Network Working Group S. Hambridge Request For Comments: 1855 Intel Corp. FYI: 28 October 1995 Category: Informational
Status of This Memo
This memo provides information for the Internet community. This memo does not specify an Internet standard of any kind. Distribution of this memo is unlimited.
This document provides a minimum set of guidelines for Network Etiquette (Netiquette) which organizations may take and adapt for their own use. As such, it is deliberately written in a bulleted format to make adaptation easier and to make any particular item easy (or easier) to find. It also functions as a minimum set of guidelines for individuals, both users and administrators. This memo is the product of the Responsible Use of the Network (RUN) Working Group of the IETF.
Table of Contents
1.0 Introduction 1 2.0 One-to-One Communication 2 3.0 One-to-Many Communication 7 4.0 Information Services 14 5.0 Selected Bibliography 18 6.0 Security Considerations 21 7.0 Author's Address 21
In the past, the population of people using the Internet had "grown up" with the Internet, were technically minded, and understood the nature of the transport and the protocols. Today, the community of Internet users includes people who are new to the environment. These "Newbies" are unfamiliar with the culture and don't need to know about transport and protocols. In order to bring these new users into the Internet culture quickly, this Guide offers a minimum set of behaviors which organizations and individuals may take and adapt for their own use. Individuals should be aware that no matter who supplies their Internet access, be it an Internet Service Provider through a private account, or a student account at a University, or
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an account through a corporation, that those organizations have regulations about ownership of mail and files, about what is proper to post or send, and how to present yourself. Be sure to check with the local authority for specific guidelines.
We've organized this material into three sections: One-to-one communication, which includes mail and talk; One-to-many communications, which includes mailing lists and NetNews; and Information Services, which includes ftp, WWW, Wais, Gopher, MUDs and MOOs. Finally, we have a Selected Bibliography, which may be used for reference.
2.0 One-to-One Communication (electronic mail, talk)
We define one-to-one communications as those in which a person is communicating with another person as if face-to-face: a dialog. In general, rules of common courtesy for interaction with people should be in force for any situation and on the Internet it's doubly important where, for example, body language and tone of voice must be inferred. For more information on Netiquette for communicating via electronic mail and talk, check references [1,23,25,27] in the Selected Bibliography.
2.1 User Guidelines
2.1.1 For mail:
provider, be sure to check with your employer about ownership
of electronic mail. Laws about the ownership of electronic mail vary from place to place.
you should assume that mail on the Internet is not secure. Never
put in a mail message anything you would not put on a postcard.
every country has copyright laws.
not change the wording. If the message was a personal message to
you and you are re-posting to a group, you should ask permission first. You may shorten the message and quote only relevant parts, but be sure you give proper attribution.
are forbidden on the Internet. Your network privileges
will be revoked. Notify your local system administrator
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if your ever receive one.
liberal in what you receive. You should not send heated messages
(we call these "flames") even if you are provoked. On the other hand, you shouldn't be surprised if you get flamed and it's prudent not to respond to flames.
subjects before responding to a message. Sometimes a person who
asks you for help (or clarification) will send another message which effectively says "Never Mind". Also make sure that any message you respond to was directed to you. You might be cc:ed rather than the primary recipient.
information which includes your return address. In order to
ensure that people know who you are, be sure to include a line or two at the end of your message with contact information. You can create this file ahead of time and add it to the end of your messages. (Some mailers do this automatically.) In Internet parlance, this is known as a ".sig" or "signature" file. Your .sig file takes the place of your business card. (And you can have more than one to apply in different circumstances.)
may go to a group but the address looks like it is just one
person. Know to whom you are sending.
people if the messages have become a 2-way conversation.
to answer general questions about the Internet and its workings.
Don't send unsolicited mail asking for information to people whose names you might have seen in RFCs or on mailing lists.
the globe. If you send a message to which you want an immediate
response, the person receiving it might be at home asleep when it arrives. Give them a chance to wake up, come to work, and login before assuming the mail didn't arrive or that they don't care.
