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archive:fun:coldfuse.pat

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                 COLD NUCLEAR FUSION BIBLIOGRAPHY
                 ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
               Dieter Britz alias britz@kemi.aau.dk
        Kemisk Institut, Aarhus Universitet, DK-8000 Aarhus C

Section 3 (Patents); 85 entries; latest update: 26-Feb-92


This bibliography is in five parts: 1. Books. 2. Articles published in journals; no patents, preprints or

      conferences.

3. Patents 4. News, reports, comments in scientific magazine/journals (like

      Science)

5. Published articles peripheral to cold fusion (background facts

      etc)

6. Unpublished writings, preprints, supplied by Vincent Cate, and

 available from him and (18-Jul-91) a collection of palladium
 hydride references plus abstracts and annotations supplied by
 Terry Bollinger, and copyrighted by him.

In most cases, the customary publication citation system is followed, i.e. author(s), journal name, volume, year, page number and title, if any. Unless otherwise stated, the papers are in English. Some comments are appended to each citation; these are the compiler's and may reflect a given personal interest. Where the compiler has not actually seen the article the citation source is stated (mostly Chemical Abstracts), and the comments taken from it. Many of the items are marked with <submission date>/<publication date>.

Section 3: Patents

—————————————————————- Assmann H, Hofer G, Hoffmann R, Martin J; Ger. Offenl. DE 39163397 A1, 19-May-89. "Verfahren und Einrichtung zur Fusion von leichten Atomkernen" (Method and apparatus for the fusion of light nuclei) .. especially of deuterium nuclei, from an electrolyte containing these, or tritium, or lithium ions, in heavy water or superheavy water, etc. The special feature here is that the anode is made out of a material, such as Au, Pt or Pd, and is heated to over 100 degC, preferably to 1000 degC, in order to partly dissolve and deposit on the Pd cathode, so as to activate it. —————————————————————- Bagnulo L; Eur. Pat. Appl. EP 402,988 19-Dec-90. Cited in Chem. Abstr. 114:216542 (1991). "A process, with relevant plants and devices, for the production of energy through the industrial application of plausible dynamics concerning controlled cold nuclear fusion". "…nuclear fusion in metals, esp. Pd and Ti, which readily absorb H and its isotopes. The process is based on the absorption by these metals, through electrolysis of [sic; 'or' meant?] gas-pressurising, of D or its mixts. with T or He, followed by their consequent liberation within cracks, created in the metal mass either by mech. or metallurgical means."


Belton GR; PCT Int. Appl. WO 90 13,124, 21. April 1989. Cited in Chem. Abstr. 115:17343 (1991). "Cold nuclear fusion method and apparatus". "A method and app. are described for generating thermal energy by cold fusion by increasing the activity of a monoat. D species to a level at which there is significant cold fusion. The method and the app. comprise contacting Pd or any other material capable of taking up D with a gaseous atm. comprising D and subjecting the gaseous atm. to an elec. field to generate a sufficiently high activity of the monoat. D species to achieve nuclear fusion reactions in the Pd". (Quoted from Chem. Abstr.) —————————————————————- Brumlik, GC, Cvijanovich GC, Johnson K; PCT Int. Appl. WO 90 16,070, 27-Dec-90. Cited in Chem. Abstr. 114:216545 (1991). "Catalyzed nuclear fusion of heavy isotopes of hydrogen". A nuclear fusion device and method for D or T are described having a solid/ liq. phase of noble metals in contact with another phase contg. D or T where the nuclei of D or T are moved into the lattice of the liq. or solid noble metal by means of diffusion, mech. forces, or by elec. or magnetic means to undergo temp.- and lattice-assisted nuclear fusion".?/Nov-90


Coupland DR, Doyle ML, Potter RJ, McGill Ir; PCT Int. Appl. WO 90 15,415, 13-Dec-90. Cited in Chem. Abstr. 114:216546 (1991). "Cold-fusion support". "Materials are described which are effective to support cold fusion when loaded with D, e.g. Pd modified to change the local environment for D under cold fusion conditions. Particular modifications are alloys or dispersions of Pd with Ce, Ag, LaNi5, and Ti. Other modifications concern the grain size. Excess heat and T and n have been detected".?/Dec-90 —————————————————————– Dies KF; Ger. Offenl. DE 3913002 A1, 25.10.1990 (in German). "Process for the generation of fusion energy by the use of Fe-(2)M alloys, which are produced by electrolysis as well as by lysis (etching)". The title has "Fe-(2)M" but the abstract has the more probable "(2)H-Fe", i.e. Fe-D compounds ("alloys"). There may be additions of such iron-group metals as Cr, Ti, Zr, Mn etc, to enhance deuteride stability. Pt or Pd can also be used. Both with electrolysis and etching in deuterated acids such as DCl, DF, DBr, D2SO4 and HNO3, the metal is infused with deuterium, and we have "etch fusion", a new word. Fe, Ni or Co rods can be used either normal or in the austenitic form.


Drexler J; PCT Int. Appl. WO 91 02,359, 21-Feb-91. Cited in Chem. Abstr. 114:2554494 (1991). "Distributed accumulator for energy conversion". "A cell is described for producing thermal energy by absorption or adsorption of D and lithon into D ion-permeable and li-ion-permeable particulates supported on a surface of an accumulator in the form of a mesh, rods, sheets, or membranes, or within a gelatin-like matrix. Deuterons and lithons are produced by electrolyte ionization in a liq. contg. high purity D2O, and net elec. charge on a D-permeable and lithon-permeable particulate is controlled by allowing neg. charged OD- radicals to accumulate on the surface of the particulates that balance out the pos. charged deuterons and lithons". (Quoted from CA). —————————————————————– Dufour J; S. African ZA 90 05,389, 11-Jul-89. Cited in Chem. Abstr. 115(22):242246 (1991). "Energy source system". "Energy is produced by: loading a body with >=1 H isotope where at least a part of the body comprises >=1 metal capable of forming a metal hydride-type lattice system; arranging the body as an electrode of a capacitor means in an elec. circuit along with another electrode connected with an externally controllable voltage supply means; operating the voltage supply means; and recovering energy produced in the body by operating the voltage supply means. The system produces energy by a process commonly known as cold fusion". (Direct quote from CA).


Forrat F; Fr. Demande FR 2,647,943 06-Jun-89. Cited in Chem. Abstr. 115(10):101349 (1991). "Reactor for electrolytic nuclear fusion in solid electrolyte". "The title reactor comprises a solid electrolyte, e.g. glass, crystal, ceramics, electrolytically or chem.-vapor deposited film. An a.c. current is applied to generate fusion and heat energy is recovered by a fluid. The reactor can be used for isotope prodn." (Quoted direct from CA). —————————————————————– Fujishima A, Ito K; Jpn. Kokai Tokkyo Koho JP 03 06,490, 5-Jun-89. Cited in Chem. Abstr. 115:59226 (1991). "Controlling cold nuclear fusion based on electrochemistry". "In controlling cold nuclear fusion based on electrochem., a cathode contg. a temp.-controlling device is used to adjust the temp. of the anode". (Quoted from CA).


