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Network Working Group S. Hardcastle-Kille Request for Comments: 1484 ISODE Consortium

                                                            July 1993
                 Using the OSI Directory to achieve
                        User Friendly Naming
                         (OSI-DS 24 (v1.2))

Status of this Memo

 This memo defines an Experimental Protocol for the Internet
 community.  It does not specify an Internet standard.  Discussion and
 suggestions for improvement are requested.  Please refer to the
 current edition of the "IAB Official Protocol Standards" for the
 standardization state and status of this protocol.  Distribution of
 this memo is unlimited.


 The OSI Directory has user friendly naming as a goal.  A simple
 minded usage of the directory does not achieve this.  Two aspects not
 achieved are:
    o A user oriented notation
    o Guessability
 This proposal sets out some conventions for representing names in a
 friendly manner, and shows how this can be used to achieve really
 friendly naming.  This then leads to a specification of a format for
 representing names, and to procedures to resolve them.  This leads to
 a specification which allows directory names to be communicated
 between humans.  The format in this specification is identical to
 that defined in [HK93], and it is intended that these specifications
 are compatible.  Please send comments to the author or to the
 discussion group: <osi-ds@CS.UCL.AC.UK>.

Hardcastle-Kille [Page 1] RFC 1484 User Friendly Naming July 1993

Table of Contents

 1.  Why a notation is needed......................................  2
 2.  The Notation..................................................  3
 3.  Communicating Directory Names.................................  8
 4.  Matching a purported name.....................................  9
 4.1 Environment................................................... 10
 4.2 Matching...................................................... 12
 4.3 Top Level..................................................... 13
 4.4 Intermediate Level............................................ 14
 4.5 Bottom Level.................................................. 15
 5.  Examples...................................................... 15
 6.  Support required from the standard............................ 16
 7.  Support of OSI Services....................................... 16
 8.  Experience.................................................... 17
 9.  Relationship to other work.................................... 18
 10. Issues........................................................ 19
 11. References.................................................... 20
 12. Security Considerations....................................... 21
 13. Author's Address.............................................. 21
 A.  Pseudo-code for the matching algorithm ....................... 21

List of Figures

 1. Example usage of User Friendly Naming.......................... 18
 2. Matching Algorithm............................................. 25

List of Tables

 1. Local environment for private DUA.............................. 11
 2. Local environment for US Public DUA............................ 11

1. Why a notation is needed

 Many OSI Applications make use of Distinguished Names (DN) as defined
 in the OSI Directory [CCI88].  The main reason for having a notation
 for name format is to interact with a user interface.  This
 specification is coming dangerously close to the sin of standardising
 interfaces.  However, there are aspects of presentation which it is
 desirable to standardise.
 It is important to have a common format to be able to conveniently
 refer to names.  This might be done to represent a directory name on
 a business card or in an email message.  There is a need for a format
 to support human to human communication, which must be string based
 (not ASN.1) and user oriented.

Hardcastle-Kille [Page 2] RFC 1484 User Friendly Naming July 1993

 In very many cases, a user will be required to input a name.  This
 notation is designed to allow this to happen in a uniform manner
 across many user interfaces.  The intention is that the name can just
 be typed in.  There should not be any need to engage in form filling
 or complex dialogue.
 It should be possible to take the "human" description given at the
 meeting, and use it directly.  The means in which this happens will
 become clear later.
 This approach uses the syntax defined in RFC1485 for representing
 distinguished names [HK93].  By relaxing some of the constraints on
 this specification, it is argued that a more user oriented
 specification is produced.  However, this syntax cannot be mapped
 algorithmically onto a distinguished name without the use of a
 This notation is targeted towards a general user oriented system, and
 in particular to represent the names of humans.  Other syntaxes may
 be more appropriate for other uses of the directory.  For example,
 the OSF Syntax may be more appropriate for some system oriented uses.
 (The OSF Syntax uses "/" as a separator, and forms names in a manner
 intended to resemble UNIX filenames).
 This notation is targeted towards names which follow a particular DIT
 structure: organisationally oriented.  This may make it inappropriate
 for some types of application.  There may be a requirement to extend
 this notation to deal more cleanly with fully geographical names.
 This approach effectively defines a definition of descriptive names
 on top of the primitive names defined by the OSI Directory.