It's also a good practice to include the word "Long" in the
subject header so the recipient knows the message will take time to read and respond to. Over 100 lines is considered "long".
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close at hand. Check locally for people who can help you with
software and system problems. Also, know whom to go to if you receive anything questionable or illegal. Most sites also have "Postmaster" aliased to a knowledgeable user, so you can send mail to this address to get help with mail.
language, and humor have different points of reference from your
own. Remember that date formats, measurements, and idioms may not travel well. Be especially careful with sarcasm.
underscores for underlining. _War and Peace_ is my favorite
is an example of a smiley (Look sideways). Don't assume
that the inclusion of a smiley will make the recipient happy with what you say or wipe out an otherwise insulting comment.
have really strong feelings about a subject, indicate it via
FLAME ON/OFF enclosures. For example: FLAME ON: This type of argument is not worth the bandwidth it takes to send it. It's illogical and poorly reasoned. The rest of the world agrees with me. FLAME OFF
messages unless they are MIME attachments or unless your mailer
encodes these. If you send encoded messages make sure the recipient can decode them.
include enough original material to be understood but no more. It
is extremely bad form to simply reply to a message by including all the previous message: edit out all the irrelevant material.
with a carriage return.
the content of the message.
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is no longer than 4 lines. Remember that many people pay for
connectivity by the minute, and the longer your message is, the more they pay.
(today) subject to forgery and spoofing of various degrees of
detectability. Apply common sense "reality checks" before assuming a message is valid.
reply briefly to an e-mail message to let the sender know you got
it, even if you will send a longer reply later.
relationship to a person and the context of the communication.
Norms learned in a particular e-mail environment may not apply in general to your e-mail communication with people across the Internet. Be careful with slang or local acronyms.
about equally by the sender and the recipient (or their
organizations). This is unlike other media such as physical mail, telephone, TV, or radio. Sending someone mail may also cost them in other specific ways like network bandwidth, disk space or CPU usage. This is a fundamental economic reason why unsolicited e-mail advertising is unwelcome (and is forbidden in many contexts).
such as Postscript files or programs may make your message so
large that it cannot be delivered or at least consumes excessive resources. A good rule of thumb would be not to send a file larger than 50 Kilobytes. Consider file transfer as an alternative, or cutting the file into smaller chunks and sending each as a separate message.
forwarding loop. Be sure you haven't set up forwarding on several
hosts so that a message sent to you gets into an endless loop from one computer to the next to the next.
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2.1.2 For talk:
Talk is a set of protocols which allow two people to have an interactive dialogue via computer.
a letter or sending mail.
use a Carriage Return (CR) at the end of the line. Also, don't
assume your screen size is the same as everyone else's. A good rule of thumb is to write out no more than 70 characters, and no more than 12 lines (since you're using a split screen).
start typing. (blank line).
farewell from the other person before killing the session. This
is especially important when you are communicating with someone a long way away. Remember that your communication relies on both bandwidth (the size of the pipe) and latency (the speed of light).
use as appropriate. And never talk to strangers.
that everything is working correctly. Not all versions of
talk are compatible.
one or two times, then kill it.
to determine which are open. If the person still doesn't respond,
do not continue to send.
mistakes when typing it is often not worth the time of trying to
correct, as the other person can usually see what you meant.
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2.2 Administrator Issues
with situations especially illegal, improper, or forged
improper or illegal messages. Requests concerning chain
letters should be handled immediately.
Make sure they understand implications of requesting files by
mail such as: Filling up disks; running up phone bills, delaying mail, etc.
"Root" aliased. Make sure someone reads that mail.
Remember that addresses may be forged and spoofed.
3.0 One-to-Many Communication (Mailing Lists, NetNews)
Any time you engage in One-to-Many communications, all the rules for mail should also apply. After all, communicating with many people via one mail message or post is quite analogous to communicating with one person with the exception of possibly offending a great many more people than in one-to-one communication. Therefore, it's quite important to know as much as you can about the audience of your message.
3.1 User Guidelines
3.1.1 General Guidelines for mailing lists and NetNews
you post anything. This helps you to get an understanding of
the culture of the group.
