GENWiki

Premier IT Outsourcing and Support Services within the UK

User Tools

Site Tools

Problem, Formatting or Query -  Send Feedback

Was this page helpful?-10+1


rfc:fyi:fyi37

Network Working Group Z. Wenzel Request for Comments: 2901 J. Klensin FYI: 37 R. Bush Category: Informational S. Huter

                                       Network Startup Resource Center
                                                           August 2000
 Guide to Administrative Procedures of the Internet Infrastructure

Status of this Memo

 This memo provides information for the Internet community.  It does
 not specify an Internet standard of any kind.  Distribution of this
 memo is unlimited.

Copyright Notice

 Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2000).  All Rights Reserved.

Abstract

 This document describes the administrative procedures for networks
 seeking to connect to the global Internet.  This includes the steps
 and operations necessary for address space allocation and
 registration, routing database registration, and domain name
 registration.  The document also contains information about the
 required forms and how to obtain them.

Table of Contents

 Who Should Read This Document ...................................  2
 Checklist .......................................................  3
 Prerequisites ...................................................  3
 I.    Preparation of Systems and Network Planning ...............  4
         A.  What do I need to connect to the Internet? ..........  4
         B.  What connectivity medium should I choose? ...........  4
         C.  What else do I need to do? ..........................  4
         D.  How do I get the documents referred to in this guide?  6
         E.  Section References ..................................  6
 II.   Address Space Allocation ..................................  7
         A.  Who is my upstream provider? ........................  7
         B.  How much address space should I ask for? ............  8
         C.  What is CIDR? .......................................  9
         D.  How do I request and register address space? ........ 10
         E.  Section References .................................. 13

Wenzel, et al. Informational [Page 1] RFC 2901 Administrative Internet Infrastructure Guide August 2000

 III.  Autonomous Systems (AS) ................................... 13
         A.  What is an ASN and do I need one? ................... 13
         B.  How do I register an ASN? ........................... 14
         C.  Section References .................................. 15
 IV.   Routing and Exchange Points ............................... 15
         A.  Do I need to register with a routing database? ...... 15
         B.  What about CIDR and routing? ........................ 16
         C.  How do I choose a routing database? ................. 16
         D.  How do I register in the RADB (The Americas)? ....... 17
         E.  Section References .................................. 18
 V.    Domain Name Registration .................................. 18
         A.  What is a country domain? ........................... 18
         B.  How do I register as a country domain? .............. 18
         C.  What if my country is already registered? ........... 19
         D.  How do I resolve a country domain name dispute? ..... 19
         E.  Section References .................................. 19
 VI.   IN-ADDR.ARPA Domain Delegation ............................ 19
         A.  What is an IN-ADDR.ARPA domain and do I need one? ... 20
         B.  How do I register an IN-ADDR.ARPA domain? ........... 20
 VII.  Security .................................................. 21
         A.  Is there a way to prevent unauthorized changes to my
         objects? ................................................ 21
 VIII. Network Optimization and Management ....................... 22
         A.  How do I optimize traffic on my network? ............ 22
 Security Considerations ......................................... 22
 Acknowledgements ................................................ 22
 References ...................................................... 22
 Authors' Addresses .............................................. 24
 Appendix A:  The Internet Agencies .............................. 25
 Appendix B:  Documentation ...................................... 28
 Appendix C:  Country Codes ...................................... 29
 Appendix D:  Acronyms ........................................... 30
 Full Copyright Statement ........................................ 31

Who Should Read This Document

 This document is intended for system engineers and technical managers
 of networks who want to make a connection to the Internet.  It
 assumes a basic knowledge of the Internet and networking.
 This information is intended to help new or expanding networks
 understand and follow the Internet administrative procedures, and to
 provide assistance in filling out the various templates and
 registration forms.  Appendix D is a glossary of acronyms.

Wenzel, et al. Informational [Page 2] RFC 2901 Administrative Internet Infrastructure Guide August 2000

Checklist

 This document will explain the following procedures:
 o  Determine your organization type and current status.
 o  Determine your administrative and technical contacts.
 o  Determine your budget (and chargeback system) and choice of
    carriers.
 o  Determine to whom you will connect.
 o  Predict your current and projected address space needs.
 o  Set-up your system to connect.
 o  Request and register your address space allocation.
 o  Request and register an autonomous system number, if needed.
 o  Register with a routing database, if needed.
 o  Register your country's domain name, if needed.
 o  Request and register your IN-ADDR.ARPA domain name, if needed.

Prerequisites

 This document assumes that you have examined different alternatives
 for physical connectivity and will assist you in navigating the
 Internet infrastructure so that you can use that connectivity. In
 choosing your upstream provider, you should consider their ability to
 deal with the Internet infrastructure.
 What will you be doing and what role will you play?
 o  If you are interested in connecting yourself (or a small
    organization), you are an Internet end user.  You will probably
    want to contact an Internet Service Provider (ISP) for most of
    your needs.  Read section I and the first part of section II.
 o  If you are interested in connecting your organization and in
    having address space to distribute within your network, you are an
    Internet high volume end user.  You will need more address space,
    but still may chose to work with an Internet Service Provider
    (ISP) for most of your needs.  Read sections I and II.
 o  If you are interested in connecting your organization, and in
    distributing addresses to your clients (who are end users), you
    are an Internet Service Provider (ISP).  You will need to contact
    a Local Internet Registry (if one is available, or your upstream
    provider).  Read section I and continue reading the rest of this
    document.

Wenzel, et al. Informational [Page 3] RFC 2901 Administrative Internet Infrastructure Guide August 2000

 o  If you are interested in distributing addresses to your clients
    and your clients are in turn distributing addresses, you are a
    Local Internet Registry or large ISP.  You will probably need to
    contact the Regional Internet Registry in your geographical area.
    Read section I and continue reading the rest of this document.

I. Preparation of Systems and Network Planning

 STEP ONE: PREPARE INFORMATION, ORGANIZE HARDWARE, FIGURE OUT TO WHOM
 YOU WILL CONNECT, AND TEST IN-COUNTRY SYSTEMS.

A. What do I need to connect to the Internet?

 You can connect using dial-up or dedicated lines, and you can choose
 UUCP or IP.  It is preferable to be running the UNIX operating system
 with TCP/IP over a dedicated line, although you can begin by using
 UUCP over a dial-up line.  Although there are alternatives to UNIX,
 for historical reasons and robustness UNIX is better prepared to
 handle Internet connectivity.  It is best to use TCP/IP inside your
 network even if you use another method for your external
 connectivity.
 You will need to obtain an Internet Protocol (IP) address, or block
 of addresses, and a domain name.  You may also need an Autonomous
 System Number (ASN) and an IN-ADDR.ARPA (reverse addressing) domain
 name.  However, you may begin by having dial-up connectivity to
 another organization that supports one or more mail exchange (MX)
 record(s) for your site.  This would allow you to receive email at
 your own domain name without requiring you to invest as much
 initially.

