The LOD/H Technical Journal: File #1 of 12 Volume 1, Issue 1 Released: Jan. 1, 1987
LOD/H TECHNICAL JOURNAL -----------------------
Welcome to the premiere issue of the LOD/H TJ!
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TABLE OF CONTENTS:
01 Introduction to the LOD/H Technical Journal Staff 05 K
and Table Of Contents for Volume 1, Issue 1
02 Custom Local Area Signalling Services (CLASS) The Videosmith 17 K
03 Identifying and Defeating Physical Security and Lex Luthor 23 K
Intrusion Detection Systems Part I: The Perimeter
04 The Traffic Service Position System (TSPS) The Marauder 23 K
05 Hacking DEC's TOPS-20: Intro Blue Archer 19 K
06 Building your own Blue Box (Includes Schematic) Jester Sluggo 16 K
07 Intelligence and Interrogation Processes Master Of Impact 18 K
08 The Outside Loop Distribution Plant: Part A Phucked Agent 04 25 K
09 The Outside Loop Distribution Plant: Part B Phucked Agent 04 23 K
10 LOH Telenet Directory: Update #4 (1-1-87) Part A LOH 25 K
11 LOH Telenet Directory: Update #4 (1-1-87) Part B LOH 18 K
12 Network News & Notes Staff 10 K
Total: 12 files 223 K
That wraps it up for the introduction, hope you like it and we will look forward to hearing from you.
The LOD/H Technical Journal: File #2 of 13
Custom Local Area Signalling Services
Written by: The Videosmith
Version - 1.1
—————————-© Copyright 1994—————————
This article will explain the newly developed LASS system (AT&T Bell Labs), and how it may affect us in the near future. Note that the service as it appears for customers is called "CLASS", the C standing for Custom. I assume this is just for looks.
The telephone was destined to become a well used and powerful tool for
otherwise tedious tasks. Gas meters and other metered services would be surveyed through the use of automatic data retrieval employing telephone communications. All in all, some have big plans for the uses one could put the telephone system up to, and CLASS is one plan that is going to drop an innovative bombshell on the telecommunicating world.
At this moment, a local CCIS network feature is being developed by
Bell Laboratories. This feature will change the way people use fones, and will also change the attitude in which they use them. It will give far more control of the telephone to the user than ever before. This feature is called CLASS (Custom Local Area Signalling Services).
Everyone will find something useful in this newly developed telephone
feature. Pizza parlours will no longer have to worry about fraudulent italian food mongers, and little old ladies won't have to worry about prank calls by certain dubious characters.
What are all these fantastic features? These features will
include call back of the last caller, regardless of whether you have their telephone number or not. Another will be distinct call waiting tones, and preselected call forwarding (only those people whom you wish to speak to will be forwarded). This is a rudimentary list of CLASS features to come. It is a very powerful system, and it all relys on LCCIS (Local Common Channel Interoffice Signalling), an intra-LATA version of the ever-popular CCIS.
CCIS was originally introduced in 1976 as, basically, the signalling
system to end all signalling systems. Instead of using the voice grade trunks to carry signalling information on, a data network would be used. This network is comprised of data links from each TO [involved with CCIS] to the appropriate STP (signal transfer point). Signalling information is sent through these links at 4800 bps to the STPs (Note that baud rates may increase due to the economic availability of faster data communications hardware), where stored program control routes the signalling information to the needed offices in order to open and complete the call path. SPC checks automatically for on-hook/off-hook status before opening the path, and if the status is off-hook (in this case the customer does not have the call waiting custom calling feature), returns information to the originating CO to apply a busy signal to the customer. This is but one of many features toll CCIS provides the network with.
Since this text is not centered on the topic of toll CCIS, technical
aspects aren't as important (except for the comparison between the local and toll networks for observational purposes): yet it is important to notice how automated and flexible this type of signalling method is, as well as its speed and efficiency. All the software control involved with local and toll networks is called, fittingly, the "stored program control network." or ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network). LCCIS will be addressed in a future article.
LCCIS would look like this:
/--X CO-2 ESS# /----I-T-G-----1A-----I-T-G----X | X--/ | | | | | LCCIS | | | | | ---------- | /--X--LCCIS--|CCIS/SPC|--LCCIS--/--X CO-1 ---------- CO-3 ESS# ESS# -1A----interoffice trunk group---1A-
NPA - Dial 1223 213 NPA (GTE) - Dial 114
SPC = Stored Program Control (Network control and Signal Transfer Point) ITG = Interoffice Trunk Group
Using a high-speed data link between local offices creates a much more
flexible and more effecient way for intra-LATA central offices to communi- cate. Instead of using per-trunk signalling (using the same trunk used for voice transmission to send routing and billing information), such data would be sent thru a 2400 bps dedicated data link, which interacts with a local signal processing and transfer point. From that point, signalling information is distributed to appropriate central offices or tandem switches.
At the during which this article was being initially researched, CLASS was only being developed for the #1A ESS switch due to the flexibility of it's
memory handling, it's speed and what Bell Labs called 'cost efficiency'. At the end of the research involved with this article, CLASS was already implemented in data stage on ESS#5.
LCCIS will work with the local switches using stored program con-
trol, keeping track of call data. The 1A switches will use what is called "scratch pad" memory (also known as call store), in conjuction with LCCIS's database, to accomplish all the features that LASS provides. This memory will hold such data as "line history", and a "screening list". That information will make it possible for autoredial, selective call forwarding, nuisance call rejection, and distinctive call waiting tones.
Selective call forwarding is defined by the subscriber (the sub-
scriber must have conventional call forwarding to request this service). Using call store, or more specifically the screening list, one will be able to selectively forward a call to another directory number by executing a few simple commands on the friendly home-bound telephone (unlike migrating telephones most frequently found in hotel rooms). An access code (a list will appear at the end of the file) will be entered, and a special tone will be issued from the subscriber's CO. The cus- tomer will then dial in the numbers he wants forwarded to the particular number. After each number, a tone will sound indicating the acceptance of the number. Individual BOC's (Bell Operating Companies) will be able to define the amount of numbers which may be screened. Once this is done, the cusomter hangs up and the ESS takes over. Now, whenever some one calls this particular customer, the customer's switch will compare the calling line's directory number with those stored in scratch pad memory. If the CLID matches one of the numbers in 1A memory associated with the called directory number, the number is forwarded. If not, the phone will ring at the original destination. This in particular could make it very difficult on system hackers, as you could probably imagine. A company can subscribe to this CLASS feature, and enter only the numbers of authorized users to be forwarded to a computer. Bureaus inside the various telephone companies and other sensitive operations can screen calls to particular numbers by using this service.
This is a security that's hard to beat, but of course there is a way
(simple law of nature: nothing is fail-safe). There will always be the obvious way of finding numbers which are being forwarded to, like auto- dialing entire exchanges (one after the other). Unfortunetly, CLASS will be providing other services which might make "scanning" seem less attractive.
Distinctive ringing is handled in the same fashion as selective call
forwarding is: the screen list in scratch pad memory. The customer may enter numbers which the ESS should give special precedence to, and when- ever a call is placed to this particular customer's number, ESS checks to see whether the CLID matches a directory number listed in the switch's memory. If a match is made, the subscriber's CO gives the off-hook line a special call waiting tone, or the on-hook phone a distinctive ring (possibly using abnormally timed ringing voltage… some readers may picture a British Telecom ring as an example, although many foreign audible rings tend to be different).
Nuisance call rejection, a feature making it possible to block certain
idiots from ringing your fone (a feature we can all benefit from at one time or another… or all the time), uses the information retrieved from LCCIS (CLID). Let's say customer A calls customer B:
A —> CO< >CO —> B
Customer B happens to despise customer A, and keys in a special *##
code. ESS again takes over and looks at the CLID information, and stores the calling line directory number in a special screen list associated with with customer B. The next time customer A tries calling customer B, the terminating office will reroute the call to a local (the originating CO) digitized recording telling customer A that the call he made cannot be completed due to customer B's request ("I'm sorry, but the customer you have tried to reach wishes you were eaten by a rabid canibal on drugs").
To create such a feature as "dial back" (for called or calling party),
the ESS scratch pad memory is used again. The same principles are used as are employed in the already established custom calling feature, auto-redial. CLID will be used in this way:
(received from CLID) last-called-mem last-caller-mem ---------- ---------- |###-####| |###-####| ---------- ----------
Your ESS switch will keep track of who you called last, and who called
you last, thru the retrieval of calling line information provided by LCCIS in conjunction with your switch (Your switch will know what number you called last by directly storing the digits you dialed previously. Local signalling will provide calling line information via LCCIS call information forwarding using the data link mentioned). This way, with your access code (*##), you will have total re-dial service.
This type of memory handling and signalling method will also allow the
feature that everyone was afraid would abolish "phreaking". Subscriber initiated tracing, using the last caller directory number stored at your CO, will be available as far as Bell Laboratories is concerned. There seems to be two types of "customer originated trace". One will forward the number to local authorities, at which it will be handled through the police. The other feature AT&T/Bell Labs is working on will be a display module that will sit by your fone, and will display calling directory numbers. All other CLASS features that use the calling line information are used at the descretion of the caller. The customer originated trace, however, using the individual or bulk calling line identification features ("trace") allow the customer to view the calling number. The world is not ending… yet, in any case. Individual customers will be able to employ a special "privacy code", which when dialed, tells the far-end switch not to forward the calling number to a desk display. Whether there will be a way to override this or not is obvious: of course. The police, the military and government agencies are all likely to have a higher priority level than your privacy. It seems that long distance carriers could benefit greatly from CLASS. Why Bell/AT&T should give any type of special services to OCCs not given to other non-telephone companies, especially after equal access is fully implemented, I don't know (but then again, it is EQUAL access). It's always possible. It is also possible that there will be no desk display. There are those phone phreaks who feel that BOC's will never give the end party the priviledge of retrieving the calling party's number directly, if not due to plain old Bell policy on the issue of privacy. We'll have to wait and see about that point: the desk display is, in fact, operational and is being used in test stage. Whether Bell Labs feels that this feature can and will be used in a full scale non-beta stage BOC situation is a different story. The economic feasability is questionable.
CLASS, using local CCIS, will not function on inter-LATA calls. The
local CCIS network is exactly that: local, and does not extend into the realm of "toll network". This will eventually be corrected (allowing toll CCIS to interact with LCCIS as far as CLID information is concerned). How the various long distance networks will exchange information with the local BOC network has not been determined [by the writer of this article]. It would seem like a monumental task to try to integrate the emerging long distance companies into the AT&T/BOC ISDN, be it because of equipment inconsistancies or lack of cooperation on the part of the OCC, etc. This will be discussed in an upcoming article dealing with toll CCIS. Although CLASS has been built around the ESS #1A switch, it has, as has been mentioned, been co-developed for use with the ESS #5 switching machine.
CLASS is going to cause problems, as well as create a new environment
for telephone users. Of course, those problems are only problems to people who will generally be reading this article, but the more you know about CLASS the more comfortable you'll feel about the service. It can be used to one's advantage, even as a telecommunications hobbyist. Just as a corporation will be able to set up a complete history of who is calling their system, and eventually keep people off the system using the screen list in memory, the same features can be applied to bulletin board systems and the like. Imagine being able to keep all the local bozos off your board, or being able to screen all but your private local users (making your system completely inaccessible through the PSTN network from any telephone but that of one of your users). It would seem to be a useful feature, if nothing else but an easy feature, to implement.
It is a little difficult, if not plain awkward, to write an article about
a topic which is subject to change at the researcher's ignorance. I think that CLASS is enough of a momentous issue that at least some text by a hobbyist should be released for public knowledge purposes. Yet my awareness of the fact that some of this text may be outdated, or inaccurate, by the time CLASS is released as a BOC service, is in itself the explanation of why there is a version number at the head of this article. Most likely, when CLASS becomes public, the second version will be released with update notes (if need be…most probably so). I hope you enjoyed it,
The Videosmith. LOD/LOH!
Test stage defaults for some features: NPA - Dial 760 914 NPA - Dial 990 DTMF ! Pulse ! Description of Service
Note: These command codes may vary from BOC to BOC. The codes listed above were found in a general description of CLASS and did not specify a particular implementation of these services.
Mark Tabas for his views on various included topics… for example, subscriber tracing ("FUCK NO"). Doctor <413> Who Mr. DNA
The LOD/H Technical Journal: File #3 of 12
Lex Luthor and The Legion Of Doom/Hackers Present:
Identifying, Attacking, Defeating, and Bypassing Physical Security and Intrusion Detection Systems
PART I: THE PERIMETER
The reasons for writing this article are twofold:
1) To prevent the detection and/or capture of various phreaks, hackers and
others, who attempt to gain access to: phone company central offices, phone closets, corporate offices, trash dumpsters, and the like.
2) To create an awareness and prove to various security managers, guards, and
consultants how easy it is to defeat their security systems due to their lack of planning, ignorance, and just plain stupidity.
In the past, I have written articles on "Attacking, Defeating, and Bypassing" Computer Security. Now I take those techniques and apply them to Physical Security. The information contained herein, has been obtained from research on the different devices used in physical security, and in practical "tests" which I and others have performed on these devices.
Physical Security relies on the following ideas to protect a facility: Deterrence, Prevention, Detection, and Response. Deterrents are used to 'scare' the intruder out of trying to gain access. Prevention tries to stop the intruder from gaining access. Detection 'sees' the intruder while attempting to gain access. Response tries to stop and/or prevent as much damage or access to a facility as possible after detection. There are 3 security levels used in this article and in industry to designate a facility's need. They are: Low, Medium, and High. The amount, and types of security devices used by a facility are directly proportional to the level of security the facility 'thinks' it needs. When I use 'facility' I am refering to the people in charge of security, and the actual building and assets they are trying to protect. This article will be primarily concerned with the protection of the perimeter. I have 2 other articles planned in this series. The second is the security concerning the exterior of a facility: cipher locks, window breakage detectors, magnetic contact switches, etc. The third part will deal with security systems inside a facility: Passive Infra-Red detectors, ultrasonic detectors, interior microwave systems, and the various card access control systems.
A facility's first line of defense against intrusion is its' perimeter. The perimeter may have any or all of the following:
* A single fence
* An interior fence coupled with an exterior fence
* Regular barbed wire
* Rolled barbed wire
* Various fence mounted noise or vibration sensors
* Security lighting and CCTV
* Buried seismic sensors and different photoelectric and microwave systems
Fences are commonly used to protect the perimeter. The most common fence in use today is the cyclone fence, better known as the chain link fence. Fences are used as a deterrent and to prevent passage through the perimeter. Common ways of defeating fences are by cutting, climbing, and lifting. Cutting is not usually recommended for surreptitious entry, since it is easily noticeable. In this article, we will be taking the 'Stealth' approach. Climbing is most commonly done, but if the fence is in plain view, it may not be advisable since you can be seen easily. The higher the fence, the longer it takes to climb. The longer it takes to climb, the longer security has to detect and respond to your actions. Lifting is better since you are closer to the ground, and not as easily spotted, but the fence must be very flexible, or the sand very soft so you can get under the fence quickly and easily. Whenever you see a somewhat 'unclimbable' fence (or one that you just don't want to climb) you should check the perimeter for large trees with uncut branches hanging over the fence or other objects which will enable you to bypass the fence without ever touching it. You could use a ladder but you don't want to leave anything behind, especially with your fingerprints on it, not that you plan on doing anything illegal of course.
Electric fences are not used for security purposes as much as they were in the past. Today, its main use if to keep cattle or other animals away from the perimeter (either from the inside or outside). There are devices which send a low voltage current through a fence and can detect a drop in the voltage when someone grabs onto the fence. Again, not too common so I will not go into it.