2. The Notation

 The notation used in this specification is defined in [HK93].  This
 notation defines an unambiguous representation of distinguished name,
 and this specification is designed to be used in conjunction with
 this format.  Both specifications arise from the same piece of
 research work [Kil90].  Some examples of the specification are given
 The author's User Friendly Name (UFN) might be written:
    Steve Hardcastle-Kille, Computer Science, University College
    London, GB

Hardcastle-Kille [Page 3] RFC 1484 User Friendly Naming July 1993

    S. Hardcastle-Kille, Computer Science, University College London,
 This may be folded, perhaps to display in multi-column format. For
    Steve Hardcastle-Kille,
    Computer Science,
    University College London,
 Another UFN might be:
    Christian Huitema, INRIA, FR
    James Hacker,
    Widget Inc,
 The final example shows quoting of a comma in an Organisation name:
    L. Eagle, "Sue, Grabbit and Runn", GB
 A purported name is what a user supplies to an interface for
 resolution into one or more distinguished names.  A system should
 almost always store a name as a distinguished name.  This will be
 more efficient, and avoid problems with purported names which become
 ambiguous when a new name appears.  A user interface may display a
 distinguished name, using the distinguished name notation.  However,
 it may display a purported name in cases where this will be more
 pleasing to the user.  Examples of this might be:
   o  Omission of the higher components of the distinguished name are
      not displayed (abbreviation).
   o  Omission of attribute types, where the type is unlikely to be
      needed to resolve ambiguity.
 The ways in which a purported name may vary from a distinguished name
 are now described:

Hardcastle-Kille [Page 4] RFC 1484 User Friendly Naming July 1993

 Type Omission
 There are two cases of this.
   o  Schema defaulting.  In this case, although the type is not
      present, a schema defaulting is used to deduce the type.  The
      first two types of schema defaulting may be used to deduce a
      distinguished name without the use of the directory.  The use
      of schema defaulting may be useful to improve the performance
      of UFN resolution.  The types of schema defaulting are:
  1. - Default Schema
  1. - Context Dependent Default Schema
  1. - Data Dependent Default Schema
   o  Omission of the type to be resolved by searching.
 Default Schema
 The attribute type of an attribute may always be present.  This may
 be done to emphasise the type structure of a name.  In some cases,
 the typing may be omitted.  This is done in a way so that in many
 common cases, no attribute types are needed.  The following type
 hierarchy (schema) is assumed:
    Common Name, (((Organisational Unit)*,  Organisation,) Country)
 Explicitly typed RDNs may be inserted into this hierarchy at any
 point.  The least significant component is always of type Common
 Name.  Other types follow the defined organisational hierarchy.  The
 following are equivalent:
    Filestore Access, Bells, Computer Science,
    University College London, GB
    CN=Filestore Access, OU=Bells, OU=Computer Science,
    O=University College London, C=GB
 To interpet a distinguished name presented in this format, with some
 or all of the attributes with the type not specified, the types are
 derived according to the type hierarchy by the following algorithm:
    1.  If the first attribute type is not specified, it is

Hardcastle-Kille [Page 5] RFC 1484 User Friendly Naming July 1993

    2.  If the last attribute type is not specified, it is Country.
    3.  If there is no organisation explicitly specified, the last
        attribute with type not specified is of type Organisation.
    4.  Any remaining attribute with type unspecified must be before
        an Organisation or OrganisationalUnit attribute, and is of
        type OrganisationalUnit.
 To take a distinguished name, and generate a name of this format with
 attribute types omitted, the following steps are followed.
    1. If the first attribute is of type CommonName, the type may be
    2. If the last attribute is of type Country, the type may be
    3. If the last attribute is of type Country, the last Organisation
       attribute may have the type omitted.
    4. All attributes of type OrganisationalUnit may have the type
       omitted, unless they are after an Organisation attribute or
       the first attribute is of type OrganisationalUnit.
 Context Dependent Default Schema
 The distinguished name notation defines a fixed schema for type
 defaulting.  It may be useful to have different defaults in different
 contexts.  For example, the defaulting convention may be applied in a
 modified fashion to objects which are known not to be common name
 objects.  This will always be followed if the least significant
 component is explicitly typed.  In this case, the following hierarchy
 is followed:
           ((Organisational Unit)*,  Organisation,) Country
 Data Dependent Defaulting
 There are cases where it would be optimal to default according to the
 data.  For example, in:
    Einar Stefferud, Network Management Associates, CA, US
 It would be useful to default "CA" to type State.  This might be done
 by defaulting all two letter attributes under C=US to type State.

