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Allusions to other works within Twin Peaks – Edition 3

Note: these are not meant to be read as a definite link to all these works; some may be coincidences. In general, most are lighthearted jabs, but some have real value in solving the mysteries of Twin Peaks. Actually, these are more likely "footnotes" rather than "allusions". (List originator and editor: Dave Platt [DGP], Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada)

(Contributors: DGP; Col Needham (CN), HP Labs, Bristol, U.K.; Rocky J Giovinazzo (RJG), U Mass.; Jason Snell, Unversity Of California, San Diego(JS), Dan Parmenter (DP); Joakim Petterson, Stockholm, Sweden (JP); RIch Haller, Eugene, Oregon (RH); Leslie D. Zettergren (LDZ); Lois T Casaleggi (LTC); Barb Miller (BM). Except where indicated, notes are made by DGP)


 (In chronological order starting with 1000):
 1. The Bird:  Blue Velvet ends with a shot of a robin with a bug in its 


 2. "Twin Peaks": Supposedly a fairly obvious sexual reference, I hadn't 

heard it used before, although SPY's "Separated At Birth?" book (published 1988) commented on the "Twin (widow's) Peaks" of Bob Eubanks and Butch (Eddie Munster) Patrick. As well, for a town even more obssessed with lumber, TP has nothing on Lumberton from Blue Velvet. Also, Blake Edward's 1962 thriller "Experiment In Terror" features Lee Remick as a bank clerk terrorized by a psycho into stealing from her employers. She lives in Twin Peaks (in San Francisco) and the psycho's name is Red Lynch!! (CN) Finally, Entertainment Tonight ran two separate stories on Snoqualmie, WA (where the TP pilot was filmed) and Twin Peaks, CA (where Lynch is rumoured to have some land), both of which have grisly murders in their past.

 3. Harry S. Truman: Not only in reference to the former U.S. president. 

The name of the man who lived near Spirit Lake under Mt. St. Helens and refused to move from his home despite the warning of volcanic eruption was named Harry Truman, as well (JS).

 4. The name "Laura": In the 1944 movie Laura, a girl named Laura is 

killed, only to turn up as someone else. Also in the film, the villian's name is Waldo (!) Lydecker (!!), and a gun is hidden in a clock, a la the poker chip from One Eyed Jacks. As well, in a coincidence David Lynch would probably shrug off, the film starred Dana Andrews, whose initials bear a resemblance to TP's own Dana Ashbrook. A Laura Palmer is credited with writing a piece on the fall of Saigon for Rolling Stone. Also, note possible connection with Laura Dern.

 5. Andy the crying deputy: In an (early 1990) arc of Wiseguy revolving 

around a murder in a small lumber town, the police officer that found the body cried upon its discovery. It was later revealed that the officer himself was the culprit. (This is probably not a coincidence. The plot of the TP pilot was well-known within TV circles. Further proof: the town's name was "Lynchboro"). Last thing on this: the Globe tabloid reported a week before 2006 that Andy killed Laura and was going to murder Lucy, who was planning to have an abortion.

 6. Leland Palmer: There are two very small (pop.30 and 25 in 1963) 

towns in Washingron State named Leland and Palmer (DGP). As well, an actor named Leland Palmer starred in Bob Fosse's All That Jazz. (LTC).

 7. The song Bobby (and much later James) plays on the jukebox is from 

the Lynch/Badalamenti Industrial Symphony. It's called "I'm Hurt Bad".

 8. Ronette on the railroad tracks: Possible redux of Isabella 

Rosselini's nude wandering in Blue Velvet.

 9.  James The Biker: In an Interview interview, James Marshall said 

that David Lynch actually told him to think of James Dean while acting.

 10. Nadine's oneeye:  Numerous references, too many to list, but 

probably the one that applies here is the character on "Days Of Our Lives". (Actually, The character on "DOOL" is a hardened, tough male loner, but Nadine does exhibit some tough characteristics, don't you think?)

