sun Microsystems
             Karen Frisa, CMU
             Shari Galitzer, MITRE
             Shawn Gallagher, Digital Equipment Corporation
             Richard Graveman, Bellcore
             Maria Greene, Xyplex, Inc.
             Michel Guittet, Apple
             Robert Gutierrez, NASA
             Bill Hagerty, Cabletron Systems
             Gary W. Haney, Martin Marietta Energy Systems
             Patrick Hanil, Nokia Telecommunications
             Matt Hecht, SNMP Research, Inc.
             Edward A. Heiner, Jr., Synernetics Inc.
             Susan E. Hicks, Martin Marietta Energy Systems
             Geral Holzhauer, Apple
             John Hopprich, DAVID Systems, Inc.
             Jeff Hughes, Hewlett-Packard
             Robin Iddon, Axon Networks, Inc.
             David Itusak
             Kevin M. Jackson, Concord Communications, Inc.
             Ole J. Jacobsen, Interop Company
             Ronald Jacoby, Silicon Graphics, Inc.
             Satish Joshi, SynOptics Communications, Inc.
             Frank Kastenholz, FTP Software
             Mark Kepke, Hewlett-Packard
             Ken Key, SNMP Research, Inc.
             Zbiginew Kielczewski, Eicon
             Jongyeoi Kim
             Andrew Knutsen, The Santa Cruz Operation
             Michael L. Kornegay, VisiSoft
             Deirdre C. Kostik, Bellcore
             Cheryl Krupczak, Georgia Tech
             Mark S. Lewis, Telebit
             David Lin
             David Lindemulder, AT&T/NCR
             Ben Lisowski, Sprint
             David Liu, Bell-Northern Research
        Case, McCloghrie, Rose & Waldbusser                  [Page 19]
        RFC 1449        Transport Mappings for SNMPv2       April 1993
             John Lunny, The Wollongong Group
             Robert C. Lushbaugh Martin, Marietta Energy Systems
             Michael Luufer, BBN
             Carl Madison, Star-Tek, Inc.
             Keith McCloghrie, Hughes LAN Systems
             Evan McGinnis, 3Com Corporation
             Bill McKenzie, IBM Corporation
             Donna McMaster, SynOptics Communications, Inc.
             John Medicke, IBM Corporation
             Doug Miller, Telebit
             Dave Minnich, FiberCom
             Mohammad Mirhakkak, MITRE
             Rohit Mital, Protools
             George Mouradian, AT&T Bell Labs
             Patrick Mullaney, Cabletron Systems
             Dan Myers, 3Com Corporation
             Rina Nathaniel, Rad Network Devices Ltd.
             Hien V. Nguyen, Sprint
             Mo Nikain
             Tom Nisbet
             William B. Norton, MERIT
             Steve Onishi, Wellfleet Communications, Inc.
             David T. Perkins, SynOptics Communications, Inc.
             Carl Powell, BBN
             Ilan Raab, SynOptics Communications, Inc.
             Richard Ramons, AT&T
             Venkat D. Rangan, Metric Network Systems, Inc.
             Louise Reingold, Sprint
             Sam Roberts, Farallon Computing, Inc.
             Kary Robertson, Concord Communications, Inc.
             Dan Romascanu, Lannet Data Communications Ltd.
             Marshall T. Rose, Dover Beach Consulting, Inc.
             Shawn A. Routhier, Epilogue Technology Corporation
             Chris Rozman
             Asaf Rubissa, Fibronics
             Jon Saperia, Digital Equipment Corporation
             Michael Sapich
             Mike Scanlon, Interlan
             Sam Schaen, MITRE
             John Seligson, Ultra Network Technologies
             Paul A. Serice, Corporation for Open Systems
             Chris Shaw, Banyan Systems
             Timon Sloane
             Robert Snyder, Cisco Systems
             Joo Young Song
        Case, McCloghrie, Rose & Waldbusser                  [Page 20]
        RFC 1449        Transport Mappings for SNMPv2       April 1993
             Roy Spitier, Sprint
             Einar Stefferud, Network Management Associates
             John Stephens, Cayman Systems, Inc.