Hardcastle-Kille [Page 6] RFC 1484 User Friendly Naming July 1993

 General Defaulting
 A type may be omitted in cases where it does not follow a default
 schema hierarchy, and then type variants can be explored by
 searching.  Thus a distinguished name could be represented by a
 uniquely matching purported name.  For example,
    James Hacker,
    Widget Inc,
 Would match the distinguished name:
    CN=James Hacker,
    O=Widget Inc,
 Some of the more significant components of the DN will be omitted,
 and then defaulted in some way (e.g., relative to a local context).
 For example:
    Steve Hardcastle-Kille
 Could be interpreted in the context of an organisational default.
 Local Type Keywords
 Local values can be used to identify types, in addition to the
 keywords defined in [HK93].  For example, "Organisation" may be
 recognised as an alternative to "O".
 Component Omission
 An intermediate component of the name may be omitted.  Typically this
 will be an organisational unit.  For example:
    Steve Hardcastle-Kille, University College London, GB
 In some cases, this can be combined with abbreviation.  For example:
    Steve Hardcastle-Kille, University College London

Hardcastle-Kille [Page 7] RFC 1484 User Friendly Naming July 1993

 Approximate renditions or alternate values of one or more of the
 components will be supplied.  For example:
    Stephen Hardcastle-Kille, CS, UCL, GB
    Steve Keill, Comp Sci, Univarstiy College London, GB
 Friendly Country
 A "friendly country name" can be used instead of the ISO 3166 two
 letter code.  For example:
    UK; USA; France; Deutchland.

3. Communicating Directory Names

 A goal of this standard is to provide a means of communicating
 directory names.  Two approaches are given, one defined in [HK93],
 and the other here.  A future version of these specifications may
 contain only one of these approaches, or recommend use of one
 approach.  The approach can usually be distinguished implicitly, as
 types are normally omitted in the UFN approach, and are always
 present in the Distinguished Name approach.  No recommendation is
 made here, but the merits of each approach is given.
    1. Distinguished Name or DN. A representation of the distinguished
       name, according to the specification of [HK93].
    2. User Friendly Name or UFN. A purported name, which is expected
       to unambiguously resolve onto the distinguished name.
 When a UFN is communicated, a form which should efficiently and
 unambiguously resolve onto a distinguished name should be chosen.
 Thus it is reasonable to omit types, or to use alternate values which
 will unambiguously identify the entry in question (e.g., by use of an
 alternate value of the RDN attribute type).  It is not reasonable to
 use keys which are (or are likely to become) ambiguous.
 The approach used should be implicit from the context, rather than
 wired into the syntax.  The terms "Directory Name" and "X.500 Name"
 should be used to refer to a name which might be either a DN or UFN.
 An example of appropriate usage of both forms is given in the Section
 which defines the Author's location in section 12.

Hardcastle-Kille [Page 8] RFC 1484 User Friendly Naming July 1993

 Advantages of communicating the DN are:
    o The Distinguished Name is an unambiguous and stable reference to
      the user.
    o The DN will be used efficiently by the directory to obtain
 Advantages of communicating the UFN are:
    o Redundant type information can be omitted (e.g., "California",
      rather than "State=California", where there is known to be no
    o Alternate values can be used to identify a component.  This might
      be used to select a value which is meaningful to the recipient, or
      to use a shorter form of the name.  Often the uniqueness
      requirements of registration will lead to long names, which users
      will wish to avoid.
    o Levels of the hierarchy may be omitted.  For example in a very
      small organisation, where a level of hierarchy has been used to
      represent company structure, and the person has a unique name
      within the organisation.
 Where UFN form is used, it is important to specify an unambiguous
 form.  In some ways, this is analogous to writing a postal address.
 There are many legal ways to write it.  Care needs to be taken to
 make the address unambiguous.

4. Matching a purported name

 The following approach specifies a default algorithm to be used with
 the User Friendly Naming approach.  It is appropriate to modify this
 algorithm, and future specifications may propose alternative
 algorithms.  Two simple algorithms are noted in passing, which may be
 useful in some contexts:
    1. Use type omission only, but otherwise require the value of the
       RDN attribute to be present.
    2. Require each RDN to be identified as in 1), or by an exact
       match on an alternate value of the RDN attribute.
 These algorithms do not offer the flexibility of the default
 algorithm proposed, but give many of the benefits of the approach in
 a very simple manner.

