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rfc:fyi:fyi7

Network Working Group G. Malkin Request for Comments: 1207 FTP Software, Inc. FYI: 7 A. Marine

                                                                   SRI
                                                           J. Reynolds
                                                                   ISI
                                                         February 1991
                    FYI on Questions and Answers
  Answers to Commonly asked "Experienced Internet User" Questions

Status of this Memo

 This FYI RFC is one of two FYI's called, "Questions and Answers"
 (Q/A), produced by the User Services Working Group of the Internet
 Engineering Task Force (IETF).  The goal is to document the most
 commonly asked questions and answers in the Internet.
 This memo provides information for the Internet community.  It does
 not specify any standard.  Distribution of this memo is unlimited.

Table of Contents

 1. Introduction..................................................  1
 2. Acknowledgements..............................................  3
 3. Questions about the Internet..................................  3
 4. Questions About Other Networks and Internets..................  3
 5. Questions About Internet Documentation........................  4
 6. Questions About the Domain Name System (DNS)..................  4
 7. Questions About Network Management............................  7
 8. Questions about Serial Line Internet Protocol (SLIP) and
    Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) Implementations.................  9
 9. Questions About Routing....................................... 11
 10. Other Protocol and Standards Implementation Questions........ 11
 11. Suggested Reading............................................ 12
 12. References................................................... 13
 13. Security Considerations...................................... 14
 14. Authors' Addresses........................................... 15

1. Introduction

 During the last few months, several people have monitored various
 major mailing lists and have extracted questions that are important
 or commonly asked.  This FYI RFC is one of two in a series of FYI's
 which present the questions and their answers.  The first FYI, FYI 4,
 presented questions new Internet users commonly ask and their
 answers.

User Services Working Group [Page 1] RFC 1207 FYI Q/A - for Experienced Internet Users February 1991

 The goal of this FYI is to codify the Internet lore so that network
 operations staff, especially for networks just joining the Internet,
 will have an accurate and up to date set of references from which to
 work.  Also, redundancies are moved away from the electronic mailing
 lists so that the lists' subscribers do not have to read the same
 queries and answers over and over again.
 Although the questions and their responses are taken from various
 mailing lists, they are presented here loosely grouped by related
 topic for ease of reading.  First the question is presented, then the
 answer (or answers) as it appeared on the mailing list.
 Sometimes the answers are abridged for better use of space.  If a
 question was not answered on the mailing list, the editors provide an
 answer.  These answers are not distinguished from the answers found
 on the lists.  Sometimes, in order to be as complete as possible, the
 editors provide additional information that was not present in the
 original answer.  If so, that information falls under the heading
 "Additional Information".
 The answers are as correct as the reviewers can make them.  However,
 much of this information changes with time.  As the FYI is updated,
 temporal errors will be corrected.
 Many of the questions are in first person, and the answers were
 directed to the originator of the question.  These phrasings have not
 been changed except where necessary for clarity.  References to the
 correspondents' names have been removed.
 The Q/A mailing lists are maintained by Gary Malkin at FTP.COM.  They
 are used by a subgroup of the User Services Working Group to discuss
 the Q/A FYIs.  They include:
 quail@ftp.com           This is a discussion mailing list.  Its
                         primary use is for pre-release review of
                         the Q/A FYIs.
 quail-request@ftp.com   This is how you join the quail mailing list.
 quail-box@ftp.com       This is where the questions and answers
                         will be forwarded-and-stored.  It is
                         not necessary to be on the quail mailing
                         list to forward to the quail-box.

User Services Working Group [Page 2] RFC 1207 FYI Q/A - for Experienced Internet Users February 1991

2. Acknowledgments

 The following people deserve thanks for their help and contributions
 to this FYI Q/A: Jim Conklin (EDUCOM), John C. Klensin (MIT),
 Professor Kynikos (Special Consultant), Jon Postel (ISI),
 Marshall Rose (PSI, Inc.), David Sitman (Tel Aviv University),
 Patricia Smith (Merit), Gene Spafford (Purdue), and
 James Van Bokkelen (FTP Software, Inc.).