             Robert L. Stewart, Xyplex, Inc. (chair)
             Kaj Tesink, Bellcore
             Dean Throop, Data General
             Ahmet Tuncay, France Telecom-CNET
             Maurice Turcotte, Racal Datacom
             Warren Vik, INTERACTIVE Systems Corporation
             Yannis Viniotis
             Steven L. Waldbusser, Carnegie Mellon Universitty
             Timothy M. Walden, ACC
             Alice Wang, Sun Microsystems
             James Watt, Newbridge
             Luanne Waul, Timeplex
             Donald E. Westlake III, Digital Equipment Corporation
             Gerry White
             Bert Wijnen, IBM Corporation
             Peter Wilson, 3Com Corporation
             Steven Wong, Digital Equipment Corporation
             Randy Worzella, IBM Corporation
             Daniel Woycke, MITRE
             Honda Wu
             Jeff Yarnell, Protools
             Chris Young, Cabletron
             Kiho Yum, 3Com Corporation
        Case, McCloghrie, Rose & Waldbusser                  [Page 21]
        RFC 1449        Transport Mappings for SNMPv2       April 1993
        10.  References
        [1]  Case, J., McCloghrie, K., Rose, M., and Waldbusser, S.,
             "Protocol Operations for version 2 of the Simple Network
             Management Protocol (SNMPv2)", RFC 1448, SNMP Research,
             Inc., Hughes LAN Systems, Dover Beach Consulting, Inc.,
             Carnegie Mellon University, April 1993.
        [2]  Postel, J., "User Datagram Protocol", STD 6, RFC 768,
             USC/Information Sciences Institute, August 1980.
        [3]  Information processing systems - Open Systems
             Interconnection - Transport Service Definition,
             International Organization for Standardization.
             International Standard 8072, (June, 1986).
        [4]  Information processing systems - Open Systems
             Interconnection - Transport Service Definition - Addendum
             1: Connectionless-mode Transmission, International
             Organization for Standardization.  International Standard
             8072/AD 1, (December, 1986).
        [5]  G. Sidhu, R. Andrews, A. Oppenheimer, Inside AppleTalk
             (second edition).  Addison-Wesley, 1990.
        [6]  Waldbusser, S., "AppleTalk Management Information Base",
             RFC 1243, Carnegie Mellon University, July 1991.
        [7]  Network System Technical Interface Overview.  Novell,
             Inc, (June, 1989).
        [8]  Case, J., Fedor, M., Schoffstall, M., Davin, J., "Simple
             Network Management Protocol", STD 15, RFC 1157, SNMP
             Research, Performance Systems International, MIT
             Laboratory for Computer Science, May 1990.
        [9]  Case, J., McCloghrie, K., Rose, M., and Waldbusser, S.,
             "Coexistence between version 1 and version 2 of the
             Internet-standard Network Management Framework", RFC
             1452, SNMP Research, Inc., Hughes LAN Systems, Dover
             Beach Consulting, Inc., Carnegie Mellon University, April
             1993.
        [10] McCloghrie, K., and Galvin, J., "Party MIB for version 2
             of the Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMPv2)", RFC
        Case, McCloghrie, Rose & Waldbusser                  [Page 22]
        RFC 1449        Transport Mappings for SNMPv2       April 1993
             1447, Hughes LAN Systems, Trusted Information Systems,
             April 1993.
        [11] Information processing systems - Open Systems
             Interconnection - Specification of Basic Encoding Rules
             for Abstract Syntax Notation One (ASN.1), International
             Organization for Standardization.  International Standard
             8825, (December, 1987).
        Case, McCloghrie, Rose & Waldbusser                  [Page 23]
        RFC 1449        Transport Mappings for SNMPv2       April 1993
        11.  Security Considerations
        Security issues are not discussed in this memo.
        12.  Authors' Addresses
             Jeffrey D. Case
             SNMP Research, Inc.
             3001 Kimberlin Heights Rd.
             Knoxville, TN  37920-9716
             US
             Phone: +1 615 573 1434
             Email: case@snmp.com
             Keith McCloghrie
             Hughes LAN Systems
             1225 Charleston Road
             Mountain View, CA  94043
             US
             Phone: +1 415 966 7934
             Email: kzm@hls.com
             Marshall T. Rose
             Dover Beach Consulting, Inc.
             420 Whisman Court
             Mountain View, CA  94043-2186
             US
             Phone: +1 415 968 1052
             Email: mrose@dbc.mtview.ca.us
             Steven Waldbusser
             Carnegie Mellon University
             4910 Forbes Ave
             Pittsburgh, PA  15213
             US
             Phone: +1 412 268 6628
             Email: waldbusser@cmu.edu
        Case, McCloghrie, Rose & Waldbusser                  [Page 24]
/data/webs/external/dokuwiki/data/pages/rfc/rfc1449.txt · Last modified: 1993/04/30 22:09 (external edit)