 11. Dale Cooper: Dale's middle name is Bartholomew, marking him D.B. 

cooper, a la the famous skyjacker. Kyle MacLachlan's performance is said to have been inspired by Lynch himself.

 12. The OAM: The most famous example of a one-armed man is, of 

course, the killer in the Fugitive. On that show, Richard Kimble's pursuant was named Phillip Gerard.

 13. The flickering lights: Apparently an actual hospital goofup, Lynch 

liked it so much he decided to flicker the lights himself. However, the lights-flickering motif was prevalent in Blue Velvet, Eraserhead, and even Orson Welles' Citizen Kane. As well, a script purported to be the first draft has a mention of this.

 14. The videotape: Numerous, including Sex Lies and Videotape.
 15. The reflection in Laura's eye: used on a soap opera in the summer 

of 1990, don't know which one. (This is, of course, an homage, rather than an influence).

 16. The fallen deerhead: The first of many possible references to 

Fawlty Towers, which of course also featured a hotel with a harried owner (DGP). Yet it was a moose head in the Fawlty Towers episode(RH). (However, DP notes that the deerhead was just discovered that way by Lynch, which sounds at least a little more plausible)

 17. "Fire, Walk With Me". Fire, is of course, one of the most enduring

symbols in all religions and mythologies, but a few instances that are relevant to TP: Lynch's own use of fire in other works (Blue Velvet, Wild At Heart) as passion or danger, and the relgious rites of the druids. The druids held wood, mistletoe (which is a parasitic plant), and fire as religious rites. This suggests ties with TP in terms of the spirits trapped in wood, BOB-as-a-parasite, and BOB-as-fire.

 18. The Log Lady: According to the Rolling Stone Interview with Lynch, 

The Log Lady predates Twin Peaks; Lynch was planning an earlier series with Catherine Coulson starring as the Log Lady.

 19. "Falling"/"The Nightingale": The first of a few Julee Cruise 

numbers spliced into the action.

(From 1001)

 20.  "Marilyn Monroe and the Kennedys": An obsession shared by 

Cooper, Lynch, and Frost, who wrote a script for Goddess, a Monroe movie that was to be directed by Lynch.

(From 1002)

 21.  Ben & Jerry: Twin Peak's largest food freaks share their names 

with the allPnatural icePcream merchants.

 22. OnePEyed Jack's: another crude sexual reference, fully explained  

by Bobby Peru in "Wild At Heart". Also, the Western with Marlon Brando.

 23. Horne's Sonnet: Shakespeare, Sonnet No. 18
 24. The Dream: Mark Frost has said that the dream imagery (including 

the owls) come from his own dreams. The tone and style, however, is pure Lynch. As commented in the newsgroup before, Lynch is known for his strange pauses and lags in action at inopportune times. this dates back to "Eraserhead", which featured many strange, quiet moments. Cooper's reaction shots hearken back to that film and Jack Nance's lack of emotion.

 25. BOB: The name "Bob" is a source of constant commentary. Lynch is 

well known for his daily sojurns to Bob's Big Boy.The recently-published Bob Book characterizes "Bob" as a generally benevolent guy, although it acknowledges the evil BOB. Among notable BobsI A "Bob" is thanked on Julee Cruise's Floating Into The Night LP; There is a church of Bob, a.k.a. the Church of the Subgenius; Drugstore Cowboy, which stars Matt Dillon as a junkie named Bob, also features both Heather (Annie) Graham (as Nadine!!) and Grace Zabriskie (as Bob's mother!!) in its cast, finally, there is Bob Barker, the game-show host who decided to stop dying his hair and let it turn naturally white (!!). Also, in Amherst, Nova Scotia at the turn of the 19th century, a young girl named Esther Cox was legendary for her claims of disturbances by a poltergeist (one that set fire to her barn) that she called Bob.