3. Questions about the Internet

 3.1. How do I get statistics regarding the traffic on NSFNET?
    Merit/NSFNET Information Services maintains a variety of
    statistical data at 'nis.nsf.net' (35.1.1.48) in the 'stats'
    directory.  Information includes packet counts by NSS and byte
    counts for type of use (ftp, smtp, telnet, etc.).  Filenames are
    of the form 'NSFyy-mm.type'.
    Files are available for anonymous ftp; use 'guest' as the
    password.
    The data in these files represent only traffic which traverses the
    highest level of the NSFNET, not traffic within a campus or
    regional network.  Send questions/comments to nsfnet-
    info@merit.edu.

4. Questions About Other Networks and Internets

 4.1. We have a user who would like to access a machine on
      "EARN/BITNET".  I can't find anything on this in the domain
      name tables.  Please, what is this, and how do I connect to it?
    There are several machines on the Internet that act as gateways
    between the Internet and BITNET.  Two examples are UICVM.UIC.EDU
    and CUNYVM.CUNY.EDU.  You can address a mail message to
    user%nodename.bitnet@uicvm.uic.edu where the message will be
    passed from the Internet to BITNET.
    Additional Information:
       These same gateways, known as INTERBIT on the BITNET/EARN side,
       transfer mail from computers on that network which support SMTP
       mail headers, onto the Internet.  (Many BITNET/EARN computers
       still do not support SMTP, which is not a part of the IBM
       protocol used, and it is not possible to send mail from those
       computers across the gateways into the Internet, in general.)

User Services Working Group [Page 3] RFC 1207 FYI Q/A - for Experienced Internet Users February 1991

       BITNET and EARN are the two largest of several cooperating
       networks which use the IBM RSCS/NJE protocol suite, but are not
       limited to IBM systems.  These independently administered,
       interconnected networks function as a single, worldwide network
       directly connecting more than 3,300 computers in about 1,400,
       mostly higher-education, organizations worldwide.  This
       worldwide network supports electronic mail, including mailing
       lists, sender-initiated file transfer, and short "interactive"
       messages.
       BITNET, frequently used (outside of Europe) to refer to the
       whole worldwide network, technically refers to that portion in
       the United States, plus sites in other countries which are
       connected through the United States and do not have their own
       separately administered cooperating networks.  More than 550
       organizations in the U.S.  participate in BITNET.
       EARN is the European Academic Research Network.  EARN links
       more than 500 institutions in Europe and several surrounding
       countries.
       BITNET and CSNET merged organizationally on October 1, 1990, to
       form CREN, the Corporation for Research and Educational
       Networking.  The two networks remain separate at the
       operational level level, however.  (EARN and the other
       Cooperating Networks were not involved in this merger.)

5. Questions About Internet Documentation

 5.1. Where do I get information regarding ordering documents
      related to GOSIP?
    The complete information as issued by NIST is available online on
    the NIC.DDN.MIL host as PROTOCOLS:GOSIP-ORDER-INFO.TXT.  The file
    contains pointers to contact people, ordering addresses, prices,
    and, in some cases, online pathnames, for various GOSIP related
    documents.  In addition, the information as of August 1990 was
    published as an appendix to RFC 1169, "Explaining the Role of
    GOSIP" [1].