For high security installations, there may be 2 fences. An outer fence, and an inner fence which are 5-10 yards apart. It isn't often that you see this type of setup, it is mainly used by government agencies and the military. You can be very sure that there are various intrusion detection devices mounted on the fence, buried underground between them, and/or line-of-sight microwave or photoelectric devices used. These will be mentioned later. If you insist on penetrating the perimeter, then you should try to measure how far it is between fences. Now find a 2 foot by X foot board where X is the distance between the 2 fences. Very slowly place the board on top of both fences. If there are no fence vibration sensors you can just climb the fence and step onto the board to walk across the top. If there are fence sensors, you will need a ladder which cannot touch the fence to get you on top of the board. You can then walk on the board, over the ground in between, and jump down, being careful not to disturb the fences. This will work if there are no sensors after the 2 fences. Identi- fying sensors will be mentioned later. Obviously the method of using a long board to put on top of the two fences will not work if the fences are spaced too far apart. Also, you and the board can be seen very easily.
There are two common types of barbed wire in use today. The more common and less secure is the type that is strung horizontally across the fence with three or more rows. The 'barbs' are spaced about 6" apart, enough for you to put your hand in between while climbing over. Also, it is thin enough to be cut very easily. If you think you will need to leave in a hurry or plan on problem free surreptitious entry and the only way out will be to climb over the fence again you can cut the wire from one post to another, assuming the wire is tied or soldered to each post, and replace it with a plastic wire which looks like the wire you just cut. Tie it to each post, and come back anytime after that. You can then climb over it without being cut. The other type of wire, which is more secure or harmful, depending on how you look at it, is a rolled, circular wire commonly called Razor Ribbon. One manufacturer of this is the American Fence Co. which calls it 'the mean stuff'. And it is. The barbs are as sharp as razors. Of course this can be cut, but you will need very long bolt cutters and once you cut it, jump as far back as you can to avoid the wire from springing into your face. As mentioned earlier, cutting is irreparable, and obvious. If the wire is loosely looped, there may be sufficient room in between to get through without getting stitches and losing lots of blood. If the wire is more tightly looped you may be able to cover the the wire with some tough material such as a leather sheet so you can climb over without getting hurt. This method is not easy to accomplish however. You may want to see if you can get under the fence or jump over rather than climb it.
Fence mounted noise or vibration sensors:
Let's assume you have found a way to get past the fence. Of course you have not tried this yet, since you should always plan before you act. OK, you have planned how you would theoretically get over or past the fence. You are now past the deterrent and prevention stages. Before you put the plan into action you had better check for the things mentioned earlier. If a fence is the first step in security defense, then fence mounted sensors are the second step. The types of detection equipment that can be mounted on the fence are:
Fence shock sensors: These mount on fence posts at intervals of 10 to 20 feet, or on every post. They are small boxes clamped about 2/3 up from ground level. There is a cable, either twisted pair or coax running horizontally across the fence connecting these boxes. The cable can be concealed in conduits or inside the fence itself, thus, making it hard to visually detect. Each fence sensor consists of a seismic shock sensor that detects climbing over, lifting up or cutting through the fence. So if the fence is climbable, it would not be wise to do so since you may be detected. Of course it doesn't matter if your detected if there is no security force to respond and deter you.
Another type, is called the E-Flex cable. It's simply a coax cable running horizontally across the fence. This cable can not only be used on chain link fences, but can also be used on concrete block, brick, or other solid barriers. It may be on the outside, or mounted inside the fence, thus, making detection of the device harder. Of course detection of this and other similar devices which cannot be seen, doesn't make it impossible. A way to detect this, is by simply repeatedly hitting the wall with a blunt object or by throwing rocks at it. If nothing out of the ordinary happens, then you can be reasonably sure it is not in place. This is basically a vibration sensor.
Low frequency microphones: This is essentially a coax cable that responds to noise transmitted within the fence itself.
Vibration sensors: These are based on mercury switches, a ring or ball on a pin, or a ball on a rail. Movement of the fence disturbs the switches and signals alarms. A hint that this is in use is that it can only be used on a securely constructed and tightly mounted fence, with no play or movement in it. Otherwise, they will be getting false alarms like crazy.
OK, you know all about these types, how the hell do you get around it? Well, don't touch the fence. But if there is no alternative, and you must climb it, then climb the fence where it makes a 90 degree turn (the corner) or at the gate. Climb it very slowly and carefully, and you should be able to get over without being detected by these sensors! Make sure you climb on the largest pipe and don't fall.
Security lighting and CCTV:
Sometimes, fences may be backed up by Closed Circuit TV (CCTV) systems to make visual monitoring of the perimeter easier and quicker. By installing an adequate lighting system and conventional CCTV cameras, or by using special low light sensitive cameras, the perimeter can be monitored from a central point. Security personnel can then be dispatched when an intruder is detected on the monitors.
Some systems are stationary, and others can be moved to view different areas of the perimeter from within the central station. It would be in your best interest to determine if the camera is stationary or not. If so, you may be able to plan a path which will be out of the view range of the camera. If it is movable, you will have to take your chances.
Light control sensor: This utilizes a Passive InfraRed (PIR) sensor to detect the body heat emitted from someone entering the detection area, and can activate a light or other alarm. PIR's will be discussed in Part II of this series. The sensor has an option called: 'night only mode' in which a light will flash when a person enters the area, but only during night hours. It can tell if its dark by either a photoelectric sensor, or by a clock. Of course if its daylight savings time, the clock may not be totally accurate, which can be used to your advantage. If it is photoelectric, you can simply place a flashlight pointing directly into the sensor during daylight hours. When it gets dark, the photoelectric sensor will still 'think' its day since there is sufficient light, thus, not activating the unit to detect alarm conditions. This should enable you to move within the area at will.
Buried Seismic Sensors:
Seismic detectors are designed to identify an intruder by picking up the sound of your footsteps or other noises related to passing through the protected area. These sensors have a range of about 20 feet and are buried underground and linked by a cable, which carries their signals to a processor. There, the signals are amplified and equalized to eliminate frequencies that are unrelated to intruder motion. The signals are converted to pulses that are compared with a standard signal threshold. Each pulse that crosses this threshold is tested on count and frequency. If it meets all the criteria for a footstep, an alarm is triggered. These sensors can even be installed under asphalt or concrete by cutting a trench through the hard surface. It is also immune to weather and can follow any type of terrain. The only restriction is that the area of detection must be free of any type of obstruction such as a tree or a bush.
Electronic field sensor:
These detect an intruder by measuring a change in an electric field. The field sensors use a set of two cables, one with holes cut into the cable shielding to allow the electromagnetic field to 'leak' into the surrounding area. The other cable is a receiver to detect the field and any changes in it. Objects passing through the field distort it, triggering an alarm. This sensor can either be buried or free standing, and can follow any type of terrain. But its very sensitive to animals, birds, or wind blown debris, thus, if it is very windy out, and you know this is being used, you can get some paper and throw it so the wind takes it and sets off the alarm repeatedly. If it is done enough, they may temporarily turn it off, or ignore it due to excessive false alarms.
It is not hard to tell if these devices are in use. You cannot see them, but you don't have to. Simply get 3-4 medium sized stones. Throw them into the place where you think the protected area is. Repeat this several times. This works on the lesser advanced systems that have trouble distinguishing this type of seismic activity from human walking/running. If nothing happens, you can be reasonably sure this is not in use. Now that you can detect it, how do you defeat it? Well as far as the electronic field sensor is concerned, you should wait for a windy night and cause excessive false alarms and hope they will turn it off. As far as the seismic sensors, you can take it one step at a time, very softly, maybe one step every 30-60 seconds. These sensors have a threshold, say, two or more consecutive footsteps in a 30 second time interval will trigger the alarm. Simply take in one step at a time, slowly, and wait, then take another step, wait, until you reach your destination. These detectors work on the assumption that the intruder has no knowledge of the device, and will walk/run across the protected area normally, thus, causing considerable seismic vibrations. The problem with this method is that it will take you some time to pass through the protected area. This means there is more of a chance that you will be seen. If there are a lot of people going in and out of the facility, you may not want to use this method. Another way would be to run across the protected area, right next to the door, (assuming that is where the response team will come out) and drop a large cat or a dog there. When they come out, they will hopefully blame the alarm on the animal. The sensor shouldn't really pick up a smaller animal, but odds are the security force are contract guards who wouldn't know the capabilities of the device and the blame would fall on the animal and not you, assuming there were no cameras watching…
In an outdoor microwave system, a beam of microwave energy is sent from a transmitter to a receiver in a conical pattern. Unlike indoor microwave detectors, which detect an intruders' movement in the microwave field, the outdoor system reacts to an intruders' presence by detecting the decrease in energy in the beam. The beams can protect an area up to 1500 feet long and 40 feet wide. All transmission is line-of-sight and the area between transmitter and receiver should be kept clear of trees and other objects that can block the beam. Microwave systems can operate in bad weather, and won't signal an alarm due to birds or flying debris.
These systems work on the Doppler effect, in which they detect motion that changes the energy, and sets off an alarm. These devices will usually be placed inside a fence to avoid false alarms. These devices are very easy to visually detect. They are posts from 1-2 yards high, about 6 inches by 6 inches and there are 2 of them, one receiver and one transmitter. In some cases there will be more, which enables them to protect a larger area.
To defeat this, you can enter the field, very slowly, taking one step at a time but each step should be like you are in slow motion. It doesn't matter how hard you hit the ground, since it doesn't detect seismic activity, only how fast you approach the field. If you take it very slowly you may be able to get past. Detectors of this type get more and more sensitive as you approach the posts. Ergo, choose a path which will lead you furthest away from the posts.
These systems rely on an invisible barrier created by beams of infrared light sent from a light source to a receiver. When the beam is interrupted, the alarm sounds. The beam can have an effective range of up to 500 feet. Multiple beams can be used to increase the effectiveness of the system, making it harder for you to climb over or crawl under the beams. Photoelectric systems can be prone to false alarms as a result of birds or wind-blown debris passing through the beam. The problem can be corrected by the installation of a circuit that requires the beam to be broken for a specified amount of time before an alarm is sounded. Weather conditions like heavy fog, can also interrupt the beam and cause an alarm. This can also be corrected by a circuit that reacts to gradual signal loss. These systems should not face directly into the rising or setting sun since this also cuts off the signal beam.
As you can see this system has many problems which you can take advantage of to bypass this system. As with any system and method, surveillance of the facility should be accomplished in various weather conditions to help verify the existence of a particular detection device, and to see how they react to false alarms. Many times, you will be able to take advantage of various conditions to accomplish your mission. If there is only one set of devices (transmitter and receiver), try to estimate the distance of the sensors from the ground. You can then either crawl under or jump over the beam. This also works on the assumption that the intruder will not recognize that the device is in use.
Guards: There are two types, in-house or company paid guards and contract guards. Contract guards are less secure since they do not work for the facility and if they make a mistake they simply get transferred to another facility no big deal. In-house guards know the facility better and have more to lose, thus, they are probably more security conscious. Be aware of any paths around the perimeter in which guards can/will walk/ride to visually inspect the exterior of the facility.
Central monitoring: Monitoring of the devices mentioned in this article is usually accomplished at a 'Central Station' within the facility. Usually, guards *SHOULD* be monitoring these. If you have planned well enough, you may find that the guard leaves his/her post to do various things at the same time every night. This would be an ideal time to do anything that may be seen by cameras. Unfortunately, there will probably be more than one guard making this nearly impossible.
Gates: Probably the easiest way to pass through the perimeter is to go through the gate. Whether in a car, or by walking. This may not be too easy if it is guarded, or if there is a card reading device used for entry.
Exterior card readers: An in-depth look at the types of cards used will be in part 3 of this series. But for now, if the card used is magnetic (not Weigand) it is quite possible to attack this. If you have an ATM card, Visa, or other magnetic card, slide the card thru, jiggle & wiggle it, etc. and quite possibly the gate will open. Reasons for this are that since it is outside, the reader is subjected to extreme weather conditions day in and day out, thus, the detecting heads may not be in the best of shape, or since it is outside it may be a cheap reader. In either case, it may not work as good as it should and can make 'mistakes' to allow you access.
Combinations: The devices listed in this article do not have to be used alone. They can and are used in conjunction with each other for greater security.
Diversions: In some cases, a diversion could better insure your passage through the perimeter. Keep this in mind.
Extreme weather conditions: All devices have an effective operating range of temperatures. On the low end of the scale, most devices will not operate if it is -30 degrees Fahrenheit or lower. Though, quite a few will not operate effectively under the following temperatures: -13 f, -4 f, +10 f, +32 f. On the other side of the scale, they will not operate in excess of: +120 f, +130 f and +150 f. It is unlikely that the outside temperature will be above 120 degrees, but in many places, it may be below freezing. Take this into consideration if a facility has these devices, and you cannot bypass them any other way.
I could not have possibly mentioned everything used in perimeter protection in this article. I have tried to inform you of the more common devices used. Some things were intentionally left out, some were not. I welcome any corrections, suggestions, and methods, for this article and the future articles planned. I can be contacted on a few boards or through the LOD/H TJ Staff Account.
This article primarily dealt with the identification of various 'tools' used in physical security for the deterrence, prevention, detection, and response to an intruder. There also were some methods which have been used to attack, defeat, and bypass these 'tools'. None of the methods mentioned in this article work 100% of the time in all circumstances, but ALL have worked, some were under controlled circumstances, some were not. But all have worked. Some methods are somewhat crude, but they get the job done. Some methods were intentionally left out for obvious reasons. Even though this article was written in a tutorial fashion, in no way am I advising you to go out and break the law. I am merely showing you how to identify devices that you may not have known were in place to keep you from making a stupid mistake and getting caught. The Establishment doesn't always play fair, so why should we?
Gary Seven (LOH)
The LOD/H Technical Journal: File #4 of 12
Understanding the Traffic Services Position System (TSPS)
Part I - The Console
By The Marauder & The Legion of Doom!
/ Revision 1.0-02 X
Written Sometime in 1986…
* Special thanks to Bill from RNOC, Phucked Agent 04, and The (602) Scorpion
for their help in acquiring & compiling this information.
In this article I will discuss the basic layout description, and use of
the keys, found on the standard AT&T 100-B TSPS Console. Possible uses for the information contained herein (besides for just wanting to know about the TSPS Console) are primarily for social engineering purposes. The more you know about operators and their jobs, the more you can get them to do things for you…
I. Basic Console layout
+—————————————————————————+ ! +———————+ +————————————-+ ! ! ! (Ticket Box) ! ! ( Display ) ! ! ! +———————+ +————————————-+ ! ! ! ! (NonCoin) (— Coin 1—–) (– Hotel –) ! ! VFY OVR SCN INW EMR Sta 0+ 0- Sta 0+ 0- Pst Tne Sta 0+ 0- Gst ! ! SES INT Pay ! ! ! ! (Outgoing trunk) (— Ring Designation — ) (Release) ! ! DA R&R SWB OGT BAK FWD CAL T&C Nfy Chg Key BAK FWD SR MB Mt PT ! ! BAK due clg ! ! ! ! +—–+ Cw (Station) PA CL SP SP AT DDD ! ! ! M B ! CG CD CT ! ! ! u u ! ! ! ! l l ! (Person ) PA CL SP SP NO ! ! ! t l ! CG CD AMA ! ! ! i e ! ! ! ! t ! (Coin 2) (AMA Timing) (Loop Ctl) ! ! ! L i ! COL RET CA ST Cg Cg Cg ! ! ! e n ! TMG TMG (Kpls key) (Num pad) ! ! ! a ! Cd Cd Cd KP KP KP 1 2 3 ! ! ! f T ! CA REC TB RT HO ! ! ! r ! CAL MSG HD HD HD 4 5 6 ST ! ! ! a ! KP KP ! out - 54"H x 40"W x12"D), with some newer size F, H, and some 3M series- ! ! ! RLS ! ! ! ! (Display Ctrl) KP KP 0 ! ! +—–+ tim chg CLG CLD SPL BK FD +——–! ! min NUM NUM NUM ! Number ! ! ! Plate ! +—————————————————————————+
Figure 1. 100-B TSPS Console layout
(Due to 80 col width, picture is a little distorted vertically)
o Abbreviations in all capital letters are ILLUMINATED KEYS o Abbreviations in all lower case letters are NON-ILLUMINATED KEYS o Abbreviations in upper & lower case letters are LAMPS ONLY
ie: VFY = Lighted VERIFY key, tim = Unlighted TIME key, Cg = CALLING Lamp
– Above is the standard AT&T 100-B console layout, while there may be additional or different keys on the various consoles, they will generally resemble the above layout closely. In the lower right hand corner you will notice the numbers 0-9 laid out into what resembles a keypad, this is exactly what it appears to be. The TSPS Operator uses this keypad for keying in not only routing information (Phone numbers, Inward routings, etc..) but as a multi purpose tool for entering various numeric codes recognized by the TSPS software itself. Routing information applied onto the trunks from the TSPS position is of course in MF (Multi-Frequency). When a TSO keys in a number or routing, the console buffers the KP+INFORMATION DIGITS until the ST key is pressed, at which time it plays the buffered KP+INFO DIGITS+ST onto the trunk in a uniformly spaced sequence. So if you were somehow able to listen in on a TSO actually routing a call, it would not sound like someone placing a call on a standard Touch-Tone telephone (or homemade blue box), but more like someone pressing a "Redial key" on a Touch-Tone (TT) phone. The duration of the tone and space between the tones are a network-wide standard, although the network in most cases is quite tolerant to deviations of this standard. (This "loose" tolerance is what allows us to simulate In-band signalling with our blue boxes).