B. What connectivity medium should I choose?

 You may be constrained by telecommunications regulations in your
 country as to your choice of dial-up, digital phone lines, fiber
 optic cable, or satellite suppliers.  If not, cost, bandwidth, and
 reliability will determine your choice.

C. What else do I need to do?

 Before you do anything else:
 1. Designate an administrative contact person and a technical contact
 person.
 Choose one person to be the administrative contact and another person
 to be the technical contact.  Write down their full names, email and
 postal addresses, and telephone and fax numbers (with country

Wenzel, et al. Informational [Page 4] RFC 2901 Administrative Internet Infrastructure Guide August 2000

 prefixes in the form + country code (e.g., +011), city code, and
 local telephone number).  The administrative contact should be a
 member of your organization and must reside in the country.  The
 technical contact should be the key network support person and may be
 represented initially by someone outside of the country.  Note that
 the technical contact must transition to a network support person
 residing in the country.  The Internet Registries will request this
 information in the form of database entries called objects.  For
 example, on the RIPE template, the administrative contact should be
 listed in the admin-c field in the database objects, and the
 technical contact in the tech-c field in the database objects (more
 information on database objects follows in section II D below).
 2. Determine your cost-recovery charging scheme, if needed, so that
 you can sustain operations.
 No form or record will specifically request this, but it is important
 that you project your costs adequately so that you can assess fees to
 cover them and ensure stability of operations.
 3. Diagram your network topology.
 Determine the number of groups and end users.  Describe the size and
 shape of your current network.  Design your addressing plan based on
 this information.  It may be helpful to consider your organization
 chart when doing this, if you anticipate it to be fairly stable.
 If you are restricted to using the local telecommunications company's
 telephone circuit, choose your circuit carrier based on capacity and
 where it lands geographically.  Consider an asymmetric circuit, e.g.,
 128kbps in and 64kbps out, if you expect to have more incoming
 traffic than outgoing (e.g., if most of the traffic is expected to
 originate from web servers outside your network).
 4.  Determine to whom you will connect.
 See the prerequisites section for types of connection providers that
 might be appropriate for your situation.  Determine which ISP or
 telecommunications company best fits your connectivity needs.
 5.  Predict your address space and bandwidth requirements from end
 user needs.
 Since address space is finite and must be conserved, end users are
 not permitted to reserve address space.  Address space is based on
 what your needs are and how you justify those needs.  Evaluation of
 IP address space requests is usually based on the documentation you
 provide for the following 24 months (as per RFC 2050), as specified

Wenzel, et al. Informational [Page 5] RFC 2901 Administrative Internet Infrastructure Guide August 2000

 in the address space usage template and in the addressing plan you
 submit.  Once you have used your assigned address space, you can
 request additional space based on an updated estimate of growth in
 your network.  This usually includes detailed documentation, updating
 the appropriate regional registry database with details of your end
 user assignments, and assigning address space both conservatively and
 efficiently.
 You will need to justify your needs for address space by
 communicating your network design and should be prepared to clearly
 present your plan for effective use of the request.  Determine your
 current and future user needs.  If you are offering virtual web
 services, it is no longer necessary to assign one IP address per
 domain.  HTTP/1.1 defines the "host" header to allow vanity names
 without the use of an IP address.  Allocations for points of presence
 (POP) throughout your region should also be determined.  Predictions
 of user behavior can be based on analysis of published rates,
 interviews with individual and institutional subscribers, and case
 histories of other countries (see "History of the Internet in
 Thailand").  For example,
    Area1
      10 dialup modems
      10 leased lines to organization's LANs (size of the LANs)
    Area2
       5 dialup modems
    Main POP
       5 servers: mail, WWW, DNS, FTP, etc.
 When you design your plan, you should design it for what you need
 now, what you believe you will need six months from now, and then one
 year and two years from now.
 6.  Set up, connect, and test your hardware and software.
 It is important to ensure that you have enough representative systems
 set up and their connectivity tested using temporary addresses before
 contacting the appropriate agency for address space.

D. How do I get the documents referred to in this guide?

 See Appendix B for details on obtaining the documents referred to in
 this guide.

E. Section References

 For more information on TCP/IP, see RFC 2151, "A Primer on Internet
 and TCP/IP Tools and Utilities".

Wenzel, et al. Informational [Page 6] RFC 2901 Administrative Internet Infrastructure Guide August 2000

II. Address Space Allocation

 STEP TWO: OBTAIN ADDRESS SPACE ALLOCATION AND REGISTRATION FROM THE
 ISP YOU ARE CONNECTING TO, OR (AS A LAST RESORT) YOUR REGIONAL
 REGISTRY.
 Internet Protocol (IP) addresses (under the current version 4) are
 32-bit numbers usually expressed as 4 octets in dotted decimal
 notation (for example, 128.223.162.27, which is the IP address for
 the Network Startup Resource Center (NSRC) web server at the time of
 this writing).  Public IP addresses make up the Internet address
 space.  Addresses are allocated in a hierarchical manner and are
 designed to be unique.
 The Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) allocates large
 address blocks to the three current Regional Internet Registries
 (IRs): ARIN, APNIC, and RIPE NCC which, in turn, allocate smaller
 blocks to Local Internet Registries or large ISPs.  Local Internet
 Registries, which are typically ISPs or collections of ISPs
 represented at a country level, and large ISPs process the vast
 majority of address space assignments to ISPs and end users
 Contact the Internet service provider from whom you are getting your
 connectivity services (your upstream provider) with an address
 allocation request.  It is important and required that you contact
 your upstream provider first, and not the Regional IR automatically.
 The first question the Regional Registry will ask you is why you
 cannot get address space from your upstream provider.

A. Who is my upstream provider?

 If there is an ISP already functioning in your country, contact them
 directly.  If you are to be the first connection in your country, you
 may need to contact your Regional IR in your geographic region, but
 you should always contact your upstream provider first for assistance
 and guidance.  Since address allocation is hierarchical, the
 administrative organizations and procedures also represent this
 hierarchical structure.  It is important not to skip a step in the
 hierarchy.  Current Regional Registries include ARIN (the Americas,
 Caribbean, and Africa), RIPE (Europe, Africa, and the Middle East),
 and APNIC (the Pacific Rim and Asia).  Contact information for these
 organizations is listed in Appendix A.
 You should contact your Regional Internet Registry if 1) the ISP you
 are connecting to is unable or unwilling to provide address space, or
 2) your particular connectivity requirements will result in non-local
 data to your customers possibly taking a different route over the
 Internet than data destined for your upstream provider's customers,

Wenzel, et al. Informational [Page 7] RFC 2901 Administrative Internet Infrastructure Guide August 2000

 or 3) you anticipate a quick growth rate that may require changing
 your current upstream provider to a larger one and you wish to avoid
 the renumbering that such a move would require.