6. Questions About Domain Name System (DNS)

 6.1. Is there a DNS Query server?
    Actually, what you are looking for is the service that host
    128.218.1.109 provides on port 5555 - you simply connect to that
    host at that port, type in a fully qualified domain name and it
    responds with an internet address and closes the connection.  I

User Services Working Group [Page 4] RFC 1207 FYI Q/A - for Experienced Internet Users February 1991

    used it when I had a host that still only had /etc/hosts and it
    did just what I needed - which was basically a manual nslookup.
    However, the vast majority of users will find it simpler to just
    use a DNS query tool and ask the DNS directly.  This doesn't
    require much sophistication, and does allow the user to see how
    short names are expanded at the user's site rather than at
    128.218.1.109 (wherever that is).  For example, suppose a user
    wants to find out the address of a fully-qualified domain name
    "X.MISKATONIC.EDU", and also see what host and address are used
    when "Z" is typed as a host name.
    Assuming the user is on a UNIX host and has a copy of the dig
    program, type:
       dig x.miskatonic.edu
    and
       dig z
       and the answers will appear.  You are now on your way to
       becoming a DNS expert.  There are other UNIX alternatives,
       e.g., nslookup, and similar programs for non-UNIX systems.
       Your local DNS guru certainly has one or more of these tools,
       and although they are often kept from the public, they are
       really quite easy to use for simple cases.
 6.2. We have been having a frequent BIND failure on both our VAX
      and Solbourne that is traced to TCP domain queries from an
      IBM NSMAIN nameserver running in cache mode (UDP queries do
      not cause this problem, though it is usually a UDP
      resolution that is active upon the crash -- this resolution
      is an innocent victim).
      I have discovered that something is trashing the hash areas
      (sometimes even as it is being recursively used in a
      resolution).  Also, occasionally the socket/file descriptor
      for the TCP connection is changed to invalid entries causing
      a reply write fail (though this is not necessarily fatal,
      and the rest of the structure is not apparently altered).
      Has any one else had frequent BIND failures (especially
      major domain sites that have heavy TCP domain loads)?
    In both the case of BIND and the IBM implementation, often called
    FAL, there are multiple versions, with older versions being truly
    bad.  Upgrade to recent version before exploring further.
    BIND has always had a problem with polluting its own database.

User Services Working Group [Page 5] RFC 1207 FYI Q/A - for Experienced Internet Users February 1991

    These problems have been related to TCP connections, NS RRs with
    small TTLs, and several other causes.  Experience suggests that
    the style of bug fixing has often been that of reducing the
    problem by 90% rather than eliminating it.
    IBM's support for the DNS (outside of UNIX systems) is interesting
    in its techniques, encouraging in its improvement, but still
    somewhat depressing when compared to most other DNS software.  IBM
    also uses terminology that varies somewhat from the usual DNS
    usage and preserves some archaic syntax, e.g., "..".
    The combination of an old BIND and an old IBM server is just plain
    unpleasant.
 6.3. Is the model used by the domain name system for host names
      that the owner of a name gets to choose its case?
    The model used by the DNS is that you get to control at a specific
    point in the name space, and are hence free to select case as you
    choose, until points where you in turn give away control.  As a
    practical matter, there are several implementations that don't do
    the right thing.  IBM implementations often map everything into a
    single case.
 6.4. According to RFC 1034 [2], section 4.2.1, one should not have
      to code glue RR's for name server's names unless they are below
      the cut.  When I don't put glue RR's in, and do a query for
      NS records, the "additional" field is left blank.  As far as I
      can tell, all other zones I query for NS records have this
      filled with the IP addresses of the NS hosts.  Is this required
      or should I not be concerned that the additional field is empty?
    The protocol says that an empty additional field is not a problem
    when the name server's name is not "below" the cut.
    In practice, putting in the glue where it is not required can
    cause problems if the servers named in the glue are used for
    several zones.  This is broken behavior in BIND.  Not putting in
    glue can cause other problems in BIND, usually when the server
    name is difficult to resolve.  So, the bottom line is to put glue
    in only when required, and don't use aliases or anything else
    tricky when it comes to identifying name servers.