 26. The Little Man From Another Place: In Nicholas Roeg's Don't Look 

Now, Donald Sutherland (grieving over the death of his daughter) pursues a malevolent dwarf in a red suit. As well, his wife is named Laura, and the movie's film editor, Graeme Clifford, directed an episode of TP (2005)

 27. Venus and Saturn: The statue (presumably of Venus) and the model 

of Saturn in the dream sequence may refer to the myth of Saturn, who killed his children. However, Venus was the daughter of Jupiter, not Saturn. It has been suggested (by RJG) that BOB=Saturn=bad god, Leland=Jupiter=good god, Laura=Venus=daughter of good god. Also, BOB refers to his victim's as his children, therefore making "Jupiter",the son of "Saturn" as well as the father of "Venus"

 28. Talking backwards: apparently a talent known to Michael 

Anderson, which was apprently taught to the rest of the actors in the red room scenes.

 29. The floor in the dream sequence was seen in Eraserhead.The red

drapes are reminiscent of the red curtains used in the titles to the biblical epic movie The Robe. This may have also inspired the blue velvet curtains used in the opening titles of Blue Velvet.

(From 1003)

 30.  Madeleine Ferguson: A reference to Vertigo, in which Judy (Kim Novak) 

posed as the "dead" Madeleine. As well, Jimmy Stewart's character was named Scottie Ferguson, giving Madeleine her surname. In Vertigo, Scottie makes Judy dye her hair blonde to look like Madeleine, a la James making Maddy up like Laura to catch the killer.) One scene in this movie, in which Scottie is momentarily confused as to whether he is with Judy or Madeleine, shows this by having the room spin around them as they embrace, as with Leland/BOB's death hold on Maddy.The other, fairly _obvious_ reference is probably the only instance of "identical cousins", namely the main characters from "The Patty Duke Show".

 31. "Johnny doesn't know what day it is": A reference, no doubt, to the 

Who's epic "Tommy". Perhaps written in anticipation of a storyline where Johnny is revealed as a savant?

 32. The Bookhouse: There's a posssible connection with a native god 

named Bukwus or Bukus(RJG), or even the Roman god Bacchus (JP).If anybody has anything more to add, please give me a shout.

 33. The dream soul: has anybody with a knowledge of Blackfoot 

culture been able to trace this legend? I'm not doubting its existence, but would like to know more.

(From 1004)

 34. Jacoby's sunglasses: Count Floyd on SCTV sported Ray-Ban 

Wayfarer versions of the same glasses, suitable for 3-D viewing. However, 3-D glasses are Blue-Red, while Jacoby's glasses are Red-Blue. Perhaps the Dr. can "see deeper" into people with his glasses on.

 35. Gordon Cole: A minor character in BIlly Wilder's Sunset 

Boulevard, one of David Lynch's all-time favourite movies. (CN and DGP)

  36. Phillip Michael Gerard: See note # 12.
 37. Bob Lydecker: See note #4.
 38. Waldo: See note #4. Also, "The Avengers" had an episode that hinged 

on a talking bird or group of talking birds.

 39. Hank's Domino: I'm not sure about this one; any suggestions? 
 40. Owls: The first sighting of an owl in TP was in 1004, when Donna 

and James went to where they had buried the necklace. An owl hooted above, startling the two. There have been brief mentions in this newsgroup of the fact that according to Whitley Streiber's "Communion", the experience of being abducted by aliens (or whatever) is often erased by the "covering" memory of a giant owl.

(From 1005)

 41. ITL: While Hank reunites with Norma, Shelly is watching ITL. 

Montana is attacking Chet, and Jared is tied up with a blue sash in his mouth, a la Blue Velvet.

 42. "The Third Man": A possible reference to the movie The Third Man, 

in which the "third man" (seen carrying off a dead body) turns out to be the "victim" himself, thus causing some to believe that Laura was not really dead, and disguised as Maddy.

 43. "Into The Night": See note #19.

(From 1006)

 44. Cooper's whistling: The tune Cooper blows on his whistle is the flying 

saucer's tone in Close Encounters Of The Third Kind. Possible foreshadowing of the alien stuff?

 45. Audrey spying on Battis through the slats in the closet door: Kyle 

MacLachlan did the same thing in Blue Velvet.