B. How much address space should I ask for?

 Regional IRs typically assign address blocks on the basis of an
 immediate need and projected utilization rate within one year.  (If
 you are in the ARIN region, it is one year for end user organizations
 and three months for ISPs.)  Calculate your address space request
 accordingly.  It is recommended to include the organization chart and
 network topology diagram referred to in section I.C, number 3
 (above).  Note that address space is allocated based on CIDR bit
 boundaries (see next section).  The registries will need to
 understand your network engineering and deployment plans in
 significant detail before they can allocate address space.
 Therefore, the more detailed information you can provide, the more
 likely your request will be processed quickly.
 If you obtain address space from your ISP, it is very likely that you
 will need to renumber should you decide to change upstream providers
 and/or if you grow considerably.  As this renumbering may affect your
 customers (and their customers, etc.) if they are using dedicated
 lines, you should carefully weigh the cost/benefit involved in
 obtaining address space from your upstream provider.
 If you are singly homed, you should obtain your address space from
 your upstream ISP.  If you plan on enlarging but remaining singly
 homed, you should continue to obtain space this way as it promotes
 aggregation.  If, however, you plan to be multi-homed as part of your
 growth plan, it would make sense to become a member of an appropriate
 Regional IR (or, if one exists in your region, a national Network
 Information Center (NIC) and obtain a /19 or "provider aggregatable"
 address space.
 The minimum routable block is often a /19, so if you plan on
 enlarging, it is better to pay the fees to the Regional IR now and
 obtain a /19 block so that you will not have to renumber later.  Note
 that if you are an ISP in the ARIN region, ARIN  has special
 requirements before you can do this in terms of the amount of address
 space you have previously used, which must be a /21.  The current
 policy is that you must have used a /19 previously from your upstream
 ISP before going to ARIN, or you must be multi-homed and show you
 have used a /21 and be willing to renumber and ARIN will issue a /20
 from a reserved /19.

Wenzel, et al. Informational [Page 8] RFC 2901 Administrative Internet Infrastructure Guide August 2000

 As of February 8, 1999, ARIN lowered the minimum allocation size for
 IP addresses from a /19 to a /20.  ARIN will issue initial
 allocations of prefixes no longer than /20.  If allocations smaller
 than /20 are needed, ISPs and end users should request address space
 from their upstream provider.  ARIN does not guarantee that addresses
 will be globally routable.
 APNIC and RIPE NCC do not have these requirements.  For APNIC, new
 allocations to members will be a /19.
 Remember that your upstream provider should route you if you ask
 them.  You are a customer of the ISP, so if the service is not what
 you need you should change ISPs.
 IF YOU ARE CONNECTED TO ONLY ONE PROVIDER, AND ARE NOT VERY LARGE
 YET, GET AN ADDRESS RANGE FROM YOUR PROVIDER.  SKIP THE REST OF THIS
 SECTION AND ALL OF SECTION V.

C. What is CIDR?

 CIDR stands for Classless Inter-Domain Routing.  Historically, IP
 addresses were assigned within classes: Class A (8 bits of network
 address, 24 bits of host address), Class B (16 bits of network
 address, 16 bits of host address), or Class C (24 bits of network
 address, 8 bits of host address).  With the advent of CIDR, address
 space is now allocated and assigned on bit boundaries.  Using CIDR
 means you are able to assign addresses corresponding with the number
 of hosts on the network, thereby conserving address space.
 The following table illustrates this:
 Addrs Bits  Pref  Class         Mask
 1       0       /32                     255.255.255.255
 2       1       /31                     255.255.255.254
 4       2       /30                     255.255.255.252
 8       3       /29                     255.255.255.248
 16      4       /28                     255.255.255.240
 32      5       /27                     255.255.255.224
 64      6       /26                     255.255.255.192
 128     7       /25                     255.255.255.128
 256     8       /24     1C              255.255.255.0
 512     9       /23     2C              255.255.254.0
 1K      10      /22     4C              255.255.252.0
 2K      11      /21     8C              255.255.248.0
 4K      12      /20     16C             255.255.240.0
 8K      13      /19     32C             255.255.224.0

Wenzel, et al. Informational [Page 9] RFC 2901 Administrative Internet Infrastructure Guide August 2000

 Addrs
       Number of addresses available; note that the number of
       addressable hosts normally is 2 less than this number because
       the host parts with all equal bits (all 0s, all 1s) are
       reserved.
 Bits
       Size of the allocation/assignment in bits of address space.
 Pref
       Length of the prefix covering this address space. This is
       sometimes used to indicate the size of an
       allocation/assignment.
 Class
       Size of the address space in terms of class C network numbers.
 Mask
       The network mask defining the routing prefix in dotted quad
       notation.
 (From http://www.ibm.net.il/~hank/cidr.html)

D. How do I request and register address space?

 You will need to send a database object to the appropriate registry
 to request and register address space.  The registration databases
 are composed of records that are a series of fields separated by one
 or more blank lines; each field consists of two parts, the tag and
 the value.  Do not modify the tags in the templates or errors will
 occur.  Values for particular fields are specified in the templates;
 be careful to enter appropriate information.
 The first line of a template denotes the record type.  For example,
 an IP address template's first line is inetnum, therefore the record
 is known as an inetnum object.  This first line is also used as the
 primary key for the record, therefore if you want to modify the first
 field of the record, the only way to do so is to delete the record
 entirely and add a new record with the corrected information.
 For illustration, here is the RIPE inetnum object.
    inetnum: [IP address range that will be assigned]
    netname: Network-Name
    descr: Network-Name Communications Company, Town
    admin-c: NIC-handle of administrative contact
    tech-c: NIC-handle of technical contact
    country: ISO 3166-country-code