User Services Working Group [Page 6] RFC 1207 FYI Q/A - for Experienced Internet Users February 1991

7. Questions About Network Management Implementations

 7.1. In reading the SNMP RFCs [3,4,5,6] I find mention of
      authentication of PDUs.  Are there any standards for
      authentication mechanisms?
    There is a working group of the IETF that is working on this
    problem.  They are close to a solution, but nothing has yet
    reached RFC publication yet.  Expect something solid and
    implementable by October of 1991.
 7.2. Can vendors make their enterprise-specific variables available
      to users through a standard distribution mechanism?
    Yes.  But before someone submits a MIB, they should check it out
    themselves.
    On uu.psi.com in pilot/snmp-wg/, there are two files
            mosy-sparc-4.0.3.c
            mosy-sun3-3.5
    The first will run on a Sun-Sparc, the second will run on a Sun-3.
    After retrieving one of these files in BINARY mode via anonymous FTP,
    the submittor can run their MIB through it, e.g.,
            % mosy mymib.my
    Once your MIB passes, send it to:
            mib-checker@isi.edu
    If everything is OK, the mib-checker will arrange to have it
    installed in the /share/ftp/mib directory on venera.isi.edu.
    Note: This processing does not offer an official endorsement.  The
    documents submitted must not be marked proprietary, confidential,
    or the like.
 7.3. I have a question regarding those pesky octet strings again.
      I use the variable-type field of the Response pdu to determine
      how the result should be displayed to the user.  For example,
      I convert NetworkAddresses to their dotted decimal format
      ("132.243.50.4").  I convert Object Identifiers into strings
      ("1.3.6.1.2....").
      I would LIKE to just print Octet Strings as strings.  But,

User Services Working Group [Page 7] RFC 1207 FYI Q/A - for Experienced Internet Users February 1991

      this causes a problem in such cases as atPhysAddress in
      which the Octet string contains the 6 byte address instead
      of a printable ASCII string.  In this case, I would want to
      display the 6 bytes instead of just trying to print the
      string.
      MY QUESTION IS: Does anyone have a suggestion as to how I
      can determine whether I can just print the string or whether
      I should display the octet bytes.  * Remember: I want to
      support enterprise specific variables too.
    In general, there is no way that you can tell what is inside an
    OCTET STRING without knowing something about the object that the
    OCTET STRING comes from.  In MIB-II [6], some objects are marked
    as DisplayString which has the syntax of OCTET STRING but is
    restricted to characters from the NVT ASCII character set (see the
    TELNET Specification, RFC 854 [7], for further information).
    These objects are:
       sysDescr
       sysContact
       sysName
       sysLocation
       ifDescr
    If you want to be able to arbitrarily decide how to display the
    strings, without knowing anything about the object, then you can
    scan the octets, looking for any octet which is not printable
    ASCII.  If you find at least one, you can print the entire string,
    octet by octet, in "%02x:" notation.  If all of the octets are
    printable ASCII, then you can just printf the string.
 7.4. If archived MIBs must be 1155-compatible [3], it would be nice
      if those who submit them check them first.  Where are these
      MIB tools available for public FTP?  Ideally, a simple
      syntax checker (that didn't actually generate code) would be
      nice.
    In the ISODE 6.0 release there is a tool called MOSY which
    recognizes the 1155 syntax and produces a flat ASCII file.  If you
    can run it through MOSY without problems then you are OK.
 7.5. Suppose I want to create a private MIB object for causing
      some action to happen, say, do a reset.  Should the syntax
      or this object specify a value such as:

User Services Working Group [Page 8] RFC 1207 FYI Q/A - for Experienced Internet Users February 1991

       Syntax:
          INTEGER {
             perform reset (1),
          }
      even though there is only a single value?  Or, is it ok to
      just allow a Set on this object with any value to perform
      the desired action?  If the later, how is this specified?
    For our SNMP manageable gizmos and doohickies with similar
    "action" type MIB variables, I've defined two values
          Syntax:
             INTEGER {
                reset(1)
                not-reset(2)
             }
    And defined behavior so that the only valid value that the
    variable may be set to is "reset" (which is returned in the get
    response PDU) and at all other times a get/getnext will respond
    with "not-reset".