That may include your present or your next boss. Take
care in what you write. Remember too, that mailing lists and Newsgroups are frequently archived, and that your words may be
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stored for a very long time in a place to which many people have access.
say does not represent their organization (unless stated
attention to any specific rules covering their uses your
organization may have.
wander off-topic, don't ramble and don't send mail or post
messages solely to point out other people's errors in typing or spelling. These, more than any other behavior, mark you as an immature beginner.
on others! This is another example of knowing your audience
before you post. Unsolicited advertising which is completely off-topic will most certainly guarantee that you get a lot of hate mail.
summarize the original at the top of the message, or include just
enough text of the original to give a context. This will make sure readers understand when they start to read your response. Since NetNews, especially, is proliferated by distributing the postings from one host to another, it is possible to see a response to a message before seeing the original. Giving context helps everyone. But do not include the entire original!
message. This will guarantee that any peculiarities of mailers or
newsreaders which strip header information will not delete the only reference in the message of how people may reach you.
replies are sent back to the address which originated the post -
which in many cases is the address of a list or group! You may accidentally send a personal response to a great many people, embarrassing all involved. It's best to type in the address instead of relying on "reply."
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are neither totally standardized nor totally reliable across the
range of systems connected to Internet mail. They are invasive when sent to mailing lists, and some people consider delivery receipts an invasion of privacy. In short, do not use them.
an apology to the person and to the group.
make your responses to each other via mail rather than continue to
send messages to the list or the group. If you are debating a point on which the group might have some interest, you may summarize for them later.
to incendiary material.
gratuitous replies to replies.
display differently on different systems, and with different
mailers on the same system.
of wide varieties of interests. These represent a diversity of
lifestyles, religions, and cultures. Posting articles or sending messages to a group whose point of view is offensive to you simply to tell them they are offensive is not acceptable. Sexually and racially harassing messages may also have legal implications. There is software available to filter items you might find objectionable.
3.1.2 Mailing List Guidelines
There are several ways to find information about what mailing lists exist on the Internet and how to join them. Make sure you understand your organization's policy about joining these lists and posting to them. In general it is always better to check local resources first before trying to find information via the Internet. Nevertheless, there are a set of files posted periodically to news.answers which list the Internet mailing lists and how to subscribe to them. This is an invaluable resource for finding lists on any topic. See also references [9,13,15] in the Selected Bibliography.
address. Although some mailing list software is smart enough
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to catch these, not all can ferret these out. It is your responsibility to learn how the lists work, and to send the correct mail to the correct place. Although many many mailing lists adhere to the convention of having a "-request" alias for sending subscribe and unsubscribe messages, not all do. Be sure you know the conventions used by the lists to which you subscribe.
usually tell you how to unsubscribe as well.
sent them. Even your system administrator will not be able to get
a message back once you have sent it. This means you must make sure you really want the message to go as you have written it.
communication, but quite annoying when sent to entire mailing
lists. Examine "Reply-To" addresses when replying to messages from lists. Most auto-replys will go to all members of the list.
Resource Locators (URLs) or pointers to ftp-able versions
will do. If you want to send it as multiple files, be sure to follow the culture of the group. If you don't know what that is, ask.
available) when you cannot check your mail for an extended
if the lists are closely related, apologize for cross-posting.
truly summarize rather than send a cumulation of the messages you
uninvited. Do not report mail from these lists to a wider
issues rather than the personalities involved.
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3.1.3 NetNews Guidelines
NetNews is a globally distributed system which allows people to communicate on topics of specific interest. It is divided into hierarchies, with the major divisions being: sci - science related discussions; comp - computer related discussions; news - for discussions which center around NetNews itself; rec - recreational activities; soc - social issues; talk - long-winded never-ending discussions; biz - business related postings; and alt - the alternate hierarchy. Alt is so named because creating an alt group does not go through the same process as creating a group in the other parts of the hierarchy. There are also regional hierarchies, hierarchies which are widely distributed such as Bionet, and your place of business may have its own groups as well. Recently, a "humanities" hierarchy was added, and as time goes on its likely more will be added. For longer discussions on News see references [2,8,22,23] in the Selected Bibliography.
to a group, or responding to a post someone else has posted.