 46. Mr. Neff (Catherine Martell's insurance salesman): A reference to 

Walter Neff, an insurance salesman in Billy Wilder's RDouble IndemnityS. (CN)

 47. Barney and Fred (Coop and Ed's secret IDs): 'nuff said.
 48. Hester Prynn: As Blackie notes, the woman in "The Scarlet Letter".
 49. The cherry stem: TP writer Harley Peyton once claimed that his 

ex-girlfriend could actually do this.

(From 1007)

 50. Queen of Diamonds: The card that triggered Raymond Shaw 

(Laurence Harvey) to kill in The Manchurian candidate. At one point, Rosie (Janet Leigh) wore a large version of the card at a costume party.

 51. "Such stuff as dreams are made of": More Shakespeare,from The Tempest,

Ac IV, Sc I, line 155. The speaker, Prospero, has just presented a play in which all the actors were spirits (which he had the power to command) and he had become so caught up in it that he almost forgot that some spirits were plotting to kill him. He tells the spirit actors to disperse and makes a very famous speech in which he says that, just as the spirits disappear, so is human life and all the world transitory. It goes on very poetically for a number of lines and ends with: "We are such stuff as dreams are made on; and our little life is rounded with a sleep." (BM) Actually, this is much more lyrical than its actual use in Twin Peaks: the speaker is Ben Horne, just before his tryst with the "new girl". Just another sign of Horne's pretensiousness, I guess (DGP).

 52."Who Shot Agent Cooper?": Mark Frost has been quoted as saying 

"We were poking a little bit of fun at the 'Who shot J.R.' syndrome. Of course, he's wearing a bulletproof vest. I wasn't trying to present a mystery."


(from 2001)

 53. The Waiter (a.k.a. Senor Droolcup): Another example of Lynch's 

tendency towards long, drawn-out, slooooow scenes. The Dell Mibbler scene is far more excruciating example of this, as noted by many netters. These scenes are especially agonizing at the tensest cliff-hanger moments, like right here.

 54. The Giant: Not entirely sure. Giants are common in most 

mythologies, but does anybody know the exact source of this giant? Lynch himself said that Carel Struycken was cast as the Giant just because he saw him one day (DP). My own theory is that since Michael Anderson, the actor who plays the LMFAP, was in jail for drug posession at the time of the filming of 2000, the Giant was cast to replace him (DGP). However, I have been wrong before.

 55. "A man in a smiling bag": A product of Lynch's days in Philadelphia, 

where he lived near a morgue.

 56. The reporter at the site of the burnt sawmill is Mark Frost in an 

uncredited role.

 57. Leland's white hair: See note #25.

(From 2002)

 58. When Shelly and Bobby are parked in Major Briggs' Lincoln, the 

"Audrey's Dance" music is playing. Bobby tells Shelly to change the station, and the music abruptly stops, switching to a blues song. A similar trick was used in 1001, and may be a cinematic allusion to Diva (1982), where the "incidental" music became part of the foreground action.

 59. Major Briggs' space transmissions: A few may recall the series 

Project: UFO from the late '70s (around the time of Close Encounters), which I believe was based on Project Bluebook.

 60. "Just You And I": an article in British GQ suggested that TP is an 

attempt to combine every TV series from the past. In that case, James' song near the end of the show may be an homage to Rick Nelson's songs at the end of the Adventures of Ozzie and Harriet. Or maybe not.

(From 2003)

 61. "She's ready for her close-up now": A paraphrasing of 

Gloria Swanson's most famous line in "Sunset Boulevard" (see note #35): "I'm ready for my close-up now, Mr. DeMille." (CN)

(From 2004)

 62. Judge Sternwood: The character who hires Philip Marlowe in "The 

Big Sleep" is named General Sternwood (CN).

 63. Darryl Lodwick: An overzealous prosecutor in "Anatomy of A 

Murder" is named Mitchell Lodwick.