Wenzel, et al. Informational [Page 10] RFC 2901 Administrative Internet Infrastructure Guide August 2000

    rev-srv: ns.someserver.net
    rev-srv: ns.otherserver.net
    status: assigned pa (provider aggregatable)
      or assigned pi (provider independent)
    changed: email@address.net 960731
    source: RIPE
 For Countries in the APNIC Region
 In order to obtain services from APNIC, you will need to become a
 member.  APNIC-070 is the APNIC Membership Application.  It is
 located at:
    ftp://ftp.apnic.net/apnic/docs/membership-application
 Send the completed  form via email to APNIC at:
    member-apply@apnic.net
 APNIC Address Allocation Requests:
 Once you have become a member, you can request IP address space using
 one of the three IP address request forms.  If you are an
 organization that will use address space internally only (e.g., large
 enterprises such as universities, government ministries, large
 corporations, etc.), choose #1 (End User Address Request).  If  you
 are an organization that plans to sub-delegate address space to
 customers (e.g., you are an ISP), choose #2 (ISP Address Request).
 If you are a confederation of ISPs (e.g., national NICs, etc.),
 choose #3 (Confederation Address Request).
 1.  APNIC-074 is the APNIC End User Internet Address Request Form.
 2.  APNIC-065 is the APNIC Internet Services Provider Internet
 Address Request Form.
 3.  Confederations are a means by which service providers can group
 together to provide resource allocation and registration services
 tailored to their specific local language and cultural requirements.
 For details on how to become an APNIC recognized confederation,
 please see APNIC Confederation Concepts and Requirements located at:
    ftp://ftp.apnic.net/apnic/docs/confed-requirements
 APNIC-074 is the APNIC Confederation Internet Address Request Form.

Wenzel, et al. Informational [Page 11] RFC 2901 Administrative Internet Infrastructure Guide August 2000

 Copies of all forms can be found in the following directory:
    ftp://ftp.apnic.net/apnic/docs
 or
    http://www.apnic.net/reg.html
 All completed forms should be sent to:
    hostmaster@apnic.net
 If there are strong reasons why you cannot obtain address space from
 your upstream ISP, and you require address space as a one-time
 allocation only, you can obtain address space as a "non member".  For
 more details, see APNIC-071:
    http://ftp.apnic.net/apnic/docs/non-member-application
 and send the completed form to:
    billing@apnic.net
 For Countries in the ARIN Region
 Membership in ARIN is optional and not a requirement for requesting
 IP address space from the registry or from your Internet service
 provider.  If you are a large end user organization, choose #1.  If
 you are an ISP, choose #2.
 1.  The form for network number assignments is located at:
    ftp://rs.arin.net/templates/networktemplate.txt
 or
    http://www.arin.net/templates/networktemplate.txt
 2.  The form for ISPs to obtain a CIDR block of IP network numbers is
 located at:
    ftp://rs.arin.net/templates/isptemplate.txt
 or
    http://www.arin.net/templates/isptemplate.txt
 Send either completed form via email to ARIN at:
    hostmaster@arin.net
 with "IP request" (if you chose #1) or "ISP CIDR request" (if you
 chose #2) in the subject field, as appropriate.

Wenzel, et al. Informational [Page 12] RFC 2901 Administrative Internet Infrastructure Guide August 2000

 For Countries in the RIPE Region
 RIPE NCC provides IP address space allocation only to contributing
 local Internet registries.  For a description of the European
 Internet Registry policies and procedures, see RIPE-159, "European
 Internet Registry Policies and Procedures".  It is located at:
    ftp://ftp.ripe.net/ripe/docs/ripe-159.txt
 RIPE-160 is Guidelines for Setting up a Local Internet Registry.  It
 is located at:
    ftp://ftp.ripe.net/docs/ripe-160.txt
 If you have questions regarding setting up a new local IR, please
 contact the RIPE NCC at:
    new-lir@ripe.net
 Once your local IR is established, you will get detailed information
 on how to submit requests to the RIPE NCC hostmaster.
 Send the completed form via email to RIPE NCC at:
    ncc@ripe.net
 If you have general queries, please contact RIPE NCC at:
    ncc@ripe.net

E. Section References

 For more information on IP addresses, see RFC 1518, "An Architecture
 for IP Address Allocation with CIDR" and RFC 2050, "Internet Registry
 IP Allocation Guidelines".

III. Autonomous Systems (AS)

 STEP THREE:  IF NEEDED, OBTAIN AN AUTONOMOUS SYSTEM NUMBER.

A. What is an ASN and do I need one?

 Autonomous System Numbers (ASNs) are used to facilitate routing in
 multi-homed environments.  They are allocated when your routing
 policy is different from your provider's.  This generally means your
 site is multi-homed.  In nearly all cases, unless you are multi-homed
 to more than one ISP, you will not need an ASN.  If your routing
 policy does not differ from your service provider's, you should use

Wenzel, et al. Informational [Page 13] RFC 2901 Administrative Internet Infrastructure Guide August 2000

 the service provider's ASN.  If there is constant traffic between you
 and a point in another country, you may want to connect to a second
 ISP in that country.  Note that the resultant multi-homing generally
 makes the system more robust and may also change registry (and
 therefore request) relationships.  It also increases costs greatly.
 You may have to reduce traffic on your international lines by
 choosing to connect to a local exchange point.  This allows traffic
 to stay within your country and off of expensive international links.
 If you implement this plan, you will be multi-homed and will need to
 read the autonomous systems and routing sections of this document.

B. How do I register an ASN?

 Since the ASN space is quite limited, request only what you really
 need when you need it.
 For Countries in the APNIC Region
 APNIC-066 is the ASN Request Form. The form is located at:
    http://ftp.apnic.net/apnic/docs/asn-request
 Send the completed form via email to APNIC at:
    hostmaster@apnic.net
 For Countries in the ARIN Region
 A complete listing of assigned ASNs is located at:
    ftp://rs.arin.net/netinfo/asn.txt
 The ASN registration form is located at:
    ftp://rs.arin.net/templates/asntemplate.txt
 or
    http://www.arin.net/templates/asntemplate.txt
 Send the completed form via email to ARIN at:
    hostmaster@arin.net
 with "ASN request" in the subject field.

Wenzel, et al. Informational [Page 14] RFC 2901 Administrative Internet Infrastructure Guide August 2000

 For Countries in the RIPE Region
 The European Autonomous System Number Application Form and Supporting
 Notes form (RIPE-147) is located at:
    ftp://ftp.ripe.net/ripe/docs/ripe-147.txt
 Local IRs can send the completed form via email to RIPE at:
 hostmaster@ripe.net

C. Section References

 For more information on ASNs, see RFC 1930, "Autonomous Systems
 (AS)".

IV. Routing and Exchange Points

 STEP FOUR: IF NEEDED, REGISTER WITH A ROUTING DATABASE.