– At the upper left hand side of the diagram you will see the Ticket box, This box has 4 slots marked New, Cancel, Scratch and Completed. I believe this is used for manually filled out trouble and/or time tickets. As far as I know manually filled time tickets are a thing of the past, however in case of equipment failure the tickets are available I assume. TSO would manually fill out a trouble ticket to report trouble reaching a number out of her LAN (Local Area Network - or, The area directly served by her particular TSPS position), whereas to report trouble with a number in her LAN she would simply key in a trouble code (utilizing the KP-TRBL (Trouble) key). to automatically place a trouble report.
– To the right of the Ticket box you will see the DISPLAY. The display works in conjunction with certain keys on the console, and is used to display timing information (hours, mins, sec's), Cost per minute, Calling number identification (what most people refer to as TSPS ANI), numbers called, and various special codes. The console display can be in one of two states, either 1) displaying digits, or 2) displaying nothing (dark). Both of which have different meanings when resulting from certain procedures attempted by a TSO. LIGHTED KEYS, and LAMPS on the console can be in one of three states either 1) NOT ILLUMINATED (dark), 2) ILLUMINATED, or 3) FLASHING. Again the state of a lamp/lamp-key meaning different things under different conditions.
II. KEY DESCRIPTIONS & USES
– Below the Ticket box you will see a row of 5 keys starting with the key labeled "VFY" (Verify), these are various special purpose keys used by TSPS that have no real "grouping" unlike the other "Key groups". These are:
(VFY) - Verify, Illuminated key. Used in conjunction with the keypad, allows the TSO to verify (listen in) on a telephone call that is in progress, although any conversation taking place on that call is scrambled to the TSO, and despite popular belief THE SCRAMBLING PROCESS IS DONE AT THE CONSOLE LEVEL, AND NOT ON THE TRUNK LEVEL, SO FOR THOSE OF YOU WHO SEEN REFERENCE TO THE "BLV SCRAMBLING SHUT OFF TONE" PLEASE IGNORE IT, IF YOU WERE TO SOMEHOW GAIN ACCESS TO A VERIFICATION TRUNK FROM A NON-TSPS POSITION, THE CONVERSATION WOULD NOT BE SCRAMBLED.
(OVR SES) - Over Seas, Illuminated key. Used in overseas call completion through an Overseas Toll Completion Center/Server (IOCC). I believe it also allows the TSO to key in more than 10 digits (standard POTS) for IDDD call completion.
(SCN) - Screen, Illuminated key - Lights to notify TSO that incoming call has an associated screening code, (ie: 74=collect calls only, 93=special billing). Depressing this key causes the code to show on display, and it's up to the TSO to decipher the code and explain its meaning to the customer if he/she is attempting something forbidden by his associated screening code. (ie: Prison phones have a screening code of 74, allowing them to place collect calls only.)
(INW) - Inward, Illuminated key - Lights to notify the TSO that the incoming call is "Operator to Operator", therefore she answers by pressing the key and answering "Inward!". In most cases Inward Operators are actually TSPS, with their INWARD lamps lit.
(EMR INT) - Emergency Interrupt, Illuminated key. Used in conjunction with the VFY key, to interrupt a call in progress while a line Verification is being done, pressing this key causes an audible "beep" to be applied to the line, and de-activates the console scrambling (for roughly 30 seconds) , allowing the TSO to talk to the parties being verified/interrupted. Use of this key & the VFY key, is constantly kept track of via various security & maintenance TTY's and any abuse/misuse will set off alarms.
– To the right of the above set of keys you will see three groups of LAMPS/Keys labled "Non-coin", "Coin 1", and "Hotel". The TSO utilizes the condition of these lamps to identify the status of incoming calls. There are three lamps that are common to each of the three groups, these are: "Sta", "0+", and "0-" their meaning is identical in each case as you will see below.
(Sta) - Lamp, NON-COIN STA lamp lights when a non-coin caller requires TSPS assistance in placing an otherwise direct-dialable call (in some rural areas that have limited DDD features). COIN STA lamp lights on direct dialed coin calls that are sent to TSPS for payment collection. HOTEL STA lights on Hotel originated DDD calls, TSPS also receives room number call is being originated from.
(0+) - Lamp, Lights to signify that the incoming call was originated by a customer dialing a "0+telephone number" for an operator assisted call in each of the three groups (coin, non-coin, hotel/motel). (ie. if a customer were to place a "person to person (op assisted) call from a payphone, this would cause the "0+" lamp in the "coin" group to light, one placed from a residential phone would cause the "0+" lamp in the "non-coin" group to light, etc..)
(0-) - aka "Dial Zero", Lamp. Lights to signify that the incoming call was originated by a customer simply dialing 0 (zero), in each of the three categories (non-coin, coin, hotel/motel).
(PST PAY) - Post Pay, Illuminated key. Coin group only, Depressed by TSPS when a customer requests a "post pay" call from a payphone, allowing him to deposit the full charge at the completion of the call.
(Tne) - Tone, Lamp. I believe this lamp lights to inform the TSO that a coin customer has flashed his/her switchook during a call in progress, requesting operator assistance, although I'm not positive of this.
(GST) - Guest, Illuminated key lights on all hotel originated calls.
– Below the above rows of keys and to the far left you will see a row of keys labled "Outgoing Trunks". TSPS utilizes this group of keys to select various outgoing trunk groups the keys are used as follows:
(DA) - Directory Assistance, Illuminated key. Used by TSO to place calls to the directory assistance group.
(R&R) - Rate & Route, Illuminated key. Used to place calls to rate and route, I believe TSPS now goes to the Universal Rate and Route position known to all you boxers to be found at KP+800+141+1212+ST.
(SWB) - Switchboard, Illuminated key. I believe this key is used to reach a cord-board position, although I have no evidence of this.
(OGT) - Outgoing Trunk, Illuminated key. Depressed by TSO to select an outgoing trunk to be used to place operator assisted calls, special purpose calls (ie. Inward), etc..
– To the right of this row of keys you will find the group labled "Ring", these keys are utilized by TSPS to activate special purpose ring features and line handling.
(BAK) - Ring Back, Illuminated key. Used by TSO to ring the originating party's line while holding the forward line in the event that the originating party looses his connection
(FWD) - Ring Forward, Illuminated Key. Exactly the opposite of ring back.
(CAL BAK) - Call Back, Illuminated key. Used in special operator call back situations on person to person calls where the called party is not available but a message is left anyway, I really don't understand it's full potential and most positions I have spoken with don't either.
(T&C) - Time and Charges, Illuminated key.
(Nfy) - Lamp. Used in Non-ACTS (Automatic Coin Toll Service) originated calls, lights to inform TSPS to notify caller of expiration if initial n minute period (n = number of minutes entered via the KP NFY key at the origination of the call).
(Chg Due) - Lamp. Lights to inform TSO that more money is needed at the completion of a TSO assisted coin call, the usual procedure is to ring the coin station back and attempt to frighten the customer into making the proper deposit ("If you don't pay we'll bill the called party…").
(Key Clg) - Key Calling, Lamp. This lamp is used by TSPS to determine the status of an incoming "Operator Number Identification" (ONI) marked caller or an incoming caller that was routed to TSPS due to an "ANI Failure" (ANIF) Both call conditions come to as a "0+" call (hotel, non-coin, coin - see above), if the calling party is marked as "ONI Required" the appropriate "0+" lamp will light, and the "Key Calling" lamp will be LIT STEADY. If the incoming call was due to an ANIF, the "0+" lamp will be lit, and the "Key Calling" lamp will be LIT & FLASHING.
– Directly to the right of the "Ring" group of key's you will find the RELEASE set of key's, these two Illuminated key's allow the TSO to selectively release (disconnect from) either the calling, or called parties by pressing either the "Release Back" (BAK), or "Release Forward" (FWD) key respectively.
– To the right of the release set, you will see a group of four key's with no particular "group designation", these again are various multi-purpose key's that serve the following:
(SR) - Service (assistance) Required, Illuminated Key. Pressed by TSO to Forward calling party to a supervisory console (ie. Irate Customers demanding supervisor), can also be used if she is confused and needs assistance.
(MB) - Make Busy, Illuminated key. Used to "Busy out" her console, lights when pressed, console will not take any incoming calls until it is pressed again. (ie: Useful when gabbing, doing nails, or filling out time/trouble tickets).
(Mt) - Maintenance, Lamp. This lamp Illuminates to warn the TSO that her console has been placed into remote maintenance/testing mode. A flashing MTNC lamp indicates a faulty console.
(PT) - Position Transfer, Illuminated Key. A TSO depresses this key to transfer the call in progress from her console (position) to another console.
– Below the "Outgoing Trunk" keygroup, you will see a Lamp marked "Cw" Call Waiting - This lamp lights on every active console to inform a TSO that there are incoming calls waiting.
– To the far right of the "Cw" lamp, you will find the AMA group of keys, broken into two sub-groups, which are "Station" and "Person", a complete description of each key in this group would require more room than I have available here, so if there's sufficient interest I will devote another article to the use of these key's. Basically these key's are used in conjunction with the "KP" and "AMA Timing" groups of key's (see below), for attaching the appropriate class of charge to the call being originated. The keys in the "Station" sub-class from left to right are "Paid" (PA), which is used to attach a "Station to Station" originating caller paid class of charge, "Collect" (COL) to attach "Station to Station" Collect Call. "Special Calling" (SP CG), and "Special Called" (SC CD) which are both used in "Special" Station to Station billing procedures, such as third party, or credit card calls. "Auto Collect" (AT CT), used in coin billing procedures and "Direct Distance Dialing" (DDD), Attaches a DDD class of charge in cases where you have trouble dialing a number and require operator assistance in completing a call. Below this row of keys you will find the "Person" sub-group of AMA keys, their uses are identical to those in the "Station to Station" group only they attach a "Person to Person" rate of charge. The "No AMA" (NO AMA), key is pressed to eliminate a charge for a person to person call where the called party is unavailable. Although all the key's in this group can take on different meanings under different conditions, the above definitions are suitable for the sake of this article. All key's in this group are Illuminated keys.
– Below the "Cw" lamp you will find two keys under the heading "Coin 2", their uses on "Coin originated (payphone)" calls are: "Coin Collect" (COL) - which causes the payphone to collect coin, and the "Coin Return" (RET), causes it to return a coin. Both are Illuminated Key's.
– To the right of the "Coin 2" group, you will find the "AMA Timing" group. These key's are used in conjunction with the "AMA", and "KP" groups for:
(CA TMG) - Cancel Timing, Illuminated Key. Cancels AMA timing charges and also allows TSO to change the class of charge on a call.
(ST TMG) - Start Timing, Illuminated Key. Used to start AMA timing after appropriate class of charge has been entered, and the calling party has reached the called party in person to person calls (or in station to station DDD calls, destination ring has been established).
(CA CAL) - Cancel Call, Illuminated Key. Used in conjunction with the Cancel Timing key to Cancel a call and mark a "NON-COMPLETED" call on the AMA tapes (ie. A person to person call where the called party is not available).
(REC MSG) - Record (AMA) Message, Illuminated Key. Used at the completion of (completion meaning calling & called party are done talking), to record the time of the call and the appropriate class of charge onto the AMA tapes and releases their forward connection. – To the right of the AMA timing group you will see three columns of four buttons under the heading of Loop Control. These allow the TSO to access any of the three loops available to her for placing calls. The keys have identical meaning in each set they are used in the following manner:
(CLG) - Calling Party, Lamp. Lights to signify person on said loop is a calling party.
(CLD) - Called Party, Lamp. Lights to signify that person on loop is a called party.
(HLD) - Hold, Illuminated key. Places a loop into a hold state, the calling and called party can talk to each other, and AMA timing can be started. The call is held at the console.
(ACS) - Access, Illuminated key. Used by TSO to initially access a loop. Pressing this key selects an outgoing loop, and readies the console for placing a call onto it. It is also used to allow TSO back into a loop(s) in a HOLD state.
– To the right of the loop control group you will see the "Keypulse Key" group, these key's are pressed by the TSO to initialize the keypad parser into the proper mode for entering information, which is completed/entered by pressing the ST (START) key (to right of keypad). Their uses are as follows:
(KP TB) - KP Trouble, Illuminated key. Used to enter various TSO encountered trouble codes such as noisy line, customer(s) were cut off, couldn't complete call, etc. I believe the format for entering a trouble code is as follows: "KP TBL + TC + NTE + CN + ST" where KP TBL = KP Trouble Key, TC = 2 Digit Trouble code, NTE = Number of times Trouble was encountered (1 Digit), CN = Callers (phone) Number, and ST = the START key. a record of the trouble is made on the AMA tapes and the calling party is usually given credit.
(KP RT) - KP Rate, Illuminated. Used to enter and display Rate (Charge) information. Can also be used to display rate information at a customer request.
(KP HO) - KP Hotel, Illuminated Key. Used for manually entering a verbally requested room number on Hotel/Motel originated calls.
(KP NY) - KP Notify, Illuminated key. Used for entering time in Minutes on a NON-ACTS originated Coin call, when entered time duration is up, it causes the NFY Lamp (See above) to Flash.
(KP SP) - KP Special, Illuminated Key. Used for entering Special numbers such as credit card id's and third party billing numbers, causes TSPS software to automatically query the BVA (Billing Validation) database to check validity of number/CC, will flash if billing to an illegal card or number is attempted.
(KP BK) - KP Back, Illuminated Key. Used in entering the calling number in ANI failures (ANIF), and ONI (Operator Number Identification) required situations.
(KP FD) - KP Forward, Illuminated. Most commonly used KP Key. Used to enter called party's number on all TSO assisted calls. Pressing the ST (START) key causes the entered number to be applied onto the accessed trunks in MF.
(ST) - Start, Illuminated Key (Found to the right of the keypad). Used in completing all KP+number sequences listed above.
– Below the "Coin 2" set of key's you will see the (POS RLS) - Position Release key, this key is used by the TSO to release her position from the call. She would hit POS RLS after completing a call, and also to release a person calling to ask her questions and not actually requesting a call be placed (ie. Name/place requests, etc..)
– Below the Position Release key you will see a set of 5 key's labeled "Display Control", these key's are used to make the console display show various information. Their use is as follows:
(TIM) - Time, Unlighted Key. Displays time of day in Military format.
(CHG MIN) - Charge per Minute, Unlighted Key. Displays the $ charge per minute on a call in progress.