Fukami A, Kumafuji H;

                   Jpn. Kokai Tokkyo Koho JP 03,35,193 3-Jul-89.

Cited in Chem. Abstr. 115:80705 (1991). "Lanthanum nickel cathode for electrolytic exothermic tritium formation". "The cathode consists of Pd-coated LaNi5 alloy used in (3)H-formation by electrolyzing an electrolytic soln. contg. D2O and small amt. base with a Pt anode and a cathode to produce larger energy than required for the electrolysis. The cathode may be built in a porous Al2O3 container instead of Pd-coating. The cathode had high H absorption". (Direct quote from CA) —————————————————————– Gamo T, Niikura J, Taniguchi N, Hatoh K, Adachi K (Matsushita Electric Industrial Co. Ltd.); European Pat. Appl. EP 0 395 066 A2, 26.04.1990. "Apparatus for cold nuclear fusion". Prepared by a German representative (patent lawyer?), this incredibly badly written patent application claims a number of "preferred embodiments" for cold fusion. One is electrolysis at a cathode of an alloy capable of occluding hydrogen isotopes, such as Ti, Zr, and the like, in an electrolyte containing a compound of hydrogen isotope and oxygen such as heavy water including alkali metal ions such as Li+, K+ and the like. "Tritiums", "noutrons" may be produced by making use of "lithiums" and by the "tonnel" effect. There is a list of example alloys for use as cathode, all having larger hydrogen occlusion ability than "Pb" and the like. An example shows that at the end of an electrolysis, 5 times the starting concentration of T is found, proving that cold fusion had taken place. Also, 500 neutrons of 2.45 MeV were detected or 10 times the background. In the second preferred embodiment, some amorphous alloys are used, not having "a crystal lattice rule of a long period", meaning (presumably) no long-range order. Some of these appear to have a rather high hydrogen uptake. Crumbling was never observed and again, excess tritiums are seen. The third embodiment uses a large (7 mm diameter) spherical cathode. In this way, the collision probability for deuterons is enhanced in the centre of the electrode and in this way, the nuclear fusion reaction was caused easily and an enormous energy was obtained (I am quoting). Two to ten times the background neutron count was detected in an example. In another example, two spherical alloy samples were charged with D2 gas, and then a high-frequency discharge passed between them. Neutrons at 1000 times the background was observed; using pure H2, the neutron flux was the same as the background. Temperature cycling was also tried, and neutrons detected.


Hagelstein PL; Int. Pat. Appl. WO 90/13129, 1-Nov-90. "Fusion apparatus". "Fusion apparatuses for coupling fusible material to a quantized mode in coherent fusion are provided. Method for optimization of reactor operation, control of the coherent fusion reaction and extraction of usable energy generated are provided". Some of the means of doing this are: containing the fusible material (deuterium) in an electrically conductive radially symmetric vessel and initiating fusion through coupling to plasmon modes or by radially polarizing insulating crystals, or by lining the vessel with radially disposed rod-like projections electrically connected in series with an oscillator and in series with a computer controlled variable load for extracting the energy; acoustic excitation or excitement by alpha particles or cosmic rays. The inventor's theory is given (twice), p.48 shows a letter to Florence and Sam and there are 138 claims. —————————————————————– Hasegawa M, Hosono N; Eur. Pat. Appl. EP 414,399, 27-Feb-91. Cited in Chem. Abstr. 114:255493 (1991). "Process for storing hydrogen, and apparatus for cold nuclear fusion and method for generating heat energy, using the process". "A process for storing H comprises placing a H storing member in a H gas atm. and generating a discharge in the H gas atm., thereby occluding the H in the H storing member. An app. for cold fusion by using the above process is also claimed". (Quoted from CA).


Hora H, Miley GH; Ger. Offenl. DE 3810806 A1, 11.10.1990 (in German). "Verfahren und Anordnung zu Kernverschmelzungsreaktionen bei tiefen Temperaturen" (Method and apparatus for nuclear fusion reactions at low temperatures). Professors Hora and Miley (editor of Fusion Technology) write that the electrolytic charging of Pd or Ti with deuterium leads to surface contamination. This is avoided by charging with deuterium gas under pressure, which is one of their inventions here laid bare. The 9 claims widen this concept to include any metallic element in "the eighth group of the periodic table" being exposed to H2, D2 or T2 gas, temperature control during such a process, absorption of neutrons, alpha or beta emission, the admixture of such isotopes as (11)B, (6)Li and (7)Li to the metals, attainment of high hydrogen isotope concentration in the metal, the use of electric discharge towards this end, the use of high-surface forms of the metals or mixtures thereof, control of the metal hydrides' compressibility and finally, the use of these processes for initiating an explosive nuclear fission [sic] reaction. Since this is an Offenlegungsschrift and not (yet) a full patent, no details are given of how all this is implemented. —————————————————————– Hosono N; Jpn. Kokai Tokkyo Koho JP 03,215,785, 19-Jan-90. Cited in Chem. Abstr. 116:12355 (1992). "Thermal-energy generators based on cold nuclear fusion". "A thermal-energy generator based on cold nuclear fusion, contains: (1) a container of D gas; (2) a pair of electrodes, at least 1 of which is formed of a H-storing metal; (3) a means to apply voltage on the electrodes to cause elec. discharge in the presence of D gas between them; (4) a thermal conductor to transfer heat generated at the electrodes to a coolant; and (5) a converter, to heat, of the kinetic energy of n generated by cold nuclear fusion on the H-storing metal". (Direct quote from CA).


Hosono N; Jpn. Kokai Tokkyo Koho JP 03,215,786, 19-Jan-90. Cited in Chem. Abstr. 116:12356 (1992). "Apparatus for on cold nuclear fusion using solar energy". "The app. contains: (1) a solar-energy-based elec. generator; (2) a means to generate D by electrolysis of heavy H2O using electricity from the generator; (3) a means to adsorb D using a metal; (4) a means to contain D generated by (2); (5) a cold-nuclear-fusion device in (4), which comprises a pair of discharge electrodes, at least 1 of which is made of the H-adsorbing metal; and (b) [sic] a device to apply voltage to the electrodes to cause elec. discharge". (Direct quote from CA). —————————————————————– Igarashi M; Jpn. Kokai Tokkyo Koho JP 02,280,086, appl. 21-Apr-89. Cited in Chem. Abstracts 115:37282 (1991). "Cold nuclear fusion and apparatus". "In cold nuclear fusion based on the electrolysis of heavy H2O, an ionic conductor placed between anode and cathode contains D+, and the cathode is formed of a material (e.g. Li) which can store H. The ionic conductor may also contain T+". (Quoted from Chem. Abstr.).


Ishikawa A, Katsumi M;

                 Jpn. Kokai Tokkyo Koho JP 03 78,691, 23-Aug-89.