A. Do I need to register with a routing database?

 You do not need to register with a routing database if you are simply
 carrying default routes to your (single) ISP.  If you get your
 address space from an ISP, the ISP will register you.  If you are
 connected to more than one ISP, then you should register with a
 routing database.
 The more multi-homed you are, the larger your routing tables need to
 be.  If you are connected to public exchange points (see examples
 below), or to more than one backbone ISP, you need to carry full
 routing tables and run without a default route.
 Example European Exchange Points:
 LINX            London Internet Exchange
 M9-IX           Moscow Internet Exchange
 NIX.CZ          Neutral Internet Exchange, Czech Republic
 Example Asia/Pacific Exchange Points:
 AUIX            Australia Internet Exchange
 HKIX            Hong Kong Internet Exchange
 JPIX            Japan Internet Exchange

Wenzel, et al. Informational [Page 15] RFC 2901 Administrative Internet Infrastructure Guide August 2000

 Example Americas Exchange Points:
 MAE-EAST        Metropolitan Area Ethernet - East
 MAE-WEST        Metropolitan Area Ethernet - West
 PAIX            Palo Alto Internet Exchange
 Depending on the requirements of your international ISP, you may be
 able to have only a default route to them and specific routes to
 other suppliers if you have an in-country exchange point.  Or they
 may require that you carry a full set of routes, treating your
 connection to the in-country exchange point as if it were a multi-
 homed connection.

B. What about CIDR and routing?

 All registries use CIDR. All major router vendors (Cisco, 3Com,
 Nortel, Proteon, IBM, etc.) support CIDR.  CIDR Internet routers use
 only the prefix of the destination address to route traffic to a
 subnetted environment.

C. How do I choose a routing database?

 The Internet Routing Registry (IRR) describes registries maintained
 by several national and international networking organizations.
 These currently include the RIPE Network Coordination Centre (NCC),
 ANS (Advanced Network Solutions, Inc.), Bell Canada (formerly
 CA*net), Cable and Wireless (CW), and the Routing Arbiter Database
 (RADB).  The IRR is a way for ASNs to publicize their own intended
 routing policies without having to request a change from a go-
 between.
 "whois" queries to "whois.ra.net" return data that they gather from
 the entire IRR set of routing registries.  Tools such as "peval" and
 "rtconfig" return data only from the RADB.  Thus, when running those
 tools and desiring data from a set of registries, one must enumerate
 them as in the following example.  "whois" queries to the client
 configure the precedence of routing databases.  For example:
    @RtConfig set sources = "TEST, RADB, RIPE, ANS, BELL, CW"
 There are several other registries, such as ALTDB.  A list, and other
 information on RADB, is available at:
    http://www.radb.net/
 As of January 1, 2000, the transition to the Routing Policy
 Specification Language (RSPL) is complete.  RIPE-181 object
 submissions are no longer accepted.  For more information, see:

Wenzel, et al. Informational [Page 16] RFC 2901 Administrative Internet Infrastructure Guide August 2000

    http://www.merit.edu/radb/announce.html
 With the exception of the Routing Arbiter Database, each registry
 serves a limited customer base.  ANS, Cable and Wireless, and Bell
 Canada accept routing registrations for their customers alone, and
 the RIPE NCC oversees European registrations. The Routing Arbiter
 Database is unique in that it handles registrations for networking
 organizations not covered by the other routing registries. The
 Routing Arbiter also provides coordination among all the registries
 to ensure consistent representation of routing policies.
 All Regional IRs need to register with one (only one) of the routing
 databases in the IRR. If you are announcing routes via BGP4, you need
 to register your routes in the Routing Registry in only one of the
 IRR's.  Logically, this will be the "closest" IRR to you.  However,
 note that some ISPs do not use the regional registries or RADB.

D. How do I register in the RADB (The Americas)?

 You need to submit three types of database records to the RADB: one
 or more maintainer objects, an AS object, and one or more route
 objects.
 To specify the individuals who are allowed to update your records in
 the RADB, fill out one or more maintainer objects and send them via
 email to:
    db-admin@radb.net
 You need to submit a maintainer object before you can register any AS
 or route objects.
 To describe the autonomous system that announces your routes, fill
 out an AS object and submit it via email to:
    auto-dbm@radb.net
 AS objects are also called aut-num objects.
 To register your routes, fill out one or more route objects, and send
 them to RADB via email to:
    auto-dbm@radb.net
 Note that most of the IRR participants have the auto-dbm@xx.net email
 address function for accepting updates to the IRR automatically.

Wenzel, et al. Informational [Page 17] RFC 2901 Administrative Internet Infrastructure Guide August 2000

E. Section References

 For more information on routers, see RFC 1812, "Requirements for IP
 Version 4 Routers".  See also RFC 1786, "Representation of IP Routing
 Policies in a Routing Registry (ripe-181++)".
 For more information on CIDR and routing, see RFC 1817, "CIDR and
 Classful Routing".

V. Domain Name Registration

 STEP FIVE:  REGISTER YOUR DOMAIN NAME.

A. What is a country domain?

 The Domain Name System (DNS) specifies the naming of computers within
 a hierarchy.  Top-Level Domain (TLD) names include generic TLDs
 (gTLDs) and two-letter country codes (ccTLDs).  Examples of gTLDs
 include .com (commercial), .net (network), and .org (organization).
 Examples of two-letter country codes are .ca for Canada, .fr for
 France, and .id for Indonesia.  ISO 3166 is used as a basis for
 country code top-level domain names.  Country codes are assigned by
 the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in
 cooperation with the United Nations.  The Internet Assigned Numbers
 Authority (IANA) directly registers all country-code top-level
 domains, however it is not involved in the allocation of codes to
 countries.  IANA is a function of the Internet Corporation for
 Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN, see Appendix A).  See ISO 3166 for
 more information and a current listing of country codes (Appendix C).
 A hierarchy of names may, and normally should be, created under each
 TLD.  There is a wide variation in the structure of country domains.
 In some countries there is a substantial hierarchy, while in others
 the structure is flat.  In some country domains the second levels are
 generic categories, while in others they are based on geography, and
 in still others, organization names are listed directly under the
 country code.  Examples of second level generic categories are ac or
 edu (academic or education), co or com (corporate or commercial), and
 go or gov (government).

B. How do I register as a country domain?

 First check that: (1) the domain is still available, few are, (2) you
 have someone in your country as the administrative contact, and (3)
 your name servers are prepared (see RFC 1912 for information on
 common errors in preparing name servers).

Wenzel, et al. Informational [Page 18] RFC 2901 Administrative Internet Infrastructure Guide August 2000

 The whois master database is the authoritative source of information
 on .com, .net, .org, and .edu domain name registrations.  It is
 currently maintained by Network Solutions, Inc. and holds referral
 pointers to which whois database contains the record for the domain
 name.
 To apply to manage a country code top-level domain you should:
 1. First, if you are on a UNIX host, use the "whois" command to see
 if the domain is already registered:
    whois =<domain>
 2. If the domain does not already have an administrative contact,
 request a Domain Name Agreement template from IANA by sending email
 to:
    iana@iana.org

C. What if my country is already registered?

 If your country is already registered, contact the country-code
 administrator to register a new second-level domain name.
 Please note that ARIN, RIPE, and APNIC do not handle domain names
 (other than IN-ADDR.ARPA).  If you want to register a domain name
 directly under a top-level domain (TLD), please contact the
 appropriate TLD administrator.