"Cross-Posting" refers to posting a message to more than one group. If you introduce Cross-Posting to a group, or if you direct "Followup-To:" in the header of your posting, warn readers! Readers will usually assume that the message was posted to a specific group and that followups will go to that group. Headers change this behavior.
before posting replies. Avoid posting "Me Too" messages,
where content is limited to agreement with previous posts. Content of a follow-up post should exceed quoted content.
Remember that News has global distribution and the whole world
probably is NOT interested in a personal response. However, don't hesitate to post when something will be of general interest to the Newsgroup participants.
depend on it. Due to the complex method by which News is
delivered, Distribution headers are unreliable. But, if you are posting something which will be of interest to a limited number or readers, use a distribution line that attempts to limit the distribution of your article to those people. For example, set the Distribution to be "nj" if you are posting an article that will be of interest only to New Jersey readers.
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Newsgroup, be sure to CROSSPOST the article rather than individually
post it to those groups. In general, probably only five-to-six groups will have similar enough interests to warrant this.
help files) before posting a question. Asking a Newsgroup where
answers are readily available elsewhere generates grumpy "RTFM" (read the fine manual - although a more vulgar meaning of the word beginning with "f" is usually implied) messages.
in general it is considered nothing less than criminal
to advertise off-topic products. Sending an advertisement to each and every group will pretty much guarantee your loss of connectivity.
your administrator if you don't know how to cancel your post,
or if some other post, such as a chain letter, needs canceling.
don't assume it's failed and re-post it.
circumstances would be considered to be in questionable taste.
Still, there is no guarantee that all people reading the group will appreciate the material as much as you do. Use the Rotate utility (which rotates all the characters in your post by 13 positions in the alphabet) to avoid giving offense. The Rot13 utility for Unix is an example.
to mark posts which disclose significant content as "Spoilers".
Put this word in your Subject: line. You may add blank lines to the beginning of your post to keep content out of sight, or you may Rotate it.
yourself from forgeries by using software which generates a
manipulation detection "fingerprint", such as PGP (in the US).
and disliked in others. Material which is inappropriate when
posted under one's own name is still inappropriate when posted
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moderated group. The moderator may change your subject
line to have your post conform to a particular thread.
to incendiary material.
3.2 Administrator Guidelines
3.2.1 General Issues
to NetNews groups and about subscribing to mailing lists.
groups or to mailing lists, including use of disclaimers in .sigs.
policy on logging.
3.2.2 Mailing Lists
a full feed, people may want to know why not.
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the News Server being blamed for problems in the clients.
of their own posts or invalid posts, such as chain letters.
reads the mail.
3.3 Moderator Guidelines
3.3.1 General Guidelines
regular intervals. Include your guidelines for articles/messages.
If you are not the FAQ maintainer, make sure they do so.
subscribe and unsubscribe information.
messages in a timely fashion. Designate a substitute
when you go on vacation or out of town.
4.0 Information Services (Gopher, Wais, WWW, ftp, telnet)
In recent Internet history, the 'Net has exploded with new and varied Information services. Gopher, Wais, World Wide Web (WWW), Multi-User Dimensions (MUDs) Multi-User Dimensions which are Object Oriented (MOOs) are a few of these new areas. Although the ability to find information is exploding, "Caveat Emptor" remains constant. For more information on these services, check references [14,28] in the Selected Bibliography.
4.1 User Guidelines
4.1.1. General guidelines
people who pay the bills get to make the rules governing usage.
Information may be free - or it may not be! Be sure you check.
problem solving by checking locally: Check file configurations,
software setup, network connections, etc. Do this before assuming
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the problem is at the provider's end and/or is the provider's fault.
depend on these file naming conventions to be enforced. For
example, a ".doc" file is not always a Word file.