Cited in Chem. Abstr. 116(6):47853 (1992). "Power generation by cold nuclear fusion". "Thermal energy is generated by implanting D in a substance (e.g. Pd) to cause cold nuclear fusion, and the thermal energy is converted into elec. power by thermoelec. means". (Direct quote from CA). —————————————————————— Ishikawa Y, Ogata H, Saho N, Mihara Y; Jpn. Kokai Tokkyo Koho JP 02,276,990, 13-Nov-90. Cited in Chem. Abstr. 114:255488 (1991). "Nuclear fusion at room temperature". "In the nuclear fusion based on the electrolysis of heavy H2O, a D-absorbing cathode has a porous structure. To increase the absorption rate of O [sic], small amt. of As, CN-, S2- and/or Cl- is added to the heavy H2O". (Quoted from CA).


Ishikawa Y, Ogata H, Saho N, Mihara Y; Jpn. Kokai Tokkyo Koho JP 02,276,992, 13-Nov-90. Cited in Chem. Abstr. 114:255487 (1991). "Deuterium absorption in nuclear fusion". "In nuclear fusion, D is absorbed, in vapor phase, by a neg.-biased material (e.g. Pd). The material may be a film formed by chem.-vapor or sputter deposition in a D atm." (Quoted from CA). —————————————————————– Iwamatsu S; Jpn. Kokai Tokkyo Koho JP 02,298,891, 15-May-89. Cited in Chem. Abstr. 115:80698 (1991). "Nuclear fusion reactor". "A nuclear fusion reactor includes (1) a compartment for forming a plasma >From O2O [sic] or D, (2) a compartment for accelerating D ions in the plasma, (3) a compartment for projecting this D ion beam toward a metal target (e.g. Pd), and (4) a target support as well as a heat exchanger." (Direct quote from CA)


Iwamatsu S; Jpn. Kokai Tokkyo Koho JP 02,304,393, 18-May-89. Cited in Chem. Abstr. 115:59228 (1991). "Cold nuclear fusion based on heavy-water electrolysis". "Cold nuclear fusion is based on the electrolysis of D2O and uses cathodes >From Ni or a Ni-Pd alloy". (Quoted from CA). —————————————————————– Iwamatsu S; Jpn. Kokai Tokkyo Koho JP 02,306,193, 19-May-89. Cited in Chem. Abstr. 115(12): 122213 (1991). "Cold nuclear fusion based on heavy-water electrolysis". "In cold nuclear fusion based on D2O electrolysis, a cathode bar from a H absorbing metal (and Pd) is used, and a Pt coated Ti anode plate is placed around the cathode bar". (Direct quote from CA).


Iwamatsu S; Jpn. Kokai Tokkyo Koho JP 02,307,093, 22-May-89. Cited in Chem. Abstr. 115:59227 (1991). "Cold nuclear fusion based on heavy-water electrolysis". "In cold nuclear fusion, pressured O or its plasma is introduced into a container made of Pt, Ti or a Pd-Ti alloy. Nuclear fusion is caused on the inner wall of the container. Alternatively, the container is filled with a powder of Pt, Ti, or the Pd-Ti alloy before the introduction of D or its D plasma. Voltage may be applied to the D plasma, forming D ions". (Quoted from CA). —————————————————————– Iwamatsu S; Jpn. Kokai Tokkyo Koho JP 02,311,792, 27-Dec-90. Cited in Chem. Abstr. 114:255498 (1991). "Method of cold fusion". D2 gas or plasma state D or ionized D gas is absorbed into a H2-absorbing alloy. Pd may be loaded inside and/or on the surface of the alloy. The method does not necessarily require electrolysis. Thus, a H2-absorbing alloy is exposed to D2 gas to absorb as much as 1000 times the vol. of the alloy, to cause cold nuclear fusion The heat evolved by the cold fusion can be extd. via heat exchangers". (Quoted from CA).


Iwamatsu S; Jpn. Kokai Tokkyo Koho JP 02,297,093, appl. 11-May-89. Cited in Chem. Abstracts 115:37284 (1991). "Method of cold fusion". "A cathode consisting of a Pd container or Pd tube contg. pressurized D2 is exposed to D+ ions or D plasma atm. or subjected to accelerated driving of D. Thus, an elec. current is applied to a Pt anode and a Pd pipe cathode contg. pressurized D gas, then cold fusion occurs at a high probability at the surface or inside of the Pd pipe cathode. The same effect can be achieved by exposing the Pd cathode to D2O or D plasma gas and accelerated driving of D ions." (Quoted from Chem. Abstr.) —————————————————————— Iwamatsu S; Jpn. Kokai Tokkyo Koho JP 02,306,192, appl. 19-May-89. Cited in Chem. Abstracts 115:37287 (1991). "Method of cold fusion". "At least the cathode plate to be immersed in heavy water is of Ti material. The electrodes can be an alternative to precious metal electrodes. Thus, a Ti plate, preferably porous Ti cathode and a Ti plate of Pt-plated Ti plate anode are immersed in heavy water, and elec. current is applied to the electrodes to cause cold fusion at the cathode. The cathode can be a Pd-plated Ti plate". (Quoted from CA)


Jones SE, Palmer EP, Czirr JB, Rafelski J, Price R; PCT Int. Appl. WO 90 13,125, 26. April 1989. Cited in Chem. Abstr. 115:17342 (1991). "Piezonuclear fusion" "Several methods of loading a host material with D and promoting nuclear cold fusion either by elec. current or heating and cooling are claimed. The loading methods include electrolysis of D2O, exposure to D, thermal cycling of host material under D, catalytic infusion etc". (Quoted from CA). —————————————————————— Joshi AV; PCT Int. Appl. WO 90 13,127 18-Apr-89. Cited in Chem. Abstr. 115:80697 (1991). "Electrolytic apparatus for dissociation of compounds containing hydrogen isotopes". "An improved app. is described for high temp. electrolytic decompn. of compds. contg. H isotopes, e.g. D. The app. includes a solid state electrolyte capable of conducting O, H+, Li or Na ions, an anode porous to O adherent to one surface of the solid state electrolyte, and a H-absorbing cathode such as Fe, Ti, Mg, Ni, Pd or their alloy, adherent to another surface of the solid state electrolyte. The app. is placed in a H isotope medium and 1-2 V of d.c. passed through the electrodes. Upon application of this voltage D2 is absorbed in the cathode. Once the satn. of D2 in cathode occurs fusion begins to take place, thus releasing heat energy. A cold fusion process using a molten electrolyte is also claimed". (Direct quote from CA).


Kanno Y; Jpn. Kokai Tokkyo Koho JP 02,281,185, appl. 21-Apr-89. Cited in Chem. Abstracts 115:37283 (1991). "Acceleration of cold nuclear fusion by ultrasound". "Cold nuclear fusion based on electrolysis of D2O is accelerated by applying ultrasound to D2O" (quoted from CA). —————————————————————– Kasahara M, Negishi H; Jpn. Kokai Tokkyo Koho JP 03 53,194, 21-Jul-89. Cited in Chem. Abstr. 115(18):192159 (1991). "Power generators based on cold nuclear fusion". "A power generator based on cold nuclear fusion utilizes heavy H2O, a Pt anode, a Pd cathode, and an elec. power source, is characterized in that the Pd cathode is porous". (Direct quote from CA).