8. Questions about Serial Line Internet Protocol (SLIP) and

 Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) Implementations
 8.1. I seem to recall hearing that SLIP [8] will only run on
      synchronous serial lines.  Is this true?  ... is there
      something about SLIP which precludes it's being implemented
      over async lines?
    Other way around:  SLIP is designed for async lines and is not a
    good fit on sync lines.  PPP [9, 10] works on either, and is what
    you should be implementing if you're implementing something.
 8.2. Since we are very interested in standards in this area,
      could someone tell me were I can find more information on PPP?
      Also, can this protocol be used in other fields than for the
      Internet (i.e., telecontrol, telemetering) where we see a
      profusion of proprietary incompatible and hard to maintain
      Point-to-Point Protocols?
    PPP was designed to be useful for many protocols besides just IP.
    Whether it would be useful for your particular application should
    probably be discussed with the IETF's Point-to-Point Protocol
    Working Group discussion list.  For general discussion: ietf-
    ppp@ucdavis.edu.  To subscribe: ietf-ppp-request@ucdavis.edu

User Services Working Group [Page 9] RFC 1207 FYI Q/A - for Experienced Internet Users February 1991

    The PPP specification is available as RFC 1171 [9], and a PPP
    options specification is available as RFC 1172 [10].
    In UnixWorld of April 1990 (Vol. VII, No. 4, Pg. 85), Howard
    Baldwin writes:
       "Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) has just been submitted to the
       CCITT from the Internet Engineering Task Force.  It specifies a
       standard for encapsulating Internet Protocol data and other
       network layer (level three on ISO's OSI Model) protocol
       information over point-to-point links; it also provides ways to
       test and configure lines and the upper level protocols on the
       OSI Model.  The only requirement is a provision of a duplex
       circuit either dedicated or switched, that can operate in
       either an asynchronous or synchronous mode, transparent to the
       data-linklayer frame.
       "According to Michael Ballard, director of network systems for
       Telebit, PPP is a direct improvement upon Serial Line Internet
       Protocol (SLIP), which had neither error correction nor a way
       to exchange network address."
 8.3. Does anyone know if there is a way to run a SLIP program on
      a IBM computer running SCO Xenix/Unix, with a multi-port
      serial board?
    SCO TCP/IP for Xenix supports SLIP.  It works.  However, be
    warned: SCO SLIP works *only* with SCO serial drivers, so it will
    *not* work with intelligent boards that come with their own
    drivers.  If you want lots of SLIP ports, you'll need lots of dumb
    ports, perhaps with a multi-dumb-port board.
    Here's the setup -- SunOS 3.5, with the 4.3BSD TCP, IP & SLIP
    distributions installed.  Slip is running between the "ttya" ports
    of two Sun 3/60's.  "ping", "rlogin", etc., works fine, but a NFS
    mount results in "server not responding: RPC Timed Out".
    SunOS 3.5 turns the UDP checksum off, which is legal and works
    okay over interfaces such as ethernet which has link- level
    checksumming.  On the other hand, SLIP doesn't perform checksums
    thus running NFS over SLIP requires you to turn the UDP checksum
    on.  Otherwise, you'll experience erratic behavior such as the one
    described above.

User Services Working Group [Page 10] RFC 1207 FYI Q/A - for Experienced Internet Users February 1991

       Save the older kernel and try,
          % adb -k -w /vmunix /dev/kmem udpcksum?w 1
       to patch up the kernel.

9. Questions About Routing

 9.1. Some postings mentioned "maximum entropy routing".  Could
      someone please provide a pointer to on-line or off-line
      references to this topic?
    Try NYU CSD Technical Report 371: "Some Comments on Highly Dynamic
    Network Routing," by Herbert J. Bernstein, May 1988.