(CLG NUM) - Calling Number, Illuminated Key. Displays the number of the calling party.
(CLD NUM) - Called number, Illuminated Key. Displays the number of the called party.
(SPL NUM) - Special Number, Illuminated Key. Display's various special numbers such as Calling Card numbers, and third party billed numbers. Use of this key in displaying Calling Card numbers is as follows: Press it once you get first 10 digits of 16 digit Calling Card, press it a second time and get the second 6 digits of the Calling Card, press it again and it darkens the display.
– That's it for the key's on the console, on the left hand side of the diagram you will see the "Multi Leaf Bulletin Tray", this is an all purpose holder for information leaflets that contain information on special numbers, Rate & Route information, special non-standard assistance routes, and various other TSPS related information. At the lower right hand side of the console is the "Number Plate", this is simply the console's Position number and ID number. It is a stamped metal plate, I haven't figured out any way to abuse it yet, other than scaring a TSO by knowing of it's existence.
That's about it for this article, if there is sufficient interest in TSPS I will write further articles with more detail on the actual procedures used by the TSPS operator in call handling and such, I will also be writing an article on the BOC TOPS (Toll Operator Position Service) operators that have begun to pop up since the divestiture when I get some better information on the position itself. It seems that AT&T inwards no longer handle only long distance assistance in TOPS services areas and the TOPS op's handle all local area assistance. Until then, Dial with Care. The Marauder Legion of Doom! —————————————————————————— Any questions, comments or clarifications can be made directly to me, or via the TJ's Staff account. The LOD/H Technical Journal: File #5 of 12 An Introduction to Hacking TOPS-20s by The Blue Archer To begin with, I would like introduce this article and clarify a few things. Firstly, this article was written to familiarize interested hackers in DEC's TOPS-20 (Total OPerating System-20) and give them knowledge of how to properly utilize its resources. This article will generally be limited to the basics, with an advanced article forthcoming. Secondly, you may have seen other articles I have written on the Tops-20 a while back. Well this is simply a better organized and updated article with primarily the same information. And finally, I would like to say that I welcome any and all questions about the article or the operating system and would be glad to help out with any problems. I may be reached on certain boards or through the LOD/H TJ Staff Account on sponsor BBS's. Anyway, have a good time hacking your local TOPS! Starting Notes ————– o Capital letters in the beginning of a command indicate that those letters alone may be typed for the whole command. o <>: Brackets around any element(s) are required. o (): Parenthesis are not required unless otherwise stated. o D: This symbol refers to control (ex: DA= Control-A). o @: Is the general system prompt and is not considered to be typed by the user when shown in examples. o $: This is the enabled state system prompt (explained hereafter). —————- /EXTERNAL USAGE/ —————- SECTION I: ACCESS The commands for entering and leaving a Tops-20 are LOGin and LOGOut respectively. The correct usage of these command are as follows: @LOGin USERNAME @LOGOut USERNAME Where username is a variable for the account name. Account names may be virtually anything, depending upon the system. I employ two methods for attaining usernames. The first, and most commonly known and used is checking the system status. This is done thusly: @SYstat This will cause the computer to list out various information about the assorted users logged in and their status and the status of the system as a whole. This command does not work on all Tops-20 computers from a non-logged in state, namely versions 6.1 and higher. A second and immensely more effective method is superior use of the escape character. The complete use of this character will be discussed later. For use in logging, one types LOGin and then a letter or series of letters and then the escape key. Depending on the number of usernames beginning with the same letter(s), the computer will fill in the rest of the username. Once the letters are in such a way that if one continued typing, only one valid username could be gotten, the escape key will fill in the rest if pressed. Here is an example: @LOGin S(escape) (the computer responds with a beep because there is more than one username starting with the letter S, so I type another letter) @LOGin SM(escape) (beep once more) @LOGin SMI(escape) @LOGin SMIth (PASSWORD) ^^ (The computer fills in the 'th' part of the username for me and asks for the password with the parenthesis and all). One note: If the computer fills in an account name and then when a password is tried it responds with a 'not valid account' message, it simply means that it is a non-loginable files-only account which will be discussed later. While trying to gain access to a system, it is wise to use all the pre-login resources avaiable. On versions 6.x these resources are virtualy nil but on the older versions, one may sometimes find an incredible amount of help. To see what actual help is available, type: @HELP ? Look for certain things like SECURITY and LOGINHELP. If the system in use is on a net, or for some reason the dialup number is not known but wanted, it can sometimes be found in help files most commonly named DIAL, DIALUP(S), and PHONES. So, to view them, simply type: @HELP DIALUPS Or the name of whatever help file that is desired to be seen. The Information command is also a useful command, more fully discussed later. The most useful Information commands are as follows: @Information VERSion This will display the banner. If the computer, for security reasons, did not display the banner upon connection, then this may prove useful in identifying the target computer @Information DEC lists the various Decnet nodes available. On 6.x versions @I DEC NODENAME will tell if a path is open to the node or is the object node is currently up and running. @I ARPA will tell the status of ARPANET with respect to this particular computer. Meaning whether or not the software is up and running and the status of connections. Networking will be explained in the advanced Tops hacking file. —————- /INTERNAL USAGE/ —————- SECTION II: SYSTEM FUNCTIONS Under normal circumstances, with the exception of currently running programs, the exec level (command level) prompt will be either @' or $' depending on certain options, which will be discussed later. For now we will assume the prompt is @. This is the place where commands given are executed immediately. Certain characters are also available for use here (and other places) which make life on a TOPS-20 easier. Here is a list of those characters: 1) DC: This gets the system's attention. It will break out of most programs and processes. It may be necessary to type 2 for it to work, though. 3) DO: Halts terminal output without interrupting the program. A second DO restarts output to terminal. Note: under this condition output is still being sent by the computer, it is just not printed on the terminal, as opposed to an actual ceasing of output by DS. 4) DS: Temporarily pauses current output. 5) DQ: Resumes output currently suspended by DS. 6) DR: Retypes current line discarding old line. 7) DT: Prints information including what the program in use is doing, CPU information, and load average (amount of users on system.) 8) (Escape): The Escape key causes a form of recognition for virtually anything being done on the TOPS. It will complete commands, filenames, and just about anything else being typed to the computer. For example I(escape) would result in the command INFORMATION. For further information on this command refer to the logging in procedure utilizing this feature. 9) ?: This is used to obtain information regarding what the system is expecting as input or what the current command options are. It may be used almost anywhere, including after single or multiple letters, filenames, etc. example: @C? would print a list of available exec level commands starting with the letter C. Here is a list of commands used to obtain system information: 1) DAYtime: Prints current data and time of day. 2) HELP: Gives help on a wide variety of topics, depending on the system. For a complete list, type: HELP ? 3) Information: Provides information on a wide variety of topics. For a complete list, type: I ? 4) SYstat: Outputs a summary of system users and available computer resources. SECTION III: ACCOUNT STRUCTURE The TOPS-20 users login and use the system via accounts which are variable with different privilege levels and access rights. Accounts are specified by usernames and most of the time the directory names are the same as the account names as is also common for VMS. So, logging in under the SMITH means that one is under the account (username) SMITH. To find out the privileges of an account, type: @I DIR <USERNAME> This can always be done to the account logged in under, and sometimes to other accounts depending on access rights and the security of the other account. This command prints out information regarding the account specified. It will even show passwords on pre-6.x versions of TOPS if one has sufficient privs. In general the two major levels of privs are full and normal. Full privs are denoted by OPERATOR or WHEEL in the privilege information printed. This level gives the user complete authority over the system. The normal level of privs means anything else but OPERATOR or WHEEL. These forms of accounts have limited access with respect to system operations and other accounts. Access to certain programs, files, and information is restricted to whatever extent the system owners choose. Other minor privilege abilities enable the user to perform slightly more than completely normal users, and sometimes may be of importance depending on the circumstances. Creation and modification of accounts is done through the BUIld command. Example: @BUILD <USERNAME> Where <USERNAME> is the account to be modified (already exists) or an account to be created (non-existant). Depending on the privs of the account attempting to build and system restrictions, one may have a great deal or virtually no power to create and modify. On most systems, only wheels and operators can create top level accounts (loginable non-subdirectory accounts). File storage sub-accounts can be created almost anywhere. These are simply accounts in which files are put, and these accounts cannot be logged into. To see what options have been chosen for the account being built, simply type: @@LIST Other options for the account being built are as follows: 1) WHEEL: This gives the account wheel (complete) privileges. If this option is chosen, then others may be excluded for it is all-encompassing, it overrides any and all protection. 2) OPERATOR: Same as wheel. 3) DECNET-ACCESS: This allows the account to use the decnet, assuming there is one available. DECNET and other nets will be explained in the advanced article. 4) ARPANET-ACCESS: Allows user to use the Arpanet. 5) ARPANET-WIZARD: This command allows the user ARPANET ACCESS and more. This account has the ability to turn the Arpanet software of the system on and off. The commands are as follows: $DESET ARPA ON $DESET ARPA OFF Use of DE will be discussed in the next article. The dollar sign for the system prompt is explained later. 6) IPCF: Allows Inter-Process Communication Facility capabilities. 7) DEFAULT-FILE-PROTECTION: Sets the protection of the files in the user's directory. The lower, the more secure. 8) PROTECTION-OF-DIRECTORY: Sets protection of the actual account itself. This means who can connect to it, modify it, etc. Once again, the lower the protection, the more secure it is against others. 9) PASSWORD: Sets the password for the account. Type PASSword with the actual password after it. 10) KILL: This destroys the account. This command removes the account from the system. To complete the creation/modification, type two carriage returns. The system will not recognize the user as having its various privileges unless it is told that they are there. This is done thusly: @ENAble This enables all the user's privileges and changes the prompt to a '$'. All accounts, even wheels, are considered normal until enabled, so this must always be done before an action requiring privileges is performed. It is fine to do this immediately after logging in and leaving it like that, for it does not save any adverse effects. At all places in this article where there is a '@', if enabled would be a '$'. SECTION IV: DIRECTORY USAGE Directories are storage places for files. Each account has a directory in its own name, and possibly one or more subdirectories. To see what files are in the directory connected to at the moment, type the command DIRectory: @DIR This will list what files, if any, are accesable in this directory. At the time of login the computer sets the account's own directory as the one to be connected to unless otherwise specified by such things as login adjustment files (to be discussed at a later date.) Subdirectories of an account are denoted by a period between the account name and directory name. Example: <ACCOUNTNAME.SUBDIRECTORYNAME> Subdirectories are dealt with as normal directories for purposes of usage. Dealings with directories other than the current default directory require the use of brackets. For example, if one wanted to look in a directory titled <SMITH>, he would have to type: @DIR <SMITH> And assuming his directory is not protected, a list of files in the <SMITH> directory will be produced. The current default directory (the one connected to) does not require brackets for usage. Most directory commands may be used on other directories by simply placing the object directory (one to be commanded) in brackets after the command. Here is a list of some of the more important directory related commands: 1) ACCESS: This command requires the password of the target directory and, if correctly given, transfers rights to that directory including creation/deletion of files, etc. The format for usage is: @ACCESS <DIRECTORY> 2) CONNECT: This changes the current default directory to the specified one. It may be countered, though, by protection. If ACCESS to the object directory is on then connection may be established regardless of protection. The command is used like this: @CONNECT <DIRECTORY> 3) COPY: This duplicates an already existing file in another directory to the current default directory or another specified directory. The format is: @COPY <OBJECTDIRECTORY>FILENAME.FILETYPE to copy it to the default directory, or: @COPY <OBJECTDIRECTORY>FILENAME.FILETYPE <OTHERDIRECTORY>FILENAME.FILETYPE to copy it to another directory. 4) DELete: Deletes the file from the directory. It still exists and may be retrieved until it is completely removed. 5) EXPunge: Completely removes deleted files from the system forever. 6) FDIRectory: Lists all information about all files in directory. 7) RENAme: Rename a specified file. The format is: @RENAme FILENAME.FILETYPE NEWFILENAME.FILETYPE 8) UNDELete: Restores deleted files which have not been expunged yet. 9) VDIRectory: List all information about all files in directory specified, including protection, size, and date and time when they were last written. Files in directories are in the form of: FILENAME.FILETYPE.# where filename is the name of the file, filetype is the kind of file, and # is the number of the file. If there is more than one file with the same name, multiple numbers will be shown. If a number is left out when a command dealing with a file is typed, then the file with the highest number will be used. Here is a list of filetypes and how to properly use them: 1) .BAS: These are files written in basic. To use these, type BASIC or BASIC20 and LOAD them in and RUN, LIST, or modify them in the basic language and SAVE. 2) .BIN: These are binary files containing program data and are generaly not directly used. 3) .CMD: These are command files. They are files of a series of commands to be executed. Commands will be carried out as if typed by the user from the exec level. To use them, type: @TAKE FILENAME.CMD They are very useful for performing long processes which must be done often. 4) .CTL: This is a control file for batch jobs. It tells the batch job what to do when it logs in. Batch jobs are jobs logged into the account which created it to carry out commands. Further discussion of batch jobs is in the next TOPS article. The format for usage of these files are: @SUBmit FILENAME.CTL 5) .EXE: Files of this sort are executable from the exec level. They are assembled programs in machine language and the fastest sort of program on the TOPS. To use them, type: @<DIRECTORY>FILENAME.EXE 6) .HLP: This is basically just a text file. Use the same command as the .TXT forms of files. If a file of this sort is placed within the actual <HELP> directory, it becomes available to the whole system by simply typing: @HELP FILENAME All information obtained through the HELP command is actually in the form of files in the <HELP> directory. 7) .INIT: These are initialization routines for various programs. They are not used directly. 8) .LOG: This is the output of batch jobs. It details the actions of the job and the responses of the computer. To view, do this: @TYpe FILENAME.LOG 9) .MEM: This is a memorandum. Often times being inter-office memos and the like. Use them as any normal text file. 10) .TEXT: This is the uncommon filetype name for a text file. See .TXT for proper usage. 11) .TXT: These are text files. They contain written information and data to be read. The command for using them is as follows: @TYpe FILENAME.TXT To use files in other directories, type the directory name in brackets before the filename. Ex: @TYpe <SMITH>SECRET.TXT This applies for all filetypes and commands. Once again restrictions may apply with regard to protection. SECTION V: SYSTEM-WIDE COMMUNICATIONS Communication to other system users is done primarily two ways: direct and indirect. Direct includes chatting with another online user and such, while indirect is generally done through electronic mail and the like. Here are the common commands of direct communication: 1) ADVISE: When this is done, whatever is typed at one terminal is executed at another. For example: @ADVISE USERNAME Then, whatever is typed will be carried out as if typed from that terminal until the link is broken. 2) BReak: This breaks all links to the terminal typing BReak. 3) RECEIVE: This allows the terminal to receive either LINKS or ADVICE, as specified by the command. Ex: @RECEIVE ADVICE 4) REFUSE: This puts up a barrier keeping links or advice from reaching the terminal. REFUSE ADVICE is default when logging in, so in order receive advice, one would have to type the proper command. 5) REMark: Goes into a chat state in which textual information is sent to the computer and not interpreted as commands. 6) TALK: Establishes a link between two terminals. Ex: @TALK SMITH would establish a link with SMITH. Whatever is typed is seen by both parties. REMark is useful here if a conversation is to ensue. Electronic mail can be sent and read through various programs. The most common ones being MM, MAIL, MS, and RDMAIL. Users are informed when they have a message waiting upon logging in. Mail is stored in the file MAIL.TXT in the user's directory. MM and MS are the best mail programs and should be the ones used, so here is a very brief explanation of the major commands they both use (they are very similar). 