Hardcastle-Kille [Page 9] RFC 1484 User Friendly Naming July 1993

 The major utility of the purported name is to provide the important
 "user friendly" characteristic of guessability.  A user will supply a
 purported name to a user interface, and this will be resolved onto a
 distinguished name.  When a user supplies a purported name there is a
 need to derive the DN. In most cases, it should be possible to derive
 a single name from the purported name.  In some cases, ambiguities
 will arise and the user will be prompted to select from a multiple
 matches.  This should also be the case where a component of the name
 did not "match very well".
 There is an assumption that the user will simply enter the name
 correctly.  The purported name variants are designed to make this
 happen!  There is no need for fancy window based interfaces or form
 filling for many applications of the directory.  Note that the fancy
 interfaces still have a role for browsing, and for more complex
 matching.  This type of naming is to deal with cases where
 information on a known user is desired and keyed on the user's name.

4.1 Environment

 All matches occur in the context of a local environment.  The local
 environment defines a sequence of name of a non-leaf objects in the
 DIT. This environment effectively defines a list of acceptable name
 abbreviations where the DUA is employed.  The environment should be
 controllable by the individual user.  It also defines an order in
 which to operate.
 This list is defined in the context of the number of name components
 supplied.  This allows varying heuristics, depending on the
 environment, to make the approach have the "right" behaviour.
 In most cases, the environment will start at a local point in the
 DIT, and move upwards.  Examples are given in Tables 1 and 2.  Table
 1 shows an example for a typical local DUA, which has the following
 One component
 Assumed first to be a user in the department, then a user or
 department within the university, the a national organisation, and
 finally a country.
 Two components
 Most significant component is first assumed to be a national
 organisation, then a department (this might be reversed in some
 organisations), and finally a country.

Hardcastle-Kille [Page 10] RFC 1484 User Friendly Naming July 1993

 Three or more components
 The most significant component is first assumed to be a country, then
 a national organisation, and finally a department.
         | Number of  |  Environment                          |
         | Components |                                       |
         | 1          | Physics, University College London, GB|
         |            | University College London, GB         |
         |            | GB                                    |
         |            | __                                    |
         | 2          | GB                                    |
         |            | University College London, GB         |
         |            | __                                    |
         | 3+         | __                                    |
         |            | GB                                    |
         |            | University College London, GB         |
              Table 1:  Local environment for private DUA
               | Number of  | Environment             |
               | Components |                         |
               | 1,2        | US                      |
               |            | CA                      |
               |            | __                      |
               | 3+         | __                      |
               |            | US                      |
               |            | CA                      |
             Table 2:  Local environment for US Public DUA

Hardcastle-Kille [Page 11] RFC 1484 User Friendly Naming July 1993

4.2 Matching

 A purported name will be supplied, usually with a small number of
 components.  This will be matched in the context of an environment.
 Where there are multiple components to be matched, these should be
 matched sequentially.  If an unambiguous DN is determined, the match
 continues as if the full DN had been supplied.  For example if
    Stephen Hardcastle-Kille, UCL
 is being matched in the context of environment GB, first UCL is
 resolved to the distinguished name:
    University College London, GB
 Then the next component of the purported name is taken to determine
 the final name.  If there is an ambiguity (e.g., if UCL had made two
 matches, both paths are explored to see if the ambiguity can be
 resolved.  Eventually a set of names will be passed back to the user.
 Each component of the environment is taken in turn.  If the purported
 name has more components than the maximum depth, the environment
 element is skipped.  The advantage of this will be seen in the
 example given later.
 A match of a name is considered to have three levels:
 A DN is specified exactly
 Initially, a match should be considered good if it is unambiguous,
 and exactly matches an attribute value in the entry.  For human
 names, a looser metric is probably desirable (e.g., S Hardcastle-
 Kille should be a good match of S. Hardcastle-Kille, S.E.
 Hardcastle-Kille or Steve Hardcastle-Kille even if these are not
 explicit alternate values).
 Any other substring or approximate match
 Following a match, the reference can be followed, or the user
 prompted.  If there are multiple matches, more than one path may be
 followed.  There is also a shift/reduce type of choice:  should any
 partial matches be followed or should the next element of the

Hardcastle-Kille [Page 12] RFC 1484 User Friendly Naming July 1993

 environment be tried.  The following heuristics are suggested, which
 may be modified in the light of experience.  The overall aim is to
 resolve cleanly specified names with a minimum of fuss, but give
 sufficient user control to prevent undue searching and delay.
    1. Always follow an exact match.
    2. Follow all good matches if there are no exact matches.
    3. If there are only poor matches, prompt the user.  If the user
       accepts one or more match, they can be considered as good.
       If all are rejected, this can be treated as no matches.
    4. Automatically move to the next element of the environment if no
       matches are found.
 When the final component is matched, a set of names will be
 identified.  If none are identified, proceed to the next environment
 element.  If the user rejects all of the names, processing of the
 next environment element should be confirmed.
 The exact approach to matching will depend on the level of the tree
 at which matching is being done.  We can now consider how attributes
 are matched at various levels of the DIT.
 There is an issue of approximate matching.  Sometimes it helps, and
 sometimes just returns many spurious matches.  When a search is
 requested, all relevant attributes should be returned, so that
 distinguished and non-distinguished values can be looked at.  This
 will allow a distinction to be made between good and poor matches.
 It is important that where, for example, an acronym exactly matches
 an organisation, that the user is not prompted about other
 organisations where it matches as a substring.

