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man:malloc

MALLOC(3) Linux Programmer's Manual MALLOC(3)

NAME

     malloc, free, calloc, realloc - allocate and free dynamic memory

SYNOPSIS

     #include <stdlib.h>
     void *malloc(size_t size);
     void free(void *ptr);
     void *calloc(size_t nmemb, size_t size);
     void *realloc(void *ptr, size_t size);
     void *reallocarray(void *ptr, size_t nmemb, size_t size);
 Feature Test Macro Requirements for glibc (see feature_test_macros(7)):
     reallocarray():
         _GNU_SOURCE

DESCRIPTION

     The malloc() function allocates size bytes and returns a pointer to the
     allocated memory.  The memory is not initialized.  If size is  0,  then
     malloc()  returns either NULL, or a unique pointer value that can later
     be successfully passed to free().
     The free() function frees the memory space pointed  to  by  ptr,  which
     must  have  been  returned by a previous call to malloc(), calloc(), or
     realloc().  Otherwise, or if free(ptr) has already been called  before,
     undefined  behavior occurs.  If ptr is NULL, no operation is performed.
     The calloc() function allocates memory for an array of  nmemb  elements
     of  size bytes each and returns a pointer to the allocated memory.  The
     memory is set to zero.  If nmemb or size is 0,  then  calloc()  returns
     either  NULL,  or a unique pointer value that can later be successfully
     passed to free().
     The realloc() function changes the size of the memory block pointed  to
     by ptr to size bytes.  The contents will be unchanged in the range from
     the start of the region up to the minimum of the old and new sizes.  If
     the  new size is larger than the old size, the added memory will not be
     initialized.  If ptr is NULL, then  the  call  is  equivalent  to  mal-
     loc(size), for all values of size; if size is equal to zero, and ptr is
     not NULL, then the call is equivalent  to  free(ptr).   Unless  ptr  is
     NULL,  it  must have been returned by an earlier call to malloc(), cal-
     loc(), or realloc().  If the area pointed to was moved, a free(ptr)  is
     done.
     The  reallocarray()  function  changes  the  size  of  the memory block
     pointed to by ptr to be large enough for an array  of  nmemb  elements,
     each of which is size bytes.  It is equivalent to the call
             realloc(ptr, nmemb * size);
     However, unlike that realloc() call, reallocarray() fails safely in the
     case where the multiplication would  overflow.   If  such  an  overflow
     occurs,  reallocarray()  returns NULL, sets errno to ENOMEM, and leaves
     the original block of memory unchanged.

RETURN VALUE

     The malloc() and calloc() functions return a pointer to  the  allocated
     memory,  which  is  suitably  aligned for any built-in type.  On error,
     these functions return NULL.  NULL may also be returned by a successful
     call  to  malloc() with a size of zero, or by a successful call to cal-
     loc() with nmemb or size equal to zero.
     The free() function returns no value.
     The realloc() function returns a pointer to the newly allocated memory,
     which  is  suitably  aligned for any built-in type and may be different
     from ptr, or NULL if the request fails.  If size was equal to 0, either
     NULL  or  a  pointer  suitable  to be passed to free() is returned.  If
     realloc() fails, the original block is left untouched; it is not  freed
     or moved.
     On  success, the reallocarray() function returns a pointer to the newly
     allocated memory.  On failure, it returns NULL and the  original  block
     of memory is left untouched.

ERRORS

     calloc(),  malloc(),  realloc(),  and  reallocarray() can fail with the
     following error:
     ENOMEM Out of memory.  Possibly, the application hit the  RLIMIT_AS  or
            RLIMIT_DATA limit described in getrlimit(2).

ATTRIBUTES

     For   an   explanation   of   the  terms  used  in  this  section,  see
     attributes(7).
     +--------------------+---------------+---------+
     |Interface           | Attribute     | Value   |
     +--------------------+---------------+---------+
     |malloc(), free(),   | Thread safety | MT-Safe |
     |calloc(), realloc() |               |         |
     +--------------------+---------------+---------+

CONFORMING TO

     malloc(), free(), calloc(), realloc(): POSIX.1-2001, POSIX.1-2008, C89,
     C99.
     reallocarray()  is  a  nonstandard  extension  that  first  appeared in
     OpenBSD 5.6 and FreeBSD 11.0.

NOTES

     By default, Linux follows an  optimistic  memory  allocation  strategy.
     This  means  that  when malloc() returns non-NULL there is no guarantee
     that the memory really is available.  In case it  turns  out  that  the
     system  is  out  of memory, one or more processes will be killed by the
     OOM  killer.   For   more   information,   see   the   description   of
     /proc/sys/vm/overcommit_memory and /proc/sys/vm/oom_adj in proc(5), and
     the Linux kernel source file Documentation/vm/overcommit-accounting.
     Normally, malloc() allocates memory from the heap, and adjusts the size
     of the heap as required, using sbrk(2).  When allocating blocks of mem-
     ory larger than MMAP_THRESHOLD bytes, the glibc malloc() implementation
     allocates  the  memory  as  a  private anonymous mapping using mmap(2).
     MMAP_THRESHOLD is 128 kB by  default,  but  is  adjustable  using  mal-
     lopt(3).   Prior  to Linux 4.7 allocations performed using mmap(2) were
     unaffected by the RLIMIT_DATA resource limit;  since  Linux  4.7,  this
     limit is also enforced for allocations performed using mmap(2).
     To  avoid  corruption  in  multithreaded applications, mutexes are used
     internally to protect the memory-management data structures employed by
     these  functions.   In  a  multithreaded  application  in which threads
     simultaneously allocate and free memory, there could be contention  for
     these  mutexes.   To scalably handle memory allocation in multithreaded
     applications, glibc creates  additional  memory  allocation  arenas  if
     mutex  contention  is detected.  Each arena is a large region of memory
     that is internally allocated by the system (using brk(2)  or  mmap(2)),
     and managed with its own mutexes.
     SUSv2 requires malloc(), calloc(), and realloc() to set errno to ENOMEM
     upon failure.  Glibc assumes that this is done (and the glibc  versions
     of  these routines do this); if you use a private malloc implementation
     that does not set errno, then certain library routines may fail without
     having a reason in errno.
     Crashes  in  malloc(), calloc(), realloc(), or free() are almost always
     related to heap corruption, such as overflowing an allocated  chunk  or
     freeing the same pointer twice.
     The  malloc()  implementation is tunable via environment variables; see
     mallopt(3) for details.

SEE ALSO

     valgrind(1), brk(2), mmap(2), alloca(3), malloc_get_state(3),
     malloc_info(3), malloc_trim(3), malloc_usable_size(3), mallopt(3),
     mcheck(3), mtrace(3), posix_memalign(3)

COLOPHON

     This page is part of release 4.16 of the Linux man-pages project.  A
     description of the project, information about reporting bugs, and the
     latest version of this page, can be found at
     https://www.kernel.org/doc/man-pages/.

GNU 2017-09-15 MALLOC(3)

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