(From 2005)

 64. Mr. Racine (Leo's Lawyer): A reference to Lawrence Kasdan's "Body 

Heat" in which William Hurt plays a seedy lawyer in a movie inspired by "Double Indemnity" (See note #46) (CN). (Also, Racine -in TP- is played by Van Dyke Parks, the avante-garde composer-arranger who worked with Beach Boy Brian Wilson (DGP))

(From 2006)

 65. "Getting To Know You": Rodgers and Hammerstein, from "The King 

And I"

(From 2007)

 66. "Rockin' Back Inside My Heart"/"The World Spins": See note # 19.
 67. The White Horse: Death, or Heroin, for sure, but probably not Troy, 

Laura Palmer's pony. According to the secret diary, Troy was brown or reddish- brown.

(From 2008)

 68. "Surrey With The Fringe On Top": More Rodgers and Hammerstein, 

this time from "Oklahoma!"

(From 2009)

 69. "Leland, the time has come for you to seek the path.": The "clear 

light" is constantly referred to as the first step in the ascension to a life- after-death, and is common to many religions. However, the "void and cloudless sky" seems to be from the Tibetan Book Of The Dead.

 70. "There's more in Heaven and Earth than are dreamt of in 

our philosphy": Hamlet (ac I:sc V, lines 166-167) in response to the discovery of his father's ghost. In this case, Cooper might not be the Hamlet, but Truman is definitely the bewildered Horatio.

(From 2010)

 71. "Waldorf Salad": This may be stretching a bit, but I honestly 

believe this is a reference (as before; see note #16) to Fawlty Towers, which based a whole episode on Basil not knowing what this was.

 72. Mountie King: King was the name of Sergeant Preston's dog. 
 73. The White Lodge: I am grateful to Jerry Boyajian 

for the explanation of the White Lodge. Apparently, in "The Devil's Guard" (a.k.a. "Ramsden") (by Talbot Mundy?), the White Lodge is a secret order that tries to create good, of which the Dalai Lama is a member. (I am also grateful to Janet M. Swisher for printing this fact in "Twin Peaks Frequently Answered Questions").

(From 2011)

 74. The Black Lodge/"The Dweller On The Threshold": When I first saw 

this episode, I immediately thought of the "Mirror, Mirror" episode of Star Trek. In keeping with the theory that TP=every bit of pop culture ever made (see note #60), and given Cooper's pure goodness, an "evil Cooper" sequence was inevitable.

 75. Roger Hardy at the RR: The only purpose of this scene is, of course, 

a MOD SQUAD REUNION!!! (sort of; apparently Michael Cole wasn't available for Mountie King or some other such role). Not a true reference, but I wanted to mention it.

 76. James and Evelyn Marsh: I don't know what other people on the 

network thought of this arc (most probably hated it), but I liked it, in a strange way. To my mind, the sequence resembled nothing so much as a James Dean movie, thus bringing James' character to its logical fruition. The dialogue in these scenes ("It's not the bike, it's just where it can take me… Sometimes I just go down the highway blind"-Loved it! pure camp.) seemed stilted and contrived on purpose. The existentially-depressed-James may have gotten a little annoying, but I thought it wasn't nearly as bad as some people did.

 77. "Now is the winter of our discontent...": The first lines from 

Shakespeare's Richard III, which certainly aptly describes Ben's situation.

(From 2012)

 78. Nicky-as-the-devil: (see note #60) In this case, "The Omen."
 79."O, she doth teach the torches to burn bright! It seems she..." Romeo

and Juliet, Ac I: Sc V, lines 46-49.

(From 2013)

 80. The Mark: Major Briggs' tattoo resembles (as many have pointed 

out) a variation on the radiation symbol.

 81. Spaceships and Owls: See note #40.
 82. "The Dorritt Home For Boys": The Dickensian nature of the "Little 

Nicky" plot (Orphans, lost lineage,the revelation of hidden origins, misfortune and serendipity in general) naturally calls for a suitably Dickensian name for the orphanage.