4.3 Top Level

 In this case, a match is being done at the root of the DIT. Three
 approaches are suggested, dependent on the length of supplied name.
 All lead to a single level search of the top level of the DIT.
 Exactly 2
 This is assumed to be a 3166 two letter country code, or an exact
 match on a friendly country or organisation (e.g., UK or UN). Do
 exact match on country and friendly country.

Hardcastle-Kille [Page 13] RFC 1484 User Friendly Naming July 1993

 Greater than 2
 Make an approximate and substring match on friendly country and

4.4 Intermediate Level

 Once the root level has been dealt with, intermediate levels will be
 looking for organisational components (Organisation, Locality, Org
 Unit).  In some cases, private schema control will allow the system
 to determine which is at the next level.  In general this will not be
 possible.  In each case, make a substring and approximate match
 search of one level.  The choice depends on the base object used in
 the search.
    1. If DN has no Organisation or Locality, filter on Organisation
       and Locality.
    2. If DN has Org Unit, filter on Org Unit.
    3. If DN has Organisation, filter on Locality and Org Unit.
    4. If DN has Locality, filter on Organisation.
 These allow some optimisation, based on legal choices of schema.
 Keeping filters short is usually desirable to improve performance.
 A few examples of this, where a base object has been determined
 (either by being the environment or by partial resolution of a
 purported name), and the next element of a purported name is being
 considered.  This will generate a single level search.  What varies
 is the types being filtered against.  If the DN is:
    University College London, GB
 The search should be for Org Unit or Locality.  If the DN is:
 the search should be for Org Unit or Locality.
 There may be some improvements with respect to very short keys.  Not
 making approximate or substring matches in these cases seems
 sensible. (It might be desirable to allow "*" as a part of the
 purported name notation).

Hardcastle-Kille [Page 14] RFC 1484 User Friendly Naming July 1993

4.5 Bottom Level

 The "Bottom Level" is to deal with leaf entries in the DIT. This will
 often be a person, but may also be a role, an application entity or
 something else.
 The last component of a purported name may either reference a leaf or
 non-leaf.  For this reason, both should be tested for.  As a
 heuristic, if the base object for the search has two or more
 components it should be tested first as a bottom level name and then
 intermediate.  Reverse this for shorter names.  This optimises for
 the (normal) case of non-leaves high up the tree and leaves low down
 the tree.
 For bottom level names, make an approximate and substring match
 against Common Name, Surname, and User ID. Where common name is
 looked for, a full subtree search will be used when at the second
 level of the DIT or lower, otherwise a single level search.
 For example, if I have resolved a purported name to the distinguished
    University College London, GB
 and have a single component Bloggs, this will generate a subtree

5. Examples

 This is all somewhat confusing, and a few examples are given.  These
 are all in the context of the environment shown in Table 1 in section
 If "Joe Bloggs" is supplied, a subtree search of
    Physics, University College London, GB
 will be made, and the user prompted for "Joseph Z. Bloggs" as the
 only possible match.
 If "Computer Science" is supplied, first
    Physics, University College London, GB
 will be searched, and the user will reject the approximate match of
 "Colin Skin".  Then a subtree search of
    University College London, GB

Hardcastle-Kille [Page 15] RFC 1484 User Friendly Naming July 1993

 will be made, looking for a person.  Then a single level search will
 be made looking for Org Unit, and
    Computer Science, University College London, GB
 will be returned without prompting (exact match).  Supplying "Steve
 Hardcastle-Kille" will lead to a failed subtree search of
    Physics, University College London, GB
 and lead straight to a subtree search of
    University College London, GB
 This will lead to an exact value match, and so a single entry
 returned without prompting.
 If "Andrew Findlay, Brunel" is supplied, the first element of the
 environment will be skipped, single level search of "Brunel" under
 "GB" will find:
    Brunel University, GB
 and a subtree search for "Andrew Findlay" initiated.  This will yield
    Andrew Findlay, Computing and Media Services, Brunel University,
    Dr A J Findlay, Manufacturing and Engineering Systems, Brunel
    University, GB
 and the user will be prompted with a choice.
 This approach shows how a simple format of this nature will "do the
 right thing" in many cases.