Kasahara M, Negishi H;

                 Jpn. Kokai Tokkyo Koho JP 03 53,195, 21-Jul-89.

Cited in Chem. Abstr. 115(18):192158 (1991). "Power generators based on cold nuclear fusion". "A power generator based on cold nuclear fusion, which utilizes heavy H2O, a Pt anode, a Pd cathode, and an elec. power source, is characterized in that the Pd cathode is porous, and it is under vibration". (Direct quote from CA). —————————————————————– Kumafuji H, Fukami A; Jpn. Kokai Tokkyo Koho JP 03,35,192 3-Jul-89. Cited in Chem. Abstr. 115:80704 (1991). "Uranium cathode for electrolytic exothermic tritium formation". "The cathode consists of Pd-coated U used in (3)H-formation by electrolyzing an electrolytic soln. contg. D2O and small amt. base with a Pt anode and a cathode to produce larger energy than required for the electrolysis. The cathode may be built in a porous Al2O3 container instead of Pd-coating. The cathode had high H absorption". (Direct quote from CA)


Kuwano Y, Nasako K, Fujitani S, Yonezaki T, Furukawa A, Yonezu I, Moriwaki K, Kameoka S, Saito T, Furukawa S; Jpn. Kokai Tokkyo Koho JP 02,280,088, 20-Apr-89. Cited in Chem. Abstr. 115:59220 (1991). "Systems for cold nuclear fusion, heat transport, and thermoelectric cells". "In a cold-nuclear-fusion-system, in which an anode from an O-generating metal (e.g. LaNi5), and a H-absorbing cathode are placed in electrolyte-contg. D2O: (1) the cathode is formed of a H-occluded alloy; and (2) an elec. field is applied between the electrodes. A D-compd. (e.g. D2S) may be added to the electrolyte. A heat-transport system uses heat generated by the cold-fusion system, and the H gas adsorbed [sic] and released by the H-occluded alloy is employed as a heat-transfering [sic] medium. A thermoelec.-cell system comprises the cold fusion system and a thermoelec. cell". (Quoted from CA) —————————————————————– Martin J; Ger. Offenl. DE 3915153 A1, 15.11.1990 (in German). "Process and apparatus for the uptake of hydrogen in a solid". Expressed very generally, this invention is about the uptake of hydrogen isotopes in a solid that is capable of taking it up. This could be, for example, a palladium cathode in a cold fusion arrangement, or a hydrogen storage material in a vehicle. The essence of the invention is to solve the problem of an active layer, that enables hydrogen uptake; such a layer is here generated continuously by means of, e.g., a dilute palladium salt in the electrolyte (causing Pd deposition in a spongy, active form), or by means of surface radiation treatment of the material. Various other means are covered.


Mikami A, Kuroki K, Furukawa S, Nasako K, Yonezu I, Moriwaki K; Jpn. Kokai Tokkyo Koho JP 02,306,194, 19-May-89. Cited in Chem. Abstr. 115:59223 (1991). "Apparatus for cold nuclear fusion and heat-transport system". "The app. consists of a cathode-comprising tank from a H-absorbing metal, D2O contg. an electrolyte, and a cathode immersed in the D2O, while elec. insulated from the tank. Nuclear fusion of D is conducted in the cathode with the application of an elec. field between the electrodes. A heat-transport system is based on the absorption and releasing of H (heat-transfering medium) by the H-absorbing metal". (Quoted from CA). —————————————————————————— Mills RL; PCT Int. Appl. WO 90 13,126 Nov. 1990; US Appl. 341,733, 21-Apr-89. Cited in: Chem. Abstr. 114:173685 (1991). "Energy/matter conversion methods and structures". "A method and app. for releasing energy comprise: selecting a 1st and a 2nd atom; detg. the resonance orbital shrinkage nergy levels of the e orbitals of the 2 atoms; providing 2 energy holes substantially equal to each of the shrinkage energy levels of the atoms; and juxtaposing the atoms and energy holes to produce nuclear fusion of the atoms. The cold fusion takes place when the energy is removed from the electron orbitals of atoms by the energy holes permitting redn. of the at. orbitals and attractive nuclear forces to act. The energy holes can be provided by using a catalytic ion-pair, each ion having ionization energy close to the resonance orbital shrinkage energy of one of the ions. A table of numerous such ion-pairs is also presented."


Mizugai T; Jpn. Kokai Tokkyo Koho JP 02,271,288, 6-Nov-90. Cited in Chem. Abstr. 114:216547 (1991). "Nuclear fusion employing heavy fermion effect within a solid material". "Deuterium ((2)D, or (2)D and (3)T) is made to be absorbed by a heavy fermion compd. or a composite of the heavy fermion compd. and a H-storing material, to cause nuclear fusion. The method uses electrons with extraordinary heavy mass due to the heavy fermion effect in solid state to shield elec. charge of the deuteron to cause nuclear fusion with a small unit". ?/Nov-90 —————————————————————————— Motomiya T; Jpn. Kokai Tokkyo Koho JP 02,293,692, 04-Dec-90. Cited in Chem. Abstr. 114:255491 (1991). "Cold nuclear fusion" "Cold nuclear fusion includes: (a) introducing a D gas (ca. 1E-03 Torr) into a vacuum chamber contg. a planar or curved cathode plate from an elec. conductor (e.g., P2) which is likely to form a hydride, and a needlelike anode

From a refractory elec. conductor; (b) applying d.c. to form an elec. field of

ca. 30 V/Angstrom between the electrode tips for the ionisation of D; and © accelerating D ions toward the cathode plate; so that the plate absorbs and enriches D ions". (Quoted from CA)


Nakanishi F, Tatsumi M, Tada K; Jpn. Kokai Tokkyo Koho JP 02,287,289, 27-Nov-90. Cited in Chem. Abstr. 114:255490 (1991). "Power generator based on cold nuclear fusion" "A power generator based on cold nuclear fusion which involves electrolysis of D2O is characterized in that D and O generated by the electrolysis are burned back to D2O, which is returned to the electrolysis tank". (Quoted from CA) —————————————————————————— Nakano H; Jpn. Kokai Tokkyo Koho JP 03 02,690, 31-May-89. Cited in Chem. Abstr. 115:59224 (1991). "Deuterium-absorbing materials in cold nuclear fusion". "A D-absorbing material (e.g. Pd) used in cold nuclear fusion has an amorphous structure. Nuclear fusion of D atoms has increased efficiency". (Quoted from CA).