1) SEND: This is the command used to send mail to another user. At the prompt of the respective mail program, type SEND and a carriage return, the computer will prompt for information such as the user for the message to be sent to, other users to receive a copy of the message, and the title of the piece of mail. 2) READ: This command, if typed with no argument, will start reading all currently unread mail. If used with the number of a piece of mail, it will read that one alone. 3) HEADERS ALL: This will give a list of all the titles of the various pieces of mail in the user's mailbox and the corresponding number of that mail. Sending mail over networks will be discussed in the next article. Look for it in the next issue of the Technical Journal. Blue Archer (LOH) The LOD/H Technical Journal: File #6 of 12 +——————————–+ | Building Your Own Blue Box | +——————————–+ | By | | Jester Sluggo | | Released: Nov. 27, 1986 | +——————————–+ This Blue Box is based on the Exar 2207 Voltage Controlled Oscillator. There are other ways to build Blue Boxes, some being better and some not as good, but I chose to do it this way. My reason for doing so: because at the time I started this project, about the only schematic available on BBS's was the one written by Mr. America and Nickie Halflinger. Those plans soon (in about 90 seconds) became very vague in their context with a couple in- consistencies, but I decided to "rough it out" using those plans (based on the Exar 2207 VCO) and build the Blue Box using that as my guide. During the construction of the Blue Box, I decided to type-up a "more complete and clear" set of Blue Box schematics than the file that I based mine on, in order to help others who may be trying/thinking of building a Blue Box. I hope these help. Note: You should get a copy of the Mr. America/Nickie Halflinger Blue Box plans. Those plans may be of help to anyone who may have difficulty understanding these plans. Also, these plans currently do not support CCITT. +———————————+ | Why should I build a Blue Box ? | +———————————+ Many of you may have that question, and here's my answer. Blue Boxing was the origin of phreaking (excluding whistling). Without the advent of Blue Boxes, I feel that some of the advances in the telecommunications industry would've taken longer to develop (The need to stop the phone phreaks forced AT+T Bell Laboratories to "step up" their development to stop those thieves!). There is no harm in building a Blue Box (except the knowledge you will gain in the field of electronics). Although there are software programs (Soft Blue Boxes) available for many micro's that will produce the Blue Box Multi-Frequency (MF) tones, they are not as portable as an actual Blue Box (you can't carry your computer to a telephone, so you must use it from home which could possibly lead to danger). Many phreaks are announcing the end of the Blue Box Era, but due to discoveries I have made (even on ESS 1A and possibly ESS 5), I do not believe this to be true. Although many people consider Blue Boxing "a pain in the ass", I consider Blue Boxing to be "phreaking in its' purest form". There is much to learn on the current fone network that has not been written about, and Blue Boxes are necessary for some of these discoveries. The gift of free fone calls tends to be a bonus. Note: Blue Boxes also make great Christmas gifts! +—————————————+ | Items needed to construct a Blue Box. | +—————————————+ Here is the list of items you will need and where you can get them. It may be a good idea to gather some of the key parts (the chips, and especially the potentiometers, they took about 6 months to back order through Digi-key. A whole 6 fucking months!) before you start this project. Also, basic electronics tools will be necessary, and you might want to test the circuit on a bread board, then wire-wrap the final project. Also, you will need a box of some sort to put it in (like the blue plastic kind at Radio Shack that cost around $5.00). Note: An oscilliscope should be used when tuning in the potentiometers because the Bell system allows only a 7-10% tolerance in the precision of the frequencies. Qty. Item Part No. Place ————————————————— 1 | 4 x 4 Keypad | | Digi-Key 6 | Inverter Chip | 74C04 | 32 | Potentiometer | | 1 | 4-16 Converter Chip| 74LS154 | 1 | 16 Key Decoder | 74C922 | 2 | 2207 VCO | XR2207CP | Exar Corp. 3 | .01 uf Capacitor | 272-1051 | Radio Shack 5 | .1 uf Capacitor | 272-135 | Radio Shack 2 | 1.5K Ohn Resistor | | Radio Shack 2 | 1.0K Ohm Resistor | | Radio Shack 1 | Speaker | | From an old Autovon fone. 1 | 9 Volt Battery | | Anywhere The resistors should be a +/- 5% tolerance. The speaker can be from a regular telephone (mine just happened to be from an old Autovon phone). But make sure that you remove the diode. The Potentiometers should have a 100K Ohm range (but you may want to make the calculations yourself to double check). The 9-volt battery can be obtained for free if you use your Radio Shack Free Battery Club card. The Exar 2207 VCO can be found if you call the Exar Corp. located in Sunnyvale, California. Call them, and tell them the state you live in, and they'll give the name and phone number to the distributor that is located closest to you. The 2207 will vary from about $3.00 for the silicon-grade (which is the one you'll want to use) to about $12.00 for the high-grade Military chip. Note: When you call Exar, you may want to ask them to send you the spec-sheets that gives greater detail as to the operation and construction of the chip. +——————-+ | Schematic Diagram | +——————-+ +————–+ +————-+ | 1 2 3 A | | Figure #1 | | 4 5 6 B | +————-+ | 7 8 9 C | | Logic Side | | * 0 # D | +————-+ ++-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ 1 | 3 | 5 | 7 | (VCC) | 2 | 4 | 6 | 8 (+5 Volts) +—-+ | | | | | | | | [+] | _|_ | | | | | | | | | | X_/GND +–+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+—-+ +–+———-+—+ | 2 | 11| 10| 7 | | | 14 7 | (.01C) | | 3 | 4 | 8 | 1 12+——+1 | +–||—+5 13+——+2 (*74C04*) | _|_ | | | | X_/GND | (*74C922*) | +—————–+ +–||-+6 | |(.1C)| | _|_ | | X_/GND | 9 17 16 15 14 18| +–+–+–+–+–+—+–+ | | | | | | _|_ A B C D | GNDX_/ | | | | [+] (VCC) [+] (VCC) | | | | (+5 volts) | (+5 volts) | | | | | ——-+–+–+–+——————+—————– | 23 22 21 20 24 18+-+ +—–+12 | +–+ | | (*74LS154*) 19+-+ _|_ _|_ | | X_/ X_/GND | 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 13 14 15 16 17 | GND +–+–+–+–+–+–+–+–+–+-+–+–+–+–+–+–+—-+ 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | (Connects) | +———→ +————————+ | (Figure 2) | +–+ +——-+ | | | | +–+——-+–+——-+—+ | 3–|>o–4 5–|>o–6 | | (Invtr.) (Invtr.) | +—————+7 | _|_ | (*74C04*) | GNDX_/ (VCC) [+]–+14 | (+5 volts) | | +————————-+ +————-+ _ | Figure #2 | / | +—+————-+—-+ +—————-+ | | Tone Generation Side | _|_ | | SPKR +———————-+ GNDX_/ +—+–+—+ | | | X_| | | | | +—————+ +——-+ | | | | | _|_ | +–+14 | | X_/GND | | (Repeat of) | | | | (First) | —– (.1C) | | (Circuit) | —– | | | | | | (*XR2207CP*) | | +—————–+ | +–+6 | | | | | | | | [+]—–+——-+1 14+–+ | +—————+ (VCC) | | +——————–+ (+9 Volts) +—-+2 | | | | 12+———————+ | (.01C) —– | | _|_ | —– | (*XR2207CP*) | X_/GND | | | | 1.5K Ohms | +—-+3 11+—+—X/XRx/X/—+–+ | | | | | _|_ | | | +—X/XRx/X/—+ X_/GND | | | 1.0K Ohms | | 10+—-+ | +————-+6 9+—-+—+ | | | 8+—-+ | | | | | —– (.1C) | | +—————–+ —– | +———+ _|_ +———-+ | | Pot. GNDX_/ Pot. | | | X/X/X/X/–+———————–X/X/X/X/ | | 1400 Hz. | 1600 Hz. | +———+ | +———-+ | | Pot. | Pot. | | | X/X/X/X/–+—————-+——X/X/X/X/ | | 1500 Hz. | | 900 Hz. | | | | | | 14 more | | 14 More | | Potentiometers | | Potentiometers | | in this | | in this | | area left out | | area left out | | for simplicity | | for simplicity | | | | | | | | | | (Connects) | ←————+ (Figure 1) +————————-+ | Multiplex Keypad System | +————————-+ First, the multiplex pattern used in the 4x4 keypad layout. I suggest that keys 0-9 be used as the Blue Box's 0-9 keys, and then you can assign A-D, *, # keys to your comfort (ie. * = Kp, # = St, D = 2600, and A-C as Kp1, Kp2 or however you want). Note: On your 2600 Hz. key (The D key in example above) it may be a good idea to tune in a second potentiometer to 3700 Hz. (Pink Noise). Keypad Key Assignments Multiplex Pattern +———+ +————-+ +————+ | 1 2 3 A | | 1 2 3 4 | | 1 2 3 A |—-Y1=8 X1=3 | 4 5 6 B | | 5 6 7 8 | | 4 5 6 B |—-Y2=1 X2=5 | 7 8 9 C | | 9 10 11 12 | | 7 8 9 C |—-Y3=2 X3=6 | * 0 # D | | 13 14 15 16 | | * 0 # D |—-Y4=4 X4=7 +———+ +————-+ +————+ | | | | X1 X2 X3 X4 +———————-+ | Blue Box Frequencies | +———————-+ This section is taken directly from Mark Tabas's "Better Homes and Blue Boxing" file Part 1. Frequenies (Hz) Domestic Int'l ———————————- 700+900 1 1 700+1100 2 2 900+1100 3 3 700+1300 4 4 900+1300 5 5 1100+1300 6 6 700+1500 7 7 900+1500 8 8 1100+1500 9 9 1300+1500 0 0 700+1700 ST3p Code 11 900+1700 STp Code 12 1100+1700 KP KP1 1300+1700 ST2p KP2 1500+1700 ST ST 2600+3700 *Trunking Frequency* Note: For any further information about the uses or duration of the frequencies, read the Mark Tabas files. +—————-+ | Schematic Help | +—————-+ This is the Key to the diagrams in the schematic. I hope that they help more then they might hurt. _|_ X_/GND is the Ground symbol | | —| |– is the Capacitor symbol | | (.1C) stands for a .1 uf Capacitor (.01C) stands for a .01 uf Capacitor | —– —– is another Capacitor symbol | –X/XRx/X/– is the Resistor symbol (The 1.5K Ohm and 1.0K Ohm Resistors are at +/- 5% ) —+ | X/X/X/X/– is the Potentiometer symbol (The frequncies I supplied above are just examples.) –|>o– is the Inverter symbol +————+ | Conclusion | +————+ This is just one way to build a Blue Box. If you choose this way, then I hope this file is adequate enough to aid you in the construction. Although these are not the best plans, they do work. This file does not tell you how to use it or what to do once it's built. For that information I mention that you read Mark Tabas's "Better Homes and Blue Boxing" files, or any other files/BBS subboards that deal with that realm. If you need help, I sluggest (thanks for that one Taran) that you ask a close friend, possibly an electronics teacher, or a phreak friend to help you. Also, if you need help or have questions or comments about this file, you can address them to me. I can be contacted through the LOD/H Technical Journal Staff account on the boards listed in the Intro, or on the few boards I call. +————-+ ! Credentials ! +————-+ At last, this article would not be possible without the help of the following people/places whom contributed to it in one way or another (it may not be apparent to them, but every minute bit helps). Deserted Surfer (Who helped immensly from Day 1 of this project.) (Without his help this file would not be.) Mark Tabas (For the BHBB files which inspired my interests.) Nickie Halflinger (For the original Blue Box plans I used.) Mr. America (For the original Blue Box plans I used.) Lex Luthor Cheap Shades Exar Corp. Lastly, I would like to thank the United States government for furnishing federal grants to this project. Without their financial help, I would have had to dish out the money from my own pocket (Approximately $80.00. Egads!) Jester Sluggo The LOD/H Technical Journal: File #7 of 12 Intelligence and Interrogation Processes By: Master Of Impact and the Legion Of Hackers INTRODUCTION: ============= Doing what we do best always carries the risk of someone, somewhere, wanting to hold you for questioning. In this article I hope to give those persons who that are in use (and are in no ways happen to be all new), that can give you the edge you need to come away "sin faulta". In fact, these interrogation practicies are used a lot by teachers, local police, the FBI and Secret Service girlfriends, wives, parents, etc. to obtain information from you that you probably don't want to give out. Interrogation is the art of questioning and examining a source in order to obtain the maximum amount of useful information. The goal of any interrogation is to obtain useful and reliable information in a lawful manner and in a minimum amount of time. The goal of any source is to deceive or hinder any attempts of the interrogator to get information out of him. This article will deal primarily with the principles, techniques, and procedures of intelligence interrogation. By reading this article, one who runs the risk of being interrogated can build countermeasures for common interrogation techniques. This article has some paraphrased material from a government interrogation manual but the majority of the information was from personal experience and prior knowledge of the subject. You cannot hope to defeat interrogation techniques unless you first know what they are. The ones listed herein are the most commonly used. After reading this article, you should be able to tell when you are being interrogated by people, and what technique(s) they are using when you probably would not have known before. Once you know what they are up to and how they are going to TRY to accomplish it, YOU have the initiative! INITIATIVE: =========== Achieving and maintaining the initiative is essential to a successful interrogation just as offense is the key to success in combat operations. The initiative in any interrogation must rest with the interrogator throughout the entire interrogation. He will have certain advantages at the beginning of an interrogation which will enable him to grasp the initiative and assist in maintaining the initiative throughout the interrogation. The interrogator has a position of authority over you. You realize this fact, and in some cases, believe that your future might well depend upon your association with the interrogator. As in the case of police questioning, "cooperate and we will go easy on you". Like hell they will. The interrogator knows the purpose of the interrogation; the source does not necessarily know the exact reason, but can generally assume (especially in the case of a computer hacker or phone phreak, which is what the term "source" will be referring to during this article) because he or she is most usually conscious of horrible and nasty wrong-doings he or she may have been responsible for. Unfortunately for the source, he is generally very much in the dark about what's happening to his life while it is, in fact, crumbling around him (temporarily, anyway). This gives the source a not-so-illusionary behavior pattern of the proverbial chicken who's had its head chopped off. Having gained the initial advantage which is quite an understatement, seeing that, although the risks to the source during the perpetration of a crime are quite obvious, the possible realistic results of being caught aren't quite as impressive while one is getting away with a crime than when one's home is invaded by the JC Penny-suit men wearing mirrored sunglasses, the interrogator must strive to maintain the initiative applying appropriate interrogation techniques through the exercise of self-control; by taking advantage of the source's weaknesses as they become apparent; and by continuously displaying an attitude of confidence and self-assurance. The interrogator, however, is 'supposed' to never take advantage of your weaknesses to the extent that the interrogation involves threats, insults, torture or exposure to unpleasant or inhumane treatment of any kind. Remember, the keyword is supposed. It is possible for the interrogator to lose the initiative during the interrogation of a source. If this should occur, he will probably postpone the interrogation and reassess the situation. If the interrogation is resumed, a different interrogator will probably be introduced. Following are some examples of loss of initiative: * The interrogator becomes angry and completely loses his self-control because of the arrogant actions of the source (such as the unbuttoning of a jacket to reveal "Secret Service Sucks" spray painted onto the source's T-shirt.) As a result, the interrogator loses sight of his objective and concentrates his efforts on humbling the source. * During the interrogation the interrogator fails to note significant discrepancies in the source's story. The interrogator may lose his initiative as the source gains confidence from his success and resorts to further deception, leading the interrogator away from his objective. * The interrogator becomes overly friendly with the source and allows him to lead the interrogation. The source reports only what he believes to be important and neglects several significant items of info which could have been obtained had the interrogator maintained the initiative. PHASES OF INTERROGATION: ======================== Approach Phase: ————— Regardless of the type of source you are and your outward personality, you do possess weaknesses which, if recognized by the interrogator, can be exploited. A human being is likely to: o Talk, especially after harrowing experiences o Show deference when confronted by superior authority o Rationalize acts about which he feels guilty o Lack the ability to apply or to remember lessons he may have been taught regarding security if confronted with a disorganized or a strange situation. o Cooperate with those who have control over him o Attach less importance to a topic which the interrogator demonstrates identical or related experiences and knowledge o Appreciate flattery and exoneration from guilt o Cooperate readily when given material rewards o Cooperate readily when treated as an equal TECHNIQUES: =========== "File and Dossier" —————- The interrogator prepares a dossier containing all available info obtained from records and docs concerning you. Careful arrangement of the material with- in the file may give the illusion that it contains more data than is actually there. The file may be "padded" with extra paper, if necessary. Index tabs with titles such as "education", "employment", "criminal record", "bulletin boards", "violated computer systems", and others are particularly effective for this purpose. The interrogtor will confront you with the dossier at the beginning of the interrogation and explain that "intelligence" has provided a complete record of every significant happening in your life; therefore, it would be useless to resist interrogation. The interrogator may read a few selected bits of known data to further impress you. If the technique is successful, you will be impressed with and more importantly, terrified by the "voluminous" file, conclude that everything is known, and resign to complete cooperation. "We know ALL" ———– This technique may be employed in conjunction with the above or by itself. The interrogator must first become thoroughly familiar with the available data concerning you. To begin the interrogation, the interrogator asks questions based on his known data. When you hesitate, refuse to answer, or provide an incomplete or incorrect reply, the interrogator himself provides the detailed answer. Through the careful use of the limited number of known details, the interrogator may convince you that all the info is already known; therefore, your answers to the questions are of no consequence. When you begin to give accurate and complete information, the interrogator interjects questions designed to gain the needed info. Questions to which answers are already known are also asked to test you and to maintain the deception that all the info is already known. A VERY effective technique I might add. "Rapid Fire" ———- This approach technique involves a psychological ploy based on the principles that: * Everyone likes to be heard when they speak; and * It is confusing to be interrupted in mid-sentence with an unrelated question. This technique may be used with one, or simultaneously by two or more interrogators in questioning the same source. In employing this technique the interrogator asks a series of questions in such a manner that you do not have time to answer a question completely before the next question is asked. This tends to confuse you and you are apt to contradict yourself, as you have little time to prepare your answers. The interrogator then confronts you with the inconsistencies, causing further contradictions. In many instances you will begin to talk freely in an attempt to explain yourself and deny the inconsistencies pointed out by the interrogator. In attempting to explain your answers, you