6. Support required from the standard

 Fortunately, all that is needed is there!  It would be useful to have
 "friendly country name" as a standard attribute.

7. Support of OSI Services

 The major focus of this work has been to provide a mechanism for
 identifying Organisations and Users.  A related function is to
 identify applications.  Where the Application is identified by an AET
 (Application Entity Title) with an RDN of Common Name, this
 specification leads to a natural usage.  For example, if a filestore

Hardcastle-Kille [Page 16] RFC 1484 User Friendly Naming July 1993

 in named "gannet", then this could easily be identified by the name:
    Gannet, Computer Laboratory, Cambridge University, GB
 In normal usage, this might lead to access (using a purported name)
    FTAM gannet,cambridge
 A second type of access is where the user identifies an Organisation
 (Organisational Unit), and expects to obtain a default service.  The
 service is implied by the application, and should not require any
 additional naming as far as the user is concerned.  It is proposed
 that this is supported by User Friendly Naming in the following way.
    1. Determine that the purported name identifies a non-leaf
       object, which is of object class Organisation or Organisational
       Unit or Locality.
    2. Perform a single level search for Application Entities which
       support the required application contexts.  This assumes that
       all services which are supporting default access for the
       organisation are registered at one level below (possibly by the
       use of aliases), and that other services (specific machines or
       parts of the organisation) are represented further down the
       tree. This seems to be a reasonable layout, and its utility can
       be evaluated by experiment.

8. Experience

 An experimental implementation of this has been written by Colin
 Robbins.  The example in Figure 1 shows that it can be very effective
 at locating known individuals with a minimum of effort.  This code
 has been deployed within the "FRED" interface of the PSI Pilot
 [Ros90], and within an prototype interface for managing distribution
 lists.  The user reaction has been favourable.
 Some issues have arisen from this experience:
   o Where there is more than one level of Organisational Unit, and
     the user guesses one which is not immediately below the
     organisation, the algorithm works badly.  There does not appear
     to be an easy fix for this.  It is not clear if this is a serious
   o Substring searching is currently done with leading and trailing
     wildcards.  As many implementations will not implement leading

Hardcastle-Kille [Page 17] RFC 1484 User Friendly Naming July 1993

     wildcards efficiently, it may be preferable to only use trailing
     wildcards.  The effect of this on the algorithm needs to be
 Implementors of this specification are encouraged to investigate
 variants of the basic algorithm.  A final specification should depend
 on experience with such variants.
  1. > t hales, csiro, australia

Found good match(es) for 'australia'

    Found exact match(es) for 'csiro'
    Please select from the following:
       Trevor Hales, OC, HPCC, DIT, IICT, CSIRO, AU [y/n] ? y
    The following were matched...
       Trevor Hales, OC, HPCC, DIT, IICT, CSIRO, AU
  1. > g michaelson, queensland, au

Found exact match(es) for 'au'

    Please select from the following:
       University of Queensland, AU [y/n] ? y
       Axolotl, AU [y/n] ? n
    Please select from the following:
       George Michaelson, Prentice Computer Centre, University of
    Queensland, AU [y/n] ? y
       Manager, University of Queensland, AU [y/n] ? n
    The following were matched...
       George Michaelson, Prentice Computer Centre, University of
     Queensland, AU
  1. > r needham, cambridge

Found good match(es) for 'cambridge'

    Please select from the following:
       Roger Needham, Computer Lab, Cambridge University [y/n] ? y
    The following were matched...
       Roger Needham, Computer Lab, Cambridge University
  1. > kirstein

Found good match(es) for 'kirstein'

    The following were matched...
       Peter Kirstein
             Figure 1:  Example usage of User Friendly Naming

9. Relationship to other work

 Colin Robbin's work on the interface "Tom" and implementation of a
 distribution list interface strongly influenced this specification

Hardcastle-Kille [Page 18] RFC 1484 User Friendly Naming July 1993

 Some of the ideas used here originally came from a UK Proposal to the
 ISO/CCITT Directory Group on "New Name Forms" [Kil89a].  This
 defined, and showed how to implement, four different types of names:
 Typed and Ordered
 The current Distinguished Name is a restricted example of this type
 of name.
 Untyped and Ordered
 This is the type of name proposed here (with some extensions to allow
 optional typing).  It is seen as meeting the key user requirement of
 disliking typed names, and is efficient to implement.
 Typed and Unordered
 This sort of name is proposed by others as the key basis for user
 friendly naming.  Neufeld shows how X.500 can be used to provide this
 [Neu89], and Peterson proposes the Profile system to provide this
 [Pet88].  The author contends that whilst typed naming is interesting
 for some types of searching (e.g., yellow page searching), it is less
 desirable for naming objects.  This is born out by operational
 experience with OSI Directories [Kil89b].
 Untyped and Unordered
 Surprisingly this form of name can be supported quite easily.
 However, a considerable gain in efficiency can be achieved by
 requiring ordering.  In practice, users can supply this easily.
 Therefore, this type of name is not proposed.