Neeb KH, Hoffmann R, Martin J; Ger. Offen. DE 3,920,312, 3-Jan-91. Cited in Chem. Abstr. 114:216543 (1991). "Method and apparatus for fusion of light particles in solid getter". "The title method of fusion of H and/or its isotopes in a solid getter comprises an electrode, e.g. Pd, a center electrode, and an electrolyte where the getter and the light particles are irradiated and/or bombarded with radiation and/or particles, e.g., n, alpha-particles, or (3)He ions. One of the ways to implement the above process is incorporating an alpha-emitting nuclei [sic] in the cathode material. The above process increases cold fusion probability. ?/Jan-91 —————————————————————————— Nishiyama I, Nanbu Y; Jpn. Kokai Tokkyo Koho JP 03 51,794, 19-Jul-89 Cited in Chem. Abstr. 115(20):217010 (1991). "Cold nuclear fusion apparatus". "The app., equipped with a device for heavy-H2O electrolysis, is characterized in that the cathode of the device is formed at a graphite-alkali-metal interlayer compd. (e.g. C8K)" (Direct quote from CA).


Nobunaga H; Jpn. Kokai Tokkyo Koho JP 02,297,094, appl. 11-May-89. Cited in Chem. Abstracts 115:37285 (1991). "Method for hydrogen nuclear fusion". "In cold fusion by applying elec. voltage between a pair of electrodes immersed in heavy water, an elemental metal selected from alkali metal, alk. earth metal, rare earth elements, Sc, V, Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Nb, Hf and Ta is used as the cathode material. Thus, a Au anode and a La cathode are set in a container holding heavy water contg. a metal salt. When 20 V const. potential was applied between the electrodes, H2 (sic) bubble appeared on the cathode surface in several minits [sic] suggesting initial sorption of D+ ions within the cathode, and emission was obsd. of n, gamma-rays and heat. When Mn was used as the cathode, bubbles appeared immediately, but no n and gamma-emission were obsd. Metals capable of forming hydrides seemed to be able to cause cold fusion". (Quoted from Chem. Abstr., including "(sic)" but not "[sic]"). —————————————————————————— Nobunaga H; Jpn. Kokai Tokkyo Koho JP 02,297,095, appl. 11-May-89. Cited in Chem. Abstracts 115:37286 (1991). "Method for hydrogen nuclear fusion". "In nuclear fusion by applying elec. voltage between a pair of electrodes immersed in heavy water to cause cold fusion at the cathode, an alloy contg.

=1 of rare earth elements, Mg, Ni, Co, Fe and Ti is used as the cathode

material. Thus, a Au anode and a LaNi5 cathode are set in a container holding heavy water contg. a metal salt. When 20 V const. potential was applied, H bubbles appeared on the LaNi5 cathode surface suggesting initial sorption of D+ ions in the cathode, and emission was obsd. of n, gamma-rays and heat. No n and gamma-rays were obsd. with a stainless steel (SUS 304) cathode. Metal capable of forming hydrides seemed to be able to cause cold fusion". (Quoted

From Chem. Abstr., including "(sic)" but not "[sic]").

—————————————————————————— Noninski V, Noninski Kh; PCT Int. Appl. WO 91 01,493, 20-Jul-89. Cited in Chem. Abstr. 114:2554496 (1991). "Method and device for the determination of the obtained energy during electrolytic processes". "A method and app. for use in detg. the quantity of energy obtained during electrolytic processes is disclosed. The app. includes a Dewar vessel contg. a measured quantity of H2O. An electrolyte cell is hermetically sealed in the vessel. A plurality of thermocouples is positioned within the vessel for purposes of measuring temps. within the vessel. A magnetic stirrer is mounted in the bottom of the vessel. The app. can be used in cold fusion exts.". (Quoted from CA). —————————————————————————— Ogata H, Saho N, Ishikawa Y, Mihara Y; Jpn. Kokai Tokkyo Koho JP 02,276,989, 5-Apr-89. Cited in Chem. Abstr. 115:59218 (1991). "Apparatus for nuclear fusion at room temperature". "The app. comprises a container for heavy H2O, electrodes placed in the heavy H2O, an elec. power source, a means to circulate the heavy H2O between the container and a heat exchanger, and a system of a heating medium, which comments [sic] the heat exchanger and a power-extn. compartment". (Quoted from CA).


Ogino S; Jpn. Kokai Tokkyo Koho JP 03,194,493, 22-Dec-89. Cited in Chem. Abstr. 115:289488 (1991). "Cold nuclear fusion apparatus". "The app. comprises an anode, a cathode, and an electrolyte bath contg. heavy H2O, where the cathode is formed of V, Sr, Y, Nb, Hf or Ta, and adsorbs D produced by the electrolysis of heavy H2O". (Direct quote from CA). —————————————————————————— Ogino S; Jpn. Kokai Tokkyo Koho JP 03,194,494, 22-Dec-89. Cited in Chem. Abstr. 115:289489 (1991). "Cold nuclear fusion apparatus". "The app. comprises an anode, a cathode, an electrolyte bath, and a means to expose cathode metal, where the electrolytic bath contains heavy H2O, the cathode is formed of a D-adsorbing metal, and the means keeps active the surface of the cathode metal". (Direct quote from CA).


Ojiri H, Nakamura M; Jpn. Kokai Tokkyo Koho JP 03,150,284, 20-Sep-89. Cited in Chem. Abstr. 115(22): 242242 (1991). "Apparatus for cold nuclear fusion". "An app. for cold nuclear fusion includes: (a) a chamber with a means to guide a D-contg. gas into it, and a exhaust means; (b) a plasma-generating means; and © a reactive substrate on which is a H-absorbing metal (e.g., Pd). Nuclear fusion is caused by contacting a plane of the gas with the reactive substance". (Direct quote from CA). —————————————————————————— Omori, T; Jpn. Kokai Tokkyo Koho JP 03,105,494, 07-Nov-89. Cited in Chem. Abstr. 115(22): 242243 (1991). "Apparatus for cold nuclear fusion". "The app., which includes a reaction tank contg. D2O, a pair of discharge electrodes in the tank, and a power source to apply pulsed voltage on the electrodes, and which causes nuclear fusion based on D ion generation by pulsed voltage, and a pressure wave produced by underwater plasma discharge, is equipped with a partition structure around the plasma-discharge area, which controls the pressure of the wave". (Direct quote from CA).


Onchi M, Tarui H, Kuroki K; Jpn. Kokai Tokkyo Koho JP 03 07,113, 5-Jun-89. Cited in Chem. Abstr. 115:59225 (1991). "Cooker based on cold nuclear fusion". "The title cooker comprises an outer container and an inner container for cooking materials, where the space between the 2 containers is filled with D2O. An anode (e.g. Pt) to generate O and a cathode from a H-absorbing material (e.g. Pd) are placed in the D2O, close to the inner container, and an elec. field is applied between the 2 electrodes to cause the electrolysis of D2O". (Quoted from CA). —————————————————————————— Pons S, Fleischmann M, Walling CT, Simons JP; World Pat. Appl. WO 90/10935. 12 March 1990. "Method and apparatus for power generation". about 100 pp.; it starts off by naming 7 earlier US pat. applications, going back to March 13, 1989, of specific claims such as heat generation, neutron beam method, power generation. This one combines all of these, and "relates to methods and apparatuses for generating heat, neutrons, tritium or electrical power, and in one illustration, to an apparatus which utilises heat produced by compressing low atomic weight nuclei in a metal lattice under conditions which produce excess heat, possibly involving nuclear fusion". A number of materials, preferably palladium or other metals, are suggested, as well as deuterium, to produce heat, tritium and "neutron beams" by collimation; these can then be used for neutron radiography, - diffraction, - activation, etc. In all, 50 claims are made. New ideas, not previously exposed in the authors' publications, are the formation of the isotopic hydride by transfer from another hydride (LiD etc) to the metal; and the use of radioactive dopants in order to knock the PdD lattice with neutrons, alpha or beta particles.