10. Other Protocol and Standards Implementation Questions

 10.1. Does anyone recognize ethernet type "80F3"?  I don't see it
       in RFC 1010, but I am seeing it on our net.
    Ethernet type 0x80F3 is used by AppleTalk for address resolution.
    You must have Macs on your network which are directly connected to
    Ethernet.  These packets are used by the Mac (generally at
    startup) to determine a valid AppleTalk node number.
    Additional Information:
    RFC 1010 is obsolete.  Please consult RFC 1060 [11], the current
    "Assigned Numbers" (issued March 1990), which does list "80F3":
    Ethernet          Exp. Ethernet    Description          References
    -------------     -------------   -----------           ----------
    decimal  Hex      decimal  octal
    33011   80F3        -      -     AppleTalk AARP (Kinetics)[XEROX]
 10.2. Does anyone know the significance of a high value for
       "Bad proto" in the output from netstat on Unix machines using
       ethernet?  We're seeing values in the tens of thousands out of
       a few hundred thousand packets sent/received in all.  Some
       "Bad proto" values are negative, too.  (Off the scale?)  Any
       help would be appreciated.
    This probably indicates that you are getting tens of thousands of
    broadcast packets from some host or hosts on your network.  You
    might want to buy or rent a LAN monitor, or install one of the
    public-domain packages to see what private protocol is guilty.
    "FYI on a Network Management Tool Catalog: Tools for Monitoring
    and Debugging TCP/IP Internets and Interconnected Devices" (RFC

User Services Working Group [Page 11] RFC 1207 FYI Q/A - for Experienced Internet Users February 1991

    1147, FYI 2), [12] contains pointers to tools that may help you
    zero in on the problem.
 10.3. Which RFC would explain the proper way to configure broadcast
       addresses when using subnets?
    Consult RFC 1122, "Requirements for Internet Hosts --
    Communication Layer" [13].
 10.4. Can anyone tell me what .TAR files exactly are?  Is it like
       ZIP or LZH for the IBM PC's?  IF so, how do I go about getting
       a compressor/decompressor for .TAR files and what computer
       does this run on?
    TAR stands for "Tape ARchive".  It is a Unix utility which takes
    files, and directories of files, and creates a single large file.
    Originally intended to back up directory trees onto tape (hence
    the name), TAR is also used to combine files for easier electronic
    file transfer.

11. Suggested Reading

 For further information about the Internet and its protocols in
 general, you may choose to obtain copies of the following works:
    Bowers, K., T. LaQuey, J. Reynolds, K. Roubicek, M. Stahl, and A.
    Yuan, "Where to Start - A Bibliography of General Internetworking
    Information", RFC 1175, FYI 3, CNRI, U Texas, ISI, BBN, SRI,
    Mitre, August 1990.
    Braden, R., Editor, "Requirements for Internet Hosts --
    Communication Layer", RFC 1122, Internet Engineering Task Force,
    October 1989.
    Braden, R., Editor, "Requirements for Internet Hosts --
    Application and Support", RFC 1123, Internet Engineering Task
    Force, October 1989.
    Comer, D., "Internetworking with TCP/IP: Principles, Protocols,
    and Architecture", Prentice Hall, New Jersey, 1989.
    Frey, D. and R. Adams, "!%@:: A Directory of Electronic Mail
    Addressing and Networks", O'Reilly and Associates, Newton, MA,
    August 1989.
    Krol, E., "The Hitchhikers Guide to the Internet", RFC 1118,
    University of Illinois Urbana, September 1989.

User Services Working Group [Page 12] RFC 1207 FYI Q/A - for Experienced Internet Users February 1991

    LaQuey, T, Editor, "Users' Directory of Computer Networks",
    Digital Press, Bedford, MA, 1990.
    Malkin, G., and A. Marine, "FYI on Questions and Answers - Answers
    to Commonly asked "New Internet User" Questions", RFC 1206, FYI 4,
    FTP Software, Inc., SRI, February 1991.
    Postel, J., Editor, "IAB Official Protocol Standards", RFC 1140,
    Internet Activities Board, May 1990.
    Quarterman, J., "Matrix: Computer Networks and Conferencing
    Systems Worldwide", Digital Press, Bedford, MA, 1989.
    Reynolds, J., and J. Postel, "Assigned Numbers", RFC 1060,
    USC/Information Sciences Institute, March 1990.
    Socolofsky, T., and C. Kale, "A TCP/IP Tutorial", RFC 1180, Spider
    Systems Limited, January 1991.
    Stevens, W., "UNIX Network Programming", ISBN 0-13-949876-1,
    Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1990.
    Stine, R., Editor, "FYI on a Network Management Tool Catalog:
    Tools for Monitoring and Debugging TCP/IP Internets and
    Interconnected Devices" RFC 1147, FYI 2, Sparta, Inc., April 1990.