are likely to reveal more than you intend, thus creating additional leads for the interrogator. "Mutt and Jeff" ————- This technique involves a psychological ploy which takes advantage of the natural uncertainty and guilt which a source has as a result of being detained and questioned. Use of this technique necessitates the employment of two experienced interrogators who are convincing as actors. Basically, the two interrogators will display opposing personalities and attitudes towards you. For example the first interrogator is very formal and displays an unsympathetic attitude. This is to make you feel cut off from your friends. At the time when you act hopeless and alone, the second interrogator appears (having received his cue by a signal, and is hidden from you), scolds the first interrogator for his harsh behavior and orders him from the room. He then apologizes to soothe you, perhaps offering coffee and a cigarette. He explains that the actions of the first interrogator were largely the result of an inferior intellect and lack of human sensitivity. The inference is created that the other interrogator and you have in common a high degree of intelligence and an awareness of human sensitivity, above and beyond that of the first interrogator. You are normally inclined to have a feeling of gratitude towards the second interrogator, who continues to show a sympathetic attitude in an effort to increase the rapport and control for the questioning which will follow. Should your cooperativeness begin to fade, the second interrogator can hint that since he is of high rank, having many other duties, he cannot afford to waste time on an uncooperative source. He may broadly infer that the first interrogator might return to continue the questioning. When used against the proper source, this trick will normally gain complete cooperation for the interrogation. "Repetition" ———- Repetition is used to induce cooperation from a hostile source. The inter- rogator listens carefully to your answer to a question, and then repeats both the question and answer several times. He does this with each succeeding question until you become so bored with the procedure that you answer the question fully and truthfully to satisfy the interrogator and to gain relief from the monotony of this method of questioning. The repetition technique will generally not work when employed against introverted sources or those having great self control. "Pride and Ego" ————- This technique works effectively on many phreaks and hackers due to the fact that many are so damn egotistical. The strategy is to trick you into revealing desired information by flattering you. It is effective with sources who have displayed weaknesses or feelings of inferiority. The interrogator accuses you of weakness or implies that you are unable to do a certain thing. The proud or egotistical source will jump to the defensive. An example of an opening question for this technique may be: "Why would you own a blue box when you have absolutely no idea how to use one?" or, "Why do you hack VMS systems if you can't do a damn thing once you're inside of one?" It provides you with the opportunity to show someone that you have "brains" and in doing so, you give the interrogator more information than you should have. "Silent" —— The Silent technique may be successful when used against either the nervous, or the confident-type source. When employing this technique, the interrogator says nothing to you, but looks you squarely in the eye, probably with a slight smile on his face. It is important for the interrogator not to look away from you, but force you to break eye contact first. You will become nervous, begin to shift around in your chair, and look away. If you ask questions the interrogator probably will not answer them until he is ready to break the silence. A source may blurt out questions such as, "What the hell do you want with me". When the interrogator is ready to break the silence, he may do so with some quite nonchalant questions such as, "You've been logging on to our system for a long time now, haven't you? Did you hack the passwords yourself?". In some cases the interrogator will use several approach techniques concurrently, or in succession. QUESTIONS: ========== There are various questions that the interrogator may ask you: * Prepared questions: When the topic under inquiry is very technical or when legal aspects of the interrogation require preciseness, the interrogator will have a list of prepared questions to follow during the interrogation. * Control questions: To maintain control and to check on the truthfulness of a source, the normal questions will be mixed with control questions-those with known answers. If you fail to answer these questions, or answer wrong, it will indicate that you are either not knowledgeable in the topic or that you are lying. * Nonpertinent questions: Sometimes it is necessary for the interrogator to keep the true objective of the interrogation from you. By carefully blending pertinent questions with nonpertinent questions, the interrogator can conceal the true purpose of the inquiry. * Direct and leading questions: The manner in which the questions are worded has a direct bearing on your response. A question may be posed in a number of ways: o "What system did you hack into on 11/11/86?" o "Did you break into General Dynamics' computer on 11/11/86?" o "You did break into GD's computer on 11/11/86?" o "You didn't break into GD'S computer on 11/11/86, did you?" PSYCHOLOGY IN INTERROGATION: ============================ The interrogator will watch for various psychological responses from you during an interrogation. Some of these are: * Rationalization: Creating plausible excuses or explanations for one's acts without being aware that these excuses or explanations are way off the [obvious] reality. * Identification: To identify with and mimic a mental image of some one important to you. * Compensation: Trying to make up for a psychological weakness by building up or exaggerating a psychological strength. * Exhibitionism: Showing off, bragging, etc. * Fear, Anger, Frustration, etc. Of course when being interrogated, you should remain as emotionless as possible and never show anger, or get upset (NEVER inflict physical abuse upon the unsuspecting interrogator. This only creates tension between both the inter- rogator and yourself). Your every move, every response, every action is noted and used by the interrogator to get you to screw up and give him what he wants. There can be two main objectives that you can obtain when being interrogated. The first is to find ways to force the interrogator to lose his initiative. You can do this in many ways. A few that come to mind are: Repeat everything the interrogator says. Mimic the interrogator. Laugh at the interrogator. Basically piss the interrogator off and make him so mad that he loses sight of his objective. This may however, get you in deeper trouble, but it may give you extra time while another interrogator is found. Lie like hell to the interrogator and piss him off. Such as the pathological liar gimmick: "I broke into the NSA's computer, yeah, and then used their network to get into the presidents private computer yeah that's it, the password was uh…Bonzo, yeah, and then used it to take control of a satellite used for Star Wars, and made it land right on top of the Kremlin, yeah that's the ticket!" You can also change the subject over and over again to totally unrelated things such as: its a nice day out today, hows the wife and kids, how about some food, who do you think is going to the superbowl, etc. The other and probably better objective is simply to pretend to fall for any of the various techniques used against you and feed the interrogator more and more bullshit, of course being very sincere. This way he gets totally bogus information while thinking you are cooperating fully. Well, I hope you never have to put this article to use in a legal manner, but you would be surprised how everyday you are interrogated without even realizing it by normal people who probably don't realize they are interrogating you! As stated in the other articles, you can reach me for comment via the staff account. MofI (LOH) The LOD/H Technical Journal: File #8 of 12 * NOTE * BECAUSE OF THE LENGTH OF THIS GUIDE, IT HAS BEEN BROKEN INTO TWO PARTS FOR TRANSMISSION. HOWEVER, IT IS ONE VOLUME, AND IS INTENDED TO BE PRINTED AS A WHOLE FOR USE AS BOTH A TUTORIAL AND A REFERENCE GUIDE. * The Legion of Doom! Presents: ————- LOD Reference Guide Vol. I Outside Loop Distribution Plant ————– Written 12/86 Phucked Revision III Agent 04 * ———————- INTRODUCTION / OUTLINE ———————- Basically, the outside local loop distribution plant consists of all of the facilities necessary to distribute telephone service from the central office (CO) out to the subscribers. These facilities include all wire, cable, and terminal points along the distribution path. In this article, we shall follow this path from the CO to the subscriber, examining in depth each major point along the route and how it is used. This is especially useful for checking if any 'unauthorized equipment' is attached to your line, which would not be attached at the Central Office. I suppose this article can also be interpreted to allow someone to do just the opposite of its intended purpose… Note that this article is intended as a reference guide for use by persons familiar with the basics of either LMOS/MLT or the operation of the ARSB/CRAS (or hopefully both), because several references will be made to information pertaining to the above systems/bureaus. I have no manuals on this topic, all information has been obtained through practical experience and social engineering. ——————————– Serving Area Concepts (SAC) plan ——————————– In order to standardize the way loop distribution plants are set up in the Bell System of the U.S. (and to prevent chaos), a reference standard design was created. For urban and suburban areas, this plan was called the Serving Area Concepts (SAC) plan. Basically, in the SAC plan, each city is divided into one or more Wire Centers (WC) which are each handled by a local central office switch. A typical WC will handle 41,000 subscriber lines. Each WC is divided into about 10 or so Serving Areas (depending on the size and population of the city), with an average size of 12 square miles each (compare this to the RAND (Rural Area Network Design) plan where often a rural Serving Area may cover 130 square miles with only a fraction of the number of lines). Each Serving Area may handle around 500-1000 lines or more for maybe 200-400 hous- ing units (typically a tract of homes). From the CO, a feeder group goes out to each Serving Area. This con- sists of cable(s) which contain the wire pairs for each line in the SA, and it is almost always underground (unless it is physically impossible). These feeder cables surface at a point called the Serving Area Interface (SAI) in a pedestal cabinet (or "box"). From the SAI, the pairs (or individual phone lines) are crossed over into one or several distribution cables which handle different sections of the SA (ie. certain streets). These distribution cables are either of the aerial or underground type. The modern trend is to use buried distribution cables all the way to the subscriber premises, but there are still a very large number of existing loop plants using aerial distribu- tion cables (which we will concentrate mainly upon in this article). These distribution cables are then split up into residence aerial drop wires (one per phone line) at a pole closure (in aerial plant), or at a cable pair to service wire cross box (in buried plant). The cable pairs then end up at the station protector at the customer's premises, where they are spliced into the premise "inside wire" (IW) which services each phone in the customer's premi- ses (and is also the customer's responsibility). Although this is the "standard" design, it is by no means the only one! Every telco makes it's own modifications to this standard, depending on the geographic area or age of the network, so it's good to keep your eyes and your mind open. At this point, we will detail each point along the Loop Distribution Plant. —————————– Cable Facility F1 - CO Feeder —————————– The F1 cable is the feeder cable which originates at the Main Distribu- tion Frame (MDF) and cable vault at the local CO and terminates at the SAI. This cable can contain from 600 to over 2000 pairs, and often more than one physical F1 cable is needed to service a single Serving Area (at an SAI). The F1 is almost always located underground, because the size, weight, and number of feeders leaving the CO makes it impossible to put them on normal telephone poles. Since is is also impractical to use one single piece of cable, the F1 usually consists of several pieces of large, pressurized or armored cable spliced together underground (this will be covered later) into a single cable. Cable Numbering ————— In order to make locating cables and pairs easier (or possible, for that matter), all of the cables in the loop distribution plant are numbered, and these numbers are stored in databases such as LMOS at the ARSB or other records at the LAC (Loop Assignment Center) or maintenance center. When trying to locate someone's cable pair, it helps a great deal to know these numbers (although it can be done without them with experience and careful observa- tion). Probably the most common place to find these numbers is on a BOR, in the "Cable & Assignment Data" block. The F1 is usually assigned a number from 00 to 99 (although 000-999 is sometimes used in large offices). Cable >pair< numbering is different however, especially in older offices; typical F1 pair numbers range from 0000 to 9999. Keep in mind that the pair number is not concrete – it is merely nominal, it can change, and it doesn't necessarily have any special meaning (in some well organized offices, however, the cables and pairs may be arranged in a certain way where you can determine what area it serves by its number (such as in my area…heh heh); in any case, it's up to you to figure out your area's layout). Anyway, the cable-pair number is usually written in a format such as 02-1495, where 02 is the cable and 1495 is the pair (incidentally, since this is the CO Feeder cable pair that is connect- ed to the MDF, it is the one that will be listed in COSMOS). F1 Access Points —————- Although the F1 is run underground, there is really not a standard access point down there where a certain pair in a cable can be singled out and accessed (as will be explained next). There is, however, a point above ground where all the pairs in the F1 can be accessed – this point is known as the Serving Area Interface (SAI), and it will be detailed later. In LMOS or other assignment records, the address of the SAI will be listed as the TErminal Address (TEA) for the F1 cable handling a certain pair in question; therefore, it is where facility F1 stops. —————– Underground Plant —————– The term "Underground Plant" refers to any facilities located below the surface of the earth; this includes truly "buried" cables, which are located 6-or-so feet underground surrounded basically by a conduit and dirt, as well as cables placed in underground cement tunnels along with other "below-ground" equipment (such as seen in most urban areas). Whereas the first type is really impossible to access (unless, of course, you want to dig for a day or so and then hack into an armored, jelly-filled PIC cable– then you should take a bit of advice from our resident Icky-PIC "Goo" advisor, The Marauder), the latter type can be accessed through manholes which lead to the underground tunnel. Manholes ——– Bell System manholes are usually found along a main street or area where a feeder cable group passes through. Using an underground cable location map is the best method for locating cable paths and manhole appear- ances, although it may not always be available. These maps can be acquired from the Underground Service Alert (USA) (at 800-422-4133), but often a "cable locator" will be dispatched instead (usually he will just mark off how far down or where you can dig without hitting a cable), so this is not a very practical method. Of course, you can always follow the warning signs on telephone poles ("call before you dig", etc) and the spans between SAI bridging heads until you find a manhole. The F1 for the SAI nearest the manhole should be found down there along with others en route to the areas they serve. There are several types of manhole covers, both round and rectangular. The rectangular ones are sometimes just hinged metal plates covering an under- ground terminal or cable closure, and these are easily opened by one person. A non-hinged one may require two people. Round manhole covers (which, by the way, are round so that a lineman can't accidentally drop the cover down the hole) are basically all the same, except for the types known as "C" and "D" type manhole covers which utilize locking bolts (these can be removed using a standard crescent or hex socket wrench). These covers are the same as the order. This is aided even further by the fact that since F1's usually last longer than F2 facilities, there are often more spare provisional F2 facili- ties in the loop plant (ie. 100 feeders in, 300 F2 out (200 aren't cross- connected to F1's)). So there is a good chance that you will find one that is distributed to your area. Other spare facilities include "floaters", which are like spare feeder pairs, except they are ACTIVE lines. Often, a telco will extend whole feeder groups to more than one SAI in provision for future expan- sion, including active cable pairs. If you find a working pair on a feeder panel which is not cross-connected to a distribution pair, that pair is a floater. This is by far the best way to covertly access a certain pair, because most linemen will probably not be aware of the pair's presence (it looks unused on the surface). Beware! If you think you can hook up to someone's floater and get free service, you're probably wrong (so many other people have been wrong, in fact, that Pacific Bell has a special "Form K-33" to report this type of fraud), because the telco is more aware of this than you may think. Obviously any toll call you make will show up on the bill for that line. A do-it-yourself spare pair activation can avoid this problem, if done correctly. End of First half, attach second half here. The LOD/H Technical Journal: File #9 of 12 * Second half of The Outside Loop Distribution Plant starts here. * ——————————– Cable Facility F2 - Distribution ——————————– The F2 distribution cable is the cable which originates from the F1 feeder in the SAI and distributes individual cable pairs to each subscriber. This cable can be one of two types: aerial or buried. The most common is the aerial distribution cable, although buried cable is the modern trend. In the case of aerial F2, the cable or cables leave the SAI underground, and at the first telephone pole on the distribution span, the cable is routed up the pole. It then is suspended on the span, such as down a street, and at each group of houses there is a terminal on the span. This terminal is the aerial drop split- ter, and it's purpose is to break off several pairs from the distribution cable in order to distribute them (in the form of aerial drop wires) to each house or premise. The location or address of the premise nearest this aerial drop splitter is the TErminal Address of the F2 serving a certain pair (each group of pairs in the F2 will have it's own terminal address, unlike the one address for the F1 terminal (SAI)). The F2 cable is always the lowest cable on the telephone pole, and it is usually a great deal larger than the electric power distribution cables above it. Often more than one F2 can be seen on a single pole span. In this case, the top F2 will usually be the one which is being distributed to the subscribers on that street, and the lower (and most often larger) cables are other F2's coming from an SAI and going to the streets which they service: These cables consist of multiple spliced spans, and they will not have any drop wires coming off them (they are marked every few poles or so at a splicing point called a "bullet closure" which is fully enclosed and can be quite large (ie. 6" dia, 20" long) as compared to the normal drop splitters (ie. or similar 4"w x 5"h x 12"l) – these closures are clamp press- urized and are not meant to be opened unless the cable is being replaced or splicing work is being done. They are not standard cable/pair access points). Buried F2 plant is similar to aerial, except that the cable is not visible because it is underground. Instead of going to a pole from the SAI, the cable continues underground. The drop wires are also underground, and the method of breaking them from the distribution cable is similar to that of the aerial drop splitter, except it is a small pedestal or box located on the ground near the houses it serves. This address closest to this pedestal is the TEA for the F2. F2 Cable Numbering —————— The F2 distribution cable is usually given a 4 or 5 digit number, depending on the office. The first 2 or 3 digits should be the number of the F1 that the F2 was branched off of, and the last 2 or 3 digits identify the distribution cable. Example- F1 Cable F2 Cable 25 2531 This F2 cable came from feeder #25^^ The cable >pair< numbers may be set in a similar way, with the last 3 or 4 digits identifying the pair, and the first digit (usually a 1) identifying the pair as a feeder or a distribution pair. Example - F1 Cable Pair F2 Cable Pair 25 1748 2531 748 ^–signifies F1 (feeder) cable pair Generally, the F1 cable pairs are numbered higher than the F2 cable pairs, due to the fact that a feeder cable may contain several distribution cables' worth of cable pairs. Note once again that all of this numbering plan is the STANDARD, and it may be far from real life! As soon as one dist- ribution pair is replaced, crossed over to another feeder pair, or taken from service, the set order is interrupted. In real life, it is most always nece- ssary to get both F1 and F2 cable assignment data. ——————————————– Facilities F3-F5, Rural Area Interface (RAI) ——————————————– Although cable facilities F3, F4, and F5 may be specified in any loop plant, they are rarely seen anywhere except in rural areas under the RAND plan (Rural Area Network Design). Basically, plants using these extra facilities are similar to F1/F2 plants, except there are extra cable spans and/or terminals in the path. When locating cables, the highest numbered facility will be at the end of the path, terminating near the subscriber's end (like a "normal" F2), and the lowest numbered facility will be the feeder from the CO (like a "normal" F1). The extra spans will be somewhere in between, like an intermediate feeder or extra distribution cable with separate cable access terminals. One such facility is the Rural Area Interface (RAI), which can be used in a "feeder-in, feeder-out" arrangement. This is usually seen on cable routes of 50 pairs or greater, with a length of longer than 30 kft (about 6 miles). In this case, there will be two terminal cabinets in the feeder path, labelled RAI-A and RAI-B. The RAI-A is special because it has a two-part terminal block: the top has switching panels with 108-type connectors which cross-connect feeder-in and feeder-out pairs using jumper plugs, and the bottom has standard 76-type binding posts which cross-connect feeders to distribution cables for subscribers in the local area of the RAI-A. The jumper plugs can only be connected in one way to the switching panels, so random cross-connection of feeder-in/feeder-out pairs is prevented. In this way, the cable and pair numbers stay the same as if the feeder cable was uninterrupted. This is used a lot in rural areas; it allows part of a feeder group to be split off at the RAI-A like a distribution cable near a town along the route, and the rest of the feeder group continues on to a town further away, to the RAI-B where it is terminated as in a "normal" SAI. In order to access a pair, just use the last RAI in the span (whichever it is) and treat it just like an SAI. If the pair terminates at RAI-B, you can also access it at RAI-A! (if you can locate the pair using color code, BP number, or (ughh) ANI, there should be test terminals on top of the jumper plugs connecting the 108's on the switching panel where you can hook your test set – you can't hook onto a raw 108 connector very easily). Anyway, the RAI terminal is usually a ground pedestal with a cabinet such as a 40-type, but it can be aerial mounted on a pole (hard to access). Pair-Gain, Carried Derived Feeder ——————————— Another common facility in rural areas (and in cities or suburbs, es- pecially near large housing complexes, etc.) is the pair-gain system. It is basically a system which consists of a digital link which is distributed, almost like a normal cable pair, out to a terminal cabinet called a Remote Terminal (RT) which contains equipment which demultiplexes the digital line into many "normal" metallic analog telephone lines which go to each subscriber in the area. Because the digital line can transmit the audio from several separate lines and multiplex them onto one cable, only one special cable pair is needed to come from the CO as a feeder, instead of several separate ones; this is why it is called a "pair gain" system. The remote terminal (RT) contains both the demultiplexing electronics as well as a small "SAI" type terminal block for connecting the pairs to distribution cables on the side of the path toward the subscriber. Because the "feeder" is not a multipair cable but a digital link (ie. T-carrier), this arrangement is known as a "carrier-derived feeder." The SAI part of the RT is used just like a normal SAI on the distribution side (BLUE), but the feeder side will be slightly different. Carrier-derived feeders are always marked with YELLOW labels, and their pairs will be crossed over to distribution cables just like in an SAI. So, in order to access a pair in a system like this, you must do so on the DISTRIBUTION side, because you can't hook an analog test set to a 1.544 Mbps digital T-carrier line! (or worse yet, a fiber optic cable). This may be difficult, because these cabinets are always locked (with few exceptions), so you'll have to find a terminal closer to the subscriber – also be aware that many RT's are equipped with silent intrusion alarms. Anyway, some common pair-gain systems are the Western Electric SLC-8, 40, 96, and GTE's MXU, ranging in size from 8 to over 96 lines. RT cabinets can often be identified by the ventillation grilles (with or without a fan inside) which are not present on SAI's or other non-RT cabinets. ———————————– Aerial Distribution Splice Closure, Drop Wire Splitter ———————————– This terminal is the point where the individual cable pair for a certain subscriber is split from the F2 distribution cable and spliced onto an aerial drop or "messenger" wire which goes to the subscriber's premises. In an aerial distribution plant, 2 types of this terminal are common: 1> Western Electric 49-type Ready Access Closure / Cable Terminal 2> Western Electric 53A4, N-type Pole Mount Cable Terminals ———- Type 1> The 49-type, 1A1, 1B1, and 1C1 closures are all functionally similar. This terminal is a semi-rectangular closure, about 15"L x 3"W x 5"H, usually black, which is connected directly to the aerial cable itself; it is coaxial with the cable, so the cable passes straight through it. It splits up to 12 pairs from the distribution cable to a small bin- ding post terminal block inside the closure. Aerial drop wires are then connected to these binding posts, and the wires exit the term- inal through holes on the bottom. These wires are strung via strain relief clamps on the pole down to the subscriber's site. The terminal closure is opened by pulling out and lifting either the whole cover or the front panel after removing the cover fasteners on the bottom and/or the sides (the closure is a thick neoprene cover over an alum- inum frame). Inside the case, there is a terminal block and there may be some sort of loading coil as well. The cable and this coil are not openable, but the terminal block is. Since the F2 pair terminates in this closure, the F2 BP number (cable/assignment data) corresponds to a binding post on this terminal block. As mentioned earlier, this terminal will also contain spare pairs, in case a subscriber wants another line. In order to use one of these pairs, you must either get an F2 (and then F1) CP number from LAC using the BP, or you can put a trace tone on the pair at the aerial closure and then locate the pair at the SAI. Then a cross-connect would have to be made to an active F1 pair, and a drop wire (ughh) would have to be added back at the aerial closure. Anyway, both the binding posts as well as the holes (inside + out) are numbered left to right, so you may not even have to open the closure if you are just looking for an F2 BP number – just trace the drop wire from the house into the numbered hole on the closure. The TErminal Address for the F2 is the address of the house or premise closest to the pole near this closure. These terminals (esp. 1A1, etc) are also used for straight and branch splices for aerial cables, so you may see one cable in / two out; also, the closure can be used for splicing only, so there may not be drop wires (in this case, it wont be listed in LMOS because it is not a terminal point). There is generally one of these every pole near a quad of houses or so, mounted on the cable about an arm's length from the pole. Type 2> Both the 53A4 and the N-type terminals serve the same function as the 49-type just described, except they are used in situations where there are more than 4 houses (8 lines, including provisional pairs). This terminal is mounted directly on the pole, about a foot down from the aerial cable. It is not connected in line with the cable, so there is no F2 splicing area in the cabinet (rather, a cable stub comes from the terminal block and is spliced onto the span close to where it touches the pole). It is about 22"H x 9"W x 4"D, rectan- gular, and silver (unpainted). The door is similar to that of a 40- type cabinet, but it's much smaller; it is opened using a 7/16" tool in the same manner as before, except that the door must be lifted before it can be opened or closed. In this way, the door slides down on it's hinges when opened, so it locks in the open position and you wont have to worry about it (especially nice because hanging onto a pole is enough of a problem). The terminal block can handle from 25 to 50 pairs, with 32 holes in the back for aerial drop wires. Just as in the Ready Access Closure, this is the F2 terminal, and the numbered binding posts and holes correspond to F2 BP numbers. The TEA will be the address nearest the terminal (just as before). This terminal is common at the first pole on a street, on cul-de-sacs, apartments, marinas & harbors, or anywhere there are many drop wires. Buried Distribution Cross Box and Other Pedestals ————————————————- This terminal serves the same function as the aerial closures, except it is used in areas with a buried distribution plant. This cable assignment for this terminal will be the F2 terminal, and the BP numbers and TEA will be the same as for the aerial terminals. Probably the most common cross-boxes are the PC4,6, and 12; these are around 50" tall by 4, 6, or 12" square respec- tively, and they are painted gray-green like SAI cabinets. These are the smallest pedestals in the distribution plant, and they don't have doors (they look like waist-high square poles). In order to open one of these pedestals, the two bolts on either side half way down the pedestal must be loosened with a 7/16 hex wrench; then the front cover can be lifted up, out, and off the rest of the closure. These terminals are located generally near small groups of houses (up to about 12 lines usually) on the ground, often near other utility cabinets (such as electric power transformers, etc). These are becoming more common as the new housing tracts use buried distribution plant. The F2 cable will enter as a cable stub, and it is split into service wires which go back underground to the subscribers. All small pedestals are not necessarily the above type of terminal; these pedestal closures are often used for other purposes, such as splicing points in underground distribution, loading coil mounting, and even used as temporary wire storage containers. If the terminal contains a terminal block or it is a significant point on the line, however, it will be listed in LMOS. An example of this is a distribution path found by Mark Tabas in a Mountain Bell area – there was a small PC12-type closure on the ground near a street in a remote suburb, and it was serving as a terminal point for a whole F1 cable. It was listed as the F1 terminal, and it was at the right TEA; however, there was no terminal block because it was a splicing point (just a bunch of pairs connected with Scotchlok plastic connectors which are hung on a bar in the pedestal closure), so LMOS had no BP number. Instead, a color code was listed (see appendix) for the pair in the splice. Anyway, the WHOLE F1 went up to an N-type closure on a pole and was split into drop wires. ————————————– Multi-Line Building Entrance Terminals ————————————– This terminal takes the aerial drop or service wires and cross-connects them over to the Inside Wire (IW) in the subscriber's building (hotels, busi- nesses, etc). There are many different types of terminal blocks for this terminal, although by far the most common is the Western Electric 66 block. The 66-type terminal uses a block of metal clips; the wire is pushed onto the clip with a punch-down tool which also strips the wire. The block is divided into horizontal rows which can have from 2 to over 6 clips each. Since each row group terminates one pair, two rows are needed for x-connect, one on top of the other. The service or drop wire usually enters on the left, and the inside wire is connected to the far right. In order to locate a pair, usually you can visually trace either the service wire or the inside wire to the block, and often the inside wire side wil be numbered or labelled with an address, phone number, etc. It is also possible for this terminal to serve as an F2 terminal point, if there are a lot of lines. In this case, LMOS will list the TEA usually with some physical direction as to where to find it. The left side will then be numbered as F2 BP's. This terminal is also the demarca- tion point which separates the customer's equipment from the telco's. The new terminals often have an RJ-21 connector on the service wire side, such as a 25-pair for PABX or a Bell 1A2 Key, etc. There are also "maintenance termina- ting units" (MTU) which are electronic units connected to the line(s) at the entrance protector; these are sometimes seen in some telcos. Basically, they provide functions such as party ANI on multi-party lines, remote disconnect (for testing or (click!) non-payment), or half ringers (the most common – they prevent ringing continuity failures on switches like ESS when there are no phones hooked to the line when it rings). MTU terminals are often locked. Single Pair Station Protector —————————– There's really not much to say about this terminal. Basically, it takes the service or drop wire and connects it to the inside wire in a single line residence (houses with 2 lines will have 2 of these). These are at every house on an outside wall or basement, and there are two main types: the Western Electric 123 (with a "150-type" rubber cover), and the old WE 305 and new AT&T 200 Network interface (metal and plastic, respectively). These terminals have one binding post pair and they will have either gas discharge tubes or carbon blocks to protect the line from lightning or excess current. Obviously, there is no BP number (you just have to visually trace the drop wire to find the protector). This is also the demarcation point marking the end of the telco's responsibility, as well as the end of our tour. Bell System Standard Color Code Use: ———————————– Take the #, and find it's closest Pair # Tip Ring multiple of 5. Use that number to find ———————————– the Tip color, and the remainder to find 01-05 White Blue the Ring color (remainder 0 = Slate). 06-10 Red Orange (e.g. Pair #1 = White/Brown, Pair #14 = 11-15 Black Green Black/Brown, Pair #24 = Violet/Brown). 16-20 Yellow Brown 21-25 Violet Slate Usually if a color code is needed (such as in a splice case) you can get it from LAC or the testboard; if it's really essential, it will be in LMOS as well. This color code is also used a lot on cable ties (usually with white stripes and ring colors only), although these are often used randomly. ——— Test Sets ——— This is the "right hand" of both the professional and the amatuer lineman. Basically, it is a customized portable telephone which is designed to be hooked onto raw cable terminals in the field and used to monitor the line, talk, or dial out. The monitor function is usually the main difference between the "butt-in" test set and the normal phone. If you don't have a real test set already, the following circuit can convert a normal $4 made-in- taiwan phone into a working test set. The "all-in-one" handset units without bases are the best (I tend to like QUIK's and GTE Flip Phone II's). Anyway- OFFICIAL Agent 04 Generic Test Set Modification ™ Ring >———————————> to "test set" phone Tip >——! SPST Switch !——–> !—–/ ———-! >from !——-/!/!/!/!–! C = 0.22 uF 200 WVDC Mylar cable pair ! C R ! R = 10 kOhm 1/2 W (alligators) !–! (————! SPST = Talk / Monitor When SPST is closed, you are in talk mode; when you lift the switch- hook on the "test set" phone, you will get a dial tone as if you were a standard extension of the line you are on. You will be able to dial out and receive calls. When the SPST is opened, the resistor and capacitor are no longer shunted, and they become part of the telephone circuit. When you lift the switchhook on the test set, you will not receive dial tone, due to the fact that the cap blocks DC, and the resistor passes less than 4 mA nominally (far below the amount necessary to saturate the supervisory ferrod on ESS or close the line relay on any other switch). However, you will be able to silently monitor all audio on the line. The cap reactance + the phone's impedance insure that you won't cut the signal too much on the phone line, which might cause a noticeable change (..expedite the shock force, SOMEONE'S ON MY LINE!!). It's also good to have a VOM handy when working outside to rapidly check for active lines or supervision states. Also, you can buy test equipment from these companies: Techni Tool - 5 Apollo Road, Box 368. Plymouth Meeting, PA. 19462. Specialized Products Company - 2117 W. Walnut Hill Lane, Irving, TX. 75229. I am not going to include a disclaimer, because a true communications hobbyist does not abuse nor does he tamper with something he doesn't under- stand. This article is intended as a reference guide for responsible people. Also, this article was written mainly from first-hand experience and information gained from maintenance technicians, test boards, as well as technical literature, so it is as accurate as possible. Keep in mind that it is mainly centered upon the area served by Pacific Telephone, so there may be some differences in the loop plant of your area. I would be happy to answer the questions of anyone interested, so feel free to contact me c/o the Technical Journal regarding anything in this article or on related topics such as ESS, loop electronics, telephone surveillance / countersurveillance, etc. I hope the article was informative. ——————————– Written by: Phucked Agent 04 The Legion Of Doom! ——————————– Please - Por Favor - Bitte - Veuillez! Do not edit, abridge, fold, spindle, or mutilate.