 83. Ben's Civil War fantasy: Dr. Jacoby's explanation of Ben's delusion 

(re-enacting a failure to fight against his own inadeqacies) seems plausible, but why the Civil War? Ben had never before shown any sign of being a Civil War buff (as well, doesn't it seem especially strange that the owner of the *Great Northern* would identify with the South? -just kidding). However, one could see how Ben -a cocky, no-holds-barred maverick- could see some of himself in the Confederates (although not neccesarily Robert E. Lee). Of other interest is that immediately after Ben's fantasy ends, he is "rescued" by John Justice Wheeler -a possible reference to a Confederate cavalry general named Joseph Wheeler. As well, Frost and Lynch's interest in the Civil War may have been piqued by the PBS series (DGP). Another probable TP connection is the war between Ben (the South) and Jean Renault (the North), who has taken over OEJs. (RH)

(From 2014)

 84. "Wine comes in at the mouth": Yeats, as Pete notes. Although

Pete uses it because it's the only toast he knows (other than a limerick), the connection with Yeats suggests Pete's possible spiritual (indeed, mystical) nature, which has only rarely been touched upon.

 85. The Black Pawn (No.1): The chess references  brought to my mind 

not Alice In Wonderland or somesuch, but The Avengers, both for the chessboard opening and an episode in which people were dispatched in ways that were made to resemble board games, e.g. a man killed by snakebite after climbing a ladder- Snakes and Ladders. Actually, the giant Pawn is a better example of this.

(From 2015)

  86. The bus drivers listening to opera: A possible Ralph Kramden 

reference? I thought that this episode of TP (directed by Diane Keaton) had some bad lapses in TP's sensibility. There were times (the above scene and the deputies leaving the Marshes in strict formation) where Keaton did stuff purely for style. In the other episodes, the "strange" or stylized elements in scenes (the dwarf, the spotlights, BOB, the Giant) were "explained", not just there for show. Does anybody else agree?

 87. The wooden wind instrument that We is always playing and "wacking"

folks with is reminiscent of Kung Fu – David Carradine (Caine) did similar things with his flute and his other personal articles in that series, no? (LDZ)

 88. Springfield: Earle's first target (to form the "C" -for "Cooper" or 

"Caroline") is Homer Simpson's hometown.

(From 2016)

 89. John Justice Wheeler: See note #83. Also, there is a John Wheeler 

who was a proponent of the multiple universes interpretation of Quantum Theory.

 90. "See the mountains kiss high heaven", etc.: Shelley, from "Love's 

Philosophy", Verse II. What makes me wonder is that the poem doesn't seem like something Coop would chose. Maybe he is more romantic than I thought, although my impression from both the show and the Autobiography is that Coop is not someone as interested in poetry (after all, he got a C from April) as he is in arcana and mysteries.

(From 2017)

 91. Margaret's Mark: The tattoo on the Log Lady is, IMHO, the Twin Peaks.
 92. Dr. Craig: A possible nudge at St. Elsewhere?
 93. Miss Twin Peaks: "On the set of the pilot, the makeup artist 

always called me Miss Twin Peaks. 'C'mere, Miss Twin Peaks!'": Sherilyn Fenn from "Babes In The Woods" (the "Women Of Twin Peaks" article in Rolling Stone, October 4, 1990). Of course, Audrey ends up being the most reluctant to enter the contest.

(From 2018)

   94. Spelunking: In the obligatory TP sketch during the Kyle 

MachLachlan episode of Saturday Night Live, Coop described to Truman a dream in which a hairless mouse sang a songs about caves, and Coop said "Harry, tonight we're going to do a little spelunking." This CAN'T be a coincidence!

(From 2019)

 95. The Black Pawn (No. 2) See note # 85.

(From 2020)

 96. The Dugpas: The dugpas were mentioned in "The Devil's Guard (aka

Ramsden)" Briefly, there was a sect of Tibetan buddhism called Dugpas that were black magicians. Sexual excesses and murder were two characteristics of their practise. Their chief opponents were the sect headed by the Dalai Lama.

