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The following was forwarded to us from the Arpanet by Dale Amon at CMU:

From: creon@ames-nas.arpa (Creon Levit) Date: 7 Dec 1985 1642-PST (Saturday) Subject: Review of Soviet work in quantum nonlocality and SDI super weapons?

STRATEGIC DEFENSE STUDY GROUP POB 26548, San Francisco, CA 94126 (415)398 6690/362 7779, 12/2/85

Memorandum for the record by J. Sarfatti.

Soviet view of quantum nonlocality and the potential for SDI super weapons.

Reference: Nonlocality in quantum physics. Soviet Physics Usp. 27(4)April 1984 (Usp Fiz Nauk 142 599-617). by B.I. Spasski & A.V. Moskovskii of M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University.

They say that we must distinguish two meanings of nonlocality. First, that of microcausality in quantum field theory in which the commutator of second quantized boson fields vanishes for faster than light space-like separation between the two field points. The currents of spinor fields also obey microcausality in conventional local quantum field theory. Violation of this condition is the first meaning of nonlocality. They write:

"In this sense, one means by nonlocal theories…generalizations of quantum field theory based on… a nonpoint interaction."

The second sense of nonlocality is then described:

"There are..several quantum phenomena that from a classical point of view can be interpreted as… nonlocality inherent in quantum objects….the Aharonov- Bohm effect, the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox, the Hanbury Brown-Twiss effect, and other phenomena… within the Copenhagen interpretation… until a particle interacts with some classical object it does not have definite space- time characteristics, being, as it were, simultaneously in all the regions of space in which the wave function… is nonvanishing… the Aharonov-Bohm effect… the behavior of a quantum object can be influenced by the existence of a field where the probability of finding a particle is zero… the field acts where it is not… in quantum mechanics the potentials play a role analogous to that of fields in classical physics … Either one must give up the locality principle or recognize that potentials have a physical reality no less fundamental than the fields. But the second alternative would mean that it is possible to find a physical difference between states differing only in gauge… Aharonov and Bohm abandoned the second alternative … The Aharonov- Bohm effect could be regarded from the classical point of view as a proof of action at a distance."

In the modern gauge theory of the unified force the field potentials are parallel transport connections in the fiber space beyond space-time analogous to the Christoffel symbols of general relativity within the curved space-time base space of the bundle. Internal symmetry transformations result from torsion in the fiber space from lifted holonomic loops in space-time. Nonvanishing fields are a measure of curvature in the bundle. (Reference: Classical geometric resolution of the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox, Yuval Ne'eman, Israeli Minister of Science, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci., USA Vol80, 7051- 7053,Nov 1983. Ne'eman writes:

"in the geometry of a fiber bundle describing a gauge theory, curvature and parallel transport ensure and impose nonseparability..")

The Soviet physicists continue:

"A further illustration of the nonlocality of quantum objects is provided by the interference experiments… by Pfleeger, Mandel, and Magyar. They showed that overlapping beams of two lasers can give an interference pattern… although the photon interferes only with itself… the attempt to follow the flight of the photon …emitted by the lasers necessarily destroys the original interference pattern… A quantum system radiates as a single entity even when its various parts are separated by a macroscopic distance… This property… can also be demonstrated by the Hanbury Brown-Twiss effect interference of intensities…Suppose we have two light sources A and B at a large distance from two photon detectors a and b. The detectors are connected to a coincidence circuit…the number of coincidences is a periodic function of R1 - R2, where R1 is the distance between A and a, and R2 is the distance between B and b. The quantum feature .. is the impossibility of distinguishing photons which arrive at a from A from photons which arrive at a from B. If the experiment is arranged in such a way that such a distinction becomes possible, the effect disappears… The effect appears paradoxical from the point of view of classical notions, since it means that photons emitted by two independent sources know the behavior of each other… "

The Soviet discussion of the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) paradox makes it clear that it is the locality assumption of no quantum action at a distance that makes the paradox in which the Heisenberg uncertainty principle is violated. They write:

"A … solution of the EPR paradox was proposed by V.A. Fock and A.D. Aleksandrov (Moscow, 1956), who put forward the idea of a nonforce interaction of quantum objects … another example of such (nonforce) interaction is the correlation in the behavior of microscopic objects expressed by the Pauli principle … another example of a nonforce interaction (is) interference from two mirrors. The interference pattern, which is determined by the positions of the mirrors, means that an individual photon feels an effect of the mirrors that is not associated with transfer of energy and momentum."

The idea of the nonforce interaction is geometrically understood in the fiber bundle geometry. The traditional force is due to energy- momentum transport in the base space-time. The nonforce interaction is due to information transfer in the fiber space beyond space-time. In Aspect's photon pair polarization correlation experiment, the information transfer does not require energy- momentum transport. The information transfer violating Bell's locality inequality is in the fiber space. Quite apart from that, there may also be faster than light tachyonic and Wickyonic energy-momentum transport in the base space-time. But these two modes of superluminal interaction, i.e. ( nonforce fiber quantum information transfer, and (force) base space-time translation energy momentum transport) must be clearly distinguished. Indeed, the relativistic kinematics of the photon pair may allow the faster than light collective tachyonic transport of one half the energy difference between the two photons when moving in opposite directions in 3-space.