D. How do I resolve a country domain name dispute?

 See RFC 1591 for domain name dispute information.  Note that you will
 need to resolve the dispute within your country before you contact
 IANA.

E. Section References

 For more information on domain names, see RFC 1591, "Domain Name
 System Structure and Delegation"; RFC 1713, "Tools for DNS
 Debugging"; and RFC 1912, "Common DNS Operational and Configuration
 Errors".

VI. IN-ADDR.ARPA Domain Delegation

 STEP SIX:  IF NEEDED, REGISTER YOUR IN-ADDR.ARPA DOMAIN.

Wenzel, et al. Informational [Page 19] RFC 2901 Administrative Internet Infrastructure Guide August 2000

A. What is an IN-ADDR.ARPA domain and do I need one?

 An IN-ADDR.ARPA domain allows for mapping of IP addresses into domain
 names.  This is often referred to as "inverse addressing" because it
 is the opposite of the domain name to IP address resolution.  IN-ADDR
 domains are represented using the network number in reverse.  For
 example, the IN-ADDR domain for network 123.45.67.0 is represented as
 67.45.123.in-addr.arpa.
 You almost always need reverse resolution.

B. How do I register an IN-ADDR.ARPA domain?

 You should ask your upstream provider about registering your IN-
 ADDR.ARPA domains.  If you are working directly with a regional
 registry, see below.
 For Countries in the APNIC Region
 The IN-ADDR.ARPA Delegation Form is APNIC-064 and is located at:
    ftp://ftp.apnic.net/apnic/docs/in-addr-request
 CAUTION: You must set-up your name server to accept the delegation
 prior to submission of this form.
 Send the completed form via email to APNIC at:
    domreg@rs.apnic.net
 For Countries in the ARIN Region
 How IN-ADDR.ARPA is registered is dependent on the registration of
 the block needing reverse entries.  For example, all blocks that have
 been registered directly from the Regional IR may have IN-ADDR.ARPA
 delegation established by ARIN.  In this case, IN-ADDR.ARPA
 delegations are registered using the ARIN modify template.  This
 template can be found at:
    ftp://ftp.arin.net/templates/modifytemplate.txt
 or
    http://www.arin.net/templates/modifytemplate.txt
 Instructions for completing the template can be found at the bottom
 of the template.
 CAUTION: Do not list your network number in reverse on the template.

Wenzel, et al. Informational [Page 20] RFC 2901 Administrative Internet Infrastructure Guide August 2000

 Send the completed form via email to ARIN at:
    hostmaster@arin.net
 All blocks that have been reassigned to your organization by an ISP
 will have IN-ADDR.ARPA established by your provider.  In this case,
 contact the ISP that reassigned IP address space to your organization
 and coordinate IN-ADDR.ARPA delegation.
 For Countries in the RIPE Region
 The domain object needs to be entered in the RIPE database before
 requesting reverse delegation.
 domain: 0.194.in-addr.arpa
 descr: Our organization allocation
 admin-c: NIC-handle of administrative contact (e.g., JLC-2RIPE)
 tech-c: NIC-handle of technical contact
 zone-c: NIC-handle of zone contact
 nserver: Name server (e.g., ns.someserver.net)
 nserver: ns.otherserver.net
 nserver: ns.ripe.net
 changed: email@address.net 960731
 source: RIPE
 NOTE:  One of the name servers has to be ns.ripe.net
 The domain object described above should be included in the request,
 as well as zone file entries for the zone above the one requested.
 For example, if a reverse delegation is requested for 1.193.in-
 addr.arpa, the relevant zone file entries should be included for
 193.in-addr.arpa; whereas if a reverse delegation is requested for
 2.2.193.in-addr.arpa, the zone file entries should be included for
 2.193.in-addr.arpa.
 Send the completed object(s) via email to RIPE at:
    auto-inaddr@ripe.net

VII. Security

A. Is there a way to prevent unauthorized changes to my objects?

 Registries provide various security measures to prevent unauthorized
 changes to your database entries.  Contact your regional IR for more
 information.  Note that the contact information you provide in the
 database object registrations is not private.

Wenzel, et al. Informational [Page 21] RFC 2901 Administrative Internet Infrastructure Guide August 2000

VIII. Network Optimization and Management

A. How do I optimize traffic on my network?

 Contact the Cooperative Association for Internet Data Analysis
 (CAIDA).  CAIDA is a collaborative undertaking to promote greater
 cooperation in the engineering and maintenance of a robust, scalable
 global Internet infrastructure.  CAIDA provides a neutral framework
 to support these cooperative endeavors.
 The CAIDA web-site is located at:
    http://www.caida.org/
 Send email with questions or comments to:
   info@caida.org

Security Considerations

 Security is discussed in section VII.

Acknowledgements

 Thanks to Brian Candler, David Conrad, John Heasley, Kim Hubbard,
 Daniel Karrenberg, Anne Lord, Dawn Martin, Charles Musisi, Jon
 Postel, and April Marine and the IETF User Services Working Group for
 reviewing various versions of this document; and to Hank Nussbacher
 for permission to reprint his table on CIDR.
 Special thanks are also due to Dr. Steven Goldstein of the National
 Science Foundation for his contributions and suggestions, and to the
 National Science Foundation for partial funding of this work.
 This material is based upon work supported by the National Science
 Foundation under Grant No. NCR-961657. Any opinions, findings, and
 conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those
 of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the
 National Science Foundation.

References

 [1]  Malkin, G., "Internet Users' Glossary", FYI 18, RFC 1983, August
      1996.
 [2]  Hinden, R., Editor, "Applicability Statement for the
      Implementation of Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR)", RFC
      1517, September 1993.