While it is useful to know these conventions, again, don't
necessarily rely on them.
sessions. FTP sites usually have files named README in a top
level directory which have information about the files available. But, don't assume that these files are necessarily up-to-date and/or accurate.
accurate. Remember that new technologies allow just about anyone
to be a publisher, but not all people have discovered the responsibilities which accompany publishing.
technology is in use, that any information you submit to a system
is being transmitted over the Internet "in the clear", with no protection from "sniffers" or forgers.
Services might reflect culture and life-style markedly different
from your own community. Materials you find offensive may originate in a geography which finds them acceptable. Keep an open mind.
a mirror server that's close if a list is provided.
wish other people to pick up. This is called "dumping" and
is not generally acceptable behavior.
provide as much information as possible in order to help
debug the problem.
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be sure to check with your local system administrator to find what
the local guidelines are in affect.
avoiding "rush hour" and logging in during off-peak times.
4.1.2 Real Time Interactive Services Guidelines (MUDs MOOs IRC)
get to know the culture of the group.
personally. Usually one "Hello" or the equivalent is enough.
Using the automation features of your client to greet people is not acceptable behavior.
of information. If all consent to receiving it, you may send,
but sending unwanted information without a warning is considered bad form just as it is in mail.
you. If you feel compelled to send private messages to people you
don't know, then be willing to accept gracefully the fact that they might be busy or simply not want to chat with you.
materials for the group. These may be on a related ftp site.
or location. After you have built an acquaintance with another user,
these questions may be more appropriate, but many people hesitate to give this information to people with whom they are not familiar.
user's desire for anonymity. Even if you and that person are
close friends, it is more courteous to use his nickname. Do not use that person's real name online without permission.
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4.2 Administrator Guidelines
4.2.1 General Guidelines
Be sure any general policies are clear.
in plain ascii text.
sure you include a statement of copyright applicable to your
mirrors. List their update schedule if possible.
to support it.
or .htm for HTML; .ps for Postscript; .pdf for Portable Document
Format; .sgml or .sgm for SGML; .exe for non-Unix executables, etc.
first eight characters.
unique to offer. Avoid bringing up an information service which
simply points to other services on the Internet.
design and implementation. It's also maintenance.
works if you've tested with only one client. Also, assume the low
end of technology for clients and don't create applications which can only be used by Graphical User Interfaces.
and feel stays the same throughout your applications.
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date time-sensitive materials, and be vigilant about keeping
this information well maintained.
understand the implications of export restrictions when you post.
such as WWW feedback. You need to warn people if you plan to
publish any of their statements, even passively by just making it available to other users.
homepages, is well known.
5.0 Selected Bibliography
This bibliography was used to gather most of the information in the sections above as well as for general reference. Items not specifically found in these works were gathered from the IETF-RUN Working Group's experience.
 Angell, D., and B. Heslop, "The Elements of E-mail Style", New York: Addison-Wesley, 1994.
 "Answers to Frequently Asked Questions about Usenet" Original author: jerry@eagle.UUCP (Jerry Schwarz) Maintained by: firstname.lastname@example.org (Mark Moraes) Archive-name: usenet-faq/part1
 Cerf, V., "Guidelines for Conduct on and Use of Internet", at: <URL://http://www.isoc.org/proceedings/ conduct/cerf-Aug-draft.html>
 Dern, D., "The Internet Guide for New Users", New York: McGraw-Hill, 1994.
 "Emily Postnews Answers Your Questions on Netiquette" Original author: email@example.com (Brad Templeton) Maintained by: firstname.lastname@example.org (Mark Moraes) Archive-name: emily-postnews/part1
 Gaffin, A., "Everybody's Guide to the Internet", Cambridge, Mass., MIT Press, 1994.
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 "Guidelines for Responsible Use of the Internet" from the US house of Representatives gopher, at: <URL:gopher://gopher.house.gov:70/OF-1%3a208%3aInternet %20Etiquette>
 How to find the right place to post (FAQ) by email@example.com (Aliza R. Panitz) Archive-name: finding-groups/general
 Hambridge, S., and J. Sedayao, "Horses and Barn Doors: Evolution of Corporate Guidelines for Internet Usage", LISA VII, Usenix, November 1-5, 1993, pp. 9-16. <URL: ftp://ftp.intel.com/pub/papers/horses.ps or horses.ascii>
 Heslop, B., and D. Angell, "The Instant Internet guide : Hands-on Global Networking", Reading, Mass., Addison-Wesley, 1994.