12. References

 [1] Cerf, V., and K. Mills, "Explaining the Role of GOSIP", RFC 1169,
     IAB, NIST, August 1990.
 [2] Mockapetris, P., "Domain Names - Concepts and Facilities", RFC
     1034, USC/Information Sciences Institute, November 1987.
 [3] Rose, M., and K. McCloghrie, "Structure and Identification of
     Management Information for TCP/IP-based Internets", RFC 1155,
     Performance Systems International, Hughes LAN Systems, May 1990.
 [4] McCloghrie, K., and M. Rose, "Management Information Base for
     Network Management of TCP/IP-based internets", RFC 1156, Hughes
     LAN Systems, Performance Systems International, May 1990.
 [5] Case, J., M. Fedor, M. Schoffstall, and J. Davin, "A Simple
     Network Management Protocol (SNMP)", RFC 1157, SNMP Research,
     Performance Systems International, Performance Systems
     International, MIT Laboratory for Computer Science, May 1990.
 [6] Rose, M., Editor, "Management Information Base for Network

User Services Working Group [Page 13] RFC 1207 FYI Q/A - for Experienced Internet Users February 1991

     Management of TCP/IP-based internets: MIB-II", RFC 1158,
     Performance Systems International, May 1990.
 [7] Postel, J., and J. Reynolds, "TELNET Protocol Specification", RFC
     854, USC/Information Sciences Institute, May 1983.
 [8] Romkey, J., "A Nonstandard for Transmission of IP Datagrams over
     Serial Lines: SLIP", RFC 1055, June 1988.
 [9] Perkins, D., "The Point-to-Point Protocol: A Proposal for Multi-
     Protocol Transmission of Datagrams Over Point-to-Point Links",
     RFC 1171, CMU, July 1990.
[10] Perkins, D., and R. Hobby, "The Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP)
     Initial Configuration Options", CMU, UC Davis, July 1990.
[11] Reynolds, J., and J. Postel, "Assigned Numbers", RFC 1060,
     USC/Information Sciences Institute, March 1990.
[12] Stine, R., Editor, "FYI on a Network Management Tool Catalog:
     Tools for Monitoring and Debugging TCP/IP Internets and
     Interconnected Devices" RFC 1147, FYI 2, Sparta, Inc., April
     1990.
[13] Braden, R., Editor, "Requirements for Internet Hosts --
     Communication Layer", RFC 1122, Internet Engineering Task Force,
     October 1989.

13. Security Considerations

 Security issues are not discussed in this memo.

User Services Working Group [Page 14] RFC 1207 FYI Q/A - for Experienced Internet Users February 1991

14. Authors' Addresses

 Gary Scott Malkin
 FTP Software, Inc.
 26 Princess Street
 Wakefield, MA 01880
 Phone:  (617) 246-0900
 EMail:  gmalkin@ftp.com
 April N. Marine
 SRI International
 Network Information Systems Center
 333 Ravenswood Avenue, EJ294
 Menlo Park, CA 94025
 Phone:  (415) 859-5318
 EMail:  APRIL@nic.ddn.mil
 Joyce K. Reynolds
 USC/Information Sciences Institute
 4676 Admiralty Way
 Marina del Rey, CA  90292-6695
 Phone:  (213) 822-1511
 EMail:  jkrey@isi.edu

User Services Working Group [Page 15]

/data/webs/external/dokuwiki/data/pages/rfc/fyi/fyi7.txt · Last modified: 1991/03/01 01:19 (external edit)