10. Issues

 The following issues are noted, which would need to be resolved
 before this document is progressed as an Internet Standard.
 Potential Ambiguity
 Whilst the intention of the notation is to allow for specification of
 alternate values, it inherently allows for ambiguous names to be
 specified.  It needs to be demonstrated that problems of this
 characteristic are outweighed by other benefits of the notation.
 Determine that the specification is being implemented and used.

Hardcastle-Kille [Page 19] RFC 1484 User Friendly Naming July 1993

 Measurements on the performance implications of using this approach
 should be made.
 The utility of the algorithm, and possible variants, should be
 This format, and the procedures for resolving purported names, should
 be evolved.  The syntax can be expected to be stable.  In light of
 experience, the algorithm for resolving purported names may be

11. References

 [CCI88]  The Directory --- overview of concepts, models and services,
          December 1988. CCITT X.500 Series Recommendations.
 [HK93]   S.E. Hardcastle-Kille. A string representation of
          distinguished names.  RFC 1485, Department of Computer
          Science, University College London, July 1993.
 [Kil89a] S.E. Kille. New name forms, May 1989.  ISO/IEC/JTC 21/
          WG4/N797 UK National Body Contribution to the Oslo Directory
 [Kil89b] S.E. Kille. The THORN large scale pilot exercise.  Computer
          Networks and ISDN Systems, 16(1):143--145, January 1989.
 [Kil90]  S.E. Kille. Using the OSI directory to achieve user friendly
          naming. Research Note RN/20/29, Department of Computer
          Science, University College London, February 1990.
 [KRRT90] S.E. Kille, C.J. Robbins, M. Roe, and A. Turland. The ISO
          development environment:  User's manual (version 6.0),
          January 1990. Volume 5:  QUIPU.
 [Neu89]  G.W. Neufeld. Descriptive names in X.500.  In SIGCOMM 89
          Symposiun Communications Architectures and Protocols, pages
          64--71, September 1989.
 [Pet88]  L.L. Petersen. The profile naming service.  ACM Transactions
          on Computing Systems, 6(4):341--364, November 1988.

Hardcastle-Kille [Page 20] RFC 1484 User Friendly Naming July 1993

 [Ros90]  M.T. Rose. Realizing the White Pages using the OSI Directory
          Service. Technical Report 90--05--10--1, Performance Systems
          International, Inc., May 1990.

12. Security Considerations

    Security issues are not discussed in this memo.

13. Author's Address

 Steve Hardcastle-Kille
 ISODE Consortium
 P.O. Box 505
 SW11 1DX
 EMail:  S.Kille@ISODE.COM
 DN: CN=Steve Hardcastle-Kille,
 O=ISODE Consortium, C=GB
 UFN: S. Hardcastle-Kille,
 ISODE Consortium, GB

A. Pseudo-code for the matching algorithm

 The following pseudo-code is intended to clarify the matching
 algorithm.  The language uses ASN.1 data types, with flow control
 "C"-like,but with keywords upper--cased.

PurportedName ::= SEQUENCE OF String

  1. - simplication, as attribute types can optionally be
  2. - specified
  1. - Each element of the Purported Name is a string
  2. - which has been parsed from the BNF

Attribute ::= SEQUENCE { 10

      value ANY }

RDN ::= Attribute – simplification, as can be multi-value


Hardcastle-Kille [Page 21] RFC 1484 User Friendly Naming July 1993

Environment ::= SEQUENCE OF DN


EnvironmentList ::= SEQUENCE OF SEQUENCE {

                      lower-bound INTEGER,
                      upper-bound INTEGER,
                      environment Environment }

friendlyMatch(p: PurportedName; el: EnvironmentList): SET OF DN {

  1. - Find correct environment


      IF length(el) == 0 THEN return(NULL);
      IF length(p) <= head(el).upper-bound
                      && length(p) >= head(el).lower-bound THEN
              return envMatch (p, head(el).environment);
              return(friendlyMatch(p, tail(el));



envMatch(p: PurportedName; e: Environment): SET OF DN {

  1. - Check elements of environment
  2. - in the defined order
      matches:  SET OF DN;
      IF length(e) == 0 THEN return(NULL);
      matches = purportedMatch(head(e).DN, p)                     50
      IF matches != NULL THEN
              return(envMatch(p, tail(e));