Rabinowitz M, Worledge DH; Int. Pat. Appl. WO 90/13128, 1-Nov-90. "Enhancing nuclear fusion rate in a solid". Methods for increasing the collision rate of light isotopes in a carrier (i.e. deuterium in Pd, Ti etc). One way is to constrain the isotope to one- dimensional motion by making the carrier in the form of thin filaments, or by providing thin channels, or thin layers, within it. This is done by a number of techniques such as vapour deposition, sputtering and ion bombardment or by using material that has such channels or layers naturally. The use of heavy fermion material will yield electrons with large effective mass, which will aid in overcoming the Coulomb barrier between deuterons and the like. Other suggestions are made. 21 claims are made. —————————————————————————— Rabinowitz M, Santucci J, Worledge DH; Int. Pat. Appl. WO 90/14670, 29-Nov-90. "Isotope deposition, stimulation, and direct energy conversion for nuclear fusion in a solid". The invention provides techniques for deposition of light isotopes in a hydrogen absorbing solid and their stimulation to accelerate their fusion, in various embodiments such as a metal with planar, channel construction, thermal (laser) stimulation to produce high hydrogen isotope concentration, laser ablation to produce a shock wave, and the use of ultrasonics for aiding with the loading and stimulation. Techniques for the conversion of the energy to electricity are included. The metal is loaded by alternate vapour deposition of metal, deuterium, metal, etc, in thin layers. 16 claims.


Sadoway DR; PCT Int. Appl. WO 91 06,959, 16-May-91. Cited in Chem. Abstr. 115(18):192160 (1991). "Media for solid state fusion". "Apps. for electrochem. as well as thermochem. fusion are provided. Material systems consisting of D storage intermetallic compd., transition metal/rare earth metal intermetallic compd. and elemental material cathodes are combined with compatible electrolytes including solid deuteride electrolytes, cryogenic electrolytes, and supercrit. D in electrochem. fusion app. wherein a magnetic field may be provided to enhance fusion initiation in the cathodes. The invention enables the operation of these electrochem. and thermochem. fusion apps. over a wide range of temps. and pressures which may be adjusted to optimise the efficiency of the solid state fusion reaction". (Direct quote from CA). —————————————————————————— Saho N, Ogata H, Ishikawa Y, Mihara Y; Jpn. Kokai Tokkyo Koho JP 02,276,991, 5-Apr-89. Cited in Chem. Abstr. 115:59219 (1991). "Apparatus for nuclear fusion at room temperature". "The app. which comprises a heavy-H2O container, electrodes placed in the container, and an elec. power source, is characterized in that: (1) a coolant fills the cathode interior; and (2) the coolant-circulation system includes means to condense the coolant vapor, and to ext. power. The b.p. of the coolant may be set lower that that of heavy H2O". (Quoted from CA).


Scaramuzzi F, De Ninno A; Podda S, Frattolillo A, Lollobattista G, Martone M, Mori L, Martinis L; Eur. Pat. Appl. EP 0 394 204, 11-Apr-90. "A system for producing neutrons and heat by nuclear fusion in a gas absorbed on a metal". A system, and "an equipment" for pressurised gas-phase deuterising of metals, and temperature cycling, so as to produce cold fusion. Some neutron emission results are shown. —————————————————————————— Schoessow GJ; PCT Int. Appl. WO 91 02,360, 30-Jun-89. Cited in Chem. Abstr. 114:2554497 (1991). "Electrochemical nuclear process and apparatus for producing tritium, heat, and radiation". "A process for the prepn. and recovery of T, heat energy, and radiation energy by electrolysis of a liq. medium contg. D2O in an electrolytic cell having a cathode of Pd, or certain other elements by operating the process at ca. 10-300 degC and an app. for this process are described the cathode comprises a central solid geometrical mass and the anode is an open top cup-shaped vessel positioned adjacently below and encircling the cathode. (Quoted from CA).


Shaffer G; PCT Int. Appl. WO 91 01,037, 13-Jul-89. Cited in Chem. Abstr. 114:2554492 (1991). "Chemo-nuclear fusion methods". "A method of causing D mols. to combine to become He atoms in the presence of a Pd catalyst comprises providing a reactor chamber contg. D2O and a Pd catalyst, introducing controlled amts. of D into the chamber so that the D mols. are absorbed by the Pd catalyst where the Pd catalyst executes a simultaneous shift of 2 electrons, leaving 2 stripped D nuclei trapped in single Pd clathrate cages. The juxtaposed D nuclei in a single cage and having the effect of the absorption energy exerting tremendous compressive forces collapse to form an alpha-particle and release relativistic energy as gamma-ray or kinetically as heat. Finally, the evolved heat is transferred to perform useful work". (Quoted from CA) —————————————————————————— Steinert C; Ger. Offenb. DE 3,923,468, 15-Jul-89. Cited in Chem. Abstr. 115(14):146547 (1991). "Fusion reactor". "A nuclear fusion reactor concept based on cold fusion is described. The reactor comprises a series of fusion chambers sepd. by expansion chambers. Electrodes serve as hydrodynamic seals for the entrance and outlet of electrolytes from the fusion chambers. The fusion chambers also connected to each other, e.g. by capillary tubes. The expansion rooms have pressure-sensitive windows for irradn. with laser beams, surrounding the fusion chambers is moderator". (Direct quote from CA).


Takahashi A; Jpn. Kokai Tokkyo Koho JP 03 06,491, appl. 04-Jun-89. Cited in Chem. Abstracts 115:37288 (1991). "Nuclear fusion device". "Ti or Pd adsorbed H, D or T is irradiated with electromagnetic wave, or exposed to an elec. field or magnetic field to cause nuclear fusion. Thus, a cyclindrical cathode composed of Au or Pt is covered with a light-transmitting cover such as heat-resistant glass, and sealed with a heat-resistant bottom plate. The anode consisting of Ti or Pd is placed in an environment mainly composed of H, D or T. D.c. is applied to the electrodes. D2 evolved by the electrolysis is adsorbedinto the anode, and compacted among the elemental lattices up to a level of 102, and when irradiated at the specific condition, causes nuclear fusion producing (3)He and n". (Quoted from CA).