Wenzel, et al. Informational [Page 22] RFC 2901 Administrative Internet Infrastructure Guide August 2000

 [3]  Rekhter, Y. and T. Li, "An Architecture for IP Address
      Allocation with CIDR", RFC 1518, September 1993.
 [4]  Fuller, V., Li, T., Yu, J. and K. Varadhan, "Classless Inter-
      Domain Routing (CIDR): an Address Assignment and Aggregation
      Strategy", RFC 1519, September 1993.
 [5]  Rekhter, Y. and C. Topolcic, "Exchanging Routing Information
      Across Provider Boundaries in the CIDR Environment", RFC 1520,
      September 1993.
 [6]  Postel, J., "Domain Name System Structure and Delegation", RFC
      1591, March 1994.
 [7]  Wijnen, B., Carpenter, G., Curran, K., Sehgal, A. and G. Waters,
      "Simple Network Management Protocol Distributed Protocol
      Interface Version 2.0", RFC 1592, March 1994.
 [8]  Ramao, A., "Tools for DNS debugging", RFC 1713, November 1994.
 [9]  Baker, F., "Requirements for IP Version 4 Routers", RFC 1812,
      June 1995.
 [10] Rekhter, Y., "CIDR and Classful Routing", RFC 1817, August 1995.
 [11] Barr, D., "Common DNS Operational and Configuration Errors", RFC
      1912, February 1996.
 [12] Hawkinson, J. and T. Bates, "Guidelines for Creation, Selection,
      and Registration of an Autonomous System", RFC 1930, March 1996.
 [13] Freed, N. and N. Borenstein, "Multipurpose Internet Mail
      Extensions (MIME) Part One: Format of Internet Message Bodies",
      RFC 2045, November 1996.
 [14] Hubbard, K., Kosters, M., Conrad, D., Karrenberg, D. and J.
      Postel, "Internet Registry IP Allocation Guidelines", BCP 12,
      RFC 2050, November 1996.
 [15] Kessler, G. and S. Shepard, "A Primer On Internet and TCP/IP
      Tools and Utilities", FYI 30, RFC 2151, June 1997.
 [16] ISO 3166:  "Codes for the Representation of Names of Countries"
 [17] Palasri, S., Huter, S., and Wenzel, Z. "The History of the
      Internet in Thailand", University of Oregon Books, 1999.

Wenzel, et al. Informational [Page 23] RFC 2901 Administrative Internet Infrastructure Guide August 2000

Authors' Addresses

 Zita Wenzel, Ph.D.
 Network Startup Resource Center (NSRC)
 1225 Kincaid Street
 1212-University of Oregon
 Eugene, OR 97403-1212 USA
 EMail: zita@nsrc.org
 John C. Klensin, Ph.D.
 Network Startup Resource Center (NSRC)
 1225 Kincaid Street
 1212-University of Oregon
 Eugene, OR 97403-1212 USA
 EMail: klensin@nsrc.org
 Randy Bush
 Network Startup Resource Center (NSRC)
 1225 Kincaid Street
 1212-University of Oregon
 Eugene, OR  97403-1212 USA
 EMail: randy@nsrc.org
 Steven Huter
 Network Startup Resource Center (NSRC)
 1225 Kincaid Street
 1212-University of Oregon
 Eugene, OR 97403-1212 USA
 EMail: sghuter@nsrc.org

Wenzel, et al. Informational [Page 24] RFC 2901 Administrative Internet Infrastructure Guide August 2000

Appendix A: The Internet Agencies

 o  The Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA)
 IANA is the central coordinator for the assignment of unique
 parameter values for Internet protocols and for all address space and
 name space used in the Internet.  IANA allocates parts of the
 Internet address space to Regional Internet Registries (IRs) for
 distribution to Local IRs and ISPs.  IANA is also responsible for the
 coordination and management of the Domain Name System (DNS).
 Note that as of 1999, IANA is a function of the Internet Corporation
 for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN), the non-profit corporation
 that is the top-level administration authority of the global
 Internet.
 Email:          iana@iana.org
 Postal:         4676 Admiralty Way, Suite 330
                 Marina del Rey, CA 90292
                 USA
 Telehone:       +1-310-823-9358
 Fax:            +1-310-823-8649
 Internet:       http://www.iana.org/
 o  Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN)
 From the ICANN web site:
 The Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) is a
 technical coordination body for the Internet. Created in October 1998
 by a broad coalition of the Internet's business, technical, academic,
 and user communities, ICANN is assuming responsibility for a set of
 technical functions previously performed under U.S. Government
 contract by IANA and other groups.
 Specifically, ICANN coordinates the assignment of the following
 identifiers that must be globally unique for the Internet to
 function:  Internet domain names, IP address numbers, protocol
 parameter and port numbers.  In addition, ICANN coordinates the
 stable operation of the Internet's root server system.
 As a non-profit, private-sector corporation, ICANN is dedicated to
 preserving the operational stability of the Internet; to promoting
 competition; to achieving broad representation of global Internet
 communities; and to developing policy through private-sector,
 bottom-up, consensus-based means.  ICANN welcomes the participation
 of any interested Internet user, business, or organization.

Wenzel, et al. Informational [Page 25] RFC 2901 Administrative Internet Infrastructure Guide August 2000

 Email:          icann@icann.org
 Postal:         Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers
                 (ICANN)
                 4676 Admiralty Way, Suite 330
                 Marina del Rey, CA 90292
                 USA
 Telehone:       +1-310-823-9358
 Fax:            +1-310-823-8649
 Internet:       http://www.icann.org/
 o  InterNIC
 The InterNIC was a cooperative activity between the National Science
 Foundation, General Atomics, AT&T, and Network Solutions, Inc.  The
 joint activity InterNIC no longer exists.
 Currently, Network Solutions runs the central registry according to
 the shared registry model specified by ICANN for registration of
 second-level domain names under the generic top-level
 domains .com, .net, and .org.
 For information on accredited registrars for .com, .net, and .org,
 please see:
    http://www.icann.org/registrars/accredited-list.html
 (note that Network Solutions is an accredited registrar as well as
 the entity running the registry).
 Email:          hostmaster@netsol.com
 Postal:         Network Solutions, Inc.
                 505 Huntmar Park Dr.
                 Herndon, VA 20170 US
 Telephone:      +1-703-742-4777
 Fax:            +1-703-742-9552
 Internet:       http://www.networksolutions.com/
 Regional Internet Registries (IRs)
 Regional IRs operate in large geopolitical regions such as
 continents.  Currently, there are three Regional IRs: ARIN for the
 Americas, the Caribbean, and Africa; RIPE NCC for Europe, Africa, and
 the Middle East; and APNIC for the Asia Pacific region.  The specific
 duties of the Regional IRs include coordination and representation of
 all local Internet Registries in their respective region.