The LOD/H Technical Journal: File #10 of 12
The Legion Of Hackers Present: Updated: Telenet Directory Part A: Addresses 201XXX to 415XXX Revision #4 Last Updated: 1/1/87 (Includes available Uninet hosts)
|20140||VM - TSO|
|20243 $||DG AOS/VS|
|20321 $||Port Sel.|
|20530 $||DG AOS/VS|
|20532 $||DG AOS/VS|
|20537 $||DG AOS/VS|
|20545 $||DG AOS/VS|
|20638 $||DG AOS/VS|
|20820 $||DG AOS/VS|
|20822 $||DG AOS/VS|
|20830 $||DG AOS/VS|
|20837 $||DG AOS/VS|
|20843 $||DG AOS/VS|
|21270||VM - TSO|
|21330 $||IBM TSO|
|21339 $||Port Sel.|
|21348 $||Port Sel.|
|21532 $||DG AOS/VS|
|21535 $||IBM TSO|
|21830 $||DG AOS/VS|
|21831 $||DG AOS/VS|
|21838 $||DG AOS/VS|
|21841 $||DG AOS/VS|
|21845 $||DG AOS/VS|
|21853 $||DG AOS/VS|
|21856 $||DG AOS/VS|
|21868 $||DG AOS/VS|
|21875 $||DG AOS/VS|
|30165 $||SYS/32 VOS|
|30360 $||DG AOS/VS|
|30361 $||DG AOS/VS|
|30362 $||DG AOS/VS|
|30364 $||DG AOS/VS|
|30366 $||DG AOS/VS|
|30369 $||DG AOS/VS|
!305168 | | Cybernetics System B
|31242 $||RSTS V7.2|
|31243 $||RSTS V7.2|
|31244 $||RSTS V8.07|
|312231||VM - TSO|
|31382||VM - TSO|
|31383||VM - TSO|
|31435 $||DG AOS/VS|
|31550 $||IBM VTAM|
|40433 $||DG AOS/VS|
|40435 $||DG AOS/VS|
|40436 $||DG AOS/VS|
|40437 $||DG AOS/VS|
|40439 $||DG AOS/VS|
|41268 $||DG AOS/VS|
|41431 $||DG AOS/VS|
|41574 $||DG AOS/VS|
|41580 $||Systar Elf|
— End of first half of directory. —
The LOD/H Technical Journal: File #11 of 12
The Legion Of Hackers Present: Updated: Telenet Directory Part B: Addresses 503XXX to 919XXX Revision #4 Last Updated: 1/1/87 (Including available Uninet hosts)
|50335 $||DG AOS/VS|
|50340 $||DG AOS/VS|
|50345 $||DG AOS/VS|
|50371 $||DG AOS/VS|
|50373 $||DG AOS/VS|
|50433 $||DG AOS/VS|
|50437 $||DG AOS/VS|
|50445 $||DG AOS/VS|
|50450 $||DG AOS/VS|
|50530 $||DG AOS/VS|
|50540 $||DG AOS/VS|
|50926 $||DG AOS/VS|
|60333 $||DG AOS/VS|
|60923 $||Port Sel.|
|61246 $||Port Sel.|
|61747 $||Port Sel.|
|70368 $||DG AOS/VS|
|70370 $||DG AOS/VS|
|70371 $||DG AOS/VS|
|70372 $||DG AOS/VS|
|70460 $||DG AOS/VS|
|71329 $||Port Sel.|
|71353 $||IBM TSO|
|71354 $||IBM TSO|
|71355 $||IBM VM/370|
|71356 $||IBM VM/370|
|71359 $||DG AOS|
|71386 $||IBM MVS/SP|
|71441 $||DG AOS/VS|
|80144 $||DG AOS/VS|
|80150 $||DG AOS/VS|
|80160 $||DG AOS/VS|
|80165 $||DG AOS/VS|
|80530 $||DG AOS/VS|
|81230 $||DG AOS/VS|
|81331 $||IBM VM/370|
|81644 $||DG AOS/VS|
|90445 $||DG AOS/VS|
|90450 $||DG AOS/VS|
|91438 $||IBM VM/370|
|91441 $||IBM VM/370|
|91831 $||DG AOS/VS|
|91870 $||DG AOS/VS|
UNINET HOSTS AVAILABLE ON TELENET:
|C APPLE | Ultrix V1.2 | | |C BOEING | Unix | |C PRIME | 19.4.9 | Primenet SYS750 |C AMC | TOPS-20 V5.1| AMCI - Kansas City |C SUMEX | TOPS-20 V6.1| Stanford University |C INFO | TOPS-20 | |C EIES | | NJIT Electronic Information Exchange System |C FSU | CDC Cyber | Florida State University Cyber Network |C ESC | SYS/32 VOS | United Computer Services Group |C ITS | SYS/32 VOS | United Computer Services Group |C SIS | | Scientific Information Services |C NETWORK | | AAMNET |C ADNET | | ADNET |C OLS | | OLS System 3 |C CMS | | "Enter a for astra" |C COS | | "Enter a for astra" |C NSF | | "Access to this address not permitted" |C SPR | | UIS Supra |C VUTEXT | | VUTEXT Services |C MAIL | | Telemail |C TELEX | | Telemail |C NET | | Newsnet |C SIT | | Sitenet |C DOW | | Dow Jones |C CIS | TOPS-20 | The Information Service |C DELPHI | VAX/VMS | Delphi Computer services |C S10 - S19| Prime | Source System 10 to Source System 19 Respectively |C WELL | | The Well Mail Service |C BLUE | | |C K3C | | |C COM *| | |C OAG *| | Official Airlines Guide |C DIR *| | |C ABJ *| | |C AFS *| | |C CEN *| | |C KCI *| | |_|_|___|
'*' at end of UNINET host name signifies system temporarily out of service. '$' at end of address signifies 'will not accept collect connection' thus, you need a 'Telenet ID' or some other means to connect to the system. Any addresses responding with "Rejecting" or "Not Operating", are temporarily down. ALL above addresses were working as of the date of update.
Definitions of abbreviations:
DG - Data General P-E - Perkin-Elmer AOS - Advanced Operating System (DG) ACF2 - Access Control Facility 2, Software Security Package for IBM Mainframes. CICS - Customer Information Control System (IBM) TSO - Time Sharing Option (IBM) TOPS - Total OPerating System (DEC) RSTS/E - Resource System Time Sharing /Environment (DEC) Multics - O/S Made by Honeywell (no longer in production) CDC - Control Data Corporation (Makes CYBER Computers) LAN - Local Area Network Port Sel. - Port Selector - could be a MICOM, a PACX, or other which enables
you to connect to various host systems.
Legion Of Hackers Contributors:
Lex Luthor / Gary Seven (LOH)
The LOD/H Technical Journal: File #12 of 12
Network News & Notes
ISDN passes first real-world test (ComputerWorld, Nov. 24th, 1986)
After at least five years development work and prototyping on vendors'
premises, the first operational Integrated Services Digital Network involving customer premises equipment was successfully tested.
In two initial tests, Arizona government officials transmitted both voice
and data between their offices through a Northern Telecom, ISDN digital switch residing on Mountain Bell's Phoenix Central Office.
The trial offers participating vendors the opportunity "to evaluate ISDN
technology and determine customer benefits outside the research lab". Customer premises equipment used in the trial is still in the prototype phase, however. No time frames for introducing commercial offerings were discussed.
In the first of two ISDN applications demonstrated at a news conference,
Don Cline, Mountain Bell's Arizona VP and CEO, placed a five minute voice call at the Phoenix Civic Plaza to Arizona Secretary of State Rose Mofford and simultaneously transmitted a certificate commemorating the event. The transmissions were handled by Northern Telecom's Meridian digital telephone sets and workstations and passed through a Northern Telecom DMS-100 ISDN switch as Mountain Bell's Phoenix CO.
In the second ISDN application an NCR PC was used to access and alter a
driver's record residing on an Amdahl 5850 host in the Motor Vehicles Division from two blocks away.
Sending both voice and data in digital form over the same twisted-pair
telephone wiring is more reliable than analog communications and in the long run will save a lot of money. Workstations linked over an ISDN basic interface can be moved as easily as you can move telephones, as opposed to having to restring coaxial cable.
Long-awaited McDonald's ISDN trial to start in two weeks (ComputerWorld 12-1)
During the second user-site ISDN trial, scheduled to begin Dec. 16, at
least four rival communications equipment vendors will test whether their terminal interfaces conform closely enough to the telecommunications standard to communicate.
McDonalds's Corp, agreed more than two years ago to participate in the
trial, which is sponsored by Ameritech divested BOC Illinois Bell, because the fast-food giant wanted the emerging technology for its own use.
Slated to continue at least through early 1988, the trial ISDN network
will link a variety of workstations and hosts at McDonalds headquarters located in Oak Brook, Ill., through a Northern Telecom DMS-100 ISDN switch residing at Illinois Bell's CO.
The company will start with 50 basic-rate digital subscriber lines and
gradually ramp up to a projected 300 to 400 lines by the end of 1987. The basic interface defines two 64K bit/sec B channels and a separate 16K bit/sec D channel to carry data packets and signaling information.
All the products used in the trial are designed to communicate with AT&T's
5ESS switch. While the basic ISDN interface is sufficiently well defined to permit different vendor's implementations to communicate, different vendors' CO switch products still retain software incompatibilities.
The way terminal adapters communicate via ISDN is still defined by the CO
switch, terminals can be modified to communicate with either AT&T's or Northern Telecom's ISDN switch, but you can't just unplug a terminal and move it from one switch to the other.
Originally slated to be the first ISDN trail to begin operations, the
project was delayed for approximately a month while AT&T finished implementing software on the 5ESS ISDN switch at Illinois Bell's CO. While the hardware used in AT&T's ISDN switch is commercial, the software is coming slowly.
Growth forces split in 305 area code
Southern Bell announced that rapid growth will force them to split the 305
area code in two, with Broward, Dade, and Monroe counties remaining 305 and Palm Beach County to Orlando becoming 407. "If we didn't make the split we'd literally run out of phone numbers".
The split is slated to take place in April 1988, making 407 Florida's
fourth area code and the first new one in 23 years.
617 currently with 533 exchanges will be splitting off into 508 in 1988. 303 will be split with Denver remaining 303 and 719 will cover Colorado
This leaves the following NPA's open: 708, 903, 908, 909, 917 not including X10 where X is 4,6,7,8, and 9.
Secret Service Buys Telenet Network (Communications Week)
US Sprint Communications Corp's Telenet Communications Corp subsidiary
has signed a $35 million multiyear contract to build a private data network for the US Secret Service.
The contract marks Telenet's first major private network coup in the
highly competitive market of sensitive government communications. While telenet would not reveal the extensiveness of the network or its applications, the Secret Service acknowledges having 4,300 employees and about 100 locations in the United States.
Data transmission plays a significant role in the Secret Service's
mandate, which beyond guarding the president includes the investigation of counterfeiting, securities and electronic funds transfer violations and credit card fraud.
Encryption or other security measures are expected to be employed in the
new system, but telenet does not provide those functions.
In addition to its public network, Telenet has sold about 70 private
networks, about 100 hybrid networks using public and private capabilities, and many hundreds of virtual private networks.
It will take more than a year to complete construction.
New Social Security Net (Communications News)
The US Social Security Administration will install new modems and
diagnostic and control systems as part of a program to establish its Data Communications Utility Network, which covers 1500 offices in the US.
The new network will handle interactive Social Security claims processing.
Equipment for this phase is being provided by Racal-Milgo in an $11 million contract.
Allnet extends southward with big capacity purchase (Communications News)
Through the purchase of capacity from three providers, Allnet
Communications Corporation has added 4,000 miles of fiber-optic route to its network.
In a $36 million deal, the company purchased capacity, in the southeastern
US from Microtel, SouthernNet and Southland FiberNet. All three are members of the National Telecommunications Network.
Southern Cal to link 11,000 users on net (Communications News)
The University of Southern California is in the process of establishing a
$21.8 million University Communications Network that will link more than 11,000 users throughout 185 buildings.
Voice and data will be transmitted over the network, which will use an
AT&T System 85 PBX, a system of local-area networks, and an intercampus microwave network.
Approximately 12 miles of fiber-optic cable will be used to link 21 USC
schools. The system will include 10 Information System Networks and 504 Starlan networks.
The telecommunications project is scheduled for completion in March of
Dallas to use Cell System (Communications News)
The city of Dallas has begun a $2.9 million program to outfit personnel in
various city departments with mobile cell roaming data communications systems. The network will consist of 545 Mobile Data International MDI 9031 mobile data terminals with the 8020 integral data radio, 20 6000 series hand-held portable data terminals, related base equipment and automatic zone transfer between six calls using 11 radio frequencies with frequent re-use.
Full roaming between the cell sites will be handled on a transparent basis
to the operator.
Singapore in Net Upgrade (Communications News)
The Republic of Singapore will install two digital international gateway
exchanges as part of a total network upgrade program.
The Telecommunications Authority of Singapore and AT&T International will
provide AT&T's 5ESS digital switch. The company said this is the first application of the 5ESS as an international switching point.
The first switch will be handed to the authority in April of 1988 and the
second in April of 1989.
That's it for Network News & Notes, some of these articles may not be too interesting, but each has some significance as in interesting systems to hack, box, defeat or find more information about. If you know of any interesting news articles be sure to drop them in mail.