In my recent research on Wick rotations of solutions of the Dirac spinor equation, I note that the slower than light bradyon has timelike world lines inside the light cone. The bradyon (normal matter and antimatter) obeys Einstein's 1905 equation E equals mc squared i.e. more precisely:

E = m/(1 - v2)1/2,

where c = 1, v2 means "the square of velocity", and (…)1/2 means "square root". .

The faster than light tachyon has spacelike world lines outside the light cone. It obeys:

E'= m/(v2 - 1)1/2 .

Both the bradyon and the tachyon feel the light cone as an impassable classical barrier. They are classically restricted to opposite sides of the barrier. In contrast, the Wickyon, discovered in Dirac's theory by me, can pass right through the light cone as if it were not there. In fact, the Wickyon loses energy as it accelerates from subluminal to superluminal speed. The equation for the Wickyon is:

E''= m/(v2 + 1)1/2

I note that Sakharov ( the now dissident Father of the Soviet Nuclear Arsenal) has also been thinking about the effect of Wick rotations in big bang cosmology (private communication from Waldyr Rodrigues Jr. Institute Mathematics, UNICAMP, S.P. Brasil).

If life can persist through a bradyon-Wickyon quantum jump then we can look forward to a hyperdrive for time travelling Star Ships - contrary to Dr. Forward's recent report for the U.S. Air Force (AFRPL TR-83-067).

The Soviets say:

"Some authors developed the idea that the violation of locality must be interpreted in the framework of the Wheeler-Feynman theory of action at a distance.. In this scheme, the correlations between the readings of the instruments are explained by … advanced waves (telegraph from the future) …relativistic invariance is maintained, but one necessarily reproduces the difficulties characteristic of a theory of action at a distance, in particular, the breakdown in the time ordering between cause and effect."

Kurt Godel showed that retroactivity, or backwards causation, poses no logical problem for physics (Ref. INFINITY AND THE MIND, Rudy Rucker). Sir Fred Hoyle, FRS in INTELLIGENT UNIVERSE shows that retroactivity is necessary to understand cosmology and the origin of life. My gedankenexperiments attempt to pin down the precise nonlocal quantum mechanisms needed to test Hoyle's revolutionary paradigm. A paradigm anticipated by American scholars such as Harvard's Henry Dwight Sedgwick eighty years ago. Hoyle's notion of the Loop in Time has already been treated in literature by Borges in Coleridge's Dream and in the works of Olaf Stapledon, to name the best. It has been popularized in films like Escape from the Planet of the Apes and Back to the Future.

Of crucial significance for SDI command control communication is the Soviet view on the practical use of quantum nonlocal action at a space-time distance between transmitter and receiver.

"Is a superluminal telegraph possible? … Stapp writes:…Quantum phenomena provide prima facie evidence that information gets around in ways that do not conform to classical ideas… everything we know about nature is in accord with the idea that the fundamental processes of Nature lie outside space-time… but generate events that can be located in space-time… none of the arguments we have considered for the existence of superluminal signals is satisfactory."

The Soviets do not discuss my scheme for a superluminal telegraph which depends upon extending conventional quantum mechanics to include nonlocal observables. I have a detailed model which predicts quantum tunneling of one photon in a pair through the classical barrier of crossed polarizers. The tunneling probability depends on the relative orientation of a distant polarizer that interacts with the twin photon. It is as if the distant polarizer is placed between the crossed polarizers at exactly one half of the actual relative orientation. One esthetically pleasing feature of this nonlocal hidden variable model is that it has the structure of the simplest fiber bundle - the spinor bundle of the Mobius strip. This model allows for the experimental test of Hoyle's Loop in Time in which a Future Cause retroactively superdetermines a Past Effect negating ordinary notions of Free Will in accord with Godel's teleological argument.

It is important to recognize that there are now two experiments that demonstrate the reality of nonlocality. First, Aspect's Paris experiment showing violation of Bell's locality inequality over faster than light space- like intervals between the two detections of the photons in a pair from a double quantum jump. Second, the retroactive Wheeler "Delayed Choice" experiment using a Mach Zender interferometer by Hellmuth et-al at the Max Planck Institute for Quantum Optics in Garching reported in June 1985 at the EPR conference in Finland. The debate now emerging is whether or not nonlocal quantum action at a distance can be controlled for communication, space propulsion, and SDI beam weapons.

Research in this cutting edge of New Physics will have a profound impact on SDI. For example, untappable unjammable retroactive quantum action at a distance command control communications and beam weapons.

One may also anticiapte application of the Salam-Weinberg-Glashow electroweak unification to create a new type of SDI beam weapon to render nuclear weapons "impotent and obsolete" via stimulated beta decay. The idea is to create a lasing action in which d-quarks flip to u-quarks causing a neutron to become a proton. The energy difference is only of the order of 3Mev. We would use the self-interaction of the flavor-conserving weak part of the photon to induce weak isospin flips of the d and u quarks via virtual flavor-changing charged W pairs. This would lead to low energy transmutation of the elements allowing us to clean up the radioactive wastes from nuclear reactors.



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