Tanaka M, Hattori S; Jpn. Kokai Tokkyo Koho JP 02,278,189, 19-Apr-89. Cited in Chem. Abstr. 114:255489 (1991). "Power generator and heater based on cold nuclear fusion". "A power generator based on cold nuclear fusion comprises: (1) a device for electrolysis of D2O; (2) a steam generator utilizing hot D2O; (3) a steam turbine; (4) a steam condenser; (5) a pump to send H2O from the condenser to the steam generator; (6) a means to burn D with O; (7) A steam heater; and (8) a pump to send D2O from the steam generator and the steam heater to the electrolysis device. A heater based on cold nuclear fusion comprises: (1) a device for electrolysis of D2O; (2) a 1st means to heat a fluid with hot D2O or D2O steam from the electrolysis device; (3) a means to burn D with O; (4) a 2nd means to heat the fluid or a 2nd fluid requiring higher temp., with the D2O steam from the combustion means; and (5) a pump to send D2O from the 1st and 2nd heating means to the electrolysis device" (Quoted from CA) —————————————————————————— Taniguchi N, Gamo K, Niikura J, Adachi K; Jpn. Kokai Tokkyo Koho JP 03,107,791, 21-Sep-89. Cited in Chem. Abstr. 115:289486 (1991). "Apparatus for cold nuclear fusion". "The app. includes a cathode to adsorb (in crystal lattices or on the surface) a H isotope(s), an anode from a metal, its oxide, or its hydroxide, and an electrolyte contg. at least a H isotope. The electrodes are film-shaped. Nuclear fusion is caused based on the electrolysis of the electrolyte." (Direct quote from CA).


Tokunaga H; Jpn. Kokai Tokkyo Koho JP 03 69,504, 04-Aug-89 Cited in Chem. Abstr. 115(20):217011 (1991). "Preliminary treatment of hydrogen holder". "Before adsorbing D (for cold nuclear fusion), a H holder (e.g. Pd) is either heated or placed in vacuum. The process can ext. H from the H holder, and adsorb highly pure D". (Direct quote from CA). —————————————————————————— Tosaka S; Jpn. Kokai Tokkyo Koho JP 03,33,687 13-Feb-91. Cited in Chem. Abstr. 115:80703 (1991). "Laminated electrode structure for cold fusion". "The electrode consists of >= 1 Pd layer and >= 1 Pt layer via a continuous pore-having porous elec. insulating layer. The Pd layers may be connected with outer electrode layers. The electrode had wide Pd area for high-efficiency cold fusion". (Direct quote from CA)


Tsuda S, Nakamura N, Nakano S; Jpn. Kokai Tokkyo Koho JP 02,302,693, 17-May-89. Cited in Chem. Abstr. 115:59221 (1991). "Apparatus for cold nuclear fusion using solid bodies". "The app. comprises a solid body contg. a large amt. of D, and a means to supply excitation energy to the body. The solid body may be of C, Si, Ge, Sn or Pb. The energy may be supplied by heating, elec.-field application, electromagnetic-wave application, and/or supersound application". (Quote from CA). —————————————————————————— Van Noorden PJ; Neth. Appl. NL 89 02,962, 01-Dec-89. Cited in Chem. Abstr. 115(22):242244 (1991). "Process and apparatus, and the use of the apparatus in electrolysis-nuclear fusion". "The process comprises the application of a magnetic field. The app., comprising an electrolytic cell equipped with 2 electrodes, addnl. comprises means for generating a magnetic field in the electrolytic cell. The use of the app. comprises filling the cell with an electrolyte comprising LiD dissolved in heavy water. The use of the magnetic field increases the rate at which the alleged cold fusion occurs in the D-loaded Pd electrodes. The electrodes (Pt anodes and Pd and Ti cathodes) are connected to one elec. source, and the means for generating the magnetic field, i.e., a cooled, hollow coil, is connected to another elec. source, i.e. a battery". (Direct quote from CA).


Van den Bogaert J; Belg. BE 1,002,781, 5-Jun-89. Cited in Chem. Abstr. 116:12357 (1992). "Energy production by nuclear fusion". "In this process, in which a fusible material is absorbed in the crystal lattice of a H-absorbing material that has a neg. elec. polarity, the fusible material is, or is being, absorbed by a H-absorbing material in the form of individual particles having a neg. electrostatic charge, after which the polarity of the particles is changed from neg. to pos. This process is esp. aimed at the controlled fusion of D, optionally mixed with T, in the crystal lattice of the H-absorbing material, at high efficiency. The H-absorbing material is a metal or alloy consisting of, or contg., >=1 element selected from, Pd, Ti, Zr, V, Th, Nb, Ta, Ni and Fe. A turbulent aerosol or suspension of colloidal or cryst. particles (av. particle size 0.1-0.001 mu) in D is supplied in an upflow through a vertical quartz tube internally coated with an elec. conductive coating or metal foil, e.g., Al or Cu, connected to the neg. electrode of a d.c. source. A cooled pos. charged plate (anode) is located above the tube, the polarity of the particles contg. the absorbed D is changed upon contact with the anode, and the pos. ions, e.g. triton, formed by nuclear fusion are then expelled from the Pd particles. The ions then flow downwards, are neutralised at the cathode in the conical bottom of the reactor, and the Pd particles are then sepd. from the aerosol in, e.g., a hydrocyclone. The Pd particles may be elec. charged in an insulating oil, e.g. a silicone oil. The heat generated by the fusion is removed by the heat transfer medium with which the anode is cooled". (Direct quote from CA). —————————————————————————— Wada N; Jpn. Kokai Tokkyo Koho JP 03 160,395, 18-Nov-89 Cited in Chem. Abstr. 115(20):217014 (1991). "Cold nuclear fusion in solids, and apparatus therefor". "The process includes: (a) evaluating a reaction chamber; (b) activating a solid body (e.g. Pd) which adsorbs a nuclear-fusion-causing gaseous material (e.g. D); © supplying a predetd. amt. of the gaseous material; and (d) allowing the body to adsorb the gaseous material close to satn. The surface of the solid body may be cleaned in short time by glow discharge. An app. for the process includes means to take out heat caused by the nuclear fusion". (Direct quote from CA).


Wada N; Jpn. Kokai Tokkyo Koho JP 03 160,396, 18-Nov-89 Cited in Chem. Abstr. 115(20):217013 (1991). "Cold nuclear fusion in solids". "The process includes: (1) allowing a solid to adsorb a nuclear-fusion- -causing material (as an eutectic element) to almost satn.; and (2) exciting the solid (by, e.g., elec. discharge) to cause sudden supersatn., which creates high local concn. of the material". (Direct quote from CA). —————————————————————————— Wada N; Jpn. Kokai Tokkyo Koho JP 03 160,397, 18-Nov-89 Cited in Chem. Abstr. 115(20):217012 (1991). "Forming elements by cold nuclear fusion in solids". "The process includes: (a) evacuating a reaction chamber; (b) activating a gas-adsorbing body (e.g. Pd) in the vacuum chamber; © supplying a nuclear-fusion-causing gaseous material into the chamber; (d) allowing the body to adsorb the gaseous material to satn.; (e) causing nuclear fusion by the material adsorbed in the body; and (f) recovering the fusion product". (Direct quote from CA).