} purportedMatch(base: DN; p: PurportedName): SET OF DN {

      s:  String = head(p);                                       60
      matches:  SET OF DN = NULL;
      IF length(p) == 1 THEN
              IF length(base) == 0 THEN
                      IF (matches = rootSearch(s)) != NULL THEN
                      ELSE return(leafSearch(base, s, one-level);
              ELSE IF length(base) == 1 THEN

Hardcastle-Kille [Page 22] RFC 1484 User Friendly Naming July 1993

                      IF (matches = intSearch(base, s)) != NULL THEN
                              return(matches);                    70
                      ELSE return(leafSearch(base, s, one-level);
                      IF (matches = leafSearch(base, s, subtree)) !=
              NULL THEN
                      ELSE return(intsearch(base, s);
      IF length(base) == 0 THEN
              FOR x IN rootSearch(s) DO
                      matches += (purportedMatch(x, tail(p));     80
              FOR x IN intSearch(base, s) DO
                      matches += (purportedMatch(x, tail(p));

} – General. Might need to tighten the filter for short strings, – in order to stop being flooded. Alternatively, this could be – done if the loose search hists a size limit 90

rootSearch(s: String): SET OF DN {

      IF length(s) == 2 THEN
              return(search(NULL, one-level, s, {CountryName,
                      FriendlyCountryName, OrganizationName},
                      {exact}, {Country, Organisation}));
                      -- test exact match only
                      -- probably a country code
      ELSE                                                       100
              return(search(NULL, one-level, s, {OrganizationName,
                      FriendlyCountryName}, {substring, approx},
                      {Country, Organisation}));


intSearch( base: DN; s: String) {

      IF present(base, OrgUnitName) THEN
              return(search(base, one-level, s, {OrgUnitName},   110
                      {substring, approx}, {OrgUnit}));
      ELSE IF present(base, OrganisationName) THEN
              return(search(base, one-level, s, {OrgUnitName,
                      LocalityName}, {substring, approx},
                      {Organization, OrgUnit, Locality}));
      ELSE IF present(base, LocalityName) THEN
              return(search(base, one-level, s, {OrganisationName},
                      {substring, approx}, {Locality});

Hardcastle-Kille [Page 23] RFC 1484 User Friendly Naming July 1993

              return(search(base, one-level, s, {OrganisationName,120
                      LocalityName}, {substring, approx},
                      {Organisation, Locality}));

} present(d: DN; t: AttributeType): BOOLEAN {

      FOR x IN d DO
              IF x.type == t THEN return(TRUE);
      return(FALSE);                                             130


SearchScope := ENUMERATED (base-object, one-level, subtree)

leafSearch(base: DN; s: String; search-scope: SearchScope) {

      return(search(base, search-scope, s, {CommonName, Surname,
              UserId}, {substring, approx}));



search(base: DN; search-scope: SearchScope; s: string;

      alist SET OF AttributeType; matchtypes SET OF MatchType
      objectClasses SET OF ObjectClass OPTIONAL): SET OF DN


  1. - mapped onto Directory Search, with OR conjunction
  2. - of filter items
      return dNSelect (s, search-results, alist);

} 150 read(base: DN; alist SET OF AttributeType): SET OF Attribute; {

  1. - mapped onto Directory Read
  2. - Types repeated to deal with multiple values
  3. - This would be implemented by returning selected info
  4. - with the search operation

} dNSelect(s: String; dlist SET OF DN; alist: SET OF AttributeType): 16SET0OF DN {

      exact, good:  SET OF DN;
      FOR x IN dlist DO
              IF last(DN).Value == s THEN
                      exact += x;
              ELSE IF FOR y IN read(x, alist) DO
                      IF y.value == s THEN
                              good += x;

Hardcastle-Kille [Page 24] RFC 1484 User Friendly Naming July 1993

      IF exact != NULL THEN return(exact);
      IF good != NULL THEN return(good);

} userQuery(dlist SET OF DN): SET OF DN {

  1. - pass back up for manual checking 180
  2. - user can strip all matches to force progres….

} head() – return first element of list tail() – return list with first element removed length() – return size of list last() – return last element of list

                    Figure 2: Matching Algorithm


Hardcastle-Kille [Page 25]

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