 Horwitz, S., "Internet Etiquette Tips", <ftp://ftp.temple.edu/pub/info/help-net/netiquette.infohn>
 Internet Activities Board, "Ethics and the Internet", RFC 1087, IAB, January 1989. <URL: ftp://ds.internic.net/rfc/rfc1087.txt>
 Kehoe, B., "Zen and the Art of the Internet: A Beginner's Guide", Netiquette information is spread through the chapters of this work. 3rd ed. Englewood Cliffs, NJ., Prentice-Hall, 1994.
 Kochmer, J., "Internet Passport: NorthWestNet's Guide to our World Online", 4th ed. Bellevue, Wash., NorthWestNet, Northwest Academic Computing Consortium, 1993.
 Krol, Ed, "The Whole Internet: User's Guide and Catalog", Sebastopol, CA, O'Reilly & Associates, 1992.
 Lane, E. and C. Summerhill, "Internet Primer for Information Professionals: a basic guide to Internet networking technology", Westport, CT, Meckler, 1993.
 LaQuey, T., and J. Ryer, "The Internet Companion", Chapter 3 "Communicating with People", pp 41-74. Reading, MA, Addison-Wesley, 1993.
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 Mandel, T., "Surfing the Wild Internet", SRI International Business Intelligence Program, Scan No. 2109. March, 1993. <URL: gopher://gopher.well.sf.ca.us:70/00/Communications/ surf-wild>
 Martin, J., "There's Gold in them thar Networks! or Searching for Treasure in all the Wrong Places", FYI 10, RFC 1402, January 1993. <URL: ftp://ds.internic.net/rfc/rfc1402.txt>
 Pioch, N., "A Short IRC Primer", Text conversion by Owe Rasmussen. Edition 1.1b, February 28, 1993. <URL: http://www.kei.com/irc/IRCprimer1.1.txt>
 Polly, J., "Surfing the Internet: an Introduction", Version 2.0.3. Revised May 15, 1993. <URL: gopher://nysernet.org:70/00/ftp%20archives/ pub/resources/guides/surfing.2.0.3.txt> <URL: ftp://ftp.nysernet.org/pub/resources/guides/ surfing.2.0.3.txt>
 "A Primer on How to Work With the Usenet Community" Original author: firstname.lastname@example.org (Chuq Von Rospach) Maintained by: email@example.com (Mark Moraes) Archive-name: usenet-primer/part1
 Rinaldi, A., "The Net: User Guidelines and Netiquette", September 3, 1992. <URL: http://www.fau.edu/rinaldi/net/index.htm>
 "Rules for posting to Usenet" Original author: firstname.lastname@example.org (Gene Spafford) Maintained by: email@example.com (Mark Moraes) Archive-name: posting-rules/part1
 Shea, V., "Netiquette", San Francisco: Albion Books, 1994?.
 Strangelove, M., with A. Bosley, "How to Advertise on the Internet", ISSN 1201-0758.
 Tenant, R., "Internet Basics", ERIC Clearinghouse of Information Resources, EDO-IR-92-7. September, 1992. <URL: gopher://nic.merit.edu:7043/00/introducing. the.internet/internet.basics.eric-digest> <URL: gopher://vega.lib.ncsu.edu:70/00/library/ reference/guides/tennet>
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 Wiggins, R., "The Internet for everyone: a guide for users and providers", New York, McGraw-Hill, 1995.
6.0 Security Considerations
Security issues are not discussed in this memo.
7.0 Author's Address
Sally Hambridge Intel Corporation 2880 Northwestern Parkway SC3-15 Santa Clara, CA 95052
Phone: 408-765-2931 Fax: 408-765-3679 EMail: firstname.lastname@example.org
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