Wadsworth ME; Guruswamy S, Byrne JG, Li J; Can. Pat. Appl. CA 2,023,216, 15-Aug-89. Cited in Chem. Abstr. 115(10):100641 (1991). "Method of preparing electrodes for use in heat-generating apparatus". "An improved method of treating material for use in a heat-generating method involving the absorption of H isotope into the material comprises treating the material to substantially remove impurities in the surface region and then depositing a thin film of a substance capable of absorbing on the surface of the material. An optional addnl. treatment is to substantially remove H already absorbed in the material, then heat the material in an atm. of H isotope to percharge the material with the H isotope. A method of producing electrode and method of enhancing absorption are also claimed". (Direct quote from CA). —————————————————————————— Watanabe M, Takahashi A, Sumita K; Eur. Pat. Appl. EP 0 394 980, 31-Oct-90. "Cold nuclear fusion apparatus". First, a metal must be used that can absorb deuterium to high concentrations; then, the deuterium's harmonic oscillation energy in the metal must be raised, preferably "by discharge of deuterium gas, optical irradiation or supersonic energy". In another embodiment, a pair of parallel metal plates are subjected to pulsed voltages to induce gas charge and discharge, so as to enhance cold fusion.


Yamaguchi E, Nishioka T; Jpn. Kokai Tokkyo Koho JP 03,20,696 19-Jun-89. Cited in Chem. Abstr. 115:80700 (1991). "Cold nuclear fusion". "D ions are generated in vacuum (⇐ 1E-4 torr), accelerated at >= 1 keV, and projected at a fixed target contg. Pd, Ni, Ti, graphite and/or B nitride so that nuclear fusion of D is caused at ⇐ 1000 degC. An app. for cold nuclear fusion contains means to generate and accelerate D ions and a fixed target". (Direct quote from CA) —————————————————————————— Yamaguchi E, Nishioka T; Jpn. Kokai Tokkyo Koho JP 03,183,987 14-Dec-89. Cited in Chem. Abstr. 115:289487 (1991). "Cold nuclear fusion process". "In the process, pressure gradient is applied across a Pd or Ti plate which is covered, on one side, with a thin film (e.g. Au) having a small D-atom diffusion coeff., so that D pressure on films becomes greater than the other, accumulating D atoms at the interface of the plate and the film." (Direct quote from CA).


Yamaguchi E, Nishioka T; Jpn. Kokai Tokkyo Koho JP 03,183,988, 14-Dec-89. Cited in Chem. Abstr. 115:265199 (1991). "Cold nuclear fusion process". "The process includes: (1) placing in a container a D-adsorbed Pd or Ti plate, which is covered on 1 side, with a 1st film (e.g. Si oxide) having a small D-atom diffusion coeff., and on the other side, with a 2nd film (e.g. Au), having a large D-atom diffusion coeff., and (2) decreasing the pressure inside the container to increase D concn. at the interface of the plate and the 1st film". (Direct quote from CA). —————————————————————————— Yamazaki S, Miyanaga A, Wakaizumi K, Takemura Y; Eur. Pat. Appl. 0 393 461, 09.04.90 "Plasma nuclear fusion method". This patent sets out to solve several problems with "conventional" cold fusion apparati and thereby give us reliable cold fusion. These problems are: a) the use of "solusion", allowing little chance for cold fusion; b) creation of deuterons in the same place as that in which they are to fuse; c) poisoning of the Pd, leading to no more deuteride; d) much deuterium is wasted as D2 gas and not used for fusion. The invention produces a dense plasma (10-1000 times as dense as plasma formed by high frequency fields) from gaseous D2, and then accelerates the deuterons towards the Pd target by means of a voltage field. The plasma is generated by resonance of microwave and magnetism. The gas is >= 98% pure D2 plus a little H2 and He. There are further details of heat exchange for the heat produced, prevention of overheating of the magnets etc.


Yamazaki S; Eur. Pat. Appl. 0 393 463, 09.04.90 "Electrode for nuclear fusion and method for using the same". This patent, as the previous patent of the same inventor (with others) tries to provide reliable cold fusion. Here, instead of microwave resonance with magnetism, a high frequency electric field ("500 KHz to 500 MHz, for example 13.56 MHz") produces the plasma, again beaming it at the Pd (or Ti) target. —————————————————————————— Yamazaki S, Miyanaga A, Takemura Y; Eur. Pat. Appl. 0 393 464, 09.04.90 "Apparatus for plasma nuclear fusion". This patent appears to this abstractor to concern the same invention as Pat. Appl. 0 393 461 of the same day, same inventors (+ one), but with a more detailed and more carefully expressed description.


Yamazaki S, Miyanaga A, Takemura Y; Eur. Pat. Appl. 0 393 465, 09.04.90 "Method for producing plasma nuclear fusion". This patent appears to this abstractor to concern the same invention as Pat. Appl. 0 393 463 of the same day, same inventors (-2), but with a more detailed and more carefully expressed description. ————————————————————————— Yamazaki S; Euro. Pat. Appl. EP 0 392 324, 3-Apr-1990. "Electrochemical nuclear fusion method". Yamazaki (working for the Semiconductor Energy Laboratory Co., Japan) starts by summarising what is wrong with the way Jones+(89) carry out electrolytic cold fusion. The use of atmospheric pressure reduces the probability of cold fusion; the reaction tends to occur at a localised section of the electrode from the rise in temperature at that point; poisoning of the cathode leads to side reactions and product decomposition, and the deuterium ends up in the atmosphere, so the amount used for fusion is small; says Y. The invention describes a pressurised cell, with the evolved gases (which are kept separate) providing the pressure. A heat exchanger removes the excess heat, thus keeping the cell temperature down. The cathode is either Pd or Ti, the electrolyte being a mixture not unlike that of Jones+(89). Neutrons are measured by a detector; nuclear fusion "is obviously accelerated when the reaction at the cathode is implemented under high pressure". Up to 200 atm can be used. The neutrons released can cause subsequent nuclear fusion by breeding, so there is some danger of an atomic explosion, which can be prevented by controlling the extent of electrolysis. This is done by pulsing the current, to a level not exceeding the critical nuclear fusion value. Two example experiments showed that the neutron flux is proportional to the pressure, and can be controlled by the duty ratio of the pulsed current. Excess heat was also observed.


Yamazaki S; Euro. Pat. Appl. EP 0 392 325, 3-Apr-1990. "Electrochemical nuclear fusion method". This appears to be the same as EP 0 392 324, but phrased a little more formally. Note that Chem. Abstracts has this under the name Shunpei, Yamazaki; this is probably because the inventor's name is given as "Shunpei Yamazaki" here, as opposed to "Yamazaki, Shunpei" in the other patent application. —————————————————————————— Yoshimura S; Jpn. Kokai Tokkyo Koho JP 03 82991, 25-Aug-89. Cited in Chem. Abstr. 115(22): 242241 (1991). "Energy converters based on electrochemical nuclear fusion". "The app. contains an electrolytic cell comprising a cathode from an alkali-metal-doped pi-electron-type compd., a noble-metal anode, heavy H2O, and an electrolyte contg. a support material, where the cathode and anode are immersed in the electrolyte". (Direct quote from CA).


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