 97. "When Jupiter and Saturn meet, they will receive you": Most people 

now take this to be an astronomical/astrological reference, as Cooper later deduces.

 98. "When Jupiter and Saturn meet, Oh what a crop of mummy wheat": 

Yeats, who was _very_ interested in the occult, mythology, and good and evil. In the Roman system of gods, Jupiter (good), as shown before, was the son of Saturn (evil), and symbolizes the duel between Leland and Bob, as well as Cooper and BOB. another thing to note is that Yeats' "gyres" (the two spirals representing the two natures of mankind and nature) resemble twin peaks. Yeats' take on mythology informs much of the last episode, and may explain the cyclical nature of life in Twin Peaks.

 99. Miss Twin Peaks/The Taking Of The Queen: As a netter mentioned 

(please write with your name so you can be credited properly!) the floor at the roadhouse in the contest scenes resmbles a chess- or checker-board.

 100. Glastonberry Grove: The coincidental name shared with the 

legendary burial place of King Arthur (sort of: It's really Glastonbury) has had many run off in search of possible Fisher-King connections. I wonder… Most have proven a little tenuous, although some connections have been made: Andy seems to be set up as a Parsifal archetype (DGP). A good analogy is WE::King Arthur, Caroline/Annie::Guinivere, Coop::SIr Lancelot (RH) My own personal knowledge of Arthurian legend only goes as far as the Howard Pyle illustrated children's books and "Monty Python and the Holy Grail", but I _do_ like the idea of the cup-of-coffee-as-holy grail. The idea of "a child without a father" suggests to me Donna, or Lucy's baby, or even Little Nicky (he has to serve *some* purpose!). If anyone has more to add, please enter it.(DGP)

 101. The circle of sycamore trees: In the Tibetan book Of The Dead, 

according to Joseph Campbell, sycamore trees are connected with the Egyptian (Heliopolitan?) goddess Nut. As well, the twelve-trees/twelve-candles (twelve rooms?) connection is well noted. The circle was a sacred symbol in the religion of the druids (see note #17).

 102. The bank vault and Dell: See note #53.
 103. Chained Audrey: Another Avengers reference? (See note #85) (It 

seems to me that Emma Peel ended up shackled to objects quite a bit.)

 104. Venus De Milo: Noth the planet/goddess (see note #27) and also 

"the gal with no arms. The name was Milo": GC in 2018.

 105. "Doppelganger": It seemed to me to be a squaredance call, sort of 

like "change partners." "Doppelgaenger" has been translated from the German "Doppel" -Double-"Gaenger"-Goer. This has been interpreted as meaning both a shape-changer or a true double - a negative image of oneself that will destroy its counterpart - a la antimatter. This certainly agrees with the "imperfect courage" that Hawk mentioned. However, I see the doppelgangers as being both – the Caroline-Annie-Shadow-Laura wraith could have all been Windom Earle, but the Shadow-Cooper (Doppelcooper?) was definitely a negative image of Cooper. Personally, I still think that this was the inevitable reference/homage/parody of "Mirror, Mirror" (See notes # 60 & #74).(DGP) One definition of doppelgaenger (and the earliest on record) is "one who has seen himself". Such an experience was taken as an ill omen, namely one of impending death.(RH)

 106. On the subject of classical allegories, how come 

noone (except the Toronto Globe and Mail) has mentioned "Faust"? Dale gave up his soul, right? For Annie, right? Sounds like a bargain with Mephistopheles to me. My personal knowledge of Faust gave me the impression that Faust made his deal with the devil for the love a woman. (DGP) However, BM disagrees, although she admits that Windom Earle was trying to play Mephistopheles, and was punished gravely for his overstepping of bounds.

 107. "How's Annie?": The ending was, of course, guessed to a 

reasonable degree, by netter Daniel Mittleman, who should probably get some kind of award.

Send contributions, suggestions, etc. either by email to or through the network.

Dave Platt Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada.

 "Secrets are dangerous things, Audrey" -Dale Cooper
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