Wenzel, et al. Informational [Page 26] RFC 2901 Administrative Internet Infrastructure Guide August 2000

 o  APNIC
 Asia Pacific Network Information Center (APNIC) is a non-profit
 Internet registry for the Asia Pacific region.  APNIC provides IP
 address allocation, Autonomous System Number (ASN) assignment, and
 IN-ADDR.ARPA registration.
 Email:          hostmaster@apnic.net
 Postal:         APNIC Box 2131
                 Milton Queensland 4064
                 Australia
 Telephone:      +61-7-3367-0490
 Fax:            +61-7-3367-0482
 Internet:       http://www.apnic.net/
 o ARIN
 The American Registry for Internet Numbers (ARIN) is a non-profit
 Internet registry that was established for the purpose of
 administration and registration of Internet Protocol (IP) numbers to
 the geographical areas that were previously managed by Network
 Solutions, Inc.  These areas include, but are not limited to, North
 America, South America, Africa, and the Caribbean region.  ARIN
 provides IP address allocation, Autonomous System Number (ASN)
 assignment, and IN-ADDR.ARPA registration.
 Email:          hostmaster@arin.net
 Postal:         4506 Daly Drive
                 Suite 200
                 Chantilly, VA  20151
 Telephone:      +1-703-227-0660
 Fax             +1-703-227-0676
 Internet:       http://www.arin.net/
 o RIPE NCC
 Reseaux IP Europens Network Coordination Centre (RIPE NCC) is a non-
 profit Internet registry for the European, North African, and Middle
 East regions.  RIPE NCC provides IP address allocation, Autonomous
 System Number (ASN) assignment, and IN-ADDR.ARPA registration.
 Email:          ncc@ripe.net
 Postal:         Singel 258
                 1016 AB Amsterdam
                 The Netherlands
 Phone:          +31-20-535-4444
 Fax:            +31-20-535-4445
 Internet:       http://www.ripe.net/

Wenzel, et al. Informational [Page 27] RFC 2901 Administrative Internet Infrastructure Guide August 2000

Appendix B: Documentation

 Internet Documentation
 For general Internet documentation, "ftp" to rfc-editor.org and "cd"
 to the /rfc subdirectory for Request for Comments documents.
 Details on obtaining these documents via ftp or email may be obtained
 by sending an email message to:
    rfc-info@rfc-editor.org
 with the message body  help: ways_to_get_rfcs.  For example:
    To: rfc-info@isi.edu
    Subject: getting rfcs
    help: ways_to_get_rfcs
 Documents, Templates, and Forms
 The documents, templates, and forms referenced in this guide are
 available from the document stores in the directories listed in the
 URLs (Uniform Resource Locators).  Organizations without connectivity
 wishing to obtain copies of the referenced documents should contact
 their Local IR to arrange postal delivery of one or more of the
 documents.  Note that fees may be associated with the delivery of
 hardcopy versions of documents.
 The document stores can be accessed in two ways:
 1.  Via anonymous FTP (File Transfer Protocol).
 Using your ftp program, connect to the appropriate host computer
 shown below using your email address as the password.  Use the "cd"
 (change directory) command to connect to the appropriate
 subdirectory, then use the "get" command to retrieve the specific
 file.  For example:
 ftp rs.apnic.net (for countries in the Asia/Pacific region)
 ftp rs.arin.net (for countries in the Americas)
 ftp rs.ripe.net (for countries in Europe or North Africa)
    login:  anonymous
    password:  your_email_address
    cd netinfo
    get <domain>_info.txt

Wenzel, et al. Informational [Page 28] RFC 2901 Administrative Internet Infrastructure Guide August 2000

 2.  Via electronic mail, ftp, or the World Wide Web.
 Send email to the appropriate address shown below with the message
 body as specified.
 APNIC Documentation
 For APNIC documents and templates, "ftp" to ftp.apnic.net and "cd" to
 /apnic/docs.  APNIC no longer has an electronic mail method of form
 retrieval.  Many of APNIC's request forms are also available on the
 web site at:
    http://www.apnic.net/reg.html
 ARIN Documentation
 For ARIN templates, "ftp" to rs.arin.net and "cd" to /templates.
 You can also obtain templates via the web site at:
    http://www.arin.net/templates.html
 Other ARIN documentation is available at:
    http://www.arin.net/docs.html
 Or send email to:
    hostmaster@arin.net
 RIPE Documentation
 For RIPE documents and forms, "ftp" to ftp.ripe.net/ripe and "cd" to
 /docs or cd to /forms.
 Or send email to:
    mail-server@ripe.net
 with send help in the body of the message.

Appendix C: Country Codes

 The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 3166
 Maintenance Agency and ISO 3166 current list of two-letter country
 codes is available via:
    http://www.iso.ch/infoe/agency/3166-1.htm

Wenzel, et al. Informational [Page 29] RFC 2901 Administrative Internet Infrastructure Guide August 2000

Appendix D: Acronyms

 ANS             Advanced Network Services, Inc.
 ASN             Autonomous System Number
 APNIC           Asia Pacific Network Information Center
 ARIN            American Registry for Internet Numbers
 AS              Autonomous System
 CANET           Canada Net
 CIDR            Classless Inter-Domain Routing
 DNS             Domain Name System
 gTLD            Generic Top-Level Domain
 IANA            Internet Assigned Numbers Authority
 InterNIC        Internet Network Information Center
 IP              Internet Protocol
 IR              Internet Registry
 IRR             Internet Routing Registry
 ISO             International Organization for Standardization
 ISP             Internet Service Provider
 LINX            London Internet Exchange
 NCC             Network Coordination Centre
 NIC             Network Information Center
 NSRC            Network Startup Resource Center
 POP             Point of Presence
 RADB            Routing Arbiter Data Base
 RFC             Request for Comments
 RIPE            Reseaux IP Europeans
 TCP/IP          Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol
 TLD             Top-Level Domain

Wenzel, et al. Informational [Page 30] RFC 2901 Administrative Internet Infrastructure Guide August 2000

Full Copyright Statement

 Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2000).  All Rights Reserved.
 This document and translations of it may be copied and furnished to
 others, and derivative works that comment on or otherwise explain it
 or assist in its implementation may be prepared, copied, published
 and distributed, in whole or in part, without restriction of any
 kind, provided that the above copyright notice and this paragraph are
 included on all such copies and derivative works.  However, this
 document itself may not be modified in any way, such as by removing
 the copyright notice or references to the Internet Society or other
 Internet organizations, except as needed for the purpose of
 developing Internet standards in which case the procedures for
 copyrights defined in the Internet Standards process must be
 followed, or as required to translate it into languages other than
 English.
 The limited permissions granted above are perpetual and will not be
 revoked by the Internet Society or its successors or assigns.
 This document and the information contained herein is provided on an
 "AS IS" basis and THE INTERNET SOCIETY AND THE INTERNET ENGINEERING
 TASK FORCE DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING
 BUT NOT LIMITED TO ANY WARRANTY THAT THE USE OF THE INFORMATION
 HEREIN WILL NOT INFRINGE ANY RIGHTS OR ANY IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF
 MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.

Acknowledgement

 Funding for the RFC Editor function is currently provided by the
 Internet Society.

Wenzel, et al. Informational [Page 31]

/data/webs/external/dokuwiki/data/pages/rfc/fyi/fyi37.txt · Last modified: 2000/08/